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Translated By G. C. Macaulay

NOTE HERODOTUS as !orn at Hal"carnassus# on t$e sout$ est coast o% As"a M"nor# "n t$e early &art o% t$e %"%t$ century# B. C. O% $"s l"%e e 'no al(ost not$"n)# e*ce&t t$at $e s&ent (uc$ o% "t tra+el"n)# to collect t$e (ater"al %or $"s r"t"n)s# and t$at $e %"nally settled do n at T$ur""# "n sout$ern ,taly# $ere $"s )reat or' as co(&osed. He d"ed "n -.- B. C. T$e su!/ect o% t$e $"story o% Herodotus "s t$e stru))le !et een t$e Gree's and t$e !ar!ar"ans# $"c$ $e !r"n)s do n to t$e !attle o% Mycale "n -01 B. C. T$e or'# as e $a+e "t# "s d"+"ded "nto n"ne !oo's# na(ed a%ter t$e n"ne Muses# !ut t$"s d"+"s"on "s &ro!a!ly due to t$e Ale*andr"ne )ra((ar"ans. H"s "n%or(at"on $e )at$ered (a"nly %ro( oral sources# as $e tra+eled t$rou)$ As"a M"nor# do n "nto E)y&t# round t$e Blac' Sea# and "nto +ar"ous &arts o% Greece and t$e ne")$!or"n) countr"es. T$e c$ronolo)"cal narrat"+e $alts %ro( t"(e to t"(e to )"+e o&&ortun"ty %or descr"&t"ons o% t$e country# t$e &eo&le# and t$e"r custo(s and &re+"ous $"story2 and t$e &ol"t"cal account "s constantly +ar"ed !y rare tales and onders. A(on) t$ese descr"&t"ons o% countr"es t$e (ost %asc"nat"n) to t$e (odern# as "t as to t$e anc"ent# reader "s $"s account o% t$e (ar+els o% t$e land o% E)y&t. Fro( t$e &r"ests at Me(&$"s# Hel"o&ol"s# and t$e E)y&t"an T$e!es $e learned $at $e re&orts o% t$e s"3e o% t$e country# t$e onders o% t$e N"le# t$e cere(on"es o% t$e"r rel")"on# t$e sacredness o% t$e"r an"(als. He tells also o% t$e stran)e ays o% t$e crocod"le and o% t$at (ar+elous !"rd# t$e P$oen"*2 o% dress and %unerals and e(!al("n)2 o% t$e eat"n) o% lotos and &a&yrus2 o% t$e &yra("ds and t$e )reat la!yr"nt$2 o% t$e"r '"n)s and 4ueens and courtesans.

Yet Herodotus "s not a (ere teller o% stran)e tales. Ho e+er credulous $e (ay a&&ear to a (odern /ud)(ent# $e ta'es care to 'ee& se&arate $at $e 'no s !y $"s o n o!ser+at"on %ro( $at $e $as (erely "n%erred and %ro( $at $e $as !een told. He "s cand"d a!out ac'no led)"n) ")norance# and $en +ers"ons d"%%er $e )"+es !ot$. T$us t$e (odern sc"ent"%"c $"stor"an# "t$ ot$er (eans o% corro!orat"on# can so(et"(es learn %ro( Herodotus (ore t$an Herodotus $"(sel% 'ne . T$ere "s a!undant e+"dence# too# t$at Herodotus $ad a &$"loso&$y o% $"story. T$e un"ty $"c$ (ar's $"s or' "s due not only to t$e stron) Gree' nat"onal %eel"n) runn"n) t$rou)$ "t# t$e %eel"n) t$at r"ses to a $e")$t "n suc$ &assa)es as t$e descr"&t"ons o% t$e !attles o% Marat$on# T$er(o&ylae# and Sala("s# !ut also to $"s &ro%ound !el"e% "n Fate and "n Ne(es"s. To $"s !el"e% "n Fate "s due t$e %re4uent 4uot"n) o% oracles and t$e"r %ul%"l(ent# t$e %re4uent re%erences to t$"n)s %oreorda"ned !y Pro+"dence. T$e or'"n) o% Ne(es"s $e %"nds "n t$e d"sasters t$at !e%all (en and nat"ons $ose to er"n) &ros&er"ty a a'ens t$e /ealousy o% t$e )ods. T$e %"nal o+ert$ro o% t$e Pers"ans# $"c$ %or(s $"s (a"n t$e(e# "s only one s&ec"ally cons&"cuous e*a(&le o% t$e o&erat"on o% t$"s %orce %ro( $"c$ $u(an l"%e can ne+er %ree "tsel%. But# a!o+e all# $e "s t$e %at$er o% story5tellers. 6Herodotus "s suc$ s"(&le and del")$t%ul read"n)#6 says 7e+ons2 6$e "s so una%%ected and enterta"n"n)# $"s story %lo s so naturally and "t$ suc$ ease t$at e $a+e a d"%%"culty "n !ear"n) "n ("nd t$at# o+er and a!o+e t$e $ard r"t"n) $"c$ )oes to (a'e easy read"n) t$ere "s a &er&etual (ar+el "n t$e or' o% Herodotus. ,t "s t$e %"rst art"st"c or' "n &rose t$at Gree' l"terature &roduced. T$"s &rose or'# $"c$ %or &ure l"terary (er"t no su!se4uent or' $as sur&assed# t$an $"c$ later )enerat"ons# a%ter us"n) t$e &en %or centur"es# $a+e &roduced no &rose (ore easy or (ore reada!le# t$"s as t$e %"rst o% $"stor"es and o% l"terary &rose.6


:$en Cyrus $ad !rou)$t $"s l"%e to an end# Ca(!yses rece"+ed t$e royal &o er "n success"on# !e"n) t$e son o% Cyrus and o% Cassandane t$e dau)$ter o% P$arnas&es# %or $ose deat$# $"c$ ca(e a!out !e%ore $"s o n# Cyrus $ad (ade )reat (ourn"n) $"(sel% and also $ad &rocla"(ed to all t$ose o+er $o( $e !ore rule t$at t$ey s$ould (a'e (ourn"n) %or $er; Ca(!yses# , say# !e"n) t$e son o% t$"s o(an and o% Cyrus# re)arded t$e ,on"ans and A"ol"ans as sla+es "n$er"ted %ro( $"s %at$er2 and $e &roceeded to (arc$ an ar(y a)a"nst E)y&t# ta'"n) "t$ $"( as $el&ers not only ot$er nat"ons o% $"c$ $e as ruler# !ut also t$ose o% t$e Hellenes o+er $o( $e $ad &o er !es"des.

No t$e E)y&t"ans# !e%ore t$e t"(e $en Psa((et"c$os !eca(e '"n) o+er t$e(# ere ont to su&&ose t$at t$ey $ad co(e "nto !e"n) %"rst o% all (en2 !ut s"nce t$e t"(e $en Psa((et"c$os $a+"n) !eco(e '"n) des"red to 'no $at (en $ad co(e "nto !e"n) %"rst# t$ey su&&ose t$at t$e P$ry)"ans ca(e "nto !e"n) !e%ore t$e(sel+es# !ut t$ey t$e(sel+es !e%ore all ot$er (en. No Psa((et"c$os# $en $e as not a!le !y "n4u"ry to %"nd out any (eans o% 'no "n) $o $ad co(e "nto !e"n) %"rst o% all (en# contr"+ed a de+"ce o% t$e %ollo "n) '"nd;55Ta'"n) t o ne 5 !orn c$"ldren !elon)"n) to &ersons o% t$e co((on sort $e )a+e t$e( to a s$e&$erd to !r"n) u& at t$e &lace $ere $"s %loc's ere# "t$ a (anner o% !r"n)"n) u& suc$ as , s$all say# c$ar)"n) $"( na(ely t$at no (an s$ould utter any ord "n t$e"r &resence# and t$at t$ey s$ould !e &laced !y t$e(sel+es "n a roo( $ere none (")$t co(e# and at t$e &ro&er t"(e $e s$ould !r"n) t$e( s$e5)oats# and $en $e $ad sat"s%"ed t$e( "t$ ("l' $e s$ould do %or t$e( $ate+er else as needed. T$ese t$"n)s Psa((et"c$os d"d and )a+e $"( t$"s c$ar)e "s$"n) to $ear $at ord t$e c$"ldren ould let !rea' %ort$ %"rst a%ter t$ey $ad ceased %ro( a"l"n)s "t$out sense. And accord"n)ly "t ca(e to &ass2 %or a%ter a s&ace o% t o years $ad )one !y# dur"n) $"c$ t$e s$e&$erd ent on act"n) so# at len)t$# $en $e o&ened t$e door and entered# !ot$ c$"ldren %ell !e%ore $"( "n entreaty and uttered t$e ord <!e'os<# stretc$"n) %ort$ t$e"r $ands. At %"rst $en $e $eard t$"s t$e s$e&$erd 'e&t s"lence2 !ut s"nce t$"s ord as o%ten re&eated# as $e +"s"ted t$e( constantly and attended to t$e(# at last $e declared t$e (atter to $"s (aster# and at $"s co((and $e !rou)$t t$e c$"ldren !e%ore $"s %ace. T$en Psa((et"c$os $a+"n) $"(sel% also $eard "t# !e)an to "n4u"re $at nat"on o% (en na(ed anyt$"n) <!e'os<# and "n4u"r"n) $e %ound t$at t$e P$ry)"ans $ad t$"s na(e %or !read. ,n t$"s (anner and )u"ded !y an "nd"cat"on suc$ as t$"s# t$e E)y&t"ans ere !rou)$t to allo t$at t$e P$ry)"ans ere a (ore anc"ent &eo&le t$an t$e(sel+es. T$at so "t ca(e to &ass , $eard %ro( t$e &r"ests o% t$at He&$a"stos $o d ells at

Me(&$"s2 !ut t$e Hellenes relate# !es"des (any ot$er "dle tales# t$at Psa((et"c$os cut out t$e ton)ues o% certa"n o(en and t$en caused t$e c$"ldren to l"+e "t$ t$ese o(en. :"t$ re)ard t$en to t$e rear"n) o% t$e c$"ldren t$ey related so (uc$ as , $a+e sa"d; and , $eard also ot$er t$"n)s at Me(&$"s $en , $ad s&eec$ "t$ t$e &r"ests o% He&$a"stos. Moreo+er , +"s"ted !ot$ T$e!es and Hel"o&ol"s %or t$"s +ery cause# na(ely !ecause , "s$ed to 'no $et$er t$e &r"ests at t$ese &laces ould a)ree "n t$e"r accounts "t$ t$ose at Me(&$"s2 %or t$e (en o% Hel"o&ol"s are sa"d to !e t$e (ost learned "n records o% t$e E)y&t"ans. T$ose o% t$e"r narrat"ons $"c$ , $eard "t$ re)ard to t$e )ods , a( not earnest to relate "n %ull# !ut , s$all na(e t$e( only !ecause , cons"der t$at all (en are e4ually ")norant o% t$ese (atters; and $ate+er t$"n)s o% t$e( , (ay record , s$all record only !ecause , a( co(&elled !y t$e course o% t$e story. But as to t$ose (atters $"c$ concern (en# t$e &r"ests a)reed "t$ one anot$er "n say"n) t$at t$e E)y&t"ans ere t$e %"rst o% all (en on eart$ to %"nd out t$e course o% t$e year# $a+"n) d"+"ded t$e seasons "nto t el+e &arts to (a'e u& t$e $ole2 and t$"s t$ey sa"d t$ey %ound out %ro( t$e stars; and t$ey rec'on to t$"s e*tent (ore "sely t$an t$e Hellenes# as "t see(s to (e# "nas(uc$ as t$e Hellenes t$ro "n an "ntercalated (ont$ e+ery ot$er year# to (a'e t$e seasons r")$t# $ereas t$e E)y&t"ans# rec'on"n) t$e t el+e (ont$s at t$"rty days eac$# !r"n) "n also e+ery year %"+e days !eyond nu(!er# and t$us t$e c"rcle o% t$e"r season "s co(&leted and co(es round to t$e sa(e &o"nt $ence "t set out. T$ey sa"d (oreo+er t$at t$e E)y&t"ans ere t$e %"rst $o !rou)$t "nto use a&&ellat"ons %or t$e t el+e )ods and t$e Hellenes too' u& t$e use %ro( t$e(2 and t$at t$ey ere t$e %"rst $o ass")ned altars and "(a)es and te(&les to t$e )ods# and $o en)ra+ed %")ures on stones2 and "t$ re)ard to t$e )reater nu(!er o% t$ese t$"n)s t$ey s$o ed (e !y actual %acts t$at t$ey $ad $a&&ened so. T$ey sa"d also t$at t$e %"rst (an $o !eca(e '"n) o% E)y&t as M"n2 and t$at "n $"s t"(e all E)y&t e*ce&t t$e d"str"ct o% T$e!es as a s a(&# and none o% t$e re)"ons ere t$en a!o+e ater $"c$ no l"e !elo t$e la'e o% Mo"r"s# to $"c$ la'e "t "s a +oya)e o% se+en days u& t$e r"+er %ro( t$e sea; and , t$ou)$t t$at t$ey sa"d ell a!out t$e land2 %or "t "s (an"%est "n trut$ e+en to a &erson $o $as not $eard "t !e%ore$and !ut $as only seen# at least "% $e $a+e understand"n)# t$at t$e E)y&t to $"c$ t$e Hellenes co(e "n s$"&s "s a land $"c$ $as !een on !y t$e E)y&t"ans as an add"t"on# and t$at "t "s a )"%t o% t$e r"+er; (oreo+er t$e re)"ons $"c$ l"e a!o+e t$"s la'e also %or a d"stance o% t$ree days= sa"l# a!out $"c$ t$ey d"d not )o on to say anyt$"n) o% t$"s '"nd# are ne+ert$eless anot$er "nstance o% t$e sa(e t$"n); %or t$e nature o% t$e land o% E)y&t "s as %ollo s;55F"rst $en you are st"ll a&&roac$"n) "t "n a s$"& and are d"stant a day=s run

%ro( t$e land# "% you let do n a sound"n)5l"ne you "ll !r"n) u& (ud and you "ll %"nd yoursel% "n ele+en %at$o(s. T$"s t$en so %ar s$o s t$at t$ere "s a s"lt"n) %or ard o% t$e land. T$en secondly# as to E)y&t "tsel%# t$e e*tent o% "t alon) t$e sea "s s"*ty <sc$o"nes<# accord"n) to our de%"n"t"on o% E)y&t as e*tend"n) %ro( t$e Gul% o% Pl"nt$"ne to t$e Ser!on"an la'e# alon) $"c$ stretc$es Mount Cas"on2 %ro( t$"s la'e t$en t$e s"*ty <sc$o"nes< are rec'oned; %or t$ose o% (en $o are &oor "n land $a+e t$e"r country (easured !y %at$o(s# t$ose $o are less &oor !y %urlon)s# t$ose $o $a+e (uc$ land !y &arasan)s# and t$ose $o $a+e land "n +ery )reat a!undance !y <sc$o"nes<; no t$e &arasan) "s e4ual to t$"rty %urlon)s# and eac$ <sc$o"ne<# $"c$ "s an E)y&t"an (easure# "s e4ual to s"*ty %urlon)s. So t$ere ould !e an e*tent o% t$ree t$ousand s"* $undred %urlon)s %or t$e coast5land o% E)y&t. Fro( t$ence and as %ar as Hel"o&ol"s "nland E)y&t "s !road# and t$e land "s all %lat and "t$out s&r"n)s o% ater and %or(ed o% (ud; and t$e road as one )oes "nland %ro( t$e sea to Hel"o&ol"s "s a!out t$e sa(e "n len)t$ as t$at $"c$ leads %ro( t$e altar o% t$e t el+e )ods at At$ens to P"sa and t$e te(&le o% Oly(&"an >eus; rec'on"n) u& you ould %"nd t$e d"%%erence +ery s(all !y $"c$ t$ese roads %a"l o% !e"n) e4ual "n len)t$# not (ore "ndeed t$an %"%teen %urlon)s2 %or t$e road %ro( At$ens to P"sa ants %"%teen %urlon)s o% !e"n) %"%teen $undred# $"le t$e road to Hel"o&ol"s %ro( t$e sea reac$es t$at nu(!er co(&letely. Fro( Hel"o&ol"s $o e+er# as you )o u&# E)y&t "s narro 2 %or on t$e one s"de a (ounta"n5ran)e !elon)"n) to Ara!"a stretc$es alon) !y t$e s"de o% "t# )o"n) "n a d"rect"on %ro( t$e Nort$ to ards t$e ("dday and t$e Sout$ :"nd# tend"n) u& ards "t$out a !rea' to t$at $"c$ "s called t$e Eryt$ra"an Sea# "n $"c$ ran)e are t$e stone5 4uarr"es $"c$ ere used "n cutt"n) stone %or t$e &yra("ds at Me(&$"s. On t$"s s"de t$en t$e (ounta"n ends $ere , $a+e sa"d# and t$en ta'es a turn !ac'2 and $ere "t "s "dest# as , as "n%or(ed# "t "s a /ourney o% t o (ont$s across %ro( East to :est2 and t$e !orders o% "t $"c$ turn to ards t$e East are sa"d to &roduce %ran'"ncense. Suc$ t$en "s t$e nature o% t$"s (ounta"n5ran)e2 and on t$e s"de o% E)y&t to ards 9"!ya anot$er ran)e e*tends# roc'y and en+elo&ed "n sand; "n t$"s are t$e &yra("ds# and "t runs "n t$e sa(e d"rect"on as t$ose &arts o% t$e Ara!"an (ounta"ns $"c$ )o to ards t$e ("dday. So t$en# , say# %ro( Hel"o&ol"s t$e land $as no lon)er a )reat e*tent so %ar as "t !elon)s to E)y&t# and %or a!out %our days= sa"l u& t$e r"+er E)y&t &ro&erly so called "s narro ; and t$e s&ace !et een t$e (ounta"n5 ran)es $"c$ $a+e !een (ent"oned "s &la"n5land# !ut $ere "t "s narro est "t d"d not see( to (e to e*ceed t o $undred %urlon)s %ro( t$e Ara!"an (ounta"ns to t$ose $"c$ are called t$e 9"!yan. A%ter t$"s a)a"n E)y&t "s !road. Suc$ "s t$e nature o% t$"s land; and %ro( Hel"o&ol"s to T$e!es "s a +oya)e u& t$e r"+er o% n"ne days# and t$e d"stance o% t$e /ourney "n %urlon)s "s %our t$ousand e")$t $undred and

s"*ty# t$e nu(!er o% <sc$o"nes< !e"n) e")$ty5one. ,% t$ese (easures o% E)y&t "n %urlon)s !e &ut to)et$er# t$e result "s as %ollo s;55, $a+e already !e%ore t$"s s$o n t$at t$e d"stance alon) t$e sea a(ounts to t$ree t$ousand s"* $undred %urlon)s# and , "ll no declare $at t$e d"stance "s "nland %ro( t$e sea to T$e!es# na(ely s"* t$ousand one $undred and t enty %urlon)s; and a)a"n t$e d"stance %ro( T$e!es to t$e c"ty called Ele&$ant"ne "s one t$ousand e")$t $undred %urlon)s. O% t$"s land t$en# concern"n) $"c$ , $a+e s&o'en# "t see(ed to (ysel% also# accord"n) as t$e &r"ests sa"d# t$at t$e )reater &art $ad !een on as an add"t"on !y t$e E)y&t"ans2 %or "t as e+"dent to (e t$at t$e s&ace !et een t$e a%oresa"d (ounta"n5ran)es# $"c$ l"e a!o+e t$e c"ty o% Me(&$"s# once as a )ul% o% t$e sea# l"'e t$e re)"ons a!out ,l"on and Teut$ran"a and E&$esos and t$e &la"n o% t$e Ma"ander# "% "t !e &er("tted to co(&are s(all t$"n)s "t$ )reat2 and s(all t$ese are "n co(&ar"son# %or o% t$e r"+ers $"c$ $ea&ed u& t$e so"l "n t$ose re)"ons none "s ort$y to !e co(&ared "n +olu(e "t$ a s"n)le one o% t$e (out$s o% t$e N"le# $"c$ $as %"+e (out$s. Moreo+er t$ere are ot$er r"+ers also# not "n s"3e at all e4ual to t$e N"le# $"c$ $a+e &er%or(ed )reat %eats2 o% $"c$ , can (ent"on t$e na(es o% se+eral# and es&ec"ally t$e Ac$eloos# $"c$ %lo "n) t$rou)$ Acarnan"a and so "ssu"n) out "nto t$e sea $as already (ade $al% o% t$e Ec$"nades %ro( "slands "nto (a"nland. No t$ere "s "n t$e land o% Ara!"a# not %ar %ro( E)y&t# a )ul% o% t$e sea runn"n) "n %ro( t$at $"c$ "s called t$e Eryt$ra"an Sea# +ery lon) and narro # as , a( a!out to tell. :"t$ res&ect to t$e len)t$ o% t$e +oya)e alon) "t# one $o set out %ro( t$e "nner(ost &o"nt to sa"l out t$rou)$ "t "nto t$e o&en sea# ould s&end %orty days u&on t$e +oya)e# us"n) oars2 and "t$ res&ect to !readt$# $ere t$e )ul% "s !roadest "t "s $al% a day=s sa"l across; and t$ere "s "n "t an e!! and %lo o% t"de e+ery day. 7ust suc$ anot$er )ul% , su&&ose t$at E)y&t as# and t$at t$e one ran "n to ards Et$"o&"a %ro( t$e Nort$ern Sea# and t$e ot$er# t$e Ara!"an# o% $"c$ , a( a!out to s&ea'# tended %ro( t$e Sout$ to ards Syr"a# t$e )ul%s !or"n) "n so as al(ost to (eet at t$e"r e*tre(e &o"nts# and &ass"n) !y one anot$er "t$ !ut a s(all s&ace le%t !et een. ,% t$en t$e strea( o% t$e N"le s$ould turn as"de "nto t$"s Ara!"an )ul%# $at ould $"nder t$at )ul% %ro( !e"n) %"lled u& "t$ s"lt as t$e r"+er cont"nued to %lo # at all e+ents "t$"n a &er"od o% t enty t$ousand years? "ndeed %or (y &art , a( o% t$e o&"n"on t$at "t ould !e %"lled u& e+en "t$"n ten t$ousand years. Ho # t$en# "n all t$e t"(e t$at $as ela&sed !e%ore , ca(e "nto !e"n) s$ould not a )ul% !e %"lled u& e+en o% (uc$ )reater s"3e t$an t$"s !y a r"+er so )reat and so act"+e? As re)ards E)y&t t$en# , !ot$ !el"e+e t$ose $o say t$at t$"n)s are so# and %or (ysel% also , a( stron)ly o% o&"n"on t$at t$ey are so2 !ecause , $a+e o!ser+ed t$at E)y&t runs out "nto t$e sea %urt$er t$an t$e ad/o"n"n) land# and t$at

s$ells are %ound u&on t$e (ounta"ns o% "t# and an e%%lorescence o% salt %or(s u&on t$e sur%ace# so t$at e+en t$e &yra("ds are !e"n) eaten a ay !y "t# and (oreo+er t$at o% all t$e (ounta"ns o% E)y&t# t$e ran)e $"c$ l"es a!o+e Me(&$"s "s t$e only one $"c$ $as sand; !es"des $"c$ , not"ce t$at E)y&t rese(!les ne"t$er t$e land o% Ara!"a# $"c$ !orders u&on "t# nor 9"!ya# nor yet Syr"a @%or t$ey are Syr"ans $o d ell "n t$e &arts o% Ara!"a ly"n) alon) t$e seaA# !ut t$at "t $as so"l $"c$ "s !lac' and eas"ly !rea's u&# see"n) t$at "t "s "n trut$ (ud and s"lt !rou)$t do n %ro( Et$"o&"a !y t$e r"+er; !ut t$e so"l o% 9"!ya# e 'no # "s redd"s$ "n colour and rat$er sandy# $"le t$at o% Ara!"a and Syr"a "s so(e $at clayey and roc'y. T$e &r"ests also )a+e (e a stron) &roo% concern"n) t$"s land as %ollo s# na(ely t$at "n t$e re")n o% '"n) Mo"r"s# $ene+er t$e r"+er reac$ed a $e")$t o% at least e")$t cu!"ts "t atered E)y&t !elo Me(&$"s2 and not yet n"ne $undred years $ad )one !y s"nce t$e deat$ o% Mo"r"s# $en , $eard t$ese t$"n)s %ro( t$e &r"ests; no $o e+er# unless t$e r"+er r"ses to s"*teen cu!"ts# or %"%teen at t$e least# "t does not )o o+er t$e land. , t$"n' too t$at t$ose E)y&t"ans $o d ell !elo t$e la'e o% Mo"r"s and es&ec"ally "n t$at re)"on $"c$ "s called t$e Delta# "% t$at land cont"nues to )ro "n $e")$t accord"n) to t$"s &ro&ort"on and to "ncrease s"("larly "n e*tent# "ll su%%er %or all re(a"n"n) t"(e# %ro( t$e N"le not o+er%lo "n) t$e"r land# t$at sa(e t$"n) $"c$ t$ey t$e(sel+es sa"d t$at t$e Hellenes ould at so(e t"(e su%%er; %or $ear"n) t$at t$e $ole land o% t$e Hellenes $as ra"n and "s not atered !y r"+ers as t$e"rs "s# t$ey sa"d t$at t$e Hellenes ould at so(e t"(e !e d"sa&&o"nted o% a )reat $o&e and ould su%%er t$e "lls o% %a("ne. T$"s say"n) (eans t$at "% t$e )od s$all not send t$e( ra"n# !ut s$all allo drou)$t to &re+a"l %or a lon) t"(e# t$e Hellenes "ll !e destroyed !y $un)er2 %or t$ey $a+e "n %act no ot$er su&&ly o% ater to sa+e t$e( e*ce&t %ro( >eus alone. T$"s $as !een r")$tly sa"d !y t$e E)y&t"ans "t$ re%erence to t$e Hellenes; !ut no let (e tell $o (atters are "t$ t$e E)y&t"ans t$e(sel+es "n t$e"r turn. ,%# "n accordance "t$ $at , !e%ore sa"d# t$e"r land !elo Me(&$"s @%or t$"s "s t$at $"c$ "s "ncreas"n)A s$all cont"nue to "ncrease "n $e")$t accord"n) to t$e sa(e &ro&ort"on as "n t$e &ast t"(e# assuredly t$ose E)y&t"ans $o d ell $ere "ll su%%er %a("ne# "% t$e"r land s$all not $a+e ra"n nor t$e r"+er !e a!le to )o o+er t$e"r %"elds. ,t "s certa"n $o e+er t$at no t$ey )at$er "n %ru"t %ro( t$e eart$ "t$ less la!our t$an any ot$er (en and also "t$ less t$an t$e ot$er E)y&t"ans2 %or t$ey $a+e no la!our "n !rea'"n) u& %urro s "t$ a &lou)$ nor "n $oe"n) nor "n any ot$er o% t$ose la!ours $"c$ ot$er (en $a+e a!out a cro&2 !ut $en t$e r"+er $as co(e u& o% "tsel% and atered t$e"r %"elds and a%ter ater"n) $as le%t t$e( a)a"n# t$en eac$ (an so s $"s o n %"eld and turns "nto "t s "ne# and $en $e $as trodden t$e seed "nto t$e )round !y (eans o% t$e s "ne# a%ter t$at $e a"ts %or t$e $ar+est# and

$en $e $as t$res$ed t$e corn !y (eans o% t$e s "ne# t$en $e )at$ers "t "n. ,% e des"re to %ollo t$e o&"n"ons o% t$e ,on"ans as re)ards E)y&t# $o say t$at t$e Delta alone "s E)y&t# rec'on"n) "ts sea5coast to !e %ro( t$e atc$5to er called o% Perseus to t$e %"s$5cur"n) $ouses o% Pelus"on# a d"stance o% %orty <sc$o"nes<# and count"n) "t to e*tend "nland as %ar as t$e c"ty o% 8ercasoros# $ere t$e N"le d"+"des and runs to Pelus"on and Cano!os# $"le as %or t$e rest o% E)y&t# t$ey ass")n "t &artly to 9"!ya and &artly to Ara!"a#55"%# , say# e s$ould %ollo t$"s account# e s$ould t$ere!y declare t$at "n %or(er t"(es t$e E)y&t"ans $ad no land to l"+e "n2 %or# as e $a+e seen# t$e"r Delta at any rate "s allu+"al# and $as a&&eared @so to s&ea'A lately# as t$e E)y&t"ans t$e(sel+es say and as (y o&"n"on "s. ,% t$en at t$e %"rst t$ere as no land %or t$e( to l"+e "n# $y d"d t$ey aste t$e"r la!our to &ro+e t$at t$ey $ad co(e "nto !e"n) !e%ore all ot$er (en? T$ey needed not to $a+e (ade tr"al o% t$e c$"ldren to see $at lan)ua)e t$ey ould %"rst utter. Ho e+er , a( not o% t$e o&"n"on t$at t$e E)y&t"ans ca(e "nto !e"n) at t$e sa(e t"(e as t$at $"c$ "s called !y t$e ,on"ans t$e Delta# !ut t$at t$ey e*"sted al ays e+er s"nce t$e $u(an race ca(e "nto !e"n)# and t$at as t$e"r land ad+anced %or ards# (any o% t$e( ere le%t "n t$e"r %"rst a!odes and (any ca(e do n )radually to t$e lo er &arts. At least "t "s certa"n t$at "n old t"(es T$e!es $ad t$e na(e o% E)y&t# and o% t$"s t$e c"rcu(%erence (easures s"* t$ousand one $undred and t enty %urlon)s. ,% t$en e /ud)e ar")$t o% t$ese (atters# t$e o&"n"on o% t$e ,on"ans a!out E)y&t "s not sound; !ut "% t$e /ud)(ent o% t$e ,on"ans "s r")$t# , declare t$at ne"t$er t$e Hellenes nor t$e ,on"ans t$e(sel+es 'no $o to rec'on s"nce t$ey say t$at t$e $ole eart$ "s (ade u& o% t$ree d"+"s"ons# Euro&e# As"a# and 9"!ya; %or t$ey ou)$t to count "n add"t"on to t$ese t$e Delta o% E)y&t# s"nce "t !elon)s ne"t$er to As"a nor to 9"!ya2 %or at least "t cannot !e t$e r"+er N"le !y t$"s rec'on"n) $"c$ d"+"des As"a %ro( 9"!ya# !ut t$e N"le "s cle%t at t$e &o"nt o% t$"s Delta so as to %lo round "t# and t$e result "s t$at t$"s land ould co(e !et een As"a and 9"!ya. :e d"s("ss t$en our o&"n"on o% t$e ,on"ans# and e*&ress a /ud)(ent o% our o n on t$"s (atter also# t$at E)y&t "s all t$at land $"c$ "s "n$a!"ted !y E)y&t"ans# /ust as 8"l"'"a "s t$at $"c$ "s "n$a!"ted !y 8"l"'"ans and Assyr"a t$at $"c$ "s "n$a!"ted !y Assyr"ans# and e 'no o% no !oundary &ro&erly s&ea'"n) !et een As"a and 9"!ya e*ce&t t$e !orders o% E)y&t. ,% $o e+er e s$all ado&t t$e o&"n"on $"c$ "s co((only $eld !y t$e Hellenes# e s$all su&&ose t$at t$e $ole o% E)y&t# !e)"nn"n) %ro( t$e Cataract and t$e c"ty o% Ele&$ant"ne# "s

d"+"ded "nto t o &arts and t$at "t t$us &arta'es o% !ot$ t$e na(es# s"nce one s"de "ll t$us !elon) to 9"!ya and t$e ot$er to As"a2 %or t$e N"le %ro( t$e Cataract on ards %lo s to t$e sea cutt"n) E)y&t t$rou)$ "n t$e ("dst2 and as %ar as t$e c"ty o% 8ercasoros t$e N"le %lo s "n one s"n)le strea(# !ut %ro( t$"s c"ty on ards "t "s &arted "nto t$ree ays2 and one# $"c$ "s called t$e Pelus"an (out$# turns to ards t$e East2 t$e second o% t$e ays )oes to ards t$e :est# and t$"s "s called t$e Cano!"c (out$2 !ut t$at one o% t$e ays $"c$ "s stra")$t runs t$us#55 $en t$e r"+er "n "ts course do n ards co(es to t$e &o"nt o% t$e Delta# t$en "t cuts t$e Delta t$rou)$ t$e ("dst and so "ssues out to t$e sea. ,n t$"s e $a+e a &ort"on o% t$e ater o% t$e r"+er $"c$ "s not t$e s(allest nor t$e least %a(ous# and "t "s called t$e Se!ennyt"c (out$. T$ere are also t o ot$er (out$s $"c$ &art o%% %ro( t$e Se!ennyt"c and )o to t$e sea# and t$ese are called# one t$e Sa"t"c# t$e ot$er t$e Mendes"an (out$. T$e Bol!"t"n"t"c# and Bucol"c (out$s# on t$e ot$er $and# are not natural !ut (ade !y d"))"n). Moreo+er also t$e ans er )"+en !y t$e Oracle o% A((on !ears "tness "n su&&ort o% (y o&"n"on t$at E)y&t "s o% t$e e*tent $"c$ , declare "t to !e "n (y account2 and o% t$"s ans er , $eard a%ter , $ad %or(ed (y o n o&"n"on a!out E)y&t. For t$ose o% t$e c"ty o% Marea and o% A&"s# d ell"n) "n t$e &arts o% E)y&t $"c$ !order on 9"!ya# !e"n) o% o&"n"on t$e(sel+es t$at t$ey ere 9"!yans and not E)y&t"ans# and also !e"n) !urdened !y t$e rules o% rel")"ous ser+"ce# !ecause t$ey des"red not to !e de!arred %ro( t$e use o% co s= %les$# sent to A((on say"n) t$at t$ey $ad nou)$t "n co((on "t$ t$e E)y&t"ans# %or t$ey d elt outs"de t$e Delta and a)reed "t$ t$e( "n not$"n)2 and t$ey sa"d t$ey des"red t$at "t (")$t !e la %ul %or t$e( to eat e+eryt$"n) "t$out d"st"nct"on. T$e )od $o e+er d"d not &er("t t$e( to do so# !ut sa"d t$at t$at land as E)y&t $ere t$e N"le ca(e o+er and atered# and t$at t$ose ere E)y&t"ans $o d ell"n) !elo t$e c"ty o% Ele&$ant"ne dran' o% t$at r"+er. T$us as "t ans ered to t$e( !y t$e Oracle a!out t$"s; and t$e N"le# $en "t "s "n %lood# )oes o+er not only t$e Delta !ut also o% t$e land $"c$ "s called 9"!yan and o% t$at $"c$ "s called Ara!"an so(et"(es as (uc$ as t o days= /ourney on eac$ s"de# and at t"(es e+en (ore t$an t$"s or at t"(es less. As re)ards t$e nature o% t$e r"+er# ne"t$er %ro( t$e &r"ests nor yet %ro( any ot$er (an as , a!le to o!ta"n any 'no led)e; and , as des"rous es&ec"ally to learn %ro( t$e( a!out t$ese (atters# na(ely $y t$e N"le co(es do n "ncreas"n) "n +olu(e %ro( t$e su((er solst"ce on ards %or a $undred days# and t$en# $en "t $as reac$ed t$e nu(!er o% t$ese days# turns and )oes !ac'# %a"l"n) "n "ts strea(# so t$at t$rou)$ t$e $ole "nter season "t cont"nues to !e lo # and unt"l t$e su((er solst"ce returns. O% none o% t$ese t$"n)s as , a!le to rece"+e any account %ro( t$e E)y&t"ans# $en , "n4u"red o% t$e( $at &o er t$e

N"le $as $ere!y "t "s o% a nature o&&os"te to t$at o% all ot$er r"+ers. And , (ade "n4u"ry# des"r"n) to 'no !ot$ t$"s $"c$ , say and also $y# unl"'e all ot$er r"+ers# "t does not )"+e r"se to any !ree3es !lo "n) %ro( "t. Ho e+er so(e o% t$e Hellenes $o des"red to )a"n d"st"nct"on %or cle+erness $a+e )"+en an account o% t$"s ater "n t$ree d"%%erent ays; t o o% t$ese , do not t$"n' "t ort$ $"le e+en to s&ea' o% e*ce&t only to "nd"cate t$e"r nature2 o% $"c$ t$e one says t$at t$e Etes"an :"nds are t$e cause t$at (a'es t$e r"+er r"se# !y &re+ent"n) t$e N"le %ro( %lo "n) out "nto t$e sea. But o%ten t$e Etes"an :"nds %a"l and yet t$e N"le does t$e sa(e or' as "t "s ont to do2 and (oreo+er# "% t$ese ere t$e cause# all t$e ot$er r"+ers also $"c$ %lo "n a d"rect"on o&&osed to t$e Etes"an :"nds ou)$t to $a+e !een a%%ected "n t$e sa(e ay as t$e N"le# and e+en (ore# "n as (uc$ as t$ey are s(aller and &resent to t$e( a %ee!ler %lo o% strea(s; !ut t$ere are (any o% t$ese r"+ers "n Syr"a and (any also "n 9"!ya# and t$ey are a%%ected "n no suc$ (anner as t$e N"le. T$e second ay s$o s (ore ")norance t$an t$at $"c$ $as !een (ent"oned# and "t "s (ore (ar+ellous to tell2 %or "t says t$at t$e r"+er &roduces t$ese e%%ects !ecause "t %lo s %ro( t$e Ocean# and t$at t$e Ocean %lo s round t$e $ole eart$. T$e t$"rd o% t$e ays "s (uc$ t$e (ost s&ec"ous# !ut ne+ert$eless "t "s t$e (ost ("sta'en o% all; %or "ndeed t$"s ay $as no (ore trut$ "n "t t$an t$e rest# alle)"n) as "t does t$at t$e N"le %lo s %ro( (elt"n) sno 2 $ereas "t %lo s out o% 9"!ya t$rou)$ t$e ("dst o% t$e Et$"o&"ans# and so co(es out "nto E)y&t. Ho t$en s$ould "t %lo %ro( sno # $en "t %lo s %ro( t$e $ottest &arts to t$ose $"c$ are cooler? And "ndeed (ost o% t$e %acts are suc$ as to con+"nce a (an @one at least $o "s ca&a!le o% reason"n) a!out suc$ (attersA# t$at "t "s not at all l"'ely t$at "t %lo s %ro( sno . T$e %"rst and )reatest e+"dence "s a%%orded !y t$e "nds# $"c$ !lo $ot %ro( t$ese re)"ons2 t$e second "s t$at t$e land "s ra"nless al ays and "t$out %rost# $ereas a%ter sno $as %allen ra"n (ust necessar"ly co(e "t$"n %"+e days# so t$at "% "t sno ed "n t$ose &arts ra"n ould %all t$ere2 t$e t$"rd e+"dence "s a%%orded !y t$e &eo&le d ell"n) t$ere# $o are o% a !lac' colour !y reason o% t$e !urn"n) $eat. Moreo+er '"tes and s allo s re(a"n t$ere t$rou)$ t$e year and do not lea+e t$e land2 and cranes %ly"n) %ro( t$e cold eat$er $"c$ co(es on "n t$e re)"on o% Scyt$"a co(e re)ularly to t$ese &arts %or "nter"n); "% t$en "t sno ed e+er so l"ttle "n t$at land t$rou)$ $"c$ t$e N"le %lo s and "n $"c$ "t $as "ts r"se# none o% t$ese t$"n)s ould ta'e &lace# as necess"ty co(&els us to ad("t. As %or $"( $o tal'ed a!out t$e Ocean# $e carr"ed $"s tale "nto t$e re)"on o% t$e un'no n# and so $e need not !e re%uted2 s"nce , %or (y &art 'no o% no r"+er Ocean e*"st"n)# !ut , t$"n' t$at Ho(er or one o% t$e &oets $o ere !e%ore $"( "n+ented t$e na(e and "ntroduced "t "nto $"s +erse.

,% $o e+er a%ter , $a+e %ound %ault "t$ t$e o&"n"ons &ro&osed# , a( !ound to declare an o&"n"on o% (y o n a!out t$e (atters $"c$ are "n dou!t# , "ll tell $at to (y ("nd "s t$e reason $y t$e N"le "ncreases "n t$e su((er. ,n t$e "nter season t$e Sun# !e"n) dr"+en a ay %ro( $"s %or(er &at$ t$rou)$ t$e $ea+en !y t$e stor(y "nds# co(es to t$e u&&er &arts o% 9"!ya. ,% one ould set %ort$ t$e (atter "n t$e s$ortest ay# all $as no !een sa"d2 %or $ate+er re)"on t$"s )od a&&roac$es (ost and stands d"rectly a!o+e# t$"s "t (ay reasona!ly !e su&&osed "s (ost "n ant o% ater# and "ts nat"+e strea(s o% r"+ers are dr"ed u& (ost. Ho e+er# to set "t %ort$ at )reater len)t$# t$us "t "s;55t$e Sun &ass"n) "n $"s course !y t$e u&&er &arts o% 9"!ya# does t$us# t$at "s to say# s"nce at all t"(es t$e a"r "n t$ose &arts "s clear and t$e country "s ar(# !ecause t$ere are no cold "nds# "n &ass"n) t$rou)$ "t t$e Sun does /ust as $e as ont to do "n t$e su((er# $en )o"n) t$rou)$ t$e ("dst o% t$e $ea+en# t$at "s $e dra s to $"(sel% t$e ater# and $a+"n) dra n "t $e dr"+es "t a ay to t$e u&&er &arts o% t$e country# and t$e "nds ta'e "t u& and scatter"n) "t a!road (elt "t "nto ra"n2 so "t "s natural t$at t$e "nds $"c$ !lo %ro( t$"s re)"on# na(ely t$e Sout$ and Sout$5 est :"nds# s$ould !e (uc$ t$e (ost ra"ny o% all t$e "nds. , t$"n' $o e+er t$at t$e Sun does not send a ay %ro( $"(sel% all t$e ater o% t$e N"le o% eac$ year# !ut t$at also $e lets so(e re(a"n !e$"nd "t$ $"(sel%. T$en $en t$e "nter !eco(es ("lder# t$e Sun returns !ac' a)a"n to t$e ("dst o% t$e $ea+en# and %ro( t$at t"(e on ards $e dra s e4ually %ro( all r"+ers2 !ut "n t$e (eant"(e t$ey %lo "n lar)e +olu(e# s"nce ater o% ra"n ("n)les "t$ t$e( "n )reat 4uant"ty# !ecause t$e"r country rece"+es ra"n t$en and "s %"lled "t$ torrent strea(s. ,n su((er $o e+er t$ey are ea'# s"nce not only t$e s$o ers o% ra"n %a"l t$e(# !ut also t$ey are dra n !y t$e Sun. T$e N"le $o e+er# alone o% all r"+ers# not $a+"n) ra"n and !e"n) dra n !y t$e Sun# naturally %lo s dur"n) t$"s t"(e o% "nter "n (uc$ less t$an "ts &ro&er +olu(e# t$at "s (uc$ less t$an "n su((er2 %or t$en "t "s dra n e4ually "t$ all t$e ot$er aters# !ut "n "nter "t !ears t$e !urden alone. T$us , su&&ose t$e Sun to !e t$e cause o% t$ese t$"n)s. He also "s t$e cause "n (y o&"n"on t$at t$e a"r "n t$ese &arts "s dry# s"nce $e (a'es "t so !y scorc$"n) u& $"s &at$ t$rou)$ t$e $ea+en; t$us su((er &re+a"ls al ays "n t$e u&&er &arts o% 9"!ya. ,% $o e+er t$e stat"on o% t$e seasons $ad !een c$an)ed# and $ere no "n t$e $ea+en are &laced t$e Nort$ :"nd and "nter# t$ere as t$e stat"on o% t$e Sout$ :"nd and o% t$e ("dday# and $ere no "s &laced t$e Sout$ :"nd# t$ere as t$e Nort$# "% t$"s $ad !een so# t$e Sun !e"n) dr"+en %ro( t$e ("dst o% t$e $ea+en !y t$e "nter and t$e Nort$ :"nd ould )o to t$e u&&er &arts o% Euro&e# /ust as no $e co(es to t$e u&&er &arts o% 9"!ya# and &ass"n) "n $"s course t$rou)$out t$e $ole o% Euro&e , su&&ose $e ould do to t$e ,ster t$at $"c$ $e no or's u&on t$e N"le. As to t$e !ree3e# $y none !lo s

%ro( t$e r"+er# (y o&"n"on "s t$at %ro( +ery $ot &laces "t "s not natural t$at anyt$"n) s$ould !lo # and t$at a !ree3e "s ont to !lo %ro( so(et$"n) cold. 9et t$ese (atters t$en !e as t$ey are and as t$ey ere at t$e %"rst; !ut as to t$e sources o% t$e N"le# not one e"t$er o% t$e E)y&t"ans or o% t$e 9"!yans or o% t$e Hellenes# $o ca(e to s&eec$ "t$ (e# &ro%essed to 'no anyt$"n)# e*ce&t t$e scr"!e o% t$e sacred treasury o% At$ene at t$e c"ty o% Sa"s "n E)y&t. To (e $o e+er t$"s (an see(ed not to !e s&ea'"n) ser"ously $en $e sa"d t$at $e $ad certa"n 'no led)e o% "t2 and $e sa"d as %ollo s# na(ely t$at t$ere ere t o (ounta"ns o% $"c$ t$e to&s ran u& to a s$ar& &o"nt# s"tuated !et een t$e c"ty o% Syene# $"c$ "s "n t$e d"str"ct o% T$e!es# and Ele&$ant"ne# and t$e na(es o% t$e (ounta"ns ere# o% t$e one Cro&$" and o% t$e ot$er Mo&$". Fro( t$e ("ddle !et een t$ese (ounta"ns %lo ed @$e sa"dA t$e sources o% t$e N"le# $"c$ ere %at$o(less "n de&t$# and $al% o% t$e ater %lo ed to E)y&t and to ards t$e Nort$ :"nd# t$e ot$er $al% to Et$"o&"a and t$e Sout$ :"nd. As %or t$e %at$o(less de&t$ o% t$e source# $e sa"d t$at Psa((et"c$os '"n) o% E)y&t ca(e to a tr"al o% t$"s (atter2 %or $e $ad a ro&e t "sted o% (any t$ousand %at$o(s and let "t do n "n t$"s &lace# and "t %ound no !otto(. By t$"s t$e scr"!e @"% t$"s $"c$ $e told as really as $e sa"dA )a+e (e to understand t$at t$ere ere certa"n stron) edd"es t$ere and a !ac' ard %lo # and t$at s"nce t$e ater das$ed a)a"nst t$e (ounta"ns# t$ere%ore t$e sound"n)5l"ne could not co(e to any !otto( $en "t as let do n. Fro( no ot$er &erson as , a!le to learn anyt$"n) a!out t$"s (atter2 !ut %or t$e rest , learnt so (uc$ as $ere %ollo s !y t$e (ost d"l")ent "n4u"ry2 %or , ent (ysel% as an eye5 "tness as %ar as t$e c"ty o% Ele&$ant"ne and %ro( t$at &o"nt on ards , )at$ered 'no led)e !y re&ort. Fro( t$e c"ty o% Ele&$ant"ne as one )oes u& t$e r"+er t$ere "s country $"c$ slo&es stee&ly2 so t$at $ere one (ust attac$ ro&es to t$e +essel on !ot$ s"des# as one %astens an o*# and so (a'e one=s ay on ard2 and "% t$e ro&e !rea'# t$e +essel "s )one at once# carr"ed a ay !y t$e +"olence o% t$e strea(. T$rou)$ t$"s country "t "s a +oya)e o% a!out %our days "n len)t$# and "n t$"s &art t$e N"le "s "nd"n) l"'e t$e r"+er Ma"ander# and t$e d"stance a(ounts to t el+e <sc$o"nes<# $"c$ one (ust tra+erse "n t$"s (anner. T$en you "ll co(e to a le+el &la"n# "n $"c$ t$e N"le %lo s round an "sland na(ed Tac$o(&so. @No "n t$e re)"ons a!o+e t$e Ele&$ant"ne t$ere d ell Et$"o&"ans at once succeed"n)# $o also occu&y $al% o% t$e "sland# and E)y&t"ans t$e ot$er $al%.A Ad/o"n"n) t$"s "sland t$ere "s a )reat la'e# round $"c$ d ell Et$"o&"an no(ad tr"!es2 and $en you $a+e sa"led t$rou)$ t$"s you "ll co(e to t$e strea( o% t$e N"le a)a"n# $"c$ %lo s "nto t$"s la'e. A%ter t$"s you "ll d"se(!ar' and (a'e a /ourney !y land o% %orty days2 %or "n t$e N"le s$ar& roc's stand %ort$

out o% t$e ater# and t$ere are (any ree%s# !y $"c$ "t "s not &oss"!le %or a +essel to &ass. T$en a%ter $a+"n) &assed t$rou)$ t$"s country "n t$e %orty days $"c$ , $a+e sa"d# you "ll e(!ar' a)a"n "n anot$er +essel and sa"l %or t el+e days2 and a%ter t$"s you "ll co(e to a )reat c"ty called Meroe. T$"s c"ty "s sa"d to !e t$e (ot$er5c"ty o% all t$e ot$er Et$"o&"ans; and t$ey $o d ell "n "t re+erence o% t$e )ods >eus and D"onysos alone# and t$ese t$ey )reatly $onour2 and t$ey $a+e an Oracle o% >eus esta!l"s$ed# and (a'e arl"'e (arc$es $ensoe+er t$e )od co((ands t$e( !y &ro&$esy"n)s and to $atsoe+er &lace $e co((ands. Sa"l"n) %ro( t$"s c"ty you "ll co(e to t$e 6Deserters6 "n anot$er &er"od o% t"(e e4ual to t$at "n $"c$ you ca(e %ro( Ele&$ant"ne to t$e (ot$er5c"ty o% t$e Et$"o&"ans. No t$e na(e o% t$ese 6Deserters6 "s <As(ac$<# and t$"s ord s")n"%"es# $en translated "nto t$e ton)ue o% t$e Hellenes# 6t$ose $o stand on t$e le%t $and o% t$e '"n).6 T$ese ere t o $undred and %orty t$ousand E)y&t"ans o% t$e arr"or class# $o re+olted and ent o+er to t$ese Et$"o&"ans %or t$e %ollo "n) cause;55,n t$e re")n o% Psa((et"c$os )arr"sons ere set# one to ards t$e Et$"o&"ans at t$e c"ty o% Ele&$ant"ne# anot$er to ards t$e Ara!"ans and Assyr"ans at Da&$na" o% Pelus"on# and anot$er to ards 9"!ya at Marea; and e+en "n (y o n t"(e t$e )arr"sons o% t$e Pers"ans too are ordered "n t$e sa(e (anner as t$ese ere "n t$e re")n o% Psa((et"c$os# %or !ot$ at Ele&$ant"ne and at Da&$na" t$e Pers"ans $a+e out&osts. T$e E)y&t"ans t$en o% $o( , s&ea' $ad ser+ed as out&osts %or t$ree years and no one rel"e+ed t$e( %ro( t$e"r )uard2 accord"n)ly t$ey too' counsel to)et$er# and ado&t"n) a co((on &lan t$ey all "n a !ody re+olted %ro( Psa((et"c$os and set out %or Et$"o&"a. Hear"n) t$"s Psa((et"c$os set %ort$ "n &ursu"t# and $en $e ca(e u& "t$ t$e( $e entreated t$e( (uc$ and endea+oured to &ersuade t$e( not to desert t$e )ods o% t$e"r country and t$e"r c$"ldren and "+es; u&on $"c$ "t "s sa"d t$at one o% t$e( &o"nted to $"s &r"+y (e(!er and sa"d t$at $ere+er t$"s as# t$ere ould t$ey $a+e !ot$ c$"ldren and "+es. :$en t$ese ca(e to Et$"o&"a t$ey )a+e t$e(sel+es o+er to t$e '"n) o% t$e Et$"o&"ans2 and $e re arded t$e( as %ollo s;55t$ere ere certa"n o% t$e Et$"o&"ans $o $ad co(e to !e at +ar"ance "t$ $"(2 and $e !ade t$e( dr"+e t$ese out and d ell "n t$e"r land. So s"nce t$ese (en settled "n t$e land o% t$e Et$"o&"ans# t$e Et$"o&"ans $a+e co(e to !e o% ("lder (anners# %ro( $a+"n) learnt t$e custo(s o% t$e E)y&t"ans. T$e N"le t$en# !es"des t$e &art o% "ts course $"c$ "s "n E)y&t# "s 'no n as %ar as a %our (ont$s= /ourney !y r"+er and land; %or t$at "s t$e nu(!er o% (ont$s $"c$ are %ound !y rec'on"n) to !e s&ent "n )o"n) %ro( Ele&$ant"ne to t$ese 6Deserters6; and t$e r"+er runs %ro( t$e :est and t$e sett"n) o% t$e sun. But $at co(es a%ter t$at &o"nt no one can clearly say2 %or t$"s land "s desert !y reason o% t$e !urn"n)

$eat. T$"s (uc$ $o e+er , $eard %ro( (en o% 8yrene# $o told (e t$at t$ey $ad !een to t$e Oracle o% A((on# and $ad co(e to s&eec$ "t$ Etearc$os '"n) o% t$e A((on"ans; and "t $a&&ened t$at a%ter s&ea'"n) o% ot$er (atters t$ey %ell to d"scourse a!out t$e N"le and $o no one 'ne t$e sources o% "t2 and Etearc$os sa"d t$at once t$ere ca(e to $"( (en o% t$e Nasa(on"ans @t$"s "s a 9"!yan race $"c$ d ells "n t$e Syrt"s# and also "n t$e land to t$e East o% t$e Syrt"s reac$"n) to no )reat d"stanceA# and $en t$e Nasa(on"ans ca(e and ere as'ed !y $"( $et$er t$ey ere a!le to tell $"( anyt$"n) (ore t$an $e 'ne a!out t$e desert &arts o% 9"!ya# t$ey sa"d t$at t$ere $ad !een a(on) t$e( certa"n sons o% c$"e% (en# $o ere o% unruly d"s&os"t"on2 and t$ese $en t$ey )re u& to !e (en $ad de+"sed +ar"ous ot$er e*tra+a)ant t$"n)s and also t$ey $ad told o%% !y lot %"+e o% t$e(sel+es to )o to see t$e desert &arts o% 9"!ya and to try $et$er t$ey could d"sco+er (ore t$an t$ose $o $ad &re+"ously e*&lored %urt$est; %or "n t$ose &arts o% 9"!ya $"c$ are !y t$e Nort$ern Sea# !e)"nn"n) %ro( E)y&t and )o"n) as %ar as t$e $eadland o% Soloe"s# $"c$ "s t$e e*tre(e &o"nt o% 9"!ya# 9"!yans @and o% t$e( (any racesA e*tend alon) t$e $ole coast# e*ce&t so (uc$ as t$e Hellenes and P$en"c"ans $old2 !ut "n t$e u&&er &arts# $"c$ l"e a!o+e t$e sea5coast and a!o+e t$ose &eo&le $ose land co(es do n to t$e sea# 9"!ya "s %ull o% "ld !easts2 and "n t$e &arts a!o+e t$e land o% "ld !easts "t "s %ull o% sand# terr"!ly aterless and utterly desert. T$ese youn) (en t$en @sa"d t$eyA# !e"n) sent out !y t$e"r co(&an"ons ell %urn"s$ed "t$ su&&l"es o% ater and &ro+"s"ons# ent %"rst t$rou)$ t$e "n$a!"ted country# and a%ter t$ey $ad &assed t$rou)$ t$"s t$ey ca(e to t$e country o% "ld !easts# and a%ter t$"s t$ey &assed t$rou)$ t$e desert# (a'"n) t$e"r /ourney to ards t$e :est :"nd2 and $a+"n) &assed t$rou)$ a )reat tract o% sand "n (any days# t$ey sa at last trees )ro "n) "n a le+el &lace2 and $a+"n) co(e u& to t$e(# t$ey ere !e)"nn"n) to &luc' t$e %ru"t $"c$ as u&on t$e trees; !ut as t$ey !e)an to &luc' "t# t$ere ca(e u&on t$e( s(all (en# o% less stature t$an (en o% t$e co((on s"3e# and t$ese se"3ed t$e( and carr"ed t$e( a ay2 and ne"t$er could t$e Nasa(on"ans understand anyt$"n) o% t$e"r s&eec$ nor could t$ose $o ere carry"n) t$e( o%% understand anyt$"n) o% t$e s&eec$ o% t$e Nasa(on"ans2 and t$ey led t$e( @so "t as sa"dA t$rou)$ +ery )reat s a(&s# and a%ter &ass"n) t$rou)$ t$ese t$ey ca(e to a c"ty "n $"c$ all t$e (en ere "n s"3e l"'e t$ose $o carr"ed t$e( o%% and "n colour o% s'"n !lac'2 and !y t$e c"ty ran a )reat r"+er# $"c$ ran %ro( t$e :est to ards t$e sunr"s"n)# and "n "t ere seen crocod"les. O% t$e account )"+en !y Etearc$os t$e A((on"an let so (uc$ su%%"ce as "s $ere sa"d# e*ce&t t$at# as t$e (en o% 8yrene told (e# $e alle)ed t$at t$e Nasa(on"ans returned sa%e $o(e# and t$at t$e &eo&le to $o( t$ey $ad co(e ere all "3ards. No t$"s r"+er $"c$ ran !y t$e c"ty# Etearc$os con/ectured to !e t$e N"le# and (oreo+er reason co(&els us to t$"n' so2 %or t$e

N"le %lo s %ro( 9"!ya and cuts 9"!ya t$rou)$ "n t$e ("dst# and as , con/ecture# /ud)"n) o% $at "s not 'no n !y t$at $"c$ "s e+"dent to t$e +"e # "t starts at a d"stance %ro( "ts (out$ e4ual to t$at o% t$e ,ster; %or t$e r"+er ,ster !e)"ns %ro( t$e 8elto" and t$e c"ty o% Pyrene and so runs t$at "t d"+"des Euro&e "n t$e ("dst @no t$e 8elto" are outs"de t$e P"llars o% Heracles and !order u&on t$e 8ynes"ans# $o d ell %urt$est to ards t$e sunset o% all t$ose $o $a+e t$e"r d ell"n) "n Euro&eA; and t$e ,ster ends# $a+"n) "ts course t$rou)$ t$e $ole o% Euro&e# !y %lo "n) "nto t$e Eu*"ne Sea at t$e &lace $ere t$e M"les"ans $a+e t$e"r settle(ent o% ,str"a. No t$e ,ster# s"nce "t %lo s t$rou)$ land $"c$ "s "n$a!"ted# "s 'no n !y t$e re&orts o% (any2 !ut o% t$e sources o% t$e N"le no one can )"+e an account# %or t$e &art o% 9"!ya t$rou)$ $"c$ "t %lo s "s un"n$a!"ted and desert. A!out "ts course $o e+er so (uc$ as "t as &oss"!le to learn !y t$e (ost d"l")ent "n4u"ry $as !een told2 and "t runs out "nto E)y&t. No E)y&t l"es nearly o&&os"te to t$e (ounta"n d"str"cts o% 8"l"'"a2 and %ro( t$ence to S"no&e# $"c$ l"es u&on t$e Eu*"ne Sea# "s a /ourney "n t$e sa(e stra")$t l"ne o% %"+e days %or a (an "t$out encu(!rance2 and S"no&e l"es o&&os"te to t$e &lace $ere t$e ,ster runs out "nto t$e sea; t$us , t$"n' t$at t$e N"le &asses t$rou)$ t$e $ole o% 9"!ya and "s o% e4ual (easure "t$ t$e ,ster.

O% t$e N"le t$en let so (uc$ su%%"ce as $as !een sa"d. O% E)y&t $o e+er , s$all (a'e (y re&ort at len)t$# !ecause "t $as onders (ore "n nu(!er t$an any ot$er land# and or's too "t $as to s$o as (uc$ as any land# $"c$ are !eyond e*&ress"on )reat; %or t$"s reason t$en (ore s$all !e sa"d concern"n) "t. T$e E)y&t"ans "n a)ree(ent "t$ t$e"r cl"(ate# $"c$ "s unl"'e any ot$er# and "t$ t$e r"+er# $"c$ s$o s a nature d"%%erent %ro( all ot$er r"+ers# esta!l"s$ed %or t$e(sel+es (anners and custo(s "n a ay o&&os"te to ot$er (en "n al(ost all (atters; %or a(on) t$e( t$e o(en %re4uent t$e (ar'et and carry on trade# $"le t$e (en re(a"n at $o(e and ea+e2 and $ereas ot$ers ea+e &us$"n) t$e oo% u& ards# t$e E)y&t"ans &us$ "t do n ards; t$e (en carry t$e"r !urdens u&on t$e"r $eads and t$e o(en u&on t$e"r s$oulders; t$e o(en (a'e ater stand"n) u& and t$e (en crouc$"n) do n; t$ey ease t$e(sel+es "n t$e"r $ouses and t$ey eat "t$out "n t$e streets# alle)"n) as reason %or t$"s t$at "t "s r")$t to do secretly t$e t$"n)s t$at are unsee(ly t$ou)$ necessary# !ut t$ose $"c$ are not unsee(ly# "n &u!l"c; no o(an "s a ("n"ster e"t$er o% (ale or %e(ale d"+"n"ty# !ut (en o% all# !ot$ (ale and %e(ale; to su&&ort t$e"r &arents t$e sons are "n no ay co(&elled# "% t$ey do not des"re to do so# !ut t$e dau)$ters are

%orced to do so# !e t$ey ne+er so un "ll"n). T$e &r"ests o% t$e )ods "n ot$er lands ear lon) $a"r# !ut "n E)y&t t$ey s$a+e t$e"r $eads; a(on) ot$er (en t$e custo( "s t$at "n (ourn"n) t$ose $o( t$e (atter concerns (ost nearly $a+e t$e"r $a"r cut s$ort# !ut t$e E)y&t"ans# $en deat$s occur# let t$e"r $a"r )ro lon)# !ot$ t$at on t$e $ead and t$at on t$e c$"n# $a+"n) !e%ore !een close s$a+en; ot$er (en $a+e t$e"r da"ly l"+"n) se&arated %ro( !easts# !ut t$e E)y&t"ans $a+e t$e"rs to)et$er "t$ !easts; ot$er (en l"+e on $eat and on !arley# !ut to any one o% t$e E)y&t"ans $o (a'es $"s l"+"n) on t$ese "t "s a )reat re&roac$2 t$ey (a'e t$e"r !read o% (a"3e# $"c$ so(e call s&elt; t$ey 'nead dou)$ "t$ t$e"r %eet and clay "t$ t$e"r $ands# "t$ $"c$ also t$ey )at$er u& dun); and $ereas ot$er (en# e*ce&t suc$ as $a+e learnt ot$er "se %ro( t$e E)y&t"ans# $a+e t$e"r (e(!ers as nature (ade t$e(# t$e E)y&t"ans &ract"ce c"rcu(c"s"on; as to )ar(ents# t$e (en ear t o eac$ and t$e o(en !ut one; and $ereas ot$ers (a'e %ast t$e r"n)s and ro&es o% t$e sa"ls outs"de t$e s$"&# t$e E)y&t"ans do t$"s "ns"de; %"nally "n t$e r"t"n) o% c$aracters and rec'on"n) "t$ &e!!les# $"le t$e Hellenes carry t$e $and %ro( t$e le%t to t$e r")$t# t$e E)y&t"ans do t$"s %ro( t$e r")$t to t$e le%t2 and do"n) so t$ey say t$at t$ey do "t t$e(sel+es r")$t "se and t$e Hellenes le%t "se; and t$ey use t o '"nds o% c$aracters %or r"t"n)# o% $"c$ t$e one '"nd "s called sacred and t$e ot$er co((on. T$ey are rel")"ous e*cess"+ely !eyond all ot$er (en# and "t$ re)ard to t$"s t$ey $a+e custo(s as %ollo s;55t$ey dr"n' %ro( cu&s o% !ron3e and r"nse t$e( out e+ery day# and not so(e only do t$"s !ut all; t$ey ear )ar(ents o% l"nen al ays ne ly as$ed# and t$"s t$ey (a'e a s&ec"al &o"nt o% &ract"ce; t$ey c"rcu(c"se t$e(sel+es %or t$e sa'e o% cleanl"ness# &re%err"n) to !e clean rat$er t$an co(ely. T$e &r"ests s$a+e t$e(sel+es all o+er t$e"r !ody e+ery ot$er day# so t$at no l"ce or any ot$er %oul t$"n) (ay co(e to !e u&on t$e( $en t$ey ("n"ster to t$e )ods2 and t$e &r"ests ear )ar(ents o% l"nen only and sandals o% &a&yrus# and any ot$er )ar(ent t$ey (ay not ta'e nor ot$er sandals2 t$ese as$ t$e(sel+es "n cold ater t "ce "n a day and t "ce a)a"n "n t$e n")$t2 and ot$er rel")"ous ser+"ces t$ey &er%or( @one (ay al(ost sayA o% "n%"n"te nu(!er. T$ey en/oy also )ood t$"n)s not a %e # %or t$ey do not consu(e or s&end anyt$"n) o% t$e"r o n su!stance# !ut t$ere "s sacred !read !a'ed %or t$e( and t$ey $a+e eac$ )reat 4uant"ty o% %les$ o% o*en and )eese co("n) "n to t$e( eac$ day# and also "ne o% )ra&es "s )"+en to t$e(2 !ut "t "s not &er("tted to t$e( to taste o% %"s$; !eans (oreo+er t$e E)y&t"ans do not at all so "n t$e"r land# and t$ose $"c$ t$ey )ro t$ey ne"t$er eat ra nor !o"l %or %ood2 nay t$e &r"ests do not endure e+en to loo' u&on t$e(# t$"n'"n) t$"s to !e an unclean '"nd o% &ulse; and t$ere "s not one &r"est only %or eac$ o% t$e )ods !ut (any# and o% t$e( one "s c$"e%5&r"est# and $ene+er a

&r"est d"es $"s son "s a&&o"nted to $"s &lace. T$e (ales o% t$e o* '"nd t$ey cons"der to !elon) to E&a&$os# and on account o% $"( t$ey test t$e( "n t$e %ollo "n) (anner;55,% t$e &r"est sees one s"n)le !lac' $a"r u&on t$e !east $e counts "t not clean %or sacr"%"ce2 and one o% t$e &r"ests $o "s a&&o"nted %or t$e &ur&ose (a'es "n+est")at"on o% t$ese (atters# !ot$ $en t$e !east "s stand"n) u&r")$t and $en "t "s ly"n) on "ts !ac'# dra "n) out "ts ton)ue (oreo+er# to see "% "t "s clean "n res&ect o% t$e a&&o"nted s")ns# $"c$ , s$all tell o% "n anot$er &art o% t$e $"story; $e loo's also at t$e $a"rs o% t$e ta"l to see "% "t $as t$e( )ro "n) "n a natural (anner2 and "% "t !e clean "n res&ect o% all t$ese t$"n)s# $e (ar's "t "t$ a &"ece o% &a&yrus# roll"n) t$"s round t$e $orns# and t$en $en $e $as &lastered seal"n)5eart$ o+er "t $e sets u&on "t t$e seal o% $"s s")net5r"n)# and a%ter t$at t$ey ta'e t$e an"(al a ay. But %or one $o sacr"%"ces a !east not sealed t$e &enalty a&&o"nted "s deat$. ,n t$"s ay t$en t$e !east "s tested2 and t$e"r a&&o"nted (anner o% sacr"%"ce "s as %ollo s;55t$ey lead t$e sealed !east to t$e altar $ere t$ey $a&&en to !e sacr"%"c"n)# and t$en '"ndle a %"re; a%ter t$at# $a+"n) &oured l"!at"ons o% "ne o+er t$e altar so t$at "t runs do n u&on t$e +"ct"( and $a+"n) called u&on t$e )od# t$ey cut "ts t$roat# and $a+"n) cut "ts t$roat t$ey se+er t$e $ead %ro( t$e !ody. T$e !ody t$en o% t$e !east t$ey %lay# !ut u&on t$e $ead t$ey (a'e (any "(&recat"ons %"rst# and t$en t$ey $o $a+e a (ar'et and Hellenes so/ourn"n) a(on) t$e( %or trade# t$ese carry "t to t$e (ar'et5&lace and sell "t# $"le t$ey $o $a+e no Hellenes a(on) t$e( cast "t a ay "nto t$e r"+er; and t$"s "s t$e %or( o% "(&recat"ons $"c$ t$ey utter u&on t$e $eads# &ray"n) t$at "% any e+"l !e a!out to !e%all e"t$er t$e(sel+es $o are o%%er"n) sacr"%"ce or t$e land o% E)y&t "n )eneral# "t (ay co(e rat$er u&on t$"s $ead. No as re)ards t$e $eads o% t$e !easts $"c$ are sacr"%"ced and t$e &our"n) o+er t$e( o% t$e "ne# all t$e E)y&t"ans $a+e t$e sa(e custo(s e4ually %or all t$e"r sacr"%"ces2 and !y reason o% t$"s custo( none o% t$e E)y&t"ans eat o% t$e $ead e"t$er o% t$"s or o% any ot$er '"nd o% an"(al; !ut t$e (anner o% d"se(!o ell"n) t$e +"ct"(s and o% !urn"n) t$e( "s a&&o"nted a(on) t$e( d"%%erently %or d"%%erent sacr"%"ces2 , s$all s&ea' $o e+er o% t$e sacr"%"ces to t$at )oddess $o( t$ey re)ard as t$e )reatest o% all# and to $o( t$ey cele!rate t$e )reatest %east.55:$en t$ey $a+e %layed t$e !ulloc' and (ade "(&recat"on# t$ey ta'e out t$e $ole o% "ts lo er entra"ls !ut lea+e "n t$e !ody t$e u&&er entra"ls and t$e %at2 and t$ey se+er %ro( "t t$e le)s and t$e end o% t$e lo"n and t$e s$oulders and t$e nec'; and t$"s done# t$ey %"ll t$e rest o% t$e !ody o% t$e an"(al "t$ consecrated loa+es and $oney and ra"s"ns and %")s and %ran'"ncense and (yrr$ and e+ery ot$er '"nd o% s&"ces# and $a+"n) %"lled "t "t$ t$ese t$ey o%%er "t# &our"n) o+er "t )reat a!undance o% o"l. T$ey (a'e t$e"r sacr"%"ce

a%ter %ast"n)# and $"le t$e o%%er"n)s are !e"n) !urnt# t$ey all !eat t$e(sel+es %or (ourn"n)# and $en t$ey $a+e %"n"s$ed !eat"n) t$e(sel+es t$ey set %ort$ as a %east t$at $"c$ t$ey le%t un!urnt o% t$e sacr"%"ce. T$e clean (ales t$en o% t$e o* '"nd# !ot$ %ull5)ro n an"(als and cal+es# are sacr"%"ced !y all t$e E)y&t"ans2 t$e %e(ales $o e+er t$ey (ay not sacr"%"ce# !ut t$ese are sacred to ,s"s2 %or t$e %")ure o% ,s"s "s "n t$e %or( o% a o(an "t$ co =s $orns# /ust as t$e Hellenes &resent ,o "n &"ctures# and all t$e E)y&t"ans "t$out d"st"nct"on re+erence co s %ar (ore t$an any ot$er '"nd o% cattle2 %or $"c$ reason ne"t$er (an nor o(an o% t$e E)y&t"an race ould '"ss a (an $o "s a Hellene on t$e (out$# nor "ll t$ey use a 'n"%e or roast"n)5s&"ts or a caldron !elon)"n) to a Hellene# nor taste t$e %les$ e+en o% a clean an"(al "% "t $as !een cut "t$ t$e 'n"%e o% a Hellene. And t$e cattle o% t$"s '"nd $"c$ d"e t$ey !ury "n t$e %ollo "n) (anner;55t$e %e(ales t$ey cast "nto t$e r"+er# !ut t$e (ales t$ey !ury# eac$ &eo&le "n t$e su!ur! o% t$e"r to n# "t$ one o% t$e $orns# or so(et"(es !ot$# &rotrud"n) to (ar' t$e &lace2 and $en t$e !od"es $a+e rotted a ay and t$e a&&o"nted t"(e co(es on# t$en to eac$ c"ty co(es a !oat %ro( t$at $"c$ "s called t$e "sland o% Proso&"t"s @t$"s "s "n t$e Delta# and t$e e*tent o% "ts c"rcu"t "s n"ne <sc$o"nes<A. ,n t$"s "sland o% Proso&"t"s "s s"tuated# !es"des (any ot$er c"t"es# t$at one %ro( $"c$ t$e !oats co(e to ta'e u& t$e !ones o% t$e o*en# and t$e na(e o% t$e c"ty "s Atar!ec$"s# and "n "t t$ere "s set u& a $oly te(&le o% A&$rod"te. Fro( t$"s c"ty (any )o a!road "n +ar"ous d"rect"ons# so(e to one c"ty and ot$ers to anot$er# and $en t$ey $a+e du) u& t$e !ones o% t$e o*en t$ey carry t$e( o%%# and co("n) to)et$er t$ey !ury t$e( "n one s"n)le &lace. ,n t$e sa(e (anner as t$ey !ury t$e o*en t$ey !ury also t$e"r ot$er cattle $en t$ey d"e2 %or a!out t$e( also t$ey $a+e t$e sa(e la la"d do n# and t$ese also t$ey a!sta"n %ro( '"ll"n). No all $o $a+e a te(&le set u& to t$e T$e!an >eus or $o are o% t$e d"str"ct o% T$e!es# t$ese# , say# all sacr"%"ce )oats and a!sta"n %ro( s$ee&; %or not all t$e E)y&t"ans e4ually re+erence t$e sa(e )ods# e*ce&t only ,s"s and Os"r"s @ $o t$ey say "s D"onysosA# t$ese t$ey all re+erence al"'e; !ut t$ey $o $a+e a te(&le o% Mendes or !elon) to t$e Mendes"an d"str"ct# t$ese a!sta"n %ro( )oats and sacr"%"ce s$ee&. No t$e (en o% T$e!es and t$ose $o a%ter t$e"r e*a(&le a!sta"n %ro( s$ee&# say t$at t$"s custo( as esta!l"s$ed a(on) t$e( %or t$e cause $"c$ %ollo s;55Heracles @t$ey sayA $ad an earnest des"re to see >eus# and >eus d"d not des"re to !e seen o% $"(2 and at last $en Heracles as ur)ent "n entreaty >eus contr"+ed t$"s de+"ce# t$at "s to say# $e %layed a ra( and $eld "n %ront o% $"( t$e $ead o% t$e ra( $"c$ $e $ad cut o%%# and $e &ut on o+er $"( t$e %leece and t$en s$o ed $"(sel% to $"(. Hence t$e E)y&t"ans (a'e t$e "(a)e o% >eus "t$ t$e %ace o% a

ra(2 and t$e A((on"ans do so also a%ter t$e"r e*a(&le# !e"n) settlers !ot$ %ro( t$e E)y&t"ans and %ro( t$e Et$"o&"ans# and us"n) a lan)ua)e $"c$ "s a (edley o% !ot$ ton)ues; and "n (y o&"n"on "t "s %ro( t$"s )od t$at t$e E)y&t"ans call >eus <A(un<. T$e T$e!ans t$en do not sacr"%"ce ra(s !ut $old t$e( sacred %or t$"s reason2 on one day $o e+er "n t$e year# on t$e %east o% >eus# t$ey cut u& "n t$e sa(e (anner and %lay one s"n)le ra( and co+er "t$ "ts s'"n t$e "(a)e o% >eus# and t$en t$ey !r"n) u& to "t anot$er "(a)e o% Heracles. T$"s done# all $o are "n t$e te(&le !eat t$e(sel+es "n la(entat"on %or t$e ra(# and t$en t$ey !ury "t "n a sacred to(!. A!out Heracles , $eard t$e account )"+en t$at $e as o% t$e nu(!er o% t$e t el+e )ods2 !ut o% t$e ot$er Heracles $o( t$e Hellenes 'no , as not a!le to $ear "n any &art o% E)y&t; and (oreo+er to &ro+e t$at t$e E)y&t"ans d"d not ta'e t$e na(e o% Heracles %ro( t$e Hellenes# !ut rat$er t$e Hellenes %ro( t$e E)y&t"ans#55t$at "s to say t$ose o% t$e Hellenes $o )a+e t$e na(e Heracles to t$e son o% A(&$"tryon#55o% t$at# , say# !es"des (any ot$er e+"dences t$ere "s c$"e%ly t$"s# na(ely t$at t$e &arents o% t$"s Heracles# A(&$"tryon and Alc(ene# ere !ot$ o% E)y&t !y descent# and also t$at t$e E)y&t"ans say t$at t$ey do not 'no t$e na(es e"t$er o% Pose"don or o% t$e D"oscuro"# nor $a+e t$ese !een acce&ted !y t$e( as )ods a(on) t$e ot$er )ods2 $ereas "% t$ey $ad rece"+ed %ro( t$e Hellenes t$e na(e o% any d"+"n"ty# t$ey ould naturally $a+e &reser+ed t$e (e(ory o% t$ese (ost o% all# assu("n) t$at "n t$ose t"(es as no so(e o% t$e Hellenes ere ont to (a'e +oya)es and ere sea%ar"n) %ol'# as , su&&ose and as (y /ud)(ent co(&els (e to t$"n'2 so t$at t$e E)y&t"ans ould $a+e learnt t$e na(es o% t$ese )ods e+en (ore t$an t$at o% Heracles. ,n %act $o e+er Heracles "s a +ery anc"ent E)y&t"an )od2 and @as t$ey say t$e(sel+esA "t "s se+enteen t$ousand years to t$e !e)"nn"n) o% t$e re")n o% A(as"s %ro( t$e t"(e $en t$e t el+e )ods# o% $o( t$ey count t$at Heracles "s one# ere !e)otten o% t$e e")$t )ods. , (oreo+er# des"r"n) to 'no so(et$"n) certa"n o% t$ese (atters so %ar as (")$t !e# (ade a +oya)e also to Tyre o% P$en"c"a# $ear"n) t$at "n t$at &lace t$ere as a $oly te(&le o% Heracles2 and , sa t$at "t as r"c$ly %urn"s$ed "t$ (any +ot"+e o%%er"n)s !es"des# and es&ec"ally t$ere ere "n "t t o &"llars# t$e one o% &ure )old and t$e ot$er o% an e(erald stone o% suc$ s"3e as to s$"ne !y n")$t; and $a+"n) co(e to s&eec$ "t$ t$e &r"ests o% t$e )od# , as'ed t$e( $o lon) a t"(e "t as s"nce t$e"r te(&le $ad !een set u&; and t$ese also , %ound to !e at +ar"ance "t$ t$e Hellenes# %or t$ey sa"d t$at at t$e sa(e t"(e $en Tyre as %ounded# t$e te(&le o% t$e )od also $ad !een set u&# and t$at "t as a &er"od o% t o t$ousand t$ree $undred years s"nce t$e"r &eo&le !e)an to d ell at Tyre. , sa also at Tyre anot$er te(&le o% Heracles# "t$ t$e surna(e T$as"an2 and , ca(e to T$asos also and t$ere , %ound a te(&le o%

Heracles set u& !y t$e P$en"c"ans# $o $ad sa"led out to see' %or Euro&a and $ad colon"sed T$asos2 and t$ese t$"n)s $a&&ened %ull %"+e )enerat"ons o% (en !e%ore Heracles t$e son o% A(&$"tryon as !orn "n Hellas. So t$en (y "n4u"r"es s$o clearly t$at Heracles "s an anc"ent )od# and t$ose o% t$e Hellenes see( to (e to act (ost r")$tly $o $a+e t o te(&les o% Heracles set u&# and $o sacr"%"ce to t$e one as an "((ortal )od and "t$ t$e t"tle Oly(&"an# and (a'e o%%er"n)s o% t$e dead to t$e ot$er as a $ero. Moreo+er# !es"des (any ot$er stor"es $"c$ t$e Hellenes tell "t$out due cons"derat"on# t$"s tale "s es&ec"ally %ool"s$ $"c$ t$ey tell a!out Heracles# na(ely t$at $en $e ca(e to E)y&t# t$e E)y&t"ans &ut on $"( reat$s and led $"( %ort$ "n &rocess"on to sacr"%"ce $"( to >eus2 and $e %or so(e t"(e 'e&t 4u"et# !ut $en t$ey ere !e)"nn"n) t$e sacr"%"ce o% $"( at t$e altar# $e !etoo' $"(sel% to &ro ess and sle t$e( all. , %or (y &art a( o% o&"n"on t$at t$e Hellenes $en t$ey tell t$"s tale are alto)et$er "t$out 'no led)e o% t$e nature and custo(s o% t$e E)y&t"ans2 %or $o s$ould t$ey %or $o( "t "s not la %ul to sacr"%"ce e+en !easts# e*ce&t s "ne and t$e (ales o% o*en and cal+es @suc$ o% t$e( as are cleanA and )eese# $o s$ould t$ese sacr"%"ce $u(an !e"n)s? Bes"des t$"s# $o "s "t "n nature &oss"!le t$at Heracles# !e"n) one &erson only and (oreo+er a (an @as t$ey assertA# s$ould slay (any (yr"ads? Ha+"n) sa"d so (uc$ o% t$ese (atters# e &ray t$at e (ay $a+e )race %ro( !ot$ t$e )ods and t$e $eroes %or our s&eec$. No t$e reason $y t$ose o% t$e E)y&t"ans $o( , $a+e (ent"oned do not sacr"%"ce )oats# %e(ale or (ale# "s t$"s;55t$e Mendes"ans count Pan to !e one o% t$e e")$t )ods @no t$ese e")$t )ods t$ey say ca(e "nto !e"n) !e%ore t$e t el+e )odsA# and t$e &a"nters and "(a)e5(a'ers re&resent "n &a"nt"n) and "n scul&ture t$e %")ure o% Pan# /ust as t$e Hellenes do# "t$ )oat=s %ace and le)s# not su&&os"n) $"( to !e really l"'e t$"s !ut to rese(!le t$e ot$er )ods2 t$e cause $o e+er $y t$ey re&resent $"( "n t$"s %or( , &re%er not to say. T$e Mendes"ans t$en re+erence all )oats and t$e (ales (ore t$an t$e %e(ales @and t$e )oat$erds too $a+e )reater $onour t$an ot$er $erds(enA# !ut o% t$e )oats one es&ec"ally "s re+erenced# and $en $e d"es t$ere "s )reat (ourn"n) "n all t$e Mendes"an d"str"ct; and !ot$ t$e )oat and Pan are called "n t$e E)y&t"an ton)ue <Mendes<. Moreo+er "n (y l"%et"(e t$ere $a&&ened "n t$at d"str"ct t$"s (ar+el# t$at "s to say a $e5)oat $ad "ntercourse "t$ a o(an &u!l"cly# and t$"s as so done t$at all (en (")$t $a+e e+"dence o% "t. T$e &") "s accounted !y t$e E)y&t"ans an a!o("na!le an"(al2 and %"rst# "% any o% t$e( "n &ass"n) !y touc$ a &")# $e )oes "nto t$e r"+er and d"&s $"(sel% %ort$ "t$ "n t$e ater to)et$er "t$ $"s )ar(ents2 and t$en too s "ne$erds# t$ou)$ t$ey (ay !e nat"+e E)y&t"ans# unl"'e all

ot$ers# do not enter any o% t$e te(&les "n E)y&t# nor "s anyone "ll"n) to )"+e $"s dau)$ter "n (arr"a)e to one o% t$e( or to ta'e a "%e %ro( a(on) t$e(2 !ut t$e s "ne$erds !ot$ )"+e "n (arr"a)e to one anot$er and ta'e %ro( one anot$er. No to t$e ot$er )ods t$e E)y&t"ans do not t$"n' "t r")$t to sacr"%"ce s "ne2 !ut to t$e Moon and to D"onysos alone at t$e sa(e t"(e and on t$e sa(e %ull5(oon t$ey sacr"%"ce s "ne# and t$en eat t$e"r %les$; and as to t$e reason $y# $en t$ey a!o("nate s "ne at all t$e"r ot$er %easts# t$ey sacr"%"ce t$e( at t$"s# t$ere "s a story told !y t$e E)y&t"ans2 and t$"s story , 'no # !ut "t "s not a see(ly one %or (e to tell. No t$e sacr"%"ce o% t$e s "ne to t$e Moon "s &er%or(ed as %ollo s;55 $en t$e &r"est $as sla"n t$e +"ct"(# $e &uts to)et$er t$e end o% t$e ta"l and t$e s&leen and t$e caul# and co+ers t$e( u& "t$ t$e $ole o% t$e %at o% t$e an"(al $"c$ "s a!out t$e &aunc$# and t$en $e o%%ers t$e( "t$ %"re2 and t$e rest o% t$e %les$ t$ey eat on t$at day o% %ull (oon u&on $"c$ t$ey $a+e $eld sacr"%"ce# !ut on any day a%ter t$"s t$ey "ll not taste o% "t; t$e &oor $o e+er a(on) t$e( !y reason o% t$e scant"ness o% t$e"r (eans s$a&e &")s o% dou)$ and $a+"n) !a'ed t$e( t$ey o%%er t$ese as a sacr"%"ce. T$en %or D"onysos on t$e e+e o% t$e %est"+al eac$ one '"lls a &") !y cutt"n) "ts t$roat !e%ore $"s o n doors# and a%ter t$at $e )"+es t$e &") to t$e s "ne$erd $o sold "t to $"(# to carry a ay a)a"n2 and t$e rest o% t$e %east o% D"onysos "s cele!rated !y t$e E)y&t"ans "n t$e sa(e ay as !y t$e Hellenes "n al(ost all t$"n)s e*ce&t c$oral dances# !ut "nstead o% t$e <&$allos< t$ey $a+e "n+ented anot$er contr"+ance# na(ely %")ures o% a!out a cu!"t "n $e")$t or'ed !y str"n)s# $"c$ o(en carry a!out t$e +"lla)es# "t$ t$e &r"+y (e(!er (ade to (o+e and not (uc$ less "n s"3e t$an t$e rest o% t$e !ody; and a %lute )oes !e%ore and t$ey %ollo s"n)"n) t$e &ra"ses o% D"onysos. As to t$e reason $y t$e %")ure $as t$"s (e(!er lar)er t$an "s natural and (o+es "t# t$ou)$ "t (o+es no ot$er &art o% t$e !ody# a!out t$"s t$ere "s a sacred story told. No , t$"n' t$at Mela(&us t$e son o% A(yt$eon as not "t$out 'no led)e o% t$ese r"tes o% sacr"%"ce# !ut as ac4ua"nted "t$ t$e(; %or Mela(&us "s $e $o %"rst set %ort$ to t$e Hellenes t$e na(e o% D"onysos and t$e (anner o% sacr"%"ce and t$e &rocess"on o% t$e <&$allos<. Str"ctly s&ea'"n) "ndeed# $e $en $e (ade "t 'no n d"d not ta'e "n t$e $ole# !ut t$ose "se (en $o ca(e a%ter $"( (ade "t 'no n (ore at lar)e. Mela(&us t$en "s $e $o tau)$t o% t$e <&$allos< $"c$ "s carr"ed "n &rocess"on %or D"onysos# and %ro( $"( t$e Hellenes learnt to do t$at $"c$ t$ey do. , say t$en t$at Mela(&us !e"n) a (an o% a!"l"ty contr"+ed %or $"(sel% an art o% d"+"nat"on# and $a+"n) learnt %ro( E)y&t $e tau)$t t$e Hellenes (any t$"n)s# and a(on) t$e( t$ose t$at concern D"onysos# (a'"n) c$an)es "n so(e %e &o"nts o% t$e(; %or , s$all not say t$at t$at $"c$ "s done "n ors$"& o% t$e )od "n E)y&t ca(e acc"dentally to !e t$e sa(e "t$ t$at $"c$ "s done a(on) t$e Hellenes# %or t$en t$ese

r"tes ould $a+e !een "n c$aracter "t$ t$e Hellen"c ors$"& and not lately !rou)$t "n2 nor certa"nly s$all , say t$at t$e E)y&t"ans too' %ro( t$e Hellenes e"t$er t$"s or any ot$er custo(ary o!ser+ance; (atters concern"n) D"onysos %ro( Cad(os t$e Tyr"an and %ro( t$ose $o ca(e "t$ $"( %ro( P$en"c"a to t$e land $"c$ e no call Boeot"a. Moreo+er t$e na("n) o% al(ost all t$e )ods $as co(e to Hellas %ro( E)y&t; %or t$at "t $as co(e %ro( t$e Bar!ar"ans , %"nd !y "n4u"ry "s true# and , a( o% o&"n"on t$at (ost &ro!a!ly "t $as co(e %ro( E)y&t# !ecause# e*ce&t "n t$e case o% Pose"don and t$e D"oscuro" @"n accordance "t$ t$at $"c$ , $a+e sa"d !e%oreA# and also o% Hera and Hest"a and T$e("s and t$e C$ar"tes and Nere"ds# t$e E)y&t"ans say t$e(sel+es; !ut as %or t$e )ods $ose na(es t$ey &ro%ess t$at t$ey do not 'no # t$ese , t$"n' rece"+ed t$e"r na("n) %ro( t$e Pelas)"ans# e*ce&t Po"se"don2 !ut a!out t$"s )od t$e Hellenes learnt %ro( t$e 9"!yans# %or no &eo&le e*ce&t t$e 9"!yans $a+e $ad t$e na(e o% Pose"don %ro( t$e %"rst and $a+e &a"d $onour to t$"s )od al ays. Nor# "t (ay !e added# $a+e t$e E)y&t"ans any custo( o% ors$"&&"n) $eroes. T$ese o!ser+ances t$en# and ot$ers !es"des t$ese $"c$ , s$all (ent"on# t$e Hellenes $a+e ado&ted %ro( t$e E)y&t"ans2 !ut to (a'e# as t$ey do t$e "(a)es o% Her(es "t$ t$e <&$allos< t$ey $a+e learnt not %ro( t$e E)y&t"ans !ut %ro( t$e Pelas)"ans# t$e custo( $a+"n) !een rece"+ed !y t$e At$en"ans %"rst o% all t$e Hellenes and %ro( t$ese !y t$e rest2 %or /ust at t$e t"(e $en t$e At$en"ans ere !e)"nn"n) to ran' a(on) t$e Hellenes# t$e Pelas)"ans !eca(e d ellers "t$ t$e( "n t$e"r land# and %ro( t$"s +ery cause "t as t$at t$ey !e)an to !e counted as Hellenes. :$osoe+er $as !een "n"t"ated "n t$e (yster"es o% t$e Ca!e"ro"# $"c$ t$e Sa(ot$ra'"ans &er%or( $a+"n) rece"+ed t$e( %ro( t$e Pelas)"ans# t$at (an 'no s t$e (ean"n) o% (y s&eec$2 %or t$ese +ery Pelas)"ans $o !eca(e d ellers "t$ t$e At$en"ans used to d ell !e%ore t$at t"(e "n Sa(ot$ra'e# and %ro( t$e( t$e Sa(ot$ra'"ans rece"+ed t$e"r (yster"es. So t$en t$e At$en"ans ere t$e %"rst o% t$e Hellenes $o (ade t$e "(a)es o% Her(es "t$ t$e <&$allos<# $a+"n) learnt %ro( t$e Pelas)"ans2 and t$e Pelas)"ans told a sacred story a!out "t# $"c$ "s set %ort$ "n t$e (yster"es "n Sa(ot$ra'e. No t$e Pelas)"ans %or(erly ere ont to (a'e all t$e"r sacr"%"ces call"n) u&on t$e )ods "n &rayer# as , 'no %ro( t$at $"c$ , $eard at Dodona# !ut t$ey )a+e no t"tle or na(e to any o% t$e(# %or t$ey $ad not yet $eard any# !ut t$ey called t$e( )ods %ro( so(e suc$ not"on as t$"s# t$at t$ey $ad set "n order all t$"n)s and so $ad t$e d"str"!ut"on o% e+eryt$"n). A%ter ards $en (uc$ t"(e $ad ela&sed# t$ey learnt %ro( E)y&t t$e na(es o% t$e )ods# all e*ce&t D"onysos# %or $"s na(e t$ey learnt lon) a%ter ards2 and a%ter a t"(e t$e Pelas)"ans consulted t$e Oracle at Dodona a!out t$e na(es# %or t$"s &ro&$et"c seat "s accounted to !e t$e (ost anc"ent o% t$e Oracles $"c$ are a(on) t$e Hellenes#

and at t$at t"(e "t as t$e only one. So $en t$e Pelas)"ans as'ed t$e Oracle at Dodona $et$er t$ey s$ould ado&t t$e na(es $"c$ $ad co(e %ro( t$e Bar!ar"ans# t$e Oracle "n re&ly !ade t$e( (a'e use o% t$e na(es. Fro( t$"s t"(e t$ey sacr"%"ced us"n) t$e na(es o% t$e )ods# and %ro( t$e Pelas)"ans t$e Hellenes a%ter ards rece"+ed t$e(; !ut $en t$e se+eral )ods $ad t$e"r !"rt$# or $et$er t$ey all ere %ro( t$e !e)"nn"n)# and o% $at %or( t$ey are# t$ey d"d not learn t"ll yesterday# as "t ere# or t$e day !e%ore; %or Hes"od and Ho(er , su&&ose ere %our $undred years !e%ore (y t"(e and not (ore# and t$ese are t$ey $o (ade a t$eo)ony %or t$e Hellenes and )a+e t$e t"tles to t$e )ods and d"str"!uted to t$e( $onours and arts# and set %ort$ t$e"r %or(s; !ut t$e &oets $o are sa"d to $a+e !een !e%ore t$ese (en ere really "n (y o&"n"on a%ter t$e(. O% t$ese t$"n)s t$e %"rst are sa"d !y t$e &r"estesses o% Dodona# and t$e latter t$"n)s# t$ose na(ely $"c$ $a+e re)ard to Hes"od and Ho(er# !y (ysel%. As re)ards t$e Oracles !ot$ t$at a(on) t$e Hellenes and t$at "n 9"!ya# t$e E)y&t"ans tell t$e %ollo "n) tale. T$e &r"ests o% t$e T$e!an >eus told (e t$at t o o(en "n t$e ser+"ce o% t$e te(&le $ad !een carr"ed a ay %ro( T$e!es !y P$en"c"ans# and t$at t$ey $ad $eard t$at one o% t$e( $ad !een sold to )o "nto 9"!ya and t$e ot$er to t$e Hellenes2 and t$ese o(en# t$ey sa"d# ere t$ey $o %"rst %ounded t$e &ro&$et"c seats a(on) t$e nat"ons $"c$ $a+e !een na(ed; and $en , "n4u"red $ence t$ey 'ne so &er%ectly o% t$"s tale $"c$ t$ey told# t$ey sa"d "n re&ly t$at a )reat searc$ $ad !een (ade !y t$e &r"ests a%ter t$ese o(en# and t$at t$ey $ad not !een a!le to %"nd t$e(# !ut t$ey $ad $eard a%ter ards t$"s tale a!out t$e( $"c$ t$ey ere tell"n). T$"s , $eard %ro( t$e &r"ests at T$e!es# and $at %ollo s "s sa"d !y t$e &ro&$etesses o% Dodona. T$ey say t$at t o !lac' do+es %le %ro( T$e!es "n E)y&t# and ca(e one o% t$e( to 9"!ya and t$e ot$er to t$e"r land. And t$"s latter settled u&on an oa'5tree and s&o'e "t$ $u(an +o"ce# say"n) t$at "t as necessary t$at a &ro&$et"c seat o% >eus s$ould !e esta!l"s$ed "n t$at &lace2 and t$ey su&&osed t$at t$at as o% t$e )ods $"c$ as announced to t$e(# and (ade one accord"n)ly; and t$e do+e $"c$ ent a ay to t$e 9"!yans# t$ey say# !ade t$e 9"!yans (a'e an Oracle o% A((on2 and t$"s also "s o% >eus. T$e &r"estesses o% Dodona told (e t$ese t$"n)s# o% $o( t$e eldest as na(ed Pro(ene"a# t$e ne*t a%ter $er T"(arete# and t$e youn)est N"candra2 and t$e ot$er &eo&le o% Dodona $o ere en)a)ed a!out t$e te(&le )a+e accounts a)ree"n) "t$ t$e"rs. , $o e+er $a+e an o&"n"on a!out t$e (atter as %ollo s;55,% t$e P$en"c"ans d"d "n trut$ carry a ay t$e consecrated o(en and sold one o% t$e( "nto 9"!ya and t$e ot$er "nto Hellas# , su&&ose t$at "n t$e country no called Hellas# $"c$ as %or(erly called Pelas)"a# t$"s o(an as sold "nto t$e land o% t$e T$es&rot"ans2 and t$en !e"n) a sla+e t$ere s$e set u& a sanctuary o% >eus under a real oa'5tree2 as

"ndeed "t as natural t$at !e"n) an attendant o% t$e sanctuary o% >eus at T$e!es# s$e s$ould t$ere# "n t$e &lace to $"c$ s$e $ad co(e# $a+e a (e(ory o% $"(2 and a%ter t$"s# $en s$e )ot understand"n) o% t$e Hellen"c ton)ue# s$e esta!l"s$ed an Oracle# and s$e re&orted# , su&&ose# t$at $er s"ster $ad !een sold "n 9"!ya !y t$e sa(e P$en"c"ans !y $o( s$e $ersel% $ad !een sold. Moreo+er# , t$"n' t$at t$e o(en ere called do+es !y t$e &eo&le o% Dodona %or t$e reason t$at t$ey ere !ar!ar"ans and !ecause "t see(ed to t$e( t$at t$ey uttered +o"ce l"'e !"rds2 !ut a%ter a t"(e @t$ey sayA t$e do+e s&o'e "t$ $u(an +o"ce# t$at "s $en t$e o(an !e)an to s&ea' so t$at t$ey could understand2 !ut so lon) as s$e s&o'e a Bar!ar"an ton)ue s$e see(ed to t$e( to !e utter"n) +o"ce l"'e a !"rd; %or "% "t $ad !een really a do+e# $o could "t s&ea' "t$ $u(an +o"ce? And "n say"n) t$at t$e do+e as !lac'# t$ey "nd"cate t$at t$e o(an as E)y&t"an. T$e ays o% del"+er"n) oracles too at T$e!es "n E)y&t and at Dodona closely rese(!le eac$ ot$er# as "t $a&&ens# and also t$e (et$od o% d"+"nat"on !y +"ct"(s $as co(e %ro( E)y&t. Moreo+er# "t "s true also t$at t$e E)y&t"ans ere t$e %"rst o% (en $o (ade sole(n asse(!l"es and &rocess"ons and a&&roac$es to t$e te(&les# and %ro( t$e( t$e Hellenes $a+e learnt t$e(# and (y e+"dence %or t$"s "s t$at t$e E)y&t"an cele!rat"ons o% t$ese $a+e !een $eld %ro( a +ery anc"ent t"(e# $ereas t$e Hellen"c ere "ntroduced !ut lately. T$e E)y&t"ans $old t$e"r sole(n asse(!l"es not once "n t$e year !ut o%ten# es&ec"ally and "t$ t$e )reatest 3eal and de+ot"on at t$e c"ty o% Bu!ast"s %or Arte("s# and ne*t at Bus"r"s %or ,s"s2 %or "n t$"s last5 na(ed c"ty t$ere "s a +ery )reat te(&le o% ,s"s# and t$"s c"ty stands "n t$e ("ddle o% t$e Delta o% E)y&t2 no ,s"s "s "n t$e ton)ue o% t$e Hellenes De(eter; t$"rdly# t$ey $a+e a sole(n asse(!ly at t$e c"ty o% Sa"s %or At$ene# %ourt$ly at Hel"o&ol"s %or t$e Sun @Hel"osA# %"%t$ly at t$e c"ty o% Buto "n $onour o% 9eto# and s"*t$ly at t$e c"ty o% Pa&re("s %or Ares. No # $en t$ey are co("n) to t$e c"ty o% Bu!ast"s t$ey do as %ollo s;55t$ey sa"l (en and o(en to)et$er# and a )reat (ult"tude o% eac$ se* "n e+ery !oat2 and so(e o% t$e o(en $a+e rattles and rattle "t$ t$e(# $"le so(e o% t$e (en &lay t$e %lute dur"n) t$e $ole t"(e o% t$e +oya)e# and t$e rest# !ot$ o(en and (en# s"n) and cla& t$e"r $ands2 and $en as t$ey sa"l t$ey co(e o&&os"te to any c"ty on t$e ay t$ey !r"n) t$e !oat to land# and so(e o% t$e o(en cont"nue to do as , $a+e sa"d# ot$ers cry aloud and /eer at t$e o(en "n t$at c"ty# so(e dance# and so(e stand u& and &ull u& t$e"r )ar(ents. T$"s t$ey do !y e+ery c"ty alon) t$e r"+er5!an'2 and $en t$ey co(e to Bu!ast"s t$ey $old %est"+al cele!rat"n) )reat sacr"%"ces# and (ore "ne o% )ra&es "s consu(ed u&on t$at %est"+al t$an dur"n) t$e $ole o% t$e rest o% t$e year. To t$"s &lace @so say t$e nat"+esA t$ey co(e to)et$er year !y year e+en to t$e nu(!er o% se+enty (yr"ads o%

(en and o(en# !es"des c$"ldren. T$us "t "s done $ere2 and $o t$ey cele!rate t$e %est"+al "n $onour o% ,s"s at t$e c"ty o% Bus"r"s $as !een told !y (e !e%ore; %or# as , sa"d# t$ey !eat t$e(sel+es "n (ourn"n) a%ter t$e sacr"%"ce# all o% t$e( !ot$ (en and o(en# +ery (any (yr"ads o% &eo&le2 !ut %or $o( t$ey !eat t$e(sel+es "t "s not &er("tted to (e !y rel")"on to say; and so (any as t$ere are o% t$e Car"ans d ell"n) "n E)y&t do t$"s e+en (ore t$an t$e E)y&t"ans t$e(sel+es# "nas(uc$ as t$ey cut t$e"r %ore$eads also "t$ 'n"+es2 and !y t$"s "t "s (an"%ested t$at t$ey are stran)ers and not E)y&t"ans. At t$e t"(es $en t$ey )at$er to)et$er at t$e c"ty o% Sa"s %or t$e"r sacr"%"ces# on a certa"n n")$t t$ey all '"ndle la(&s (any "n nu(!er "n t$e o&en a"r round a!out t$e $ouses2 no t$e la(&s are saucers %ull o% salt and o"l ("*ed# and t$e "c' %loats !y "tsel% on t$e sur%ace# and t$"s !urns dur"n) t$e $ole n")$t2 and to t$e %est"+al "s )"+en t$e na(e <9yc$noca"a< @t$e l")$t"n) o% la(&sA. Moreo+er t$ose o% t$e E)y&t"ans $o $a+e not co(e to t$"s sole(n asse(!ly o!ser+e t$e n")$t o% t$e %est"+al and t$e(sel+es also l")$t la(&s all o% t$e(# and t$us not "n Sa"s alone are t$ey l")$ted# !ut o+er all E)y&t; and as to t$e reason $y l")$t and $onour are allotted to t$"s n")$t# a!out t$"s t$ere "s a sacred story told. To Hel"o&ol"s and Buto t$ey )o year !y year and do sacr"%"ce only; !ut at Pa&re("s t$ey do sacr"%"ce and ors$"& as else $ere# and !es"des t$at# $en t$e sun !e)"ns to )o do n $"le so(e %e o% t$e &r"ests are occu&"ed "t$ t$e "(a)e o% t$e )od# t$e )reater nu(!er o% t$e( stand "n t$e entrance o% t$e te(&le "t$ ooden clu!s# and ot$er &ersons to t$e nu(!er o% (ore t$an a t$ousand (en "t$ &ur&ose to &er%or( a +o # t$ese also $a+"n) all o% t$e( sta+es o% ood# stand "n a !ody o&&os"te to t$ose; and t$e "(a)e# $"c$ "s "n a s(all s$r"ne o% ood co+ered o+er "t$ )old# t$ey ta'e out on t$e day !e%ore to anot$er sacred !u"ld"n). T$e %e t$en $o $a+e !een le%t a!out t$e "(a)e# dra a a"n "t$ %our $eels# $"c$ !ears t$e s$r"ne and t$e "(a)e t$at "s "t$"n t$e s$r"ne# and t$e ot$er &r"ests stand"n) "n t$e )ate ay try to &re+ent "t %ro( enter"n)# and t$e (en $o are under a +o co(e to t$e ass"stance o% t$e )od and str"'e t$e(# $"le t$e ot$ers de%end t$e(sel+es. T$en t$ere co(es to !e a $ard %")$t "t$ sta+es# and t$ey !rea' one anot$er=s $eads# and , a( o% o&"n"on t$at (any e+en d"e o% t$e ounds t$ey rece"+e2 t$e E)y&t"ans $o e+er told (e t$at no one d"ed. T$"s sole(n asse(!ly t$e &eo&le o% t$e &lace say t$at t$ey esta!l"s$ed %or t$e %ollo "n) reason;55t$e (ot$er o% Ares# t$ey say# used to d ell "n t$"s te(&le# and Ares# $a+"n) !een !rou)$t u& a ay %ro( $er# $en $e )re u& ca(e t$"t$er des"r"n) to +"s"t $"s (ot$er# and t$e attendants o% $"s (ot$er=s te(&le# not $a+"n) seen $"( !e%ore# d"d not &er("t $"( to &ass "n# !ut 'e&t $"( a ay2 and $e !rou)$t (en to $el& $"( %ro( anot$er c"ty and $andled rou)$ly t$e attendants o% t$e te(&le# and entered to +"s"t $"s (ot$er. Hence# t$ey say# t$"s e*c$an)e o% !lo s

$as !eco(e t$e custo( "n $onour o% Ares u&on $"s %est"+al. T$e E)y&t"ans ere t$e %"rst $o (ade "t a &o"nt o% rel")"on not to l"e "t$ o(en "n te(&les# nor to enter "nto te(&les a%ter )o"n) a ay %ro( o(en "t$out %"rst !at$"n); %or al(ost all ot$er (en e*ce&t t$e E)y&t"ans and t$e Hellenes l"e "t$ o(en "n te(&les and enter "nto a te(&le a%ter )o"n) a ay %ro( o(en "t$out !at$"n)# s"nce t$ey $old t$at t$ere "s no d"%%erence "n t$"s res&ect !et een (en and !easts; %or t$ey say t$at t$ey see !easts and t$e +ar"ous '"nds o% !"rds cou&l"n) to)et$er !ot$ "n t$e te(&les and "n t$e sacred enclosures o% t$e )ods2 "% t$en t$"s ere not &leas"n) to t$e )od# t$e !easts ould not do so. T$us do t$ese de%end t$at $"c$ t$ey do# $"c$ !y (e "s d"sallo ed; !ut t$e E)y&t"ans are e*cess"+ely care%ul "n t$e"r o!ser+ances# !ot$ "n ot$er (atters $"c$ concern t$e sacred r"tes and also "n t$ose $"c$ %ollo ;55E)y&t# t$ou)$ "t !orders u&on 9"!ya# does not +ery (uc$ a!ound "n "ld an"(als# !ut suc$ as t$ey $a+e are one and all accounted !y t$e( sacred# so(e o% t$e( l"+"n) "t$ (en and ot$ers not. But "% , s$ould say %or $at reasons t$e sacred an"(als $a+e !een t$us ded"cated# , s$ould %all "nto d"scourse o% (atters &erta"n"n) to t$e )ods# o% $"c$ , (ost des"re not to s&ea'2 and $at , $a+e actually sa"d touc$"n) sl")$tly u&on t$e(# , sa"d !ecause , as constra"ned !y necess"ty. A!out t$ese an"(als t$ere "s a custo( o% t$"s '"nd;55 &ersons $a+e !een a&&o"nted o% t$e E)y&t"ans# !ot$ (en and o(en# to &ro+"de t$e %ood %or eac$ '"nd o% !east se&arately# and t$e"r o%%"ce )oes do n %ro( %at$er to son2 and t$ose $o d ell "n t$e +ar"ous c"t"es &er%or( +o s to t$e( t$us# t$at "s# $en t$ey (a'e a +o to t$e )od to $o( t$e an"(al !elon)s# t$ey s$a+e t$e $ead o% t$e"r c$"ldren e"t$er t$e $ole or t$e $al% or t$e t$"rd &art o% "t# and t$en set t$e $a"r "n t$e !alance a)a"nst s"l+er# and $ate+er "t e")$s# t$"s t$e (an )"+es to t$e &erson $o &ro+"des %or t$e an"(als# and s$e cuts u& %"s$ o% e4ual +alue and )"+es "t %or %ood to t$e an"(als. T$us %ood %or t$e"r su&&ort $as !een a&&o"nted and "% any one '"ll any o% t$ese an"(als# t$e &enalty# "% $e do "t "t$ $"s o n "ll# "s deat$# and "% a)a"nst $"s "ll# suc$ &enalty as t$e &r"ests (ay a&&o"nt; !ut $osoe+er s$all '"ll an "!"s or a $a '# $et$er "t !e "t$ $"s "ll or a)a"nst $"s "ll# (ust d"e. O% t$e an"(als t$at l"+e "t$ (en t$ere are )reat nu(!ers# and ould !e (any (ore !ut %or t$e acc"dents $"c$ !e%all t$e cats. For $en t$e %e(ales $a+e &roduced youn) t$ey are no lon)er "n t$e $a!"t o% )o"n) to t$e (ales# and t$ese see'"n) to !e un"ted "t$ t$e( are not a!le. To t$"s end t$en t$ey contr"+e as %ollo s#55t$ey e"t$er ta'e a ay !y %orce or re(o+e secretly t$e youn) %ro( t$e %e(ales and '"ll t$e( @!ut a%ter '"ll"n) t$ey do not eat t$e(A# and t$e %e(ales !e"n) de&r"+ed o% t$e"r youn) and des"r"n)

(ore# t$ere%ore co(e to t$e (ales# %or "t "s a creature t$at "s %ond o% "ts youn). Moreo+er $en a %"re occurs# t$e cats see( to !e d"+"nely &ossessed2 %or $"le t$e E)y&t"ans stand at "nter+als and loo' a%ter t$e cats# not ta'"n) any care to e*t"n)u"s$ t$e %"re# t$e cats sl"&&"n) t$rou)$ or lea&"n) o+er t$e (en# /u(& "nto t$e %"re2 and $en t$"s $a&&ens# )reat (ourn"n) co(es u&on t$e E)y&t"ans. And "n $ate+er $ouses a cat $as d"ed !y a natural deat$# all t$ose $o d ell "n t$"s $ouse s$a+e t$e"r eye!ro s only# !ut t$ose "n $"c$ a do) $as d"ed s$a+e t$e"r $ole !ody and also t$e"r $ead. T$e cats $en t$ey are dead are carr"ed a ay to sacred !u"ld"n)s "n t$e c"ty o% Bu!ast"s# $ere a%ter !e"n) e(!al(ed t$ey are !ur"ed2 !ut t$e do)s t$ey !ury eac$ &eo&le "n t$e"r o n c"ty "n sacred to(!s2 and t$e "c$neu(ons are !ur"ed /ust "n t$e sa(e ay as t$e do)s. T$e s$re ("ce $o e+er and t$e $a 's t$ey carry a ay to t$e c"ty o% Buto# and t$e "!"ses to Her(o&ol"s2 t$e !ears @ $"c$ are not co((only seenA and t$e ol+es# not (uc$ lar)er "n s"3e t$an %o*es# t$ey !ury on t$e s&ot $ere t$ey are %ound ly"n). O% t$e crocod"le t$e nature "s as %ollo s;55dur"n) t$e %our (ost "ntry (ont$s t$"s creature eats not$"n); s$e $as %our %eet and "s an an"(al !elon)"n) to t$e land and t$e ater !ot$2 %or s$e &roduces and $atc$es e))s on t$e land# and t$e (ost &art o% t$e day s$e re(a"ns u&on dry land# !ut t$e $ole o% t$e n")$t "n t$e r"+er# %or t$e ater "n trut$ "s ar(er t$an t$e unclouded o&en a"r and t$e de . O% all t$e (ortal creatures o% $"c$ e $a+e 'no led)e t$"s )ro s to t$e )reatest !ul' %ro( t$e s(allest !e)"nn"n)2 %or t$e e))s $"c$ s$e &roduces are not (uc$ lar)er t$an t$ose o% )eese and t$e ne ly5$atc$ed youn) one "s "n &ro&ort"on to t$e e))# !ut as $e )ro s $e !eco(es as (uc$ as se+enteen cu!"ts lon) and so(et"(es yet lar)er. He $as eyes l"'e t$ose o% a &") and teet$ lar)e and tus'y# "n &ro&ort"on to t$e s"3e o% $"s !ody2 !ut unl"'e all ot$er !easts $e )ro s no ton)ue# ne"t$er does $e (o+e $"s lo er /a # !ut !r"n)s t$e u&&er /a to ards t$e lo er# !e"n) "n t$"s too unl"'e all ot$er !easts. He $as (oreo+er stron) cla s and a scaly $"de u&on $"s !ac' $"c$ cannot !e &"erced2 and $e "s !l"nd "n t$e ater# !ut "n t$e a"r $e "s o% a +ery 'een s")$t. S"nce $e $as $"s l"+"n) "n t$e ater $e 'ee&s $"s (out$ all %ull "t$"n o% leec$es2 and $ereas all ot$er !"rds and !easts %ly %ro( $"(# t$e troc$"lus "s a creature $"c$ "s at &eace "t$ $"(# see"n) t$at %ro( $er $e rece"+es !ene%"t2 %or t$e crocod"le $a+"n) co(e out o% t$e ater to t$e land and t$en $a+"n) o&ened $"s (out$ @t$"s $e "s ont to do )enerally to ards t$e :est :"ndA# t$e troc$"lus u&on t$at enters "nto $"s (out$ and s allo s do n t$e leec$es# and $e !e"n) !ene%"ted "s &leased and does no $ar( to t$e troc$"lus. No %or so(e o% t$e E)y&t"ans t$e crocod"les are sacred an"(als# and %or ot$ers not so# !ut t$ey treat t$e( on t$e contrary as ene("es; t$ose $o e+er $o d ell a!out T$e!es

and a!out t$e la'e o% Mo"r"s $old t$e( to !e (ost sacred# and eac$ o% t$ese t o &eo&les 'ee&s one crocod"le selected %ro( t$e $ole nu(!er# $"c$ $as !een tra"ned to ta(eness# and t$ey &ut $an)"n) orna(ents o% (olten stone and o% )old "nto t$e ears o% t$ese and an'lets round t$e %ront %eet# and t$ey )"+e t$e( %ood a&&o"nted and +"ct"(s o% sacr"%"ces and treat t$e( as ell as &oss"!le $"le t$ey l"+e# and a%ter t$ey are dead t$ey !ury t$e( "n sacred to(!s# e(!al("n) t$e(; !ut t$ose $o d ell a!out t$e c"ty o% Ele&$ant"ne e+en eat t$e(# not $old"n) t$e( to !e sacred. T$ey are called not crocod"les !ut <c$a(&sa"<# and t$e ,on"ans )a+e t$e( t$e na(e o% crocod"le# co(&ar"n) t$e"r %or( to t$at o% t$e crocod"les @l"3ardsA $"c$ a&&ear "n t$e"r country "n t$e stone alls. T$ere are (any ays "n use o% catc$"n) t$e( and o% +ar"ous '"nds; , s$all descr"!e t$at $"c$ to (e see(s t$e (ost ort$y o% !e"n) told. A (an &uts t$e !ac' o% a &") u&on a $oo' as !a"t# and lets "t )o "nto t$e ("ddle o% t$e r"+er# $"le $e $"(sel% u&on t$e !an' o% t$e r"+er $as a youn) l"+e &")# $"c$ $e !eats2 and t$e crocod"le $ear"n) "ts cr"es (a'es %or t$e d"rect"on o% t$e sound# and $en $e %"nds t$e &")=s !ac' $e s allo s "t do n; t$en t$ey &ull# and $en $e "s dra n out to land# %"rst o% all t$e $unter %ort$ "t$ &lasters u& $"s eyes "t$ (ud# and $a+"n) done so $e +ery eas"ly )ets t$e (astery o% $"(# !ut "% $e does not do so $e $as (uc$ trou!le. T$e r"+er5$orse "s sacred "n t$e d"str"ct o% Pa&re("s# !ut %or t$e ot$er E)y&t"ans $e "s not sacred2 and t$"s "s t$e a&&earance $"c$ $e &resents; $e "s %our5%ooted# clo+en5$oo%ed l"'e an o*# %lat5nosed# "t$ a (ane l"'e a $orse and s$o "n) teet$ l"'e tus's# "t$ a ta"l and +o"ce l"'e a $orse and "n s"3e as lar)e as t$e lar)est o*2 and $"s $"de "s so e*ceed"n)ly t$"c' t$at $en "t $as !een dr"ed s$a%ts o% /a+el"ns are (ade o% "t. T$ere are (oreo+er otters "n t$e r"+er# $"c$ t$ey cons"der to !e sacred; and o% %"s$ also t$ey estee( t$at $"c$ "s called t$e <le&"dotos< to !e sacred# and also t$e eel2 and t$ese t$ey say are sacred to t$e N"le; and o% !"rds t$e %o*5)oose. T$ere "s also anot$er sacred !"rd called t$e &$oen"* $"c$ , d"d not (ysel% see e*ce&t "n &a"nt"n)# %or "n trut$ $e co(es to t$e( +ery rarely# at "nter+als# as t$e &eo&le o% Hel"o&ol"s say# o% %"+e $undred years2 and t$ese say t$at $e co(es re)ularly $en $"s %at$er d"es2 and "% $e !e l"'e t$e &a"nt"n) $e "s o% t$"s s"3e and nature# t$at "s to say# so(e o% $"s %eat$ers are o% )old colour and ot$ers red# and "n outl"ne and s"3e $e "s as nearly as &oss"!le l"'e an ea)le. T$"s !"rd t$ey say @!ut , cannot !el"e+e t$e storyA contr"+es as %ollo s;55 sett"n) %ort$ %ro( Ara!"a $e con+eys $"s %at$er# t$ey say# to t$e te(&le o% t$e Sun @Hel"osA &lastered u& "n (yrr$# and !ur"es $"( "n t$e te(&le o% t$e Sun2 and $e con+eys $"( t$us;55$e %or(s %"rst an e)) o% (yrr$ as lar)e as $e "s a!le to carry# and t$en $e (a'es tr"al o%

carry"n) "t# and $en $e $as (ade tr"al su%%"c"ently# t$en $e $ollo s out t$e e)) and &laces $"s %at$er "t$"n "t and &lasters o+er "t$ ot$er (yrr$ t$at &art o% t$e e)) $ere $e $ollo ed "t out to &ut $"s %at$er "n# and $en $"s %at$er "s la"d "n "t# "t &ro+es @t$ey sayA to !e o% t$e sa(e e")$t as "t as2 and a%ter $e $as &lastered "t u&# $e con+eys t$e $ole to E)y&t to t$e te(&le o% t$e Sun. T$us t$ey say t$at t$"s !"rd does. T$ere are also a!out T$e!es sacred ser&ents# not at all $ar(%ul to (en# $"c$ are s(all "n s"3e and $a+e t o $orns )ro "n) %ro( t$e to& o% t$e $ead; t$ese t$ey !ury $en t$ey d"e "n t$e te(&le o% >eus# %or to t$"s )od t$ey say t$at t$ey are sacred. T$ere "s a re)"on (oreo+er "n Ara!"a# s"tuated nearly o+er a)a"nst t$e c"ty o% Buto# to $"c$ &lace , ca(e to "n4u"re a!out t$e "n)ed ser&ents; and $en , ca(e t$"t$er , sa !ones o% ser&ents and s&"nes "n 4uant"ty so )reat t$at "t "s "(&oss"!le to (a'e re&ort o% t$e nu(!er# and t$ere ere $ea&s o% s&"nes# so(e $ea&s lar)e and ot$ers less lar)e and ot$ers s(aller st"ll t$an t$ese# and t$ese $ea&s ere (any "n nu(!er. T$"s re)"on "n $"c$ t$e s&"nes are scattered u&on t$e )round "s o% t$e nature o% an entrance %ro( a narro (ounta"n &ass to a )reat &la"n# $"c$ &la"n ad/o"ns t$e &la"n "n E)y&t2 and t$e story )oes t$at at t$e !e)"nn"n) o% s&r"n) "n)ed ser&ents %ro( Ara!"a %ly to ards E)y&t# and t$e !"rds called "!"ses (eet t$e( at t$e entrance to t$"s country and do not su%%er t$e ser&ents to )o !y !ut '"ll t$e(. On account o% t$"s deed "t "s @say t$e Ara!"ansA t$at t$e "!"s $as co(e to !e )reatly $onoured !y t$e E)y&t"ans# and t$e E)y&t"ans also a)ree t$at "t "s %or t$"s reason t$at t$ey $onour t$ese !"rds. T$e out ard %or( o% t$e "!"s "s t$"s;55 "t "s a dee& !lac' all o+er# and $as le)s l"'e t$ose o% a crane and a +ery cur+ed !ea'# and "n s"3e "t "s a!out e4ual to a ra"l; t$"s "s t$e a&&earance o% t$e !lac' '"nd $"c$ %")$t "t$ t$e ser&ents# !ut o% t$ose $"c$ (ost cro d round (en=s %eet @%or t$ere are t o se+eral '"nds o% "!"sesA t$e $ead "s !are and also t$e $ole o% t$e t$roat# and "t "s $"te "n %eat$er"n) e*ce&t t$e $ead and nec' and t$e e*tre("t"es o% t$e "n)s and t$e ru(& @"n all t$ese &arts o% $"c$ , $a+e s&o'en "t "s a dee& !lac'A# $"le "n le)s and "n t$e %or( o% t$e $ead "t rese(!les t$e ot$er. As %or t$e ser&ent "ts %or( "s l"'e t$at o% t$e atersna'e2 and "t $as "n)s not %eat$ered !ut (ost nearly rese(!l"n) t$e "n)s o% t$e !at. 9et so (uc$ su%%"ce as $as !een sa"d no concern"n) sacred an"(als.

O% t$e E)y&t"ans t$e(sel+es# t$ose $o d ell "n t$e &art o% E)y&t $"c$ "s so n %or cro&s &ract"se (e(ory (ore t$an any ot$er (en and are t$e (ost learned "n $"story !y %ar o% all t$ose o% $o( , $a+e $ad

e*&er"ence; and t$e"r (anner o% l"%e "s as %ollo s;55For t$ree success"+e days "n eac$ (ont$ t$ey &ur)e# $unt"n) a%ter $ealt$ "t$ e(et"cs and clysters# and t$ey t$"n' t$at all t$e d"seases $"c$ e*"st are &roduced "n (en !y t$e %ood on $"c$ t$ey l"+e; %or t$e E)y&t"ans are %ro( ot$er causes also t$e (ost $ealt$y o% all (en ne*t a%ter t$e 9"!yans @"n (y o&"n"on on account o% t$e seasons# !ecause t$e seasons do not c$an)e# %or !y t$e c$an)es o% t$"n)s )enerally# and es&ec"ally o% t$e seasons# d"seases are (ost a&t to !e &roduced "n (enA# and as to t$e"r d"et# "t "s as %ollo s;55t$ey eat !read# (a'"n) loa+es o% (a"3e# $"c$ t$ey call <'yllest"s<# and t$ey use $a!"tually a "ne (ade out o% !arley# %or +"nes t$ey $a+e not "n t$e"r land. O% t$e"r %"s$ so(e t$ey dry "n t$e sun and t$en eat t$e( "t$out coo'"n)# ot$ers t$ey eat cured "n !r"ne. O% !"rds t$ey eat 4ua"ls and duc's and s(all !"rds "t$out coo'"n)# a%ter %"rst cur"n) t$e(2 and e+eryt$"n) else $"c$ t$ey $a+e !elon)"n) to t$e class o% !"rds or %"s$es# e*ce&t suc$ as $a+e !een set a&art !y t$e( as sacred# t$ey eat roasted or !o"led. ,n t$e enterta"n(ents o% t$e r"c$ a(on) t$e(# $en t$ey $a+e %"n"s$ed eat"n)# a (an !ears round a ooden %")ure o% a dead !ody "n a co%%"n# (ade as l"'e t$e real"ty as (ay !e !ot$ !y &a"nt"n) and car+"n)# and (easur"n) a!out a cu!"t or t o cu!"ts eac$ ay2 and t$"s $e s$o s to eac$ o% t$ose $o are dr"n'"n) to)et$er# say"n); 6:$en t$ou loo'est u&on t$"s# dr"n' and !e (erry# %or t$ou s$alt !e suc$ as t$"s $en t$ou art dead.6 T$us t$ey do at t$e"r carousals. T$e custo(s $"c$ t$ey &ract"se are der"+ed %ro( t$e"r %at$ers and t$ey do not ac4u"re ot$ers "n add"t"on2 !ut !es"des ot$er custo(ary t$"n)s a(on) t$e( $"c$ are ort$y o% (ent"on# t$ey $a+e one son)# t$at o% 9"nos# t$e sa(e $o "s sun) o% !ot$ "n P$en"c"a and "n Cy&rus and else $ere# $a+"n) $o e+er a na(e d"%%erent accord"n) to t$e +ar"ous nat"ons. T$"s son) a)rees e*actly "t$ t$at $"c$ t$e Hellenes s"n) call"n) on t$e na(e o% 9"nos# so t$at !es"des (any ot$er t$"n)s a!out $"c$ , onder a(on) t$ose (atters $"c$ concern E)y&t# , onder es&ec"ally a!out t$"s# na(ely $ence t$ey )ot t$e son) o% 9"nos. ,t "s e+"dent $o e+er t$at t$ey $a+e sun) t$"s son) %ro( "((e(or"al t"(e# and "n t$e E)y&t"an ton)ue 9"nos "s called Maneros. T$e E)y&t"ans told (e t$at $e as t$e only son o% $"( $o %"rst !eca(e '"n) o% E)y&t# and t$at $e d"ed !e%ore $"s t"(e and as $onoured "t$ t$ese la(entat"ons !y t$e E)y&t"ans# and t$at t$"s as t$e"r %"rst and only son). ,n anot$er res&ect t$e E)y&t"ans are "n a)ree(ent "t$ so(e o% t$e Hellenes# na(ely "t$ t$e 9acede(on"ans# !ut not "t$ t$e rest# t$at "s to say# t$e youn)er o% t$e( $en t$ey (eet t$e elder )"+e ay and (o+e out o% t$e &at$# and $en t$e"r elders a&&roac$# t$ey r"se out o% t$e"r seat. ,n t$"s $"c$ %ollo s $o e+er t$ey are not "n a)ree(ent "t$ any o% t$e Hellenes#55"nstead o% address"n) one anot$er "n t$e roads t$ey do re+erence# lo er"n) t$e"r $and do n to t$e"r 'nee. T$ey ear tun"cs o% l"nen a!out t$e"r le)s "t$ %r"n)es# $"c$ t$ey call <calas"r"s<2

a!o+e t$ese t$ey $a+e )ar(ents o% $"te ool t$ro n o+er; oolen )ar(ents $o e+er are not ta'en "nto t$e te(&les# nor are t$ey !ur"ed "t$ t$e(# %or t$"s "s not &er("tted !y rel")"on. ,n t$ese &o"nts t$ey are "n a)ree(ent "t$ t$e o!ser+ances called Or&$"c and Bacc$"c @ $"c$ are really E)y&t"anA# and also "t$ t$ose o% t$e Pyt$a)oreans# %or one $o ta'es &art "n t$ese (yster"es "s also %or!"dden !y rel")"ous rule to !e !ur"ed "n oolen )ar(ents2 and a!out t$"s t$ere "s a sacred story told. Bes"des t$ese t$"n)s t$e E)y&t"ans $a+e %ound out also to $at )od eac$ (ont$ and eac$ day !elon)s# and $at %ortunes a (an "ll (eet "t$ $o "s !orn on any &art"cular day# and $o $e "ll d"e# and $at '"nd o% a (an $e "ll !e; and t$ese "n+ent"ons ere ta'en u& !y t$ose o% t$e Hellenes $o occu&"ed t$e(sel+es a!out &oesy. Portents too $a+e !een %ound out !y t$e( (ore t$an !y all ot$er (en !es"des2 %or $en a &ortent $as $a&&ened# t$ey o!ser+e and r"te do n t$e e+ent $"c$ co(es o% "t# and "% e+er a%ter ards anyt$"n) rese(!l"n) t$"s $a&&ens# t$ey !el"e+e t$at t$e e+ent $"c$ co(es o% "t "ll !e s"("lar. T$e"r d"+"nat"on "s ordered t$us;55t$e art "s ass")ned not to any (an !ut to certa"n o% t$e )ods# %or t$ere are "n t$e"r land Oracles o% Heracles# o% A&ollo# o% At$ene# o% Arte("s# or Ares# and o% >eus# and (oreo+er t$at $"c$ t$ey $old (ost "n $onour o% all# na(ely t$e Oracle o% 9eto $"c$ "s "n t$e c"ty o% Buto. T$e (anner o% d"+"nat"on $o e+er "s not esta!l"s$ed a(on) t$e( accord"n) to t$e sa(e %as$"on e+ery $ere# !ut "s d"%%erent "n d"%%erent &laces. T$e art o% (ed"c"ne a(on) t$e( "s d"str"!uted t$us;55eac$ &$ys"c"an "s a &$ys"c"an o% one d"sease and o% no (ore2 and t$e $ole country "s %ull o% &$ys"c"ans# %or so(e &ro%ess t$e(sel+es to !e &$ys"c"ans o% t$e eyes# ot$ers o% t$e $ead# ot$ers o% t$e teet$# ot$ers o% t$e a%%ect"ons o% t$e sto(ac$# and ot$ers o% t$e (ore o!scure a"l(ents. T$e"r %as$"ons o% (ourn"n) and o% !ur"al are t$ese;55:$ene+er any $ouse$old $as lost a (an $o "s o% any re)ard a(on)st t$e(# t$e $ole nu(!er o% o(en o% t$at $ouse %ort$ "t$ &laster o+er t$e"r $eads or e+en t$e"r %aces "t$ (ud. T$en lea+"n) t$e cor&se "t$"n t$e $ouse t$ey )o t$e(sel+es to and %ro a!out t$e c"ty and !eat t$e(sel+es# "t$ t$e"r )ar(ents !ound u& !y a )"rdle and t$e"r !reasts e*&osed# and "t$ t$e( )o all t$e o(en $o are related to t$e dead (an# and on t$e ot$er s"de t$e (en !eat t$e(sel+es# t$ey too $a+"n) t$e"r )ar(ents !ound u& !y a )"rdle2 and $en t$ey $a+e done t$"s# t$ey t$en con+ey t$e !ody to t$e e(!al("n). ,n t$"s occu&at"on certa"n &ersons e(&loy t$e(sel+es re)ularly and "n$er"t t$"s as a cra%t. T$ese# $ene+er a cor&se "s con+eyed to t$e(# s$o to t$ose $o !rou)$t "t ooden (odels o% cor&ses (ade l"'e real"ty !y &a"nt"n)# and t$e !est o% t$e ays o% e(!al("n) t$ey say "s t$at o% $"( $ose na(e , t$"n' "t "(&"ety to

(ent"on $en s&ea'"n) o% a (atter o% suc$ a '"nd2 t$e second $"c$ t$ey s$o "s less )ood t$an t$"s and also less e*&ens"+e2 and t$e t$"rd "s t$e least e*&ens"+e o% all. Ha+"n) told t$e( a!out t$"s# t$ey "n4u"re o% t$e( "n $"c$ ay t$ey des"re t$e cor&se o% t$e"r %r"end to !e &re&ared. T$en t$ey a%ter t$ey $a+e a)reed %or a certa"n &r"ce de&art out o% t$e ay# and t$e ot$ers !e"n) le%t !e$"nd "n t$e !u"ld"n)s e(!al( accord"n) to t$e !est o% t$ese ays t$us;55F"rst "t$ t$e croo'ed "ron tool t$ey dra out t$e !ra"n t$rou)$ t$e nostr"ls# e*tract"n) "t &artly t$us and &artly !y &our"n) "n dru)s2 and a%ter t$"s "t$ a s$ar& stone o% Et$"o&"a t$ey (a'e a cut alon) t$e s"de and ta'e out t$e $ole contents o% t$e !elly# and $en t$ey $a+e cleared out t$e ca+"ty and cleansed "t "t$ &al(5 "ne t$ey cleanse "t a)a"n "t$ s&"ces &ounded u&; t$en t$ey %"ll t$e !elly "t$ &ure (yrr$ &ounded u& and "t$ cass"a and ot$er s&"ces e*ce&t %ran'"ncense# and se "t to)et$er a)a"n. Ha+"n) so done t$ey 'ee& "t %or e(!al("n) co+ered u& "n natron %or se+enty days# !ut %or a lon)er t"(e t$an t$"s "t "s not &er("tted to e(!al( "t2 and $en t$e se+enty days are &ast# t$ey as$ t$e cor&se and roll "ts $ole !ody u& "n %"ne l"nen cut "nto !ands# s(ear"n) t$ese !eneat$ "t$ )u(# $"c$ t$e E)y&t"ans use )enerally "nstead o% )lue. T$en t$e '"ns%ol' rece"+e "t %ro( t$e( and $a+e a ooden %")ure (ade "n t$e s$a&e o% a (an# and $en t$ey $a+e $ad t$"s (ade t$ey enclose t$e cor&se# and $a+"n) s$ut "t u& "t$"n# t$ey store "t t$en "n a se&ulc$ral c$a(!er# sett"n) "t to stand u&r")$t a)a"nst t$e all. T$us t$ey deal "t$ t$e cor&ses $"c$ are &re&ared "n t$e (ost costly ay2 !ut %or t$ose $o des"re t$e ("ddle ay and "s$ to a+o"d )reat cost t$ey &re&are t$e cor&se as %ollo s;55 $a+"n) %"lled t$e"r syr"n)es "t$ t$e o"l $"c$ "s )ot %ro( cedar5 ood# "t$ t$"s t$ey %ort$ "t$ %"ll t$e !elly o% t$e cor&se# and t$"s t$ey do "t$out $a+"n) e"t$er cut "t o&en or ta'en out t$e !o els# !ut t$ey "n/ect t$e o"l !y t$e !reec$# and $a+"n) sto&&ed t$e drenc$ %ro( return"n) !ac' t$ey 'ee& "t t$en t$e a&&o"nted nu(!er o% days %or e(!al("n)# and on t$e last o% t$e days t$ey let t$e cedar o"l co(e out %ro( t$e !elly# $"c$ t$ey !e%ore &ut "n2 and "t $as suc$ &o er t$at "t !r"n)s out "t$ "t t$e !o els and "nter"or or)ans o% t$e !ody d"ssol+ed2 and t$e natron d"ssol+es t$e %les$# so t$at t$ere "s le%t o% t$e cor&se only t$e s'"n and t$e !ones. :$en t$ey $a+e done t$"s t$ey )"+e !ac' t$e cor&se at once "n t$at cond"t"on "t$out or'"n) u&on "t any (ore. T$e t$"rd '"nd o% e(!al("n)# !y $"c$ are &re&ared t$e !od"es o% t$ose $o $a+e less (eans# "s as %ollo s;55t$ey cleanse out t$e !elly "t$ a &ur)e and t$en 'ee& t$e !ody %or e(!al("n) dur"n) t$e se+enty days# and at once a%ter t$at t$ey )"+e "t !ac' to t$e !r"n)ers to carry a ay. T$e "+es o% (en o% ran' $en t$ey d"e are not )"+en at once to !e e(!al(ed# nor suc$ o(en as are +ery !eaut"%ul or o% )reater re)ard t$an ot$ers# !ut on t$e t$"rd or %ourt$ day a%ter t$e"r deat$ @and not !e%oreA t$ey are del"+ered to t$e e(!al(ers. T$ey

do so a!out t$"s (atter "n order t$at t$e e(!al(ers (ay not a!use t$e"r o(en# %or t$ey say t$at one o% t$e( as ta'en once do"n) so to t$e cor&se o% a o(an lately dead# and $"s %ello 5cra%ts(an )a+e "n%or(at"on. :$ene+er any one# e"t$er o% t$e E)y&t"ans t$e(sel+es or o% stran)ers# "s %ound to $a+e !een carr"ed o%% !y a crocod"le or !rou)$t to $"s deat$ !y t$e r"+er "tsel%# t$e &eo&le o% any c"ty !y $"c$ $e (ay $a+e !een cast u& on land (ust e(!al( $"( and lay $"( out "n t$e %a"rest ay t$ey can and !ury $"( "n a sacred !ur"al5&lace# nor (ay any o% $"s relat"ons or %r"ends !es"des touc$ $"(# !ut t$e &r"ests o% t$e N"le t$e(sel+es $andle t$e cor&se and !ury "t as t$at o% one $o as so(et$"n) (ore t$an (an. Hellen"c usa)es t$ey "ll !y no (eans %ollo # and to s&ea' )enerally t$ey %ollo t$ose o% no ot$er (en $ate+er. T$"s rule "s o!ser+ed !y (ost o% t$e E)y&t"ans2 !ut t$ere "s a lar)e c"ty na(ed C$e(("s "n t$e T$e!an d"str"ct near Nea&ol"s# and "n t$"s c"ty t$ere "s a te(&le o% Perseus t$e son o% Danae $"c$ "s o% a s4uare s$a&e# and round "t )ro date5&al(s; t$e )ate ay o% t$e te(&le "s !u"lt o% stone and o% +ery )reat s"3e# and at t$e entrance o% "t stand t o )reat statues o% stone. :"t$"n t$"s enclosure "s a te(&le5$ouse and "n "t stands an "(a)e o% Perseus. T$ese &eo&le o% C$e(("s say t$at Perseus "s ont o%ten to a&&ear "n t$e"r land and o%ten "t$"n t$e te(&le# and t$at a sandal $"c$ $as !een orn !y $"( "s %ound so(et"(es# !e"n) "n len)t$ t o cu!"ts# and $ene+er t$"s a&&ears all E)y&t &ros&ers. T$"s t$ey say# and t$ey do "n $onour o% Perseus a%ter Hellen"c %as$"on t$us#55 t$ey $old an at$let"c contest# $"c$ "ncludes t$e $ole l"st o% )a(es# and t$ey o%%er "n &r"3es cattle and cloa's and s'"ns; and $en , "n4u"red $y to t$e( alone Perseus as ont to a&&ear# and $ere%ore t$ey ere se&arated %ro( all t$e ot$er E)y&t"ans "n t$at t$ey $eld an at$let"c contest# t$ey sa"d t$at Perseus $ad !een !orn o% t$e"r c"ty# %or Danaos and 9yn'eus ere (en o% C$e(("s and $ad sa"led to Hellas# and %ro( t$e( t$ey traced a descent and ca(e do n to Perseus; and t$ey told (e t$at $e $ad co(e to E)y&t %or t$e reason $"c$ t$e Hellenes also say# na(ely to !r"n) %ro( 9"!ya t$e Gor)on=s $ead# and $ad t$en +"s"ted t$e( also and reco)n"sed all $"s '"ns%ol'# and t$ey sa"d t$at $e $ad ell learnt t$e na(e o% C$e(("s !e%ore $e ca(e to E)y&t# s"nce $e $ad $eard "t %ro( $"s (ot$er# and t$at t$ey cele!rated an at$let"c contest %or $"( !y $"s o n co((and. All t$ese are custo(s &ract"sed !y t$e E)y&t"ans $o d ell a!o+e t$e %ens; and t$ose $o are settled "n t$e %enland $a+e t$e sa(e custo(s %or t$e (ost &art as t$e ot$er E)y&t"ans# !ot$ "n ot$er (atters and also "n t$at t$ey l"+e eac$ "t$ one "%e only# as do t$e Hellenes2 !ut %or econo(y "n res&ect o% %ood t$ey $a+e "n+ented t$ese t$"n)s !es"des;55 $en t$e r"+er $as !eco(e %ull and t$e &la"ns $a+e !een

%looded# t$ere )ro "n t$e ater )reat nu(!ers o% l"l"es# $"c$ t$e E)y&t"ans call <lotos<2 t$ese t$ey cut "t$ a s"c'le and dry "n t$e sun# and t$en t$ey &ound t$at $"c$ )ro s "n t$e ("ddle o% t$e lotos and $"c$ "s l"'e t$e $ead o% a &o&&y# and t$ey (a'e o% "t loa+es !a'ed "t$ %"re. T$e root also o% t$"s lotos "s ed"!le and $as a rat$er s eet taste; "t "s round "n s$a&e and a!out t$e s"3e o% an a&&le. T$ere are ot$er l"l"es too# "n %lo er rese(!l"n) roses# $"c$ also )ro "n t$e r"+er# and %ro( t$e( t$e %ru"t "s &roduced "n a se&arate +essel s&r"n)"n) %ro( t$e root !y t$e s"de o% t$e &lant "tsel%# and +ery nearly rese(!les a as&=s co(!; "n t$"s t$ere )ro ed"!le seeds "n )reat nu(!ers o% t$e s"3e o% an ol"+e5stone# and t$ey are eaten e"t$er %res$ or dr"ed. Bes"des t$"s t$ey &ull u& %ro( t$e %ens t$e &a&yrus $"c$ )ro s e+ery year# and t$e u&&er &arts o% "t t$ey cut o%% and turn to ot$er uses# !ut t$at $"c$ "s le%t !elo %or a!out a cu!"t "n len)t$ t$ey eat or sell; and t$ose $o des"re to $a+e t$e &a&yrus at "ts +ery !est !a'e "t "n an o+en $eated red5$ot# and t$en eat "t. So(e too o% t$ese &eo&le l"+e on %"s$ alone# $"c$ t$ey dry "n t$e sun a%ter $a+"n) cau)$t t$e( and ta'en out t$e entra"ls# and t$en $en t$ey are dry# t$ey use t$e( %or %ood. F"s$ $"c$ s "( "n s$oals are not (uc$ &roduced "n t$e r"+ers# !ut are !red "n t$e la'es# and t$ey do as %ollo s;55:$en t$ere co(es u&on t$e( t$e des"re to !reed# t$ey s "( out "n s$oals to ards t$e sea2 and t$e (ales lead t$e ay s$edd"n) %ort$ t$e"r ("lt as t$ey )o# $"le t$e %e(ales# co("n) a%ter and s allo "n) "t u&# %ro( "t !eco(e "(&re)nated; and $en t$ey $a+e !eco(e %ull o% youn) "n t$e sea t$ey s "( u& !ac' a)a"n# eac$ s$oal to "ts o n $aunts. T$e sa(e $o e+er no lon)er lead t$e ay as !e%ore# !ut t$e lead co(es no to t$e %e(ales# and t$ey lead"n) t$e ay "n s$oals do /ust as t$e (ales d"d# t$at "s to say t$ey s$ed %ort$ t$e"r e))s !y a %e )ra"ns at a t"(e# and t$e (ales co("n) a%ter s allo t$e( u&. No t$ese )ra"ns are %"s$# and %ro( t$e )ra"ns $"c$ sur+"+e and are not s allo ed# t$e %"s$ )ro $"c$ a%ter ards are !red u&. No t$ose o% t$e %"s$ $"c$ are cau)$t as t$ey s "( out to ards t$e sea are %ound to !e ru!!ed on t$e le%t s"de o% t$e $ead# !ut t$ose $"c$ are cau)$t as t$ey s "( u& a)a"n are ru!!ed on t$e r")$t s"de. T$"s $a&&ens to t$e( !ecause as t$ey s "( do n to t$e sea t$ey 'ee& close to t$e land on t$e le%t s"de o% t$e r"+er# and a)a"n as t$ey s "( u& t$ey 'ee& to t$e sa(e s"de# a&&roac$"n) and touc$"n) t$e !an' as (uc$ as t$ey can# %or %ear dou!tless o% stray"n) %ro( t$e"r course !y reason o% t$e strea(. :$en t$e N"le !e)"ns to s ell# t$e $ollo &laces o% t$e land and t$e de&ress"ons !y t$e s"de o% t$e r"+er %"rst !e)"n to %"ll# as t$e ater soa's t$rou)$ %ro( t$e r"+er# and so soon as t$ey !eco(e %ull o% ater# at once t$ey are all %"lled "t$ l"ttle %"s$es2 and $ence t$ese are "n all l"'el"$ood &roduced# , t$"n' t$at , &erce"+e. ,n t$e

&reced"n) year# $en t$e N"le )oes do n# t$e %"s$ %"rst lay e))s "n t$e (ud and t$en ret"re "t$ t$e last o% t$e retreat"n) aters2 and $en t$e t"(e co(es round a)a"n# and t$e ater once (ore co(es o+er t$e land# %ro( t$ese e))s %ort$ "t$ are &roduced t$e %"s$es o% $"c$ , s&ea'. T$us "t "s as re)ards t$e %"s$. And %or ano"nt"n) t$ose o% t$e E)y&t"ans $o d ell "n t$e %ens use o"l %ro( t$e castor5!erry# $"c$ o"l t$e E)y&t"ans call <'"'"<# and t$us t$ey do;55t$ey so alon) t$e !an's o% t$e r"+ers and &ools t$ese &lants# $"c$ "n a "ld %or( )ro o% t$e(sel+es "n t$e land o% t$e Hellenes2 t$ese are so n "n E)y&t and &roduce !err"es "n )reat 4uant"ty !ut o% an e+"l s(ell2 and $en t$ey $a+e )at$ered t$ese so(e cut t$e( u& and &ress t$e o"l %ro( t$e(# ot$ers a)a"n roast t$e( %"rst and t$en !o"l t$e( do n and collect t$at $"c$ runs a ay %ro( t$e(. T$e o"l "s %at and not less su"ta!le %or !urn"n) t$an ol"+e5o"l# !ut "t )"+es %ort$ a d"sa)reea!le s(ell. A)a"nst t$e )nats# $"c$ are +ery a!undant# t$ey $a+e contr"+ed as %ollo s;55t$ose $o d ell a!o+e t$e %en5land are $el&ed !y t$e to ers# to $"c$ t$ey ascend $en t$ey )o to rest2 %or t$e )nats !y reason o% t$e "nds are not a!le to %ly u& $")$; !ut t$ose $o d ell "n t$e %en5 land $a+e contr"+ed anot$er ay "nstead o% t$e to ers# and t$"s "t "s; 55e+ery (an o% t$e( $as )ot a cast"n) net# "t$ $"c$ !y day $e catc$es %"s$# !ut "n t$e n")$t $e uses "t %or t$"s &ur&ose# t$at "s to say $e &uts t$e cast"n)5net round a!out t$e !ed "n $"c$ $e slee&s# and t$en cree&s "n under "t and )oes to slee&; and t$e )nats# "% $e slee&s rolled u& "n a )ar(ent or a l"nen s$eet# !"te t$rou)$ t$ese# !ut t$rou)$ t$e net t$ey do not e+en atte(&t to !"te. T$e"r !oats "t$ $"c$ t$ey carry car)oes are (ade o% t$e t$orny acac"a# o% $"c$ t$e %or( "s +ery l"'e t$at o% t$e 8yren"an lotos# and t$at $"c$ e*udes %ro( "t "s )u(. Fro( t$"s tree t$ey cut &"eces o% ood a!out t o cu!"ts "n len)t$ and arran)e t$e( l"'e !r"c's# %asten"n) t$e !oat to)et$er !y runn"n) a )reat nu(!er o% lon) !olts t$rou)$ t$e t o5cu!"ts &"eces2 and $en t$ey $a+e t$us %astened t$e !oat to)et$er# t$ey lay cross5&"eces o+er t$e to&# us"n) no r"!s %or t$e s"des2 and "t$"n t$ey caul' t$e sea(s "t$ &a&yrus. T$ey (a'e one steer"n)5oar %or "t# $"c$ "s &assed t$rou)$ t$e !otto( o% t$e !oat2 and t$ey $a+e a (ast o% acac"a and sa"ls o% &a&yrus. T$ese !oats cannot sa"l u& t$e r"+er unless t$ere !e a +ery %res$ "nd !lo "n)# !ut are to ed %ro( t$e s$ore; do n5strea( $o e+er t$ey tra+el as %ollo s;55t$ey $a+e a door5s$a&ed crate (ade o% ta(ar"s' ood and reed (ats se n to)et$er# and also a stone o% a!out t o talents e")$t !ored "t$ a $ole2 and o% t$ese t$e !oat(an lets t$e crate %loat on "n %ront o% t$e !oat# %astened "t$ a ro&e# and t$e stone dra)s !e$"nd !y anot$er ro&e. T$e crate t$en# as t$e %orce o% t$e strea( &resses u&on

"t# )oes on s "%tly and dra s on t$e <!ar"s< @%or so t$ese !oats are calledA# $"le t$e stone dra))"n) a%ter "t !e$"nd and sun' dee& "n t$e ater 'ee&s "ts course stra")$t. T$ese !oats t$ey $a+e "n )reat nu(!ers and so(e o% t$e( carry (any t$ousands o% talents= !urden. :$en t$e N"le co(es o+er t$e land# t$e c"t"es alone are seen r"s"n) a!o+e t$e ater# rese(!l"n) (ore nearly t$an anyt$"n) else t$e "slands "n t$e E)ean Sea2 %or t$e rest o% E)y&t !eco(es a sea and t$e c"t"es alone r"se a!o+e ater. Accord"n)ly# $ene+er t$"s $a&&ens# t$ey &ass !y ater not no !y t$e c$annels o% t$e r"+er !ut o+er t$e ("dst o% t$e &la"n; %or e*a(&le# as one sa"ls u& %ro( Naucrat"s to Me(&$"s t$e &assa)e "s t$en close !y t$e &yra("ds# $ereas t$e usual &assa)e "s not t$e sa(e e+en $ere# !ut )oes !y t$e &o"nt o% t$e Delta and t$e c"ty o% 8ercasoros2 $"le "% you sa"l o+er t$e &la"n to Naucrat"s %ro( t$e sea and %ro( Cano!os# you "ll )o !y Ant$ylla and t$e c"ty called a%ter Arc$ander. O% t$ese Ant$ylla "s a c"ty o% note and "s es&ec"ally ass")ned to t$e "%e o% $"( $o re")ns o+er E)y&t# to su&&ly $er "t$ sandals# @t$"s "s t$e case s"nce t$e t"(e $en E)y&t ca(e to !e under t$e Pers"ansA; t$e ot$er c"ty see(s to (e to $a+e "ts na(e %ro( Arc$ander t$e son5"n5la o% Danaos# $o as t$e son o% P$t$"os# t$e son o% Ac$a"os2 %or "t "s called t$e C"ty o% Arc$ander. T$ere (")$t "ndeed !y anot$er Arc$ander# !ut "n any case t$e na(e "s not E)y&t"an.

H"t$erto (y o n o!ser+at"on and /ud)(ent and "n4u"ry are t$e +ouc$ers %or t$at $"c$ , $a+e sa"d2 !ut %ro( t$"s &o"nt on ards , a( a!out to tell t$e $"story o% E)y&t accord"n) to t$at $"c$ , $a+e $eard# to $"c$ "ll !e added also so(et$"n) o% t$at $"c$ , $a+e (ysel% seen. O% M"n# $o %"rst !eca(e '"n) o% E)y&t# t$e &r"ests sa"d t$at on t$e one $and $e !an'ed o%% t$e s"te o% Me(&$"s %ro( t$e r"+er; %or t$e $ole strea( o% t$e r"+er used to %lo alon) !y t$e sandy (ounta"n5 ran)e on t$e s"de o% 9"!ya# !ut M"n %or(ed !y e(!an'(ents t$at !end o% t$e r"+er $"c$ l"es to t$e Sout$ a!out a $undred %urlon)s a!o+e Me(&$"s# and t$us $e dr"ed u& t$e old strea( and conducted t$e r"+er so t$at "t %lo ed "n t$e ("ddle !et een t$e (ounta"ns; and e+en no t$"s !end o% t$e N"le "s !y t$e Pers"ans 'e&t under +ery care%ul atc$# t$at "t (ay %lo "n t$e c$annel to $"c$ "t "s con%"ned# and t$e !an' "s re&a"red e+ery year2 %or "% t$e r"+er s$ould !rea' t$rou)$ and o+er%lo "n t$"s d"rect"on# Me(&$"s ould !e "n dan)er o% !e"n) o+er $el(ed !y %lood. :$en t$"s M"n# $o %"rst !eca(e '"n)# $ad (ade "nto dry land t$e &art $"c$ as da((ed o%%# on t$e one $and# , say# $e %ounded "n "t t$at c"ty $"c$ "s no called Me(&$"s2 %or Me(&$"s too "s "n t$e narro &art o% E)y&t2 and outs"de t$e c"ty $e du) round

"t on t$e Nort$ and :est a la'e co((un"cat"n) "t$ t$e r"+er# %or t$e s"de to ards t$e East "s !arred !y t$e N"le "tsel%. T$en secondly $e esta!l"s$ed "n t$e c"ty t$e te(&le o% He&$a"stos a )reat or' and (ost ort$y o% (ent"on. A%ter t$"s (an t$e &r"ests enu(erated to (e %ro( a &a&yrus roll t$e na(es o% ot$er '"n)s# t$ree $undred and t$"rty "n nu(!er2 and "n all t$ese )enerat"ons o% (en e")$teen ere Et$"o&"ans# one as a o(an# a nat"+e E)y&t"an# and t$e rest ere (en and o% E)y&t"an race; and t$e na(e o% t$e o(an $o re")ned as t$e sa(e as t$at o% t$e Ba!ylon"an 4ueen# na(ely N"tocr"s. O% $er t$ey sa"d t$at des"r"n) to ta'e +en)eance %or $er !rot$er# $o( t$e E)y&t"ans $ad sla"n $en $e as t$e"r '"n) and t$en# a%ter $a+"n) sla"n $"(# $ad )"+en $"s '"n)do( to $er#55des"r"n)# , say# to ta'e +en)eance %or $"(# s$e destroyed !y cra%t (any o% t$e E)y&t"ans. For s$e caused to !e constructed a +ery lar)e c$a(!er under )round# and (a'"n) as t$ou)$ s$e ould $andsel "t !ut "n $er ("nd de+"s"n) ot$er t$"n)s# s$e "n+"ted t$ose o% t$e E)y&t"ans $o( s$e 'ne to $a+e $ad (ost &art "n t$e (urder# and )a+e a )reat !an4uet. T$en $"le t$ey ere %east"n)# s$e let "n t$e r"+er u&on t$e( !y a secret condu"t o% lar)e s"3e. O% $er t$ey told no (ore t$an t$"s# e*ce&t t$at# $en t$"s $ad !een acco(&l"s$ed# s$e t$re $ersel% "nto a roo( %ull o% e(!ers# "n order t$at s$e (")$t esca&e +en)eance. As %or t$e ot$er '"n)s# t$ey could tell (e o% no )reat or's $"c$ $ad !een &roduced !y t$e(# and t$ey sa"d t$at t$ey $ad no reno n e*ce&t only t$e last o% t$e(# Mo"r"s; $e @t$ey sa"dA &roduced as a (e(or"al o% $"(sel% t$e )ate ay o% t$e te(&le o% He&$a"stos $"c$ "s turned to ards t$e Nort$ :"nd# and du) a la'e# a!out $"c$ , s$all set %ort$ a%ter ards $o (any %urlon)s o% c"rcu"t "t $as# and "n "t !u"lt &yra("ds o% t$e s"3e $"c$ , s$all (ent"on at t$e sa(e t"(e $en , s&ea' o% t$e la'e "tsel%. He# t$ey sa"d# &roduced t$ese or's# !ut o% t$e rest none &roduced any. T$ere%ore &ass"n) t$ese !y , "ll (a'e (ent"on o% t$e '"n) $o ca(e a%ter t$ese# $ose na(e "s Sesostr"s. He @t$e &r"ests sa"dA %"rst o% all set out "t$ s$"&s o% ar %ro( t$e Ara!"an )ul% and su!dued t$ose $o d elt !y t$e s$ores o% t$e Eryt$ra"an Sea# unt"l as $e sa"led $e ca(e to a sea $"c$ could no %urt$er !e na+")ated !y reason o% s$oals; t$en secondly# a%ter $e $ad returned to E)y&t# accord"n) to t$e re&ort o% t$e &r"ests $e too' a )reat ar(y and (arc$ed o+er t$e cont"nent# su!du"n) e+ery nat"on $"c$ stood "n $"s ay; and t$ose o% t$e( $o( $e %ound +al"ant and %")$t"n) des&erately %or t$e"r %reedo(# "n t$e"r lands $e set u& &"llars $"c$ told !y "nscr"&t"ons $"s o n na(e and t$e na(e o% $"s country# and $o $e $ad su!dued t$e( !y $"s &o er2 !ut as to t$ose o% $ose c"t"es $e o!ta"ned &ossess"on "t$out %")$t"n) or "t$ ease# on t$e"r &"llars $e "nscr"!ed ords a%ter t$e sa(e tenor as $e d"d %or t$e nat"ons $"c$ $ad s$o n t$e(sel+es coura)eous# and "n add"t"on $e dre u&on t$e( t$e $"dden &arts o% a o(an# des"r"n) to

s")n"%y !y t$"s t$at t$e &eo&le ere co ards and e%%e("nate. T$us do"n) $e tra+ersed t$e cont"nent# unt"l at last $e &assed o+er to Euro&e %ro( As"a and su!dued t$e Scyt$"ans and also t$e T$rac"ans. T$ese# , a( o% o&"n"on# ere t$e %urt$est &eo&le to $"c$ t$e E)y&t"an ar(y ca(e# %or "n t$e"r country t$e &"llars are %ound to $a+e !een set u&# !ut "n t$e land !eyond t$"s t$ey are no lon)er %ound. Fro( t$"s &o"nt $e turned and !e)an to )o !ac'2 and $en $e ca(e to t$e r"+er P$as"s# $at $a&&ened t$en , cannot say %or certa"n# $et$er t$e '"n) Sesostr"s $"(sel% d"+"ded o%% a certa"n &ort"on o% $"s ar(y and le%t t$e (en t$ere as settlers "n t$e land# or $et$er so(e o% $"s sold"ers ere ear"ed !y $"s d"stant (arc$es and re(a"ned !y t$e r"+er P$as"s. For t$e &eo&le o% Colc$"s are e+"dently E)y&t"an# and t$"s , &erce"+ed %or (ysel% !e%ore , $eard "t %ro( ot$ers. So $en , $ad co(e to cons"der t$e (atter , as'ed t$e( !ot$2 and t$e Colc$"ans $ad re(e(!rance o% t$e E)y&t"ans (ore t$an t$e E)y&t"ans o% t$e Colc$"ans2 !ut t$e E)y&t"ans sa"d t$ey !el"e+ed t$at t$e Colc$"ans ere a &ort"on o% t$e ar(y o% Sesostr"s. T$at t$"s as so , con/ectured (ysel% not only !ecause t$ey are dar'5s'"nned and $a+e curly $a"r @t$"s o% "tsel% a(ounts to not$"n)# %or t$ere are ot$er races $"c$ are soA# !ut also st"ll (ore !ecause t$e Colc$"ans# E)y&t"ans# and Et$"o&"ans alone o% all t$e races o% (en $a+e &ract"sed c"rcu(c"s"on %ro( t$e %"rst. T$e P$en"c"ans and t$e Syr"ans $o d ell "n Palest"ne con%ess t$e(sel+es t$at t$ey $a+e learnt "t %ro( t$e E)y&t"ans# and t$e Syr"ans a!out t$e r"+er T$er(odon and t$e r"+er Part$en"os# and t$e Macron"ans# $o are t$e"r ne")$!ors# say t$at t$ey $a+e learnt "t lately %ro( t$e Colc$"ans. T$ese are t$e only races o% (en $o &ract"se c"rcu(c"s"on# and t$ese e+"dently &ract"se "t "n t$e sa(e (anner as t$e E)y&t"ans. O% t$e E)y&t"ans t$e(sel+es $o e+er and t$e Et$"o&"ans# , a( not a!le to say $"c$ learnt %ro( t$e ot$er# %or undou!tedly "t "s a (ost anc"ent custo(2 !ut t$at t$e ot$er nat"ons learnt "t !y "ntercourse "t$ t$e E)y&t"ans# t$"s a(on) ot$ers "s to (e a stron) &roo%# na(ely t$at t$ose o% t$e P$en"c"ans $o $a+e "ntercourse "t$ Hellas cease to %ollo t$e e*a(&le o% t$e E)y&t"ans "n t$"s (atter# and do not c"rcu(c"se t$e"r c$"ldren. No let (e tell anot$er t$"n) a!out t$e Colc$"ans to s$o $o t$ey rese(!le t$e E)y&t"ans;55t$ey alone or' %la* "n t$e sa(e %as$"on as t$e E)y&t"ans# and t$e t o nat"ons are l"'e one anot$er "n t$e"r $ole (anner o% l"+"n) and also "n t$e"r lan)ua)e; no t$e l"nen o% Colc$"s "s called !y t$e Hellenes Sardon"c# $ereas t$at %ro( E)y&t "s called E)y&t"an. T$e &"llars $"c$ Sesostr"s '"n) o% E)y&t set u& "n t$e +ar"ous countr"es are %or t$e (ost &art no lon)er to !e seen e*tant2 !ut "n Syr"a Palest"ne , (ysel% sa t$e( e*"st"n) "t$ t$e "nscr"&t"on u&on t$e( $"c$ , $a+e (ent"oned and t$e e(!le(. Moreo+er "n ,on"a t$ere are t o %")ures o% t$"s (an car+ed u&on roc's# one on t$e road !y $"c$ one )oes %ro( t$e land o% E&$esos to P$oca"a# and t$e ot$er on t$e road %ro( Sard"s to

S(yrna. ,n eac$ &lace t$ere "s a %")ure o% a (an cut "n t$e roc'# o% %our cu!"ts and a s&an "n $e")$t# $old"n) "n $"s r")$t $and a s&ear and "n $"s le%t a !o and arro s# and t$e ot$er e4u"&(ent $"c$ $e $as "s s"("lar to t$"s# %or "t "s !ot$ E)y&t"an and Et$"o&"an; and %ro( t$e one s$oulder to t$e ot$er across t$e !reast runs an "nscr"&t"on car+ed "n sacred E)y&t"an c$aracters# say"n) t$us# 6T$"s land "t$ (y s$oulders , on %or (ysel%.6 But $o $e "s and %ro( $ence# $e does not declare "n t$ese &laces# t$ou)$ "n ot$er &laces $e $ad declared t$"s. So(e o% t$ose $o $a+e seen t$ese car+"n)s con/ecture t$at t$e %")ure "s t$at o% Me(non# !ut $ere"n t$ey are +ery %ar %ro( t$e trut$. As t$"s E)y&t"an Sesostr"s as return"n) and !r"n)"n) !ac' (any (en o% t$e nat"ons $ose lands $e $ad su!dued# $en $e ca(e @sa"d t$e &r"estsA to Da&$na" "n t$e d"str"ct o% Pelus"on on $"s /ourney $o(e# $"s !rot$er to $o( Sesostr"s $ad entrusted t$e c$ar)e o% E)y&t "n+"ted $"( and "t$ $"( $"s sons to a %east2 and t$en $e &"led t$e $ouse round "t$ !rus$ ood and set "t on %"re; and Sesostr"s $en $e d"sco+ered t$"s %ort$ "t$ too' counsel "t$ $"s "%e# %or $e as !r"n)"n) "t$ $"( @t$ey sa"dA $"s "%e also2 and s$e counselled $"( to lay out u&on t$e &yre t o o% $"s sons# $"c$ ere s"* "n nu(!er# and so to (a'e a !r"d)e o+er t$e !urn"n) (ass# and t$at t$ey &ass"n) o+er t$e"r !od"es s$ould t$us esca&e. T$"s# t$ey sa"d# Sesostr"s d"d# and t o o% $"s sons ere !urnt to deat$ "n t$"s (anner# !ut t$e rest )ot a ay sa%e "t$ t$e"r %at$er. T$en Sesostr"s# $a+"n) returned to E)y&t and $a+"n) ta'en +en)eance on $"s !rot$er e(&loyed t$e (ult"tude $"c$ $e $ad !rou)$t "n o% t$ose $o $ose lands $e $ad su!dued# as %ollo s; 55t$ese ere t$ey dre t$e stones $"c$ "n t$e re")n o% t$"s '"n) ere !rou)$t to t$e te(&le o% He&$a"stos# !e"n) o% +ery )ood s"3e2 and also t$ese ere co(&elled to d") all t$e c$annels $"c$ no are "n E)y&t2 and t$us @$a+"n) no suc$ &ur&oseA t$ey caused E)y&t# $"c$ !e%ore as all %"t %or r"d"n) and dr"+"n)# to !e no lon)er %"t %or t$"s %ro( t$ence%ort$; %or %ro( t$at t"(e %or ard E)y&t# t$ou)$ "t "s &la"n land# $as !eco(e all un%"t %or r"d"n) and dr"+"n)# and t$e cause $as !een t$ese c$annels# $"c$ are (any and run "n all d"rect"ons. But t$e reason $y t$e '"n) cut u& t$e land as t$"s# na(ely !ecause t$ose o% t$e E)y&t"ans $o $ad t$e"r c"t"es not on t$e r"+er !ut "n t$e ("ddle o% t$e country# !e"n) "n ant o% ater $en t$e r"+er ent do n %ro( t$e(# %ound t$e"r dr"n' !rac'"s$ !ecause t$ey $ad "t %ro( ells. For t$"s reason E)y&t as cut u&; and t$ey sa"d t$at t$"s '"n) d"str"!uted t$e land to all t$e E)y&t"ans# )"+"n) an e4ual s4uare &ort"on to eac$ (an# and %ro( t$"s $e (ade $"s re+enue# $a+"n) a&&o"nted t$e( to &ay a certa"n rent e+ery year; and "% t$e r"+er s$ould ta'e a ay anyt$"n) %ro( any (an=s &ort"on# $e ould co(e to t$e '"n) and declare t$at $"c$ $ad $a&&ened# and t$e '"n) used to send (en to e*a("ne and to %"nd out !y (easure(ent $o (uc$ less t$e &"ece o% land $ad !eco(e# "n

order t$at %or t$e %uture t$e (an (")$t &ay less# "n &ro&ort"on to t$e rent a&&o"nted; and , t$"n' t$at t$us t$e art o% )eo(etry as %ound out and a%ter ards ca(e "nto Hellas also. For as touc$"n) t$e sun5d"al and t$e )no(on and t$e t el+e d"+"s"ons o% t$e day# t$ey ere learnt !y t$e Hellenes %ro( t$e Ba!ylon"ans. He (oreo+er alone o% all t$e E)y&t"an '"n)s $ad rule o+er Et$"o&"a2 and $e le%t as (e(or"als o% $"(sel% "n %ront o% t$e te(&le o% He&$a"stos t o stone statues o% t$"rty cu!"ts eac$# re&resent"n) $"(sel% and $"s "%e# and ot$ers o% t enty cu!"ts eac$ re&resent"n) $"s %our sons; and lon) a%ter ards t$e &r"est o% He&$a"stos re%used to &er("t Dare"os t$e Pers"an to set u& a statue o% $"(sel% "n %ront o% t$e(# say"n) t$at deeds $ad not !een done !y $"( e4ual to t$ose $"c$ ere done !y Sesostr"s t$e E)y&t"an2 %or Sesostr"s $ad su!dued ot$er nat"ons !es"des# not %e er t$an $e# and also t$e Scyt$"ans2 !ut Dare"os $ad not !een a!le to con4uer t$e Scyt$"ans; $ere%ore "t as not /ust t$at $e s$ould set u& a statue "n %ront o% t$ose $"c$ Sesostr"s $ad ded"cated# "% $e d"d not sur&ass $"( "n $"s deeds. :$"c$ s&eec$# t$ey say# Dare"os too' "n )ood &art. No a%ter Sesostr"s $ad !rou)$t $"s l"%e to an end# $"s son P$eros# t$ey told (e# rece"+ed "n success"on t$e '"n)do(# and $e (ade no arl"'e e*&ed"t"on# and (oreo+er "t c$anced to $"( to !eco(e !l"nd !y reason o% t$e %ollo "n) acc"dent;55 $en t$e r"+er $ad co(e do n "n %lood r"s"n) to a $e")$t o% e")$teen cu!"ts# $")$er t$an e+er !e%ore t$at t"(e# and $ad )one o+er t$e %"elds# a "nd %ell u&on "t and t$e r"+er !eca(e a)"tated !y a+es; and t$"s '"n) @t$ey sayA (o+ed !y &resu(&tuous %olly too' a s&ear and cast "t "nto t$e ("dst o% t$e edd"es o% t$e strea(2 and "((ed"ately u&on t$"s $e $ad a d"sease o% t$e eyes and as !y "t (ade !l"nd. For ten years t$en $e as !l"nd# and "n t$e ele+ent$ year t$ere ca(e to $"( an oracle %ro( t$e c"ty o% Buto say"n) t$at t$e t"(e o% $"s &un"s$(ent $ad e*&"red# and t$at $e s$ould see a)a"n "% $e as$ed $"s eyes "t$ t$e ater o% a o(an $o $ad acco(&an"ed "t$ $er o n $us!and only and $ad not $ad 'no led)e o% ot$er (en; and %"rst $e (ade tr"al o% $"s o n "%e# and t$en# as $e cont"nued !l"nd# $e ent on to try all t$e o(en "n turn2 and $en $e $ad at least re)a"ned $"s s")$t $e )at$ered to)et$er all t$e o(en o% $o( $e $ad (ade tr"al# e*ce&t"n) $er !y $ose (eans $e $ad re)a"ned $"s s")$t# to one c"ty $"c$ no "s na(ed Eryt$ra!olos# and $a+"n) )at$ered t$e( to t$"s $e consu(ed t$e( all !y %"re# as ell as t$e c"ty "tsel%2 !ut as %or $er !y $ose (eans $e $ad re)a"ned $"s s")$t# $e $ad $er $"(sel% to "%e. T$en a%ter $e $ad esca&ed t$e (alady o% $"s eyes $e ded"cated o%%er"n)s at eac$ one o% t$e te(&les $"c$ ere o% reno n# and es&ec"ally @to (ent"on only t$at $"c$ "s (ost ort$y o% (ent"onA $e ded"cated at t$e te(&le o% t$e Sun or's $"c$ are ort$ see"n)# na(ely t o o!el"s's o% stone# eac$ o% a s"n)le !loc'# (easur"n) "n len)t$ a $undred cu!"ts eac$ one and "n !readt$ e")$t

cu!"ts. A%ter $"(# t$ey sa"d# t$ere succeeded to t$e t$rone a (an o% Me(&$"s# $ose na(e "n t$e ton)ue o% t$e Hellenes as Proteus2 %or $o( t$ere "s no a sacred enclosure at Me(&$"s# +ery %a"r and ell ordered# ly"n) on t$at s"de o% t$e te(&le o% He&$a"stos $"c$ %aces t$e Nort$ :"nd. Round a!out t$"s enclosure d ell P$en"c"ans o% Tyre# and t$"s $ole re)"on "s called t$e Ca(& o% t$e Tyr"ans. :"t$"n t$e enclosure o% Proteus t$ere "s a te(&le called t$e te(&le o% t$e 6%ore")n A&$rod"te#6 $"c$ te(&le , con/ecture to !e one o% Helen t$e dau)$ter o% Tyndareus# not only !ecause , $a+e $eard t$e tale $o Helen d elt "t$ Proteus# !ut also es&ec"ally !ecause "t "s called !y t$e na(e o% t$e 6%ore")n A&$rod"te#6 %or t$e ot$er te(&les o% A&$rod"te $"c$ t$ere are $a+e none o% t$e( t$e add"t"on o% t$e ord 6%ore")n6 to t$e na(e. And t$e &r"ests told (e# $en , "n4u"red# t$at t$e t$"n)s concern"n) Helen $a&&ened t$us;55Ale*ander $a+"n) carr"ed o%% Helen as sa"l"n) a ay %ro( S&arta to $"s o n land# and $en $e $ad co(e to t$e E)ean Sea contrary "nds dro+e $"( %ro( $"s course to t$e Sea o% E)y&t2 and a%ter t$at# s"nce t$e !lasts d"d not cease to !lo # $e ca(e to E)y&t "tsel%# and "n E)y&t to t$at $"c$ "s no na(ed t$e Cano!"c (out$ o% t$e N"le and to Tar"c$e"a". No t$ere as u&on t$e s$ore# as st"ll t$ere "s no # a te(&le o% Heracles# "n $"c$ "% any (an=s sla+e ta'e re%u)e and $a+e t$e sacred (ar's set u&on $"(# )"+"n) $"(sel% o+er to t$e )od# "t "s not la %ul to lay $ands u&on $"(2 !ut t$"s custo( $as cont"nued st"ll unc$an)ed %ro( t$e !e)"nn"n) do n to (y o n t"(e. Accord"n)ly t$e attendants o% Ale*ander# $a+"n) $eard o% t$e custo( $"c$ e*"sted a!out t$e te(&le# ran a ay %ro( $"(# and s"tt"n) do n as su&&l"ants o% t$e )od# accused Ale*ander# !ecause t$ey des"red to do $"( $urt# tell"n) t$e $ole tale $o t$"n)s ere a!out Helen and a!out t$e ron) done to Menalaos2 and t$"s accusat"on t$ey (ade not only to t$e &r"ests !ut also to t$e arden o% t$"s r"+er5(out$# $ose na(e as T$on"s. T$on"s t$en $a+"n) $eard t$e"r tale sent %ort$ "t$ a (essa)e to Proteus at Me(&$"s# $"c$ sa"d as %ollo s; 6T$ere $at$ co(e a stran)er# a Teucr"an !y race# $o $at$ done "n Hellas an un$oly deed2 %or $e $at$ dece"+ed t$e "%e o% $"s o n $ost# and "s co(e $"t$er !r"n)"n) "t$ $"( t$"s o(an $ersel% and +ery (uc$ ealt$# $a+"n) !een carr"ed out o% $"s ay !y "nds to t$y land. S$all e t$en allo $"( to sa"l out un$ar(ed# or s$all e %"rst ta'e a ay %ro( $"( t$at $"c$ $e !rou)$t "t$ $"(?6 ,n re&ly to t$"s Proteus sent !ac' a (essen)er $o sa"d t$us; 6Se"3e t$"s (an# $osoe+er $e (ay !e# $o $as done "(&"ety to $"s o n $ost# and !r"n) $"( a ay "nto (y &resence t$at , (ay 'no $at $e "ll %"nd to say.6 Hear"n) t$"s# T$on"s se"3ed Ale*ander and deta"ned $"s s$"&s# and a%ter t$at $e !rou)$t t$e (an

$"(sel% u& to Me(&$"s and "t$ $"( Helen and t$e ealt$ $e $ad# and also "n add"t"on to t$e( t$e su&&l"ants. So $en all $ad !een con+eyed u& t$"t$er# Proteus !e)an to as' Ale*ander $o $e as and %ro( $ence $e as +oya)"n)2 and $e !ot$ recounted to $"( $"s descent and told $"( t$e na(e o% $"s nat"+e land# and (oreo+er related o% $"s +oya)e# %ro( $ence $e as sa"l"n). A%ter t$"s Proteus as'ed $"( $ence $e $ad ta'en Helen2 and $en Ale*ander ent astray n $"s account and d"d not s&ea' t$e trut$# t$ose $o $ad !eco(e su&&l"ants con+"cted $"( o% %alse$ood# relat"n) "n %ull t$e $ole tale o% t$e ron) done. At len)t$ Proteus declared to t$e( t$"s sentence# say"n)# 6:ere "t not t$at , count "t a (atter o% )reat (o(ent not to slay any o% t$ose stran)ers $o !e"n) dr"+en %ro( t$e"r course !y "nds $a+e co(e to (y land $"t$erto# , s$ould $a+e ta'en +en)eance on t$ee on !e$al% o% t$e (an o% Hellas# see"n) t$at t$ou# (ost !ase o% (en# $a+"n) rece"+ed %ro( $"( $os&"tal"ty# d"dst or' a)a"nst $"( a (ost "(&"ous deed. For t$ou d"dst )o "n to t$e "%e o% t$"ne o n $ost2 and e+en t$"s as not enou)$ %or t$ee# !ut t$ou d"dst st"r $er u& "t$ des"re and $ast )one a ay "t$ $er l"'e a t$"e%. Moreo+er not e+en t$"s !y "tsel% as enou)$ %or t$ee# !ut t$ou art co(e $"t$er "t$ &lunder ta'en %ro( t$e $ouse o% t$y $ost. No t$ere%ore de&art# see"n) t$at , $a+e counted "t o% )reat (o(ent not to !e a slayer o% stran)ers. T$"s o(an "ndeed and t$e ealt$ $"c$ t$ou $ast , "ll not allo t$ee to carry a ay# !ut , s$all 'ee& t$e( sa%e %or t$e Hellene $o as t$y $ost# unt"l $e co(e $"(sel% and des"re to carry t$e( o%% to $"s $o(e2 to t$ysel% $o e+er and t$y %ello 5+oya)ers , &rocla"( t$at ye de&art %ro( your anc$or"n) "t$"n t$ree days and )o %ro( (y land to so(e ot$er2 and "% not# t$at ye "ll !e dealt "t$ as ene("es.6 T$"s t$e &r"ests sa"d as t$e (anner o% Helen=s co("n) to Proteus2 and , su&&ose t$at Ho(er also $ad $eard t$"s story# !ut s"nce "t as not so su"ta!le to t$e co(&os"t"on o% $"s &oe( as t$e ot$er $"c$ $e %ollo ed# $e d"s("ssed "t %"nally# (a'"n) "t clear at t$e sa(e t"(e t$at $e as ac4ua"nted "t$ t$at story also; and accord"n) to t$e (anner "n $"c$ $e descr"!ed t$e ander"n)s o% Ale*ander "n t$e ,l"ad @nor d"d $e else $ere retract t$at $"c$ $e $ad sa"dA o% $"s course# ander"n) to +ar"ous lands# and t$at $e ca(e a(on) ot$er &laces to S"don "n P$en"c"a. O% t$"s t$e &oet $as (ade (ent"on "n t$e 6&ro ess o% D"o(ede#6 and t$e +erses run t$us; 6T$ere s$e $ad ro!es (any5coloured# t$e or's o% o(en o% S"don# T$ose $o( $er son $"(sel% t$e )od5l"'e o% %or( Ale*ander Carr"ed %ro( S"don# $at t"(e t$e !road sea5&at$ $e sa"led o+er Br"n)"n) !ac' Helene $o(e# o% a no!le %at$er !e)otten.6 And "n t$e Odyssey also $e $as (ade (ent"on o% "t "n t$ese +erses;

6Suc$ $ad t$e dau)$ter o% >eus# suc$ dru)s o% e*4u"s"te cunn"n)# Good# $"c$ to $er t$e "%e o% T$on# Polyda(na# $ad )"+en# D ell"n) "n E)y&t# t$e land $ere t$e !ount"%ul (eado &roduces Dru)s (ore t$an all lands else# (any )ood !e"n) ("*ed# (any e+"l.6 And t$us too Menelaos says to Tele(ac$os; 6St"ll t$e )ods stayed (e "n E)y&t# to co(e !ac' $"t$er des"r"n)# Stayed (e %ro( +oya)"n) $o(e# s"nce sacr"%"ce due , &er%or(ed not.6 ,n t$ese l"nes $e (a'es "t clear t$at $e 'ne o% t$e ander"n)s o% Ale*ander to E)y&t# %or Syr"a !orders u&on E)y&t and t$e P$en"c"ans# o% $o( "s S"don# d ell "n Syr"a. By t$ese l"nes and !y t$"s &assa)e "t "s also (ost clearly s$o n t$at t$e 6Cy&r"an E&"c6 as not r"tten !y Ho(er !ut !y so(e ot$er (an; %or "n t$"s "t "s sa"d t$at on t$e t$"rd day a%ter lea+"n) S&arta Ale*ander ca(e to ,l"on !r"n)"n) "t$ $"( Helen# $a+"n) $ad a 6)ently5!lo "n) "nd and a s(oot$ sea#6 $ereas "n t$e ,l"ad "t says t$at $e andered %ro( $"s course $en $e !rou)$t $er. 9et us no lea+e Ho(er and t$e 6Cy&r"an E&"c62 !ut t$"s , "ll say# na(ely t$at , as'ed t$e &r"ests $et$er "t "s !ut an "dle tale $"c$ t$e Hellenes tell o% t$at $"c$ t$ey say $a&&ened a!out ,l"on2 and t$ey ans ered (e t$us# say"n) t$at t$ey $ad t$e"r 'no led)e !y "n4u"r"es %ro( Menelaos $"(sel%. A%ter t$e ra&e o% Helen t$ere ca(e "ndeed# t$ey sa"d# to t$e Teucr"an land a lar)e ar(y o% Hellenes to $el& Menelaos2 and $en t$e ar(y $ad co(e out o% t$e s$"&s to land and $ad &"tc$ed "ts ca(& t$ere# t$ey sent (essen)ers to ,l"on# "t$ $o( ent also Menelaos $"(sel%2 and $en t$ese entered "t$"n t$e all t$ey de(anded !ac' Helen and t$e ealt$ $"c$ Ale*ander $ad stolen %ro( Menelaos and $ad ta'en a ay2 and (oreo+er t$ey de(anded sat"s%act"on %or t$e ron)s done; and t$e Teucr"ans told t$e sa(e tale t$en and a%ter ards# !ot$ "t$ oat$ and "t$out oat$# na(ely t$at "n deed and "n trut$ t$ey $ad not Helen nor t$e ealt$ %or $"c$ de(and as (ade# !ut t$at !ot$ ere "n E)y&t2 and t$at t$ey could not /ustly !e co(&elled to )"+e sat"s%act"on %or t$at $"c$ Proteus t$e '"n) o% E)y&t $ad. T$e Hellenes $o e+er t$ou)$t t$at t$ey ere !e"n) (oc'ed !y t$e( and !es"e)ed t$e c"ty# unt"l at last t$ey too' "t2 and $en t$ey $ad ta'en t$e all and d"d not %"nd Helen# !ut $eard t$e sa(e tale as !e%ore# t$en t$ey !el"e+ed t$e %or(er tale and sent Menelaos $"(sel% to Proteus. And Menelaos $a+"n) co(e to E)y&t and $a+"n) sa"led u& to Me(&$"s# told t$e trut$ o% t$ese (atters# and not only %ound )reat enterta"n(ent# !ut also rece"+ed Helen un$urt# and all $"s o n ealt$ !es"des. T$en# $o e+er# a%ter $e $ad !een t$us dealt "t$# Menelaos

s$o ed $"(sel% un)rate%ul to t$e E)y&t"ans2 %or $en $e set %ort$ to sa"l a ay# contrary "nds deta"ned $"(# and as t$"s cond"t"on o% t$"n)s lasted lon)# $e de+"sed an "(&"ous deed2 %or $e too' t o c$"ldren o% nat"+es and (ade sacr"%"ce o% t$e(. A%ter t$"s# $en "t as 'no n t$at $e $ad done so# $e !eca(e a!$orred# and !e"n) &ursued $e esca&ed and )ot a ay "n $"s s$"&s to 9"!ya2 !ut $"t$er $e ent !es"des a%ter t$"s# t$e E)y&t"ans ere not a!le to tell. O% t$ese t$"n)s t$ey sa"d t$at t$ey %ound out &art !y "n4u"r"es# and t$e rest# na(ely t$at $"c$ $a&&ened "n t$e"r o n land# t$ey related %ro( sure and certa"n 'no led)e. T$us t$e &r"ests o% t$e E)y&t"ans told (e2 and , (ysel% also a)ree "t$ t$e story $"c$ as told o% Helen# add"n) t$"s cons"derat"on# na(ely t$at "% Helen $ad !een "n ,l"on s$e ould $a+e !een )"+en u& to t$e Hellenes# $et$er Ale*ander consented or no2 %or Pr"a( assuredly as not so (ad# nor yet t$e ot$ers o% $"s $ouse# t$at t$ey ere des"rous to run r"s' o% ru"n %or t$e(sel+es and t$e"r c$"ldren and t$e"r c"ty# "n order t$at Ale*ander (")$t $a+e Helen as $"s "%e; and e+en su&&os"n) t$at dur"n) t$e %"rst &art o% t$e t"(e t$ey $ad !een so "ncl"ned# yet $en (any ot$ers o% t$e Tro/ans !es"des ere los"n) t$e"r l"+es as o%ten as t$ey %ou)$t "t$ t$e Hellenes# and o% t$e sons o% Pr"a( $"(sel% al ays t o or t$ree or e+en (ore ere sla"n $en a !attle too' &lace @"% one (ay trust at all to t$e E&"c &oetsA#55 $en# , say# t$"n)s ere co("n) t$us to &ass# , cons"der t$at e+en "% Pr"a( $"(sel% $ad $ad Helen as $"s "%e# $e ould $a+e )"+en $er !ac' to t$e Ac$a"ans# "% at least !y so do"n) $e (")$t !e %reed %ro( t$e e+"ls $"c$ o&&ressed $"(. Nor e+en as t$e '"n)do( co("n) to Ale*ander ne*t# so t$at $en Pr"a( as old t$e )o+ern(ent as "n $"s $ands2 !ut Hector# $o as !ot$ older and (ore o% a (an t$an $e# ould certa"nly $a+e rece"+ed "t a%ter t$e deat$ o% Pr"a(2 and $"( "t !e$o+ed not to allo $"s !rot$er to )o on "t$ $"s ron)5do"n)# cons"der"n) t$at )reat e+"ls ere co("n) to &ass on $"s account !ot$ to $"(sel% &r"+ately and "n )eneral to t$e ot$er Tro/ans. ,n trut$ $o e+er t$ey lac'ed t$e &o er to )"+e Helen !ac'2 and t$e Hellenes d"d not !el"e+e t$e(# t$ou)$ t$ey s&o'e t$e trut$2 !ecause# as , declare (y o&"n"on# t$e d"+"ne &o er as &ur&os"n) to cause t$e( utterly to &er"s$# and so (a'e "t e+"dent to (en t$at %or )reat ron)s )reat also are t$e c$ast"se(ents $"c$ co(e %ro( t$e )ods. And t$us $a+e , del"+ered (y o&"n"on concern"n) t$ese (atters. A%ter Proteus# t$ey told (e# R$a(&s"n"tos rece"+ed "n success"on t$e '"n)do(# $o le%t as a (e(or"al o% $"(sel% t$at )ate ay to t$e te(&le o% He&$a"stos $"c$ "s turned to ards t$e :est# and "n %ront o% t$e )ate ay $e set u& t o statues# "n $e")$t %"+e5and5t enty cu!"ts# o% $"c$ t$e one $"c$ stands on t$e Nort$ s"de "s called !y t$e

E)y&t"ans Su((er and t$e one on t$e Sout$ s"de :"nter2 and to t$at one $"c$ t$ey call Su((er t$ey do re+erence and (a'e o%%er"n)s# $"le to t$e ot$er $"c$ "s called :"nter t$ey do t$e o&&os"te o% t$ese t$"n)s. T$"s '"n)# t$ey sa"d# )ot )reat ealt$ o% s"l+er# $"c$ none o% t$e '"n)s !orn a%ter $"( could sur&ass or e+en co(e near to2 and "s$"n) to store $"s ealt$ "n sa%ety $e caused to !e !u"lt a c$a(!er o% stone# one o% t$e alls $ereo% as to ards t$e outs"de o% $"s &alace; and t$e !u"lder o% t$"s# $a+"n) a des")n a)a"nst "t# contr"+ed as %ollo s# t$at "s# $e d"s&osed one o% t$e stones "n suc$ a (anner t$at "t could !e ta'en out eas"ly %ro( t$e all e"t$er !y t o (en or e+en !y one. So $en t$e c$a(!er as %"n"s$ed# t$e '"n) stored $"s (oney "n "t# and a%ter so(e t"(e t$e !u"lder# !e"n) near t$e end o% $"s l"%e# called to $"( $"s sons @%or $e $ad t oA and to t$e( $e related $o $e $ad contr"+ed "n !u"ld"n) t$e treasury o% t$e '"n)# and all "n %oret$ou)$t %or t$e(# t$at t$ey (")$t $a+e a(&le (eans o% l"+"n). And $en $e $ad clearly set %ort$ to t$e( e+eryt$"n) concern"n) t$e ta'"n) out o% t$e stone# $e )a+e t$e( t$e (easure(ents# say"n) t$at "% t$ey &a"d $eed to t$"s (atter t$ey ould !e ste ards o% t$e '"n)=s treasury. So $e ended $"s l"%e# and $"s sons (ade no lon) delay "n sett"n) to or'# !ut ent to t$e &alace !y n")$t# and $a+"n) %ound t$e stone "n t$e all o% t$e c$a(!er t$ey dealt "t$ "t eas"ly and carr"ed %ort$ %or t$e(sel+es )reat 4uant"ty o% t$e ealt$ "t$"n. And t$e '"n) $a&&en"n) to o&en t$e c$a(!er# $e (ar+elled $en $e sa t$e +essels %all"n) s$ort o% t$e %ull a(ount# and $e d"d not 'no on $o( $e s$ould lay t$e !la(e# s"nce t$e seals ere un!ro'en and t$e c$a(!er $ad !een close s$ut2 !ut $en u&on $"s o&en"n) t$e c$a(!er a second and a t$"rd t"(e t$e (oney as eac$ t"(e seen to !e d"("n"s$ed# %or t$e t$"e+es d"d not slac'en "n t$e"r assaults u&on "t# $e d"d as %ollo s;55$a+"n) ordered tra&s to !e (ade $e set t$ese round a!out t$e +essels "n $"c$ t$e (oney as2 and $en t$e t$"e+es $ad co(e as at %or(er t"(es and one o% t$e( $ad entered# t$en so soon as $e ca(e near to one o% t$e +essels $e as stra")$t ay cau)$t "n t$e tra&; and $en $e &erce"+ed "n $at e+"l case $e as# stra")$t ay call"n) $"s !rot$er $e s$o ed $"( $at t$e (atter as# and !ade $"( enter as 4u"c'ly as &oss"!le and cut o%% $"s $ead# %or %ear lest !e"n) seen and 'no n $e (")$t !r"n) a!out t$e destruct"on o% $"s !rot$er also. And to t$e ot$er "t see(ed t$at $e s&o'e ell# and $e as &ersuaded and d"d so2 and %"tt"n) t$e stone "nto "ts &lace $e de&arted $o(e !ear"n) "t$ $"( t$e $ead o% $"s !rot$er. No $en "t !eca(e day# t$e '"n) entered "nto t$e c$a(!er and as +ery )reatly a(a3ed# see"n) t$e !ody o% t$e t$"e% $eld "n t$e tra& "t$out $"s $ead# and t$e c$a(!er un!ro'en# "t$ no ay to co(e "n !y or )o out; and !e"n) at a loss $e $un) u& t$e dead !ody o% t$e t$"e% u&on t$e all and set )uards t$ere# "t$ c$ar)e "% t$ey sa any one ee&"n) or !e a"l"n) $"(sel% to se"3e $"( and !r"n) $"( !e%ore t$e '"n). And $en t$e dead !ody $ad !een $un) u&# t$e

(ot$er as )reatly )r"e+ed# and s&ea'"n) "t$ t$e son $o sur+"+ed s$e en/o"ned $"(# "n $ate+er ay $e could# to contr"+e (eans !y $"c$ $e (")$t ta'e do n and !r"n) $o(e t$e !ody o% $"s !rot$er2 and "% $e s$ould ne)lect to do t$"s# s$e earnestly t$reatened t$at s$e ould )o and )"+e "n%or(at"on to t$e '"n) t$at $e $ad t$e (oney. So as t$e (ot$er dealt $ardly "t$ t$e sur+"+"n) son# and $e t$ou)$ say"n) (any t$"n)s to $er d"d not &ersuade $er# $e contr"+ed %or $"s &ur&ose a de+"ce as %ollo s;55Pro+"d"n) $"(sel% "t$ asses $e %"lled so(e s'"ns "t$ "ne and la"d t$e( u&on t$e asses# and a%ter t$at $e dro+e t$e( alon); and $en $e ca(e o&&os"te to t$ose $o ere )uard"n) t$e cor&se $un) u&# $e dre to ards $"( t o or t$ree o% t$e nec's o% t$e s'"ns and loosened t$e cords "t$ $"c$ t$ey ere t"ed. T$en $en t$e "ne as runn"n) out# $e !e)an to !eat $"s $ead and cry out loudly# as "% $e d"d not 'no to $"c$ o% t$e asses $e s$ould %"rst turn2 and $en t$e )uards sa t$e "ne %lo "n) out "n strea(s# t$ey ran to)et$er to t$e road "t$ dr"n'"n) +essels "n t$e"r $ands and collected t$e "ne t$at as &oured out# count"n) "t so (uc$ )a"n2 and $e a!used t$e( all +"olently# (a'"n) as "% $e ere an)ry# !ut $en t$e )uards tr"ed to a&&ease $"(# a%ter a t"(e $e %e")ned to !e &ac"%"ed and to a!ate $"s an)er# and at len)t$ $e dro+e $"s asses out o% t$e road and !e)an to set t$e"r loads r")$t. T$en (ore tal' arose a(on) t$e(# and one or t o o% t$e( (ade /ests at $"( and !rou)$t $"( to lau)$ "t$ t$e(2 and "n t$e end $e (ade t$e( a &resent o% one o% t$e s'"ns "n add"t"on to $at t$ey $ad. U&on t$at t$ey lay do n t$ere "t$out (ore ado# !e"n) ("nded to dr"n'# and t$ey too' $"( "nto t$e"r co(&any and "n+"ted $"( to re(a"n "t$ t$e( and /o"n t$e( "n t$e"r dr"n'"n); so $e @as (ay !e su&&osedA as &ersuaded and stayed. T$en as t$ey "n t$e"r dr"n'"n) !ade $"( elco(e "n a %r"endly (anner# $e (ade a &resent to t$e( also o% anot$er o% t$e s'"ns2 and so at len)t$ $a+"n) drun' l"!erally t$e )uards !eca(e co(&letely "nto*"cated2 and !e"n) o+erco(e !y slee& t$ey ent to !ed on t$e s&ot $ere t$ey $ad !een dr"n'"n). He t$en# as "t as no %ar on "n t$e n")$t# %"rst too' do n t$e !ody o% $"s !rot$er# and t$en "n (oc'ery s$a+ed t$e r")$t c$ee's o% all t$e )uards2 and a%ter t$at $e &ut t$e dead !ody u&on t$e asses and dro+e t$e( a ay $o(e# $a+"n) acco(&l"s$ed t$at $"c$ as en/o"ned $"( !y $"s (ot$er. U&on t$"s t$e '"n)# $en "t as re&orted to $"( t$at t$e dead !ody o% t$e t$"e% $ad !een stolen a ay# d"s&layed )reat an)er2 and des"r"n) !y all (eans t$at "t s$ould !e %ound out $o "t (")$t !e $o de+"sed t$ese t$"n)s# d"d t$"s @so at least t$ey sa"d# !ut , do not !el"e+e t$e accountA#55$e caused $"s o n dau)$ter to s"t "n t$e ste s# and en/o"ned $er to rece"+e all e4ually# and !e%ore $a+"n) co((erce "t$ any one to co(&el $"( to tell $er $at as t$e (ost cunn"n) and $at t$e (ost un$oly deed $"c$ $ad !een done !y $"( "n all $"s l"%e5t"(e2 and $osoe+er s$ould relate t$at $"c$ $ad $a&&ened a!out t$e t$"e%# $"( s$e (ust se"3e and not let $"( )o out. T$en as s$e as do"n) t$at

$"c$ as en/o"ned !y $er %at$er# t$e t$"e%# $ear"n) %or $at &ur&ose t$"s as done and $a+"n) a des"re to )et t$e !etter o% t$e '"n) "n resource# d"d t$us;55%ro( t$e !ody o% one lately dead $e cut o%% t$e ar( at t$e s$oulder and ent "t$ "t under $"s (antle; and $a+"n) )one "n to t$e dau)$ter o% t$e '"n)# and !e"n) as'ed t$at $"c$ t$e ot$ers also ere as'ed# $e related t$at $e $ad done t$e (ost un$oly deed $en $e cut o%% t$e $ead o% $"s !rot$er# $o $ad !een cau)$t "n a tra& "n t$e '"n)=s treasure5c$a(!er# and t$e (ost cunn"n) deed "n t$at $e (ade drun' t$e )uards and too' do n t$e dead !ody o% $"s !rot$er $an)"n) u&2 and s$e $en s$e $eard "t tr"ed to ta'e $old o% $"(# !ut t$e t$"e% $eld out to $er "n t$e dar'ness t$e ar( o% t$e cor&se# $"c$ s$e )ras&ed and $eld# t$"n'"n) t$at s$e as $old"n) t$e ar( o% t$e (an $"(sel%2 !ut t$e t$"e% le%t "t "n $er $ands and de&arted# esca&"n) t$rou)$ t$e door. No $en t$"s also as re&orted to t$e '"n)# $e as at %"rst a(a3ed at t$e ready "n+ent"on and dar"n) o% t$e %ello # and t$en a%ter ards $e sent round to all t$e c"t"es and (ade &rocla(at"on )rant"n) a %ree &ardon to t$e t$"e%# and also &ro("s"n) a )reat re ard "% $e ould co(e "nto $"s &resence. T$e t$"e% accord"n)ly trust"n) to t$e &rocla(at"on ca(e to t$e '"n)# and R$a(&s"n"tos )reatly (ar+elled at $"(# and )a+e $"( t$"s dau)$ter o% $"s to "%e# count"n) $"( to !e t$e (ost 'no "n) o% all (en2 %or as t$e E)y&t"ans ere d"st"n)u"s$ed %ro( all ot$er (en# so as $e %ro( t$e ot$er E)y&t"ans. A%ter t$ese t$"n)s t$ey sa"d t$"s '"n) ent do n al"+e to t$at &lace $"c$ !y t$e Hellenes "s called Hades# and t$ere &layed at d"ce "t$ De(eter# and "n so(e t$ro s $e o+erca(e $er and "n ot$ers $e as o+erco(e !y $er2 and $e ca(e !ac' a)a"n $a+"n) as a )"%t %ro( $er a $and'erc$"e% o% )old; and t$ey told (e t$at !ecause o% t$e )o"n) do n o% R$a(&s"n"tos t$e E)y&t"ans a%ter $e ca(e !ac' cele!rated a %east# $"c$ , 'no o% (y o n 'no led)e also t$at t$ey st"ll o!ser+e e+en to (y t"(e2 !ut $et$er "t "s %or t$"s cause t$at t$ey 'ee& t$e %east or %or so(e ot$er# , a( not a!le to say. Ho e+er# t$e &r"ests ea+e a ro!e co(&letely on t$e +ery day o% t$e %east# and %ort$ "t$ t$ey !"nd u& t$e eyes o% one o% t$e( "t$ a %"llet# and $a+"n) led $"( "t$ t$e ro!e to t$e ay !y $"c$ one )oes to t$e te(&le o% De(eter# t$ey de&art !ac' a)a"n t$e(sel+es. T$"s &r"est# t$ey say# "t$ $"s eyes !ound u& "s led !y t o ol+es to t$e te(&le o% De(eter# $"c$ "s d"stant %ro( t$e c"ty t enty %urlon)s# and t$en a%ter ards t$e ol+es lead $"( !ac' a)a"n %ro( t$e te(&le to t$e sa(e s&ot. No as to t$e tales told !y t$e E)y&t"ans# any (an (ay acce&t t$e( to $o( suc$ t$"n)s a&&ear cred"!le2 as %or (e# "t "s to !e understood t$rou)$out t$e $ole o% t$e $"story t$at , r"te !y $earsay t$at $"c$ "s re&orted !y t$e &eo&le "n eac$ &lace. T$e E)y&t"ans say t$at De(eter and D"onysos are rulers o% t$e orld !elo 2 and t$e E)y&t"ans are also t$e %"rst $o re&orted t$e doctr"ne t$at t$e soul o% (an "s "((ortal#

and t$at $en t$e !ody d"es# t$e soul enters "nto anot$er creature $"c$ c$ances t$en to !e co("n) to t$e !"rt$# and $en "t $as )one t$e round o% all t$e creatures o% land and sea and o% t$e a"r# "t enters a)a"n "nto a $u(an !ody as "t co(es to t$e !"rt$2 and t$at "t (a'es t$"s round "n a &er"od o% t$ree t$ousand years. T$"s doctr"ne certa"n Hellenes ado&ted# so(e earl"er and so(e later# as "% "t ere o% t$e"r o n "n+ent"on# and o% t$ese (en , 'no t$e na(es !ut , a!sta"n %ro( record"n) t$e(. Do n to t$e t"(e $en R$a(&s"n"tos as '"n)# t$ey told (e t$ere as "n E)y&t not$"n) !ut orderly rule# and E)y&t &ros&ered )reatly2 !ut a%ter $"( C$eo&s !eca(e '"n) o+er t$e( and !rou)$t t$e( to e+ery '"nd o% e+"l; %or $e s$ut u& all t$e te(&les# and $a+"n) %"rst 'e&t t$e( %ro( sacr"%"ces t$ere# $e t$en !ade all t$e E)y&t"ans or' %or $"(. So so(e ere a&&o"nted to dra stones %ro( t$e stone54uarr"es "n t$e Ara!"an (ounta"ns to t$e N"le# and ot$ers $e ordered to rece"+e t$e stones a%ter t$ey $ad !een carr"ed o+er t$e r"+er "n !oats# and to dra t$e( to t$ose $"c$ are called t$e 9"!yan (ounta"ns2 and t$ey or'ed !y a $undred t$ousand (en at a t"(e# %or eac$ t$ree (ont$s cont"nually. O% t$"s o&&ress"on t$ere &assed ten years $"le t$e cause ay as (ade !y $"c$ t$ey dre t$e stones# $"c$ cause ay t$ey !u"lt# and "t "s a or' not (uc$ less# as "t a&&ears to (e# t$an t$e &yra("d2 %or t$e len)t$ o% "t "s %"+e %urlon)s and t$e !readt$ ten %at$o(s and t$e $e")$t# $ere "t "s $")$est# e")$t %at$o(s# and "t "s (ade o% stone s(oot$ed and "t$ %")ures car+ed u&on "t. For t$"s t$ey sa"d# t$e ten years ere s&ent# and %or t$e under)round $e caused to !e (ade as se&ulc$ral c$a(!ers %or $"(sel% "n an "sland# $a+"n) conducted t$"t$er a c$annel %ro( t$e N"le. For t$e (a'"n) o% t$e &yra("d "tsel% t$ere &assed a &er"od o% t enty years2 and t$e &yra("d "s s4uare# eac$ s"de (easur"n) e")$t $undred %eet# and t$e $e")$t o% "t "s t$e sa(e. ,t "s !u"lt o% stone s(oot$ed and %"tted to)et$er "n t$e (ost &er%ect (anner# not one o% t$e stones !e"n) less t$an t$"rty %eet "n len)t$. T$"s &yra("d as (ade a%ter t$e (anner o% ste&s $"c$ so(e called 6ro s6 and ot$ers 6!ases6; and $en t$ey $ad %"rst (ade "t t$us# t$ey ra"sed t$e re(a"n"n) stones "t$ (ac$"nes (ade o% s$ort &"eces o% t"(!er# ra"s"n) t$e( %"rst %ro( t$e )round to t$e %"rst sta)e o% t$e ste&s# and $en t$e stone )ot u& to t$"s "t as &laced u&on anot$er (ac$"ne stand"n) on t$e %"rst sta)e# and so %ro( t$"s "t as dra n to t$e second u&on anot$er (ac$"ne2 %or as (any as ere t$e courses o% t$e ste&s# so (any (ac$"nes t$ere ere also# or &er$a&s t$ey trans%erred one and t$e sa(e (ac$"ne# (ade so as eas"ly to !e carr"ed# to eac$ sta)e success"+ely# "n order t$at t$ey (")$t ta'e u& t$e stones2 %or let "t !e told "n !ot$ ays# accord"n) as "t "s re&orted. Ho e+er t$at (ay !e t$e $")$est &arts o% "t ere %"n"s$ed %"rst# and a%ter ards t$ey &roceeded to %"n"s$ t$at $"c$ ca(e ne*t to t$e(# and

lastly t$ey %"n"s$ed t$e &arts o% "t near t$e )round and t$e lo est ran)es. On t$e &yra("d "t "s declared "n E)y&t"an r"t"n) $o (uc$ as s&ent on rad"s$es and on"ons and lee's %or t$e or'(en# and "% , r")$tly re(e(!er t$at $"c$ t$e "nter&reter sa"d "n read"n) to (e t$"s "nscr"&t"on# a su( o% one t$ousand s"* $undred talents o% s"l+er as s&ent2 and "% t$"s "s so# $o (uc$ !es"des "s l"'ely to $a+e !een e*&ended u&on t$e "ron "t$ $"c$ t$ey or'ed# and u&on !read and clot$"n) %or t$e or'(en# see"n) t$at t$ey ere !u"ld"n) t$e or's %or t$e t"(e $"c$ $as !een (ent"oned and ere occu&"ed %or no s(all t"(e !es"des# as , su&&ose# "n t$e cutt"n) and !r"n)"n) o% t$e stones and "n or'"n) at t$e e*ca+at"on under t$e )round? C$eo&s (oreo+er ca(e# t$ey sa"d# to suc$ a &"tc$ o% "c'edness# t$at !e"n) "n ant o% (oney $e caused $"s o n dau)$ter to s"t "n t$e ste s# and ordered $er to o!ta"n %ro( t$ose $o ca(e a certa"n a(ount o% (oney @$o (uc$ "t as t$ey d"d not tell (eA; and s$e not only o!ta"ned t$e su( a&&o"nted !y $er %at$er# !ut also s$e %or(ed a des")n %or $ersel% &r"+ately to lea+e !e$"nd $er a (e(or"al# and s$e re4uested eac$ (an $o ca(e "n to )"+e $er one stone u&on $er !u"ld"n); and o% t$ese stones# t$ey told (e# t$e &yra("d as !u"lt $"c$ stands "n %ront o% t$e )reat &yra("d "n t$e ("ddle o% t$e t$ree# eac$ s"de !e"n) one $undred and %"%ty %eet "n len)t$. T$"s C$eo&s# t$e E)y&t"ans sa"d# re")ned %"%ty years2 and a%ter $e as dead $"s !rot$er C$e&$ren succeeded to t$e '"n)do(. T$"s '"n) %ollo ed t$e sa(e (anner o% deal"n) as t$e ot$er# !ot$ "n all t$e rest and also "n t$at $e (ade a &yra("d# not "ndeed atta"n"n) to t$e (easure(ents o% t$at $"c$ as !u"lt !y t$e %or(er @t$"s , 'no # $a+"n) (ysel% also (easured "tA# and (oreo+er t$ere are no under)round c$a(!ers !eneat$ nor does a c$annel co(e %ro( t$e N"le %lo "n) to t$"s one as to t$e ot$er# "n $"c$ t$e ater co("n) t$rou)$ a condu"t !u"lt %or "t %lo s round an "sland "t$"n# $ere t$ey say t$at C$eo&s $"(sel% "s la"d; !ut %or a !ase(ent $e !u"lt t$e %"rst course o% Et$"o&"an stone o% d"+ers colours2 and t$"s &yra("d $e (ade %orty %eet lo er t$an t$e ot$er as re)ards s"3e# !u"ld"n) "t close to t$e )reat &yra("d. T$ese stand !ot$ u&on t$e sa(e $"ll# $"c$ "s a!out a $undred %eet $")$. And C$e&$ren t$ey sa"d re")ned %"%ty and s"* years. Here t$en t$ey rec'on one $undred and s"* years# dur"n) $"c$ t$ey say t$at t$ere as not$"n) !ut e+"l %or t$e E)y&t"ans# and t$e te(&les ere 'e&t closed and not o&ened dur"n) all t$at t"(e. T$ese '"n)s t$e E)y&t"ans !y reason o% t$e"r $atred o% t$e( are not +ery "ll"n) to na(e2 nay# t$ey e+en call t$e &yra("ds a%ter t$e na(e o% P$"l"t"s t$e s$e&$erd# $o at t$at t"(e &astured %loc's "n t$ose re)"ons. A%ter $"(# t$ey sa"d# My'er"nos !eca(e '"n) o+er E)y&t# $o as t$e son o% C$eo&s2 and to $"( $"s %at$er=s deeds ere d"s&leas"n)# and $e !ot$ o&ened t$e te(&les and )a+e l"!erty to t$e &eo&le# $o ere )round do n to t$e

last e*tre("ty o% e+"l# to return to t$e"r o n !us"ness and to t$e"r sacr"%"ces; also $e )a+e dec"s"ons o% t$e"r causes /uster t$an t$ose o% all t$e ot$er '"n)s !es"des. ,n re)ard to t$"s t$en t$ey co((end t$"s '"n) (ore t$an all t$e ot$er '"n)s $o $ad ar"sen "n E)y&t !e%ore $"(2 %or $e not only )a+e )ood dec"s"ons# !ut also $en a (an co(&la"ned o% t$e dec"s"on# $e )a+e $"( reco(&ense %ro( $"s o n )oods and t$us sat"s%"ed $"s des"re. But $"le My'er"nos as act"n) (erc"%ully to $"s su!/ects and &ract"s"n) t$"s conduct $"c$ $as !een sa"d# cala("t"es !e%ell $"(# o% $"c$ t$e %"rst as t$"s# na(ely t$at $"s dau)$ter d"ed# t$e only c$"ld $o( $e $ad "n $"s $ouse; and !e"n) a!o+e (easure )r"e+ed !y t$at $"c$ $ad !e%allen $"(# and des"r"n) to !ury $"s dau)$ter "n a (anner (ore re(ar'a!le t$an ot$ers# $e (ade a co o% ood# $"c$ $e co+ered o+er "t$ )old# and t$en "t$"n "t $e !ur"ed t$"s dau)$ter $o as , sa"d# $ad d"ed. T$"s co as not co+ered u& "n t$e )round# !ut "t (")$t !e seen e+en do n to (y o n t"(e "n t$e c"ty o% Sa"s# &laced "t$"n t$e royal &alace "n a c$a(!er $"c$ as )reatly adorned2 and t$ey o%%er "ncense o% all '"nds !e%ore "t e+ery day# and eac$ n")$t a la(& !urns !es"de "t all t$rou)$ t$e n")$t. Near t$"s co "n anot$er c$a(!er stand "(a)es o% t$e concu!"nes o% My'er"nos# as t$e &r"ests at Sa"s told (e2 %or t$ere are "n %act colossal ooden statues# "n nu(!er a!out t enty# (ade "t$ na'ed !od"es2 !ut $o t$ey are , a( not a!le to say# e*ce&t only t$at $"c$ "s re&orted. So(e $o e+er tell a!out t$"s co and t$e colossal statues t$e %ollo "n) tale# na(ely t$at My'er"nos as ena(oured o% $"s o n dau)$ter and a%ter ards ra+"s$ed $er2 and u&on t$"s t$ey say t$at t$e )"rl stran)led $ersel% %or )r"e%# and $e !ur"ed $er "n t$"s co 2 and $er (ot$er cut o%% t$e $ands o% t$e (a"ds $o $ad !etrayed t$e dau)$ter to $er %at$er2 $ere%ore no t$e "(a)es o% t$e( $a+e su%%ered t$at $"c$ t$e (a"ds su%%ered "n t$e"r l"%e. ,n t$us say"n) t$ey s&ea' "dly# as "t see(s to (e# es&ec"ally "n $at t$ey say a!out t$e $ands o% t$e statues2 %or as to t$"s# e+en e oursel+es sa t$at t$e"r $ands $ad dro&&ed o%% %ro( la&se o% t"(e# and t$ey ere to !e seen st"ll ly"n) at t$e"r %eet e+en do n to (y t"(e. T$e co "s co+ered u& "t$ a cr"(son ro!e# e*ce&t only t$e $ead and t$e nec'# $"c$ are seen# o+erla"d "t$ )old +ery t$"c'ly2 and !et een t$e $orns t$ere "s t$e d"sc o% t$e sun %")ured "n )old. T$e co "s not stand"n) u& !ut 'neel"n)# and "n s"3e "s e4ual to a lar)e l"+"n) co . E+ery year "t "s carr"ed %ort$ %ro( t$e c$a(!er# at t$ose t"(es# , say# t$e E)y&t"ans !eat t$e(sel+es %or t$at )od $o( , "ll not na(e u&on occas"on o% suc$ a (atter2 at t$ese t"(es# , say# t$ey also carry %ort$ t$e co to t$e l")$t o% day# %or t$ey say t$at s$e as'ed o% $er %at$er My'er"nos# $en s$e as dy"n)# t$at s$e (")$t loo' u&on t$e sun once "n t$e year. A%ter t$e ("s%ortune o% $"s dau)$ter "t $a&&ened# t$ey sa"d# secondly to t$"s '"n) as %ollo s;55An oracle ca(e to $"( %ro( t$e c"ty o% Buto#

say"n) t$at $e as dest"ned to l"+e !ut s"* years (ore# "n t$e se+ent$ year to end $"s l"%e; and $e !e"n) "nd")nant at "t sent to t$e Oracle a re&roac$ a)a"nst t$e )od# (a'"n) co(&la"nt "n re&ly t$at $ereas $"s %at$er and uncle# $o $ad s$ut u& t$e te(&les and $ad not only not re(e(!ered t$e )ods# !ut also $ad !een destroyers o% (en# $ad l"+ed %or a lon) t"(e# $e $"(sel%# $o &ract"sed &"ety# as dest"ned to end $"s l"%e so soon; and %ro( t$e Oracle ca(e a second (essa)e# $"c$ sa"d t$at "t as %or t$"s +ery cause t$at $e as !r"n)"n) $"s l"%e to a s "%t close2 %or $e $ad not done t$at $"c$ "t as a&&o"nted %or $"( to do# s"nce "t as dest"ned t$at E)y&t s$ould su%%er e+"ls %or a $undred and %"%ty years# and t$e t o '"n)s $o $ad ar"sen !e%ore $"( $ad &erce"+ed t$"s# !ut $e $ad not. My'er"nos $a+"n) $eard t$"s# and cons"der"n) t$at t$"s sentence $ad &assed u&on $"( !eyond recall# &rocured (any la(&s# and $ene+er n")$t ca(e on $e l")$ted t$ese and !e)an to dr"n' and ta'e $"s &leasure# ceas"n) ne"t$er !y day nor !y n")$t2 and $e ent a!out to t$e %en5country and to t$e oods and $ere+er $e $eard t$ere ere t$e (ost su"ta!le &laces o% en/oy(ent. T$"s $e de+"sed @$a+"n) a ("nd to &ro+e t$at t$e Oracle s&o'e %alselyA "n order t$at $e (")$t $a+e t el+e years o% l"%e "nstead o% s"*# t$e n")$ts !e"n) turned "nto days. T$"s '"n) also le%t !e$"nd $"( a &yra("d# (uc$ s(aller t$an t$at o% $"s %at$er# o% a s4uare s$a&e and (easur"n) on eac$ s"de t$ree $undred %eet lac'"n) t enty# !u"lt (oreo+er o% Et$"o&"an stone u& to $al% t$e $e")$t. T$"s &yra("d so(e o% t$e Hellenes say as !u"lt !y t$e courtesan R$odo&"s# not t$ere"n s&ea'"n) r")$tly; and !es"des t$"s "t "s e+"dent to (e t$at t$ey $o s&ea' t$us do not e+en 'no $o R$odo&"s as# %or ot$er "se t$ey ould not $a+e attr"!uted to $er t$e !u"ld"n) o% a &yra("d l"'e t$"s# on $"c$ $a+e !een s&ent @so to s&ea'A "nnu(era!le t$ousands o% talents; (oreo+er t$ey do not 'no t$at R$odo&"s %lour"s$ed "n t$e re")n o% A(as"s# and not "n t$"s '"n)=s re")n2 %or R$odo&"s l"+ed +ery (any years later t$an t$e '"n)s $o le%t !e$"nd t$e( t$ese &yra("ds. By descent s$e as o% T$race# and s$e as a sla+e o% ,ad(on t$e son o% He&$a"sto&ol"s a Sa("an# and a %ello 5sla+e o% Eso& t$e (a'er o% %a!les2 %or $e too as once t$e sla+e o% ,ad(on# as as &ro+ed es&ec"ally !y t$"s %act# na(ely t$at $en t$e &eo&le o% Del&$" re&eatedly (ade &rocla(at"on "n accordance "t$ an oracle# to %"nd so(e one $o ould ta'e u& t$e !lood5(oney %or t$e deat$ o% Eso&# no one else a&&eared# !ut at len)t$ t$e )randson o% ,ad(on# called ,ad(on also# too' "t u&2 and t$us "t "s s$o ed t$at Eso& too as t$e sla+e o% ,ad(on. As %or R$odo&"s# s$e ca(e to E)y&t !rou)$t !y Bant$es t$e Sa("an# and $a+"n) co(e t$"t$er to e*erc"se $er call"n) s$e as redee(ed %ro( sla+ery %or a )reat su( !y a (an o% Myt"lene# C$ara*os son o% Sca(androny(os and !rot$er o% Sa&&$o t$e lyr"c &oet. T$us as R$odo&"s set %ree# and s$e re(a"ned "n E)y&t and

!y $er !eauty on so (uc$ l"'"n) t$at s$e (ade )reat )a"n o% (oney %or one l"'e R$odo&"s# t$ou)$ not enou)$ to su%%"ce %or t$e cost o% suc$ a &yra("d as t$"s. ,n trut$ t$ere "s no need to ascr"!e to $er +ery )reat r"c$es# cons"der"n) t$at t$e t"t$e o% $er ealt$ (ay st"ll !e seen e+en to t$"s t"(e !y any one $o des"res "t; %or R$odo&"s "s$ed to lea+e !e$"nd $er a (e(or"al o% $ersel% "n Hellas# na(ely to cause a t$"n) to !e (ade suc$ as $a&&ens not to $a+e !een t$ou)$t o% or ded"cated "n a te(&le !y any !es"des# and to ded"cate t$"s at Del&$" as a (e(or"al o% $ersel%. Accord"n)ly "t$ t$e t"t$e o% $er ealt$ s$e caused to !e (ade s&"ts o% "ron o% s"3e lar)e enou)$ to &"erce a $ole o*# and (any "n nu(!er# )o"n) as %ar t$ere"n as $er t"t$e allo ed $er# and s$e sent t$e( to Del&$"; t$ese are e+en at t$e &resent t"(e ly"n) t$ere# $ea&ed all to)et$er !e$"nd t$e altar $"c$ t$e C$"ans ded"cated# and /ust o&&os"te to t$e cell o% t$e te(&le. No at Naucrat"s# as "t $a&&ens# t$e courtesans are rat$er a&t to "n cred"t2 %or t$"s o(an %"rst# a!out $o( t$e story to $"c$ , re%er "s told# !eca(e so %a(ous t$at all t$e Hellenes "t$out e*ce&t"on ca(e to 'no t$e na(e o% R$odo&"s# and t$en a%ter $er one $ose na(e as Arc$"d"c$e !eca(e a su!/ect o% son) all o+er Hellas# t$ou)$ s$e as less tal'ed o% t$an t$e ot$er. As %or C$ara*os# $en a%ter redee("n) R$odo&"s $e returned !ac' to Myt"lene# Sa&&$o "n an ode +"olently a!used $"(. O% R$odo&"s t$en , s$all say no (ore. A%ter My'er"nos t$e &r"ests sa"d Asyc$"s !eca(e '"n) o% E)y&t# and $e (ade %or He&$a"stos t$e te(&le )ate ay $"c$ "s to ards t$e sunr"s"n)# !y %ar t$e (ost !eaut"%ul and t$e lar)est o% t$e )ate ays2 %or $"le t$ey all $a+e %")ures car+ed u&on t$e( and "nnu(era!le orna(ents o% !u"ld"n) !es"des# t$"s $as t$e( +ery (uc$ (ore t$an t$e rest. ,n t$"s '"n)=s re")n t$ey told (e t$at# as t$e c"rculat"on o% (oney as +ery slo # a la as (ade %or t$e E)y&t"ans t$at a (an (")$t $a+e t$at (oney lent to $"( $"c$ $e needed# !y o%%er"n) as secur"ty t$e dead !ody o% $"s %at$er2 and t$ere as added (oreo+er to t$"s la anot$er# na(ely t$at $e $o lent t$e (oney s$ould $a+e a cla"( also to t$e $ole o% t$e se&ulc$ral c$a(!er !elon)"n) to $"( $o rece"+ed "t# and t$at t$e (an $o o%%ered t$at secur"ty s$ould !e su!/ect to t$"s &enalty# "% $e re%used to &ay !ac' t$e de!t# na(ely t$at ne"t$er t$e (an $"(sel% s$ould !e allo ed to $a+e !ur"al# $en $e d"ed# e"t$er "n t$at %a("ly !ur"al5&lace or "n any ot$er# nor s$ould $e !e allo ed to !ury any o% $"s '"ns(en $o( $e lost !y deat$. T$"s '"n) des"r"n) to sur&ass t$e '"n)s o% E)y&t $o $ad ar"sen !e%ore $"( le%t as a (e(or"al o% $"(sel% a &yra("d $"c$ $e (ade o% !r"c's and on "t t$ere "s an "nscr"&t"on car+ed "n stone and say"n) t$us; 6Des&"se not (e "n co(&ar"son "t$ t$e &yra("ds o% stone# see"n) t$at , e*cel t$e( as (uc$ as >eus e*cels t$e ot$er )ods2 %or "t$ a &ole t$ey struc' "nto t$e la'e# and $ate+er o% t$e (ud attac$ed "tsel% to t$e &ole# t$"s

t$ey )at$ered u& and (ade !r"c's# and "n suc$ (anner t$ey %"n"s$ed (e.6 Suc$ ere t$e deeds $"c$ t$"s '"n) &er%or(ed; and a%ter $"( re")ned a !l"nd (an o% t$e c"ty o% Anys"s# $ose na(e as Anys"s. ,n $"s re")n t$e Et$"o&"ans and Sa!acos t$e '"n) o% t$e Et$"o&"ans (arc$ed u&on E)y&t "t$ a )reat $ost o% (en2 so t$"s !l"nd (an de&arted# %ly"n) to t$e %en5country# and t$e Et$"o&"an as '"n) o+er E)y&t %or %"%ty years# dur"n) $"c$ $e &er%or(ed deeds as %ollo s;55 $ene+er any (an o% t$e E)y&t"ans co(("tted any trans)ress"on# $e ould ne+er &ut $"( to deat$# !ut $e )a+e sentence u&on eac$ (an accord"n) to t$e )reatness o% t$e ron)5do"n)# a&&o"nt"n) t$e( to or' at t$ro "n) u& an e(!an'(ent !e%ore t$at c"ty %ro( $ence eac$ (an ca(e o% t$ose $o co(("tted ron). T$us t$e c"t"es ere (ade $")$er st"ll t$an !e%ore2 %or t$ey ere e(!an'ed %"rst !y t$ose $o du) t$e c$annels "n t$e re")n o% Sesostr"s# and t$en secondly "n t$e re")n o% t$e Et$"o&"an# and t$us t$ey ere (ade +ery $")$; and $"le ot$er c"t"es "n E)y&t also stood $")$# , t$"n' "n t$e to n at Bu!ast"s es&ec"ally t$e eart$ as &"led u&. ,n t$"s c"ty t$ere "s a te(&le +ery ell ort$y o% (ent"on# %or t$ou)$ t$ere are ot$er te(&les $"c$ are lar)er and !u"ld "t$ (ore cost# none (ore t$an t$"s "s a &leasure to t$e eyes. No Bu!ast"s "n t$e Hellen"c ton)ue "s Arte("s# and $er te(&le "s ordered t$us;55E*ce&t t$e entrance "t "s co(&letely surrounded !y ater2 %or c$annels co(e "n %ro( t$e N"le# not /o"n"n) one anot$er# !ut eac$ e*tend"n) as %ar as t$e entrance o% t$e te(&le# one %lo "n) round on t$e one s"de and t$e ot$er on t$e ot$er s"de# eac$ a $undred %eet !road and s$aded o+er "t$ trees2 and t$e )ate ay $as a $e")$t o% ten %at$o(s# and "t "s adorned "t$ %")ures s"* cu!"ts $")$# +ery note ort$y. T$"s te(&le "s "n t$e ("ddle o% t$e c"ty and "s loo'ed do n u&on %ro( all s"des as one )oes round# %or s"nce t$e c"ty $as !een !an'ed u& to a $e")$t# $"le t$e te(&le $as not !een (o+ed %ro( t$e &lace $ere "t as at t$e %"rst !u"lt# "t "s &oss"!le to loo' do n "nto "t; and round "t runs a stone all "t$ %")ures car+ed u&on "t# $"le "t$"n "t t$ere "s a )ro+e o% +ery lar)e trees &lanted round a lar)e te(&le5$ouse# "t$"n $"c$ "s t$e "(a)e o% t$e )oddess; and t$e !readt$ and len)t$ o% t$e te(&le "s a %urlon) e+ery ay. O&&os"te t$e entrance t$ere "s a road &a+ed "t$ stone %or a!out t$ree %urlon)s# $"c$ leads t$rou)$ t$e (ar'et5&lace to ards t$e East# "t$ a !readt$ o% a!out %our $undred %eet2 and on t$"s s"de and on t$at )ro trees o% $e")$t reac$"n) to $ea+en; and t$e road leads to t$e te(&le o% Her(es. T$"s te(&le t$en "s t$us ordered. T$e %"nal del"+erance %ro( t$e Et$"o&"an ca(e a!out @t$ey sa"dA as %ollo s;55$e %led a ay !ecause $e $ad seen "n $"s slee& a +"s"on# "n $"c$ "t see(ed to $"( t$at a (an ca(e and stood !y $"( and counselled

$"( to )at$er to)et$er all t$e &r"ests "n E)y&t and cut t$e( asunder "n t$e ("dst. Ha+"n) seen t$"s drea(# $e sa"d t$at "t see(ed to $"( t$at t$e )ods ere %ores$o "n) $"( t$"s to %urn"s$ an occas"on a)a"nst $"(# "n order t$at $e (")$t do an "(&"ous deed "t$ res&ect to rel")"on# and so rece"+e so(e e+"l e"t$er %ro( t$e )ods or %ro( (en; $e ould not $o e+er do so# !ut "n trut$ @$e sa"dA t$e t"(e $ad e*&"red# dur"n) $"c$ "t $ad !een &ro&$es"ed to $"( t$at $e s$ould rule E)y&t !e%ore $e de&arted t$ence. For $en $e as "n Et$"o&"a t$e Oracles $"c$ t$e Et$"o&"ans consult $ad told $"( t$at "t as %ated %or $"( to rule E)y&t %"%ty years; s"nce t$en t$"s t"(e as no e*&"r"n)# and t$e +"s"on o% t$e drea( also d"stur!ed $"(# Sa!acos de&arted out o% E)y&t o% $"s o n %ree "ll. T$en $en t$e Et$"o&"an $ad )one a ay out o% E)y&t# t$e !l"nd (an ca(e !ac' %ro( t$e %en5country and !e)an to rule a)a"n# $a+"n) l"+ed t$ere dur"n) %"%ty years u&on an "sland $"c$ $e $ad (ade !y $ea&"n) u& as$es and eart$; %or $ene+er any o% t$e E)y&t"ans +"s"ted $"( !r"n)"n) %ood# accord"n) as "t $ad !een a&&o"nted to t$e( se+erally to do "t$out t$e 'no led)e o% t$e Et$"o&"an# $e !ade t$e( !r"n) also so(e as$es %or t$e"r )"%t. T$"s "sland none as a!le to %"nd !e%ore A(yrta"os2 t$at "s# %or (ore t$an se+en $undred years t$e '"n)s $o arose !e%ore A(yrta"os ere not a!le to %"nd "t. No t$e na(e o% t$"s "sland "s El!o# and "ts s"3e "s ten %urlon)s eac$ ay. A%ter $"( t$ere ca(e to t$e t$rone t$e &r"est o% He&$a"stos# $ose na(e as Set$os. T$"s (an# t$ey sa"d# ne)lected and $eld "n no re)ard t$e arr"or class o% t$e E)y&t"ans# cons"der"n) t$at $e ould $a+e no need o% t$e(2 and !es"des ot$er sl")$ts $"c$ $e &ut u&on t$e(# $e also too' %ro( t$e( t$e yo'es o% corn5land $"c$ $ad !een )"+en to t$e( as a s&ec"al )"%t "n t$e re")ns o% t$e %or(er '"n)s# t el+e yo'es to eac$ (an. A%ter t$"s# Sanac$ar"! '"n) o% t$e Ara!"ans and o% t$e Assyr"ans (arc$ed a )reat $ost a)a"nst E)y&t. T$en t$e arr"ors o% t$e E)y&t"ans re%used to co(e to t$e rescue# and t$e &r"est# !e"n) dr"+en "nto a stra"t# entered "nto t$e sanctuary o% t$e te(&le and !e a"led to t$e "(a)e o% t$e )od t$e dan)er $"c$ as "(&end"n) o+er $"(2 and as $e as t$us la(ent"n)# slee& ca(e u&on $"(# and "t see(ed to $"( "n $"s +"s"on t$at t$e )od ca(e and stood !y $"( and encoura)ed $"(# say"n) t$at $e s$ould su%%er no e+"l "% $e ent %ort$ to (eet t$e ar(y o% t$e Ara!"ans2 %or $e ould $"(sel% send $"( $el&ers. Trust"n) "n t$ese t$"n)s seen "n slee&# $e too' "t$ $"(# t$ey sa"d# t$ose o% t$e E)y&t"ans $o ere "ll"n) to %ollo $"(# and enca(&ed "n Pelus"on# %or !y t$"s ay t$e "n+as"on ca(e; and not one o% t$e arr"or class %ollo ed $"(# !ut s$o&5'ee&ers and art"sans and (en o% t$e (ar'et. T$en a%ter t$ey ca(e# t$ere s ar(ed !y n")$t u&on t$e"r ene("es ("ce o% t$e %"elds# and ate u& t$e"r 4u"+ers and t$e"r !o s# and (oreo+er

t$e $andles o% t$e"r s$"elds# so t$at on t$e ne*t day t$ey %led# and !e"n) "t$out de%ence o% ar(s )reat nu(!ers %ell. And at t$e &resent t"(e t$"s '"n) stands "n t$e te(&le o% He&$a"stos "n stone# $old"n) u&on $"s $and a (ouse# and !y letters "nscr"!ed $e says t$ese ords; 69et $"( $o loo's u&on (e learn to %ear t$e )ods.6 So %ar "n t$e story t$e E)y&t"ans and t$e &r"ests ere t$ey $o (ade t$e re&ort# declar"n) t$at %ro( t$e %"rst '"n) do n to t$"s &r"est o% He&$a"stos $o re")ned last# t$ere $ad !een t$ree $undred and %orty5 one )enerat"ons o% (en# and t$at "n t$e( t$ere $ad !een t$e sa(e nu(!er o% c$"e%5&r"ests and o% '"n)s; !ut t$ree $undred )enerat"ons o% (en are e4ual to ten t$ousand years# %or a $undred years "s t$ree )enerat"ons o% (en2 and "n t$e one5and5%orty )enerat"ons $"c$ re(a"n# t$ose , (ean $"c$ ere added to t$e t$ree $undred# t$ere are one t$ousand t$ree $undred and %orty years. T$us "n t$e &er"od o% ele+en t$ousand t$ree $undred and %orty years t$ey sa"d t$at t$ere $ad ar"sen no )od "n $u(an %or(2 nor e+en !e%ore t$at t"(e or a%ter ards a(on) t$e re(a"n"n) '"n)s $o ar"se "n E)y&t# d"d t$ey re&ort t$at anyt$"n) o% t$at '"nd $ad co(e to &ass. ,n t$"s t"(e t$ey sa"d t$at t$e sun $ad (o+ed %our t"(es %ro( $"s accusto(ed &lace o% r"s"n)# and $ere $e no sets $e $ad t$ence t "ce $ad $"s r"s"n)# and "n t$e &lace %ro( $ence $e no r"ses $e $ad t "ce $ad $"s sett"n)2 and "n t$e (eant"(e not$"n) "n E)y&t $ad !een c$an)ed %ro( "ts usual state# ne"t$er t$at $"c$ co(es %ro( t$e eart$ nor t$at $"c$ co(es to t$e( %ro( t$e r"+er nor t$at $"c$ concerns d"seases or deat$s. And %or(erly $en Hecata"os t$e $"stor"an as "n T$e!es# and $ad traced $"s descent and connected $"s %a("ly "t$ a )od "n t$e s"*teent$ )enerat"on !e%ore# t$e &r"ests o% >eus d"d %or $"( (uc$ t$e sa(e as t$ey d"d %or (e @t$ou)$ , $ad not traced (y descentA. T$ey led (e "nto t$e sanctuary o% t$e te(&le# $"c$ "s o% )reat s"3e# and t$ey counted u& t$e nu(!er# s$o "n) colossal ooden statues "n nu(!er t$e sa(e as t$ey sa"d2 %or eac$ c$"e%5&r"est t$ere sets u& "n $"s l"%et"(e an "(a)e o% $"(sel%; accord"n)ly t$e &r"ests# count"n) and s$o "n) (e t$ese# declared to (e t$at eac$ one o% t$e( as a son succeed"n) $"s o n %at$er# and t$ey ent u& t$rou)$ t$e ser"es o% "(a)es %ro( t$e "(a)e o% t$e one $o $ad d"ed last# unt"l t$ey $ad declared t$"s o% t$e $ole nu(!er. And $en Hecata"os $ad traced $"s descent and connected $"s %a("ly "t$ a )od "n t$e s"*teent$ )enerat"on# t$ey traced a descent "n o&&os"t"on to $"s# !es"des t$e"r nu(!er"n)# not acce&t"n) "t %ro( $"( t$at a (an $ad !een !orn %ro( a )od2 and t$ey traced t$e"r counter5descent t$us# say"n) t$at eac$ one o% t$e statues $ad !een <&"ro("s< son o% <&"ro("s<# unt"l t$ey $ad declared t$"s o% t$e $ole t$ree $undred and %orty5%"+e statues# eac$ one !e"n) surna(ed <&"ro("s<2 and ne"t$er "t$ a )od nor a $ero d"d t$ey connect t$e"r descent. No <&"ro("s< (eans "n t$e ton)ue o% Hellas 6$onoura!le and )ood (an.6 Fro( t$e"r

declarat"on t$en "t %ollo ed# t$at t$ey o% $o( t$e "(a)es ere $ad !een o% %or( l"'e t$"s# and %ar re(o+ed %ro( !e"n) )ods; !ut "n t$e t"(e !e%ore t$ese (en t$ey sa"d t$at )ods ere t$e rulers "n E)y&t# not ("n)l"n) "t$ (en# and t$at o% t$ese al ays one $ad &o er at a t"(e2 and t$e last o% t$e( $o as '"n) o+er E)y&t as Oros t$e son o% Os"r"s# $o( t$e Hellenes call A&ollo; $e as '"n) o+er E)y&t last# $a+"n) de&osed Ty&$on. No Os"r"s "n t$e ton)ue o% Hellas "s D"onysos. A(on) t$e Hellenes Heracles and D"onysos and Pan are accounted t$e lastest5!orn o% t$e )ods2 !ut "t$ t$e E)y&t"ans Pan "s a +ery anc"ent )od# and $e "s one o% t$ose $"c$ are called e")$t )ods# $"le Heracles "s o% t$e second ran'# $o are called t$e t el+e )ods# and D"onysos "s o% t$e t$"rd ran'# na(ely o% t$ose $o ere !orn o% t$e t el+e )ods. No as to Heracles , $a+e s$o n already $o (any years old $e "s accord"n) to t$e E)y&t"ans t$e(sel+es# rec'on"n) do n to t$e re")n o% A(as"s# and Pan "s sa"d to $a+e e*"sted %or yet (ore years t$an t$ese# and D"onysos %or t$e s(allest nu(!er o% years as co(&ared "t$ t$e ot$ers2 and e+en %or t$"s last t$ey rec'on do n to t$e re")n o% A(as"s %"%teen t$ousand years. T$"s t$e E)y&t"ans say t$at t$ey 'no %or a certa"nty# s"nce t$ey al ays 'e&t a rec'on"n) and rote do n t$e years as t$ey ca(e. No t$e D"onysos $o "s sa"d to $a+e !een !orn o% Se(ele t$e dau)$ter o% Cad(os# as !orn a!out s"*teen $undred years !e%ore (y t"(e# and Heracles $o as t$e son o% Alc(ene# a!out n"ne $undred years# and t$at Pan $o as !orn o% Penelo&e# %or o% $er and o% Her(es Pan "s sa"d !y t$e Hellenes to $a+e !een !orn# ca(e "nto !e"n) later t$an t$e ars o% Troy# a!out e")$t $undred years !e%ore (y t"(e. O% t$ese t o accounts e+ery (an (ay ado&t t$at one $"c$ $e s$all %"nd t$e (ore cred"!le $en $e $ears "t. , $o e+er# %or (y &art# $a+e already declared (y o&"n"on a!out t$e(. For "% t$ese also# l"'e Heracles t$e son o% A(&$"tryon# $ad a&&eared !e%ore all (en=s eyes and $ad l"+ed t$e"r l"+es to old a)e "n Hellas# , (ean D"onysos t$e son o% Se(ele and Pan t$e son o% Penelo&e# t$en one ould $a+e sa"d t$at t$ese also $ad !een !orn (ere (en# $a+"n) t$e na(es o% t$ose )ods $o $ad co(e "nto !e"n) lon) !e%ore; !ut as "t "s# "t$ re)ard to D"onysos t$e Hellenes say t$at as soon as $e as !orn >eus se ed $"( u& "n $"s t$")$ and carr"ed $"( to Nysa# $"c$ "s a!o+e E)y&t "n t$e land o% Et$"o&"a2 and as to Pan# t$ey cannot say $"t$er $e ent a%ter $e as !orn. Hence "t $as !eco(e clear to (e t$at t$e Hellenes learnt t$e na(es o% t$ese )ods later t$an t$ose o% t$e ot$er )ods# and trace t$e"r descent as "% t$e"r !"rt$ occurred at t$e t"(e $en t$ey %"rst learnt t$e"r na(es. T$us %ar t$en t$e $"story "s told !y t$e E)y&t"ans t$e(sel+es2 !ut , "ll no recount t$at $"c$ ot$er nat"ons also tell# and t$e E)y&t"ans "n a)ree(ent "t$ t$e ot$ers# o% t$at $"c$ $a&&ened "n t$"s land; and

t$ere "ll !e added to t$"s also so(et$"n) o% t$at $"c$ , $a+e (ysel% seen. Be"n) set %ree a%ter t$e re")n o% t$e &r"est o% He&$a"stos# t$e E)y&t"ans# s"nce t$ey could not l"+e any t"(e "t$out a '"n)# set u& o+er t$e( t el+e '"n)s# $a+"n) d"+"ded all E)y&t "nto t el+e &arts. T$ese (ade "nter(arr"a)es "t$ one anot$er and re")ned# (a'"n) a)ree(ent t$at t$ey ould not &ut do n one anot$er !y %orce# nor see' to )et an ad+anta)e o+er one anot$er# !ut ould l"+e "n &er%ect %r"ends$"&; and t$e reason $y t$ey (ade t$ese a)ree(ents# )uard"n) t$e( +ery stron)ly %ro( +"olat"on# as t$"s# na(ely t$at an oracle $ad !een )"+en to t$e( at %"rst $en t$ey !e)an to e*erc"se t$e"r rule# t$at $e o% t$e( $o s$ould &our a l"!at"on "t$ a !ron3e cu& "n t$e te(&le o% He&$a"stos# s$ould !e '"n) o% all E)y&t @%or t$ey used to asse(!le to)et$er "n all t$e te(&lesA. Moreo+er t$ey resol+ed to /o"n all to)et$er and lea+e a (e(or"al o% t$e(sel+es2 and $a+"n) so resol+ed t$ey caused to !e (ade a la!yr"nt$# s"tuated a l"ttle a!o+e t$e la'e o% Mo"r"s and nearly o&&os"te to t$at $"c$ "s called t$e C"ty o% Crocod"les. T$"s , sa (ysel%# and , %ound "t )reater t$an ords can say. For "% one s$ould &ut to)et$er and rec'on u& all t$e !u"ld"n)s and all t$e )reat or's &roduced !y Hellenes# t$ey ould &ro+e to !e "n%er"or "n la!our and e*&ense to t$"s la!yr"nt$# t$ou)$ "t "s true t$at !ot$ t$e te(&le at E&$esos and t$at at Sa(os are or's ort$y o% note. T$e &yra("ds also ere )reater t$an ords can say# and eac$ one o% t$e( "s e4ual to (any or's o% t$e Hellenes# )reat as t$ey (ay !e2 !ut t$e la!yr"nt$ sur&asses e+en t$e &yra("ds. ,t $as t el+e courts co+ered "n# "t$ )ates %ac"n) one anot$er# s"* u&on t$e Nort$ s"de and s"* u&on t$e Sout$# /o"n"n) on one to anot$er# and t$e sa(e all surrounds t$e( all outs"de2 and t$ere are "n "t t o '"nds o% c$a(!ers# t$e one '"nd !elo t$e )round and t$e ot$er a!o+e u&on t$ese# t$ree t$ousand "n nu(!er# o% eac$ '"nd %"%teen $undred. T$e u&&er set o% c$a(!ers e oursel+es sa # )o"n) t$rou)$ t$e(# and e tell o% t$e( $a+"n) loo'ed u&on t$e( "t$ our o n eyes2 !ut t$e c$a(!ers under )round e $eard a!out only2 %or t$e E)y&t"ans $o $ad c$ar)e o% t$e( ere not "ll"n) on any account to s$o t$e(# say"n) t$at $ere ere t$e se&ulc$res o% t$e '"n)s $o $ad %"rst !u"lt t$"s la!yr"nt$ and o% t$e sacred crocod"les. Accord"n)ly e s&ea' o% t$e c$a(!ers !elo !y $at e rece"+ed %ro( $earsay# $"le t$ose a!o+e e sa oursel+es and %ound t$e( to !e or's o% (ore t$an $u(an )reatness. For t$e &assa)es t$rou)$ t$e c$a(!ers# and t$e )o"n)s t$"s ay and t$at ay t$rou)$ t$e courts# $"c$ ere ad("ra!ly adorned# a%%orded endless (atter %or (ar+el# as e ent t$rou)$ %ro( a court to t$e c$a(!ers !eyond "t# and %ro( t$e c$a(!ers to colonnades# and %ro( t$e colonnades to ot$er roo(s# and t$en %ro( t$e c$a(!ers a)a"n to ot$er courts. O+er t$e $ole o% t$ese "s a roo% (ade o% stone l"'e t$e

alls2 and t$e alls are co+ered "t$ %")ures car+ed u&on t$e(# eac$ court !e"n) surrounded "t$ &"llars o% $"te stone %"tted to)et$er (ost &er%ectly2 and at t$e end o% t$e la!yr"nt$# !y t$e corner o% "t# t$ere "s a &yra("d o% %orty %at$o(s# u&on $"c$ lar)e %")ures are car+ed# and to t$"s t$ere "s a ay (ade under )round. Suc$ "s t$"s la!yr"nt$; !ut a cause %or (ar+el e+en )reater t$an t$"s "s a%%orded !y t$e la'e# $"c$ "s called t$e la'e o% Mo"r"s# alon) t$e s"de o% $"c$ t$"s la!yr"nt$ "s !u"lt. T$e (easure o% "ts c"rcu"t "s t$ree t$ousand s"* $undred %urlon)s @!e"n) s"*ty <sc$o"nes<A# and t$"s "s t$e sa(e nu(!er o% %urlon)s as t$e e*tent o% E)y&t "tsel% alon) t$e sea. T$e la'e l"es e*tended len)t$ "se %ro( Nort$ to Sout$# and "n de&t$ $ere "t "s dee&est "t "s %"%ty %at$o(s. T$at t$"s la'e "s art"%"c"al and %or(ed !y d"))"n) "s sel%5e+"dent# %or a!out "n t$e ("ddle o% t$e la'e stand t o &yra("ds# eac$ r"s"n) a!o+e t$e ater to a $e")$t o% %"%ty %at$o(s# t$e &art $"c$ "s !u"lt !elo t$e ater !e"n) o% /ust t$e sa(e $e")$t2 and u&on eac$ "s &laced a colossal statue o% stone s"tt"n) u&on a c$a"r. T$us t$e &yra("ds are a $undred %at$o(s $")$2 and t$ese $undred %at$o(s are e4ual to a %urlon) o% s"* $undred %eet# t$e %at$o( !e"n) (easured as s"* %eet or %our cu!"ts# t$e %eet !e"n) %our &al(s eac$# and t$e cu!"ts s"*. T$e ater "n t$e la'e does not co(e %ro( t$e &lace $ere "t "s# %or t$e country t$ere "s +ery de%"c"ent "n ater# !ut "t $as !een !rou)$t t$"t$er %ro( t$e N"le !y a canal2 and %or s"* (ont$s t$e ater %lo s "nto t$e la'e# and %or s"* (ont$s out "nto t$e N"le a)a"n2 and $ene+er "t %lo s out# t$en %or t$e s"* (ont$s "t !r"n)s "nto t$e royal treasury a talent o% s"l+er a day %ro( t$e %"s$ $"c$ are cau)$t# and t enty &ounds $en t$e ater co(es "n. T$e nat"+es o% t$e &lace (oreo+er sa"d t$at t$"s la'e $ad an outlet under )round to t$e Syrt"s $"c$ "s "n 9"!ya# turn"n) to ards t$e "nter"or o% t$e cont"nent u&on t$e :estern s"de and runn"n) alon) !y t$e (ounta"n $"c$ "s a!o+e Me(&$"s. No s"nce , d"d not see any $ere e*"st"n) t$e eart$ du) out o% t$"s e*ca+at"on @%or t$at as a (atter $"c$ dre (y attent"onA# , as'ed t$ose $o d elt nearest to t$e la'e $ere t$e eart$ as $"c$ $ad !een du) out. T$ese told (e to $at &lace "t $ad !een carr"ed a ay2 and , read"ly !el"e+ed t$e(# %or , 'ne !y re&ort t$at a s"("lar t$"n) $ad !een done at N"ne+e$# t$e c"ty o% t$e Assyr"ans. T$ere certa"n t$"e+es %or(ed a des")n once to carry a ay t$e ealt$ o% Sardana&allos son o% N"nos# t$e '"n)# $"c$ ealt$ as +ery )reat and as 'e&t "n treasure5$ouses under t$e eart$. Accord"n)ly t$ey !e)an %ro( t$e"r o n d ell"n)# and (a'"n) est"(ate o% t$e"r d"rect"on t$ey du) under )round to ards t$e '"n)=s &alace2 and t$e eart$ $"c$ as !rou)$t out o% t$e e*ca+at"on t$ey used to carry a ay# $en n")$t ca(e on# to t$e r"+er T")r"s $"c$ %lo s !y t$e c"ty o% N"ne+e$# unt"l at last t$ey acco(&l"s$ed t$at $"c$ t$ey des"red. S"("larly# as , $eard# t$e d"))"n) o% t$e la'e "n

E)y&t as e%%ected# e*ce&t t$at "t as done not !y n")$t !ut dur"n) t$e day2 %or as t$ey du) t$e E)y&t"ans carr"ed to t$e N"le t$e eart$ $"c$ as du) out2 and t$e r"+er# $en "t rece"+ed "t# ould naturally !ear "t a ay and d"s&erse "t. T$us "s t$"s la'e sa"d to $a+e !een du) out. No t$e t el+e '"n)s cont"nued to rule /ustly# !ut "n course o% t"(e "t $a&&ened t$us;55A%ter sacr"%"ce "n t$e te(&le o% He&$a"stos t$ey ere a!out to (a'e l"!at"on on t$e last day o% t$e %east# and t$e c$"e%5&r"est# "n !r"n)"n) out %or t$e( t$e )olden cu&s "t$ $"c$ t$ey $ad !een ont to &our l"!at"ons# ("ssed $"s rec'on"n) and !rou)$t ele+en only %or t$e t el+e '"n)s. T$en t$at one o% t$e( $o as stand"n) last "n order# na(ely Psa((et"c$os# s"nce $e $ad no cu& too' o%% %ro( $"s $ead $"s $el(et# $"c$ as o% !ron3e# and $a+"n) $eld "t out to rece"+e t$e "ne $e &roceeded to (a'e l"!at"on; l"'e "se all t$e ot$er '"n)s ere ont to ear $el(ets and t$ey $a&&ened to $a+e t$e( t$en. No Psa((et"c$os $eld out $"s $el(et "t$ no treac$erous (ean"n)2 !ut t$ey ta'"n) note o% t$at $"c$ $ad !een done !y Psa((et"c$os and o% t$e oracle# na(ely $o "t $ad !een declared to t$e( t$at $osoe+er o% t$e( s$ould (a'e l"!at"on "t$ a !ron3e cu& s$ould !e sole '"n) o% E)y&t# recollect"n)# , say# t$e say"n) o% t$e Oracle# t$ey d"d not "ndeed dee( "t r")$t to slay Psa((et"c$os# s"nce t$ey %ound !y e*a("nat"on t$at $e $ad not done "t "t$ any %oret$ou)$t# !ut t$ey deter("ned to str"& $"( o% al(ost all $"s &o er and to dr"+e $"( a ay "nto t$e %en5country# and t$at %ro( t$e %en5 country $e s$ould not $old any deal"n)s "t$ t$e rest o% E)y&t. T$"s Psa((et"c$os $ad %or(erly !een a %u)"t"+e %ro( t$e Et$"o&"an Sa!acos $o $ad '"lled $"s %at$er Necos# %ro( $"(# , say# $e $ad t$en !een a %u)"t"+e "n Syr"a2 and $en t$e Et$"o&"an $ad de&arted "n conse4uence o% t$e +"s"on o% t$e drea(# t$e E)y&t"ans $o ere o% t$e d"str"ct o% Sa"s !rou)$t $"( !ac' to $"s o n country. T$en a%ter ards# $en $e as '"n)# "t as $"s %ate to !e a %u)"t"+e a second t"(e on account o% t$e $el(et# !e"n) dr"+en !y t$e ele+en '"n)s "nto t$e %en5country. So t$en $old"n) t$at $e $ad !een )r"e+ously ron)ed !y t$e(# $e t$ou)$t $o $e (")$t ta'e +en)eance on t$ose $o $ad dr"+en $"( out; and $en $e $ad sent to t$e Oracle o% 9eto "n t$e c"ty o% Buto# $ere t$e E)y&t"ans $a+e t$e"r (ost trut$%ul Oracle# t$ere as )"+en to $"( t$e re&ly t$at +en)eance ould co(e $en (en o% !ron3e a&&eared %ro( t$e sea. And $e as stron)ly d"s&osed not to !el"e+e t$at !ron3e (en ould co(e to $el& $"(2 !ut a%ter no lon) t"(e $ad &assed# certa"n ,on"ans and Car"ans $o $ad sa"led %ort$ %or &lunder ere co(&elled to co(e to s$ore "n E)y&t# and t$ey $a+"n) landed and !e"n) clad "n !ron3e ar(our# ca(e to t$e %en5land and !rou)$t a re&ort to Psa((et"c$os t$at !ron3e (en $ad co(e %ro( t$e sea and ere &lunder"n) t$e &la"n. So $e# &erce"+"n) t$at t$e say"n) o% t$e Oracle as co("n) to &ass# dealt "n

a %r"endly (anner "t$ t$e ,on"ans and Car"ans# and "t$ lar)e &ro("ses $e &ersuaded t$e( to ta'e $"s &art. T$en $en $e $ad &ersuaded t$e(# "t$ t$e $el& o% t$ose E)y&t"ans $o %a+oured $"s cause and o% t$ese %ore")n (ercenar"es $e o+ert$re t$e '"n)s. Ha+"n) t$us )ot &o er o+er all E)y&t# Psa((et"c$os (ade %or He&$a"stos t$at )ate ay o% t$e te(&le at Me(&$"s $"c$ "s turned to ards t$e Sout$ :"nd2 and $e !u"lt a court %or A&"s# "n $"c$ A&"s "s 'e&t $en $e a&&ears# o&&os"te to t$e )ate ay o% t$e te(&le# surrounded all "t$ &"llars and co+ered "t$ %")ures2 and "nstead o% colu(ns t$ere stand to su&&ort t$e roo% o% t$e court colossal statues t el+e cu!"ts $")$. No A&"s "s "n t$e ton)ue o% t$e Hellenes E&a&$os. To t$e ,on"ans and to t$e Car"ans $o $ad $el&ed $"( Psa((et"c$os )ranted &ort"ons o% land to d ell "n# o&&os"te to one anot$er "t$ t$e r"+er N"le !et een# and t$ese ere called 6Enca(&(ents62 t$ese &ort"ons o% land $e )a+e t$e(# and $e &a"d t$e( !es"des all t$at $e $ad &ro("sed; (oreo+er $e &laced "t$ t$e( E)y&t"an !oys to $a+e t$e( tau)$t t$e Hellen"c ton)ue2 and %ro( t$ese# $o learnt t$e lan)ua)e t$orou)$ly# are descended t$e &resent class o% "nter&reters "n E)y&t. No t$e ,on"ans and Car"ans occu&"ed t$ese &ort"ons o% land %or a lon) t"(e# and t$ey are to ards t$e sea a l"ttle !elo t$e c"ty o% Bu!ast"s# on t$at $"c$ "s called t$e Pelus"an (out$ o% t$e N"le. T$ese (en '"n) A(as"s a%ter ards re(o+ed %ro( t$ence and esta!l"s$ed t$e( at Me(&$"s# (a'"n) t$e( "nto a )uard %or $"(sel% a)a"nst t$e E)y&t"ans; and t$ey !e"n) settled "n E)y&t# e $o are Hellenes 'no !y "ntercourse "t$ t$e( t$e certa"nty o% all t$at $"c$ $a&&ened "n E)y&t !e)"nn"n) %ro( '"n) Psa((et"c$os and a%ter ards2 %or t$ese ere t$e %"rst (en o% %ore")n ton)ue $o settled "n E)y&t; and "n t$e land %ro( $"c$ t$ey ere re(o+ed t$ere st"ll re(a"ned do n to (y t"(e t$e s$eds $ere t$e"r s$"&s ere dra n u& and t$e ru"ns o% t$e"r $ouses. T$us t$en Psa((et"c$os o!ta"ned E)y&t; and o% t$e Oracle $"c$ "s "n E)y&t , $a+e (ade (ent"on o%ten !e%ore t$"s# and no , )"+e an account o% "t# see"n) t$at "t "s ort$y to !e descr"!ed. T$"s Oracle $"c$ "s "n E)y&t "s sacred to 9eto# and "t "s esta!l"s$ed "n a )reat c"ty near t$at (out$ o% t$e N"le $"c$ "s called Se!ennyt"c# as one sa"ls u& t$e r"+er %ro( t$e sea2 and t$e na(e o% t$"s c"ty $ere t$e Oracle "s %ound "s Buto# as , $a+e sa"d !e%ore "n (ent"on"n) "t. ,n t$"s Buto t$ere "s a te(&le o% A&ollo and Arte("s2 and t$e te(&le5$ouse o% 9eto# "n $"c$ t$e Oracle "s# "s !ot$ )reat "n "tsel% and $as a )ate ay o% t$e $e")$t o% ten %at$o(s; !ut t$at $"c$ caused (e (ost to (ar+el o% t$e t$"n)s to !e seen t$ere# , "ll no tell. T$ere "s "n t$"s sacred enclosure a $ouse o% 9eto (ade o% one s"n)le stone u&on t$e to&# t$e corn"ce (easur"n) %our cu!"ts. T$"s $ouse t$en o% all t$e t$"n)s t$at ere to !e seen !y (e "n t$at te(&le "s t$e (ost (ar+ellous# and a(on) t$ose $"c$ co(e ne*t "s t$e "sland called C$e(("s. T$"s "s s"tuated

"n a dee& and !road la'e !y t$e s"de o% t$e te(&le at Buto# and "t "s sa"d !y t$e E)y&t"ans t$at t$"s "sland "s a %loat"n) "sland. , (ysel% d"d not see "t e"t$er %loat"n) a!out or (o+ed %ro( "ts &lace# and , %eel sur&r"se at $ear"n) o% "t# onder"n) "% "t !e "ndeed a %loat"n) "sland. ,n t$"s "sland o% $"c$ , s&ea' t$ere "s a )reat te(&le5$ouse o% A&ollo# and t$ree se+eral altars are set u& "t$"n# and t$ere are &lanted "n t$e "sland (any &al(5trees and ot$er trees# !ot$ !ear"n) %ru"t and not !ear"n) %ru"t. And t$e E)y&t"ans# $en t$ey say t$at "t "s %loat"n)# add t$"s story# na(ely t$at "n t$"s "sland $"c$ %or(erly as not %loat"n)# 9eto# !e"n) one o% t$e e")$t )ods $o ca(e "nto e*"stence %"rst# and d ell"n) "n t$e c"ty o% Buto $ere s$e $as t$"s Oracle# rece"+ed A&ollo %ro( ,s"s as a c$ar)e and &reser+ed $"(# conceal"n) $"( "n t$e "sland $"c$ "s sa"d no to !e a %loat"n) "sland# at t$at t"(e $en Ty&$on ca(e a%ter $"( see'"n) e+ery $ere and des"r"n) to %"nd t$e son o% Os"r"s. No t$ey say t$at A&ollo and Arte("s are c$"ldren o% D"onysos and o% ,s"s# and t$at 9eto !eca(e t$e"r nurse and &reser+er2 and "n t$e E)y&t"an ton)ue A&ollo "s Oros# De(eter "s ,s"s# and Arte("s "s Bu!ast"s. Fro( t$"s story and %ro( no ot$er AEsc$ylus t$e son o% Eu&$or"on too' t$"s $"c$ , s$all say# $ere"n $e d"%%ers %ro( all t$e &reced"n) &oets2 $e re&resented na(ely t$at Arte("s as t$e dau)$ter o% De(eter. For t$"s reason t$en# t$ey say# "t !eca(e a %loat"n) "sland. Suc$ "s t$e story $"c$ t$ey tell2 !ut as %or Psa((et"c$os# $e as '"n) o+er E)y&t %or %our5and5%"%ty years# o% $"c$ %or t$"rty years sa+e one $e as s"tt"n) !e%ore A3otos# a )reat c"ty o% Syr"a# !es"e)"n) "t# unt"l at last $e too' "t; and t$"s A3otos o% all c"t"es a!out $"c$ e $a+e 'no led)e $eld out %or t$e lon)est t"(e under a s"e)e. T$e son o% Psa((et"c$os as Necos# and $e !eca(e '"n) o% E)y&t. T$"s (an as t$e %"rst $o atte(&ted t$e c$annel lead"n) to t$e Eryt$ra"an Sea# $"c$ Dare"os t$e Pers"an a%ter ards co(&leted; t$e len)t$ o% t$"s "s a +oya)e o% %our days# and "n !readt$ "t as so du) t$at t o tr"re(es could )o s"de !y s"de dr"+en !y oars2 and t$e ater "s !rou)$t "nto "t %ro( t$e N"le. T$e c$annel "s conducted a l"ttle a!o+e t$e c"ty o% Bu!ast"s !y Patu(os t$e Ara!"an c"ty# and runs "nto t$e Eryt$ra"an Sea; and "t "s du) %"rst alon) t$ose &arts o% t$e &la"n o% E)y&t $"c$ l"e to ards Ara!"a# /ust a!o+e $"c$ run t$e (ounta"ns $"c$ e*tend o&&os"te Me(&$"s# $ere are t$e stone54uarr"es#55alon) t$e !ase o% t$ese (ounta"ns t$e c$annel "s conducted %ro( :est to East %or a )reat ay2 and a%ter t$at "t "s d"rected to ards a !rea' "n t$e $"lls and tends %ro( t$ese (ounta"ns to ards t$e noon5day and t$e Sout$ :"nd to t$e Ara!"an )ul%. No "n t$e &lace $ere t$e /ourney "s least and s$ortest %ro( t$e Nort$ern to t$e Sout$ern Sea @ $"c$ "s

also called Eryt$ra"anA# t$at "s %ro( Mount Cas"on# $"c$ "s t$e !oundary !et een E)y&t and Syr"a# t$e d"stance "s e*actly a t$ousand %urlon)s to t$e Ara!"an )ul%2 !ut t$e c$annel "s (uc$ lon)er# s"nce "t "s (ore "nd"n)2 and "n t$e re")n o% Necos t$ere &er"s$ed $"le d"))"n) "t t el+e (yr"ads o% t$e E)y&t"ans. No Necos ceased "n t$e ("dst o% $"s d"))"n)# !ecause t$e utterance o% an Oracle "(&eded $"(# $"c$ as to t$e e%%ect t$at $e as or'"n) %or t$e Bar!ar"an; and t$e E)y&t"ans call all (en Bar!ar"ans $o do not a)ree "t$ t$e( "n s&eec$. T$us $a+"n) ceased %ro( t$e or' o% t$e c$annel# Necos !etoo' $"(sel% to ra)"n) ars# and tr"re(es ere !u"lt !y $"(# so(e %or t$e Nort$ern Sea and ot$ers "n t$e Ara!"an )ul% %or t$e Eryt$ra"an Sea2 and o% t$ese t$e s$eds are st"ll to !e seen. T$ese s$"&s $e used $en $e needed t$e(2 and also on land Necos en)a)ed !attle at Ma)dolos "t$ t$e Syr"ans# and con4uered t$e(2 and a%ter t$"s $e too' Cadyt"s# $"c$ "s a )reat c"ty o% Syr"a; and t$e dress $"c$ $e ore $en $e (ade t$ese con4uests $e ded"cated to A&ollo# send"n) "t to Branc$"da" o% t$e M"les"ans. A%ter t$"s# $a+"n) re")ned "n all s"*teen years# $e !rou)$t $"s l"%e to an end# and $anded on t$e '"n)do( to Psa(("s $"s son. :$"le t$"s Psa(("s as '"n) o% E)y&t# t$ere ca(e to $"( (en sent !y t$e Ele"ans# $o !oasted t$at t$ey ordered t$e contest at Oly(&"a "n t$e (ost /ust and $onoura!le (anner &oss"!le and t$ou)$t t$at not e+en t$e E)y&t"ans# t$e "sest o% (en# could %"nd out anyt$"n) !es"des# to !e added to t$e"r rules. No $en t$e Ele"ans ca(e to E)y&t and sa"d t$at %or $"c$ t$ey $ad co(e# t$en t$"s '"n) called to)et$er t$ose o% t$e E)y&t"ans $o ere re&uted t$e "sest# and $en t$e E)y&t"ans $ad co(e to)et$er t$ey $eard t$e Ele"ans tell o% all t$at $"c$ "t as t$e"r &art to do "n re)ard to t$e contest2 and $en t$ey $ad related e+eryt$"n)# t$ey sa"d t$at t$ey $ad co(e to learn "n add"t"on anyt$"n) $"c$ t$e E)y&t"ans (")$t !e a!le to %"nd out !es"des# $"c$ as /uster t$an t$"s. T$ey t$en $a+"n) consulted to)et$er as'ed t$e Ele"ans $et$er t$e"r o n c"t"3ens too' &art "n t$e contest2 and t$ey sa"d t$at "t as &er("tted to any one $o des"red "t# to ta'e &art "n t$e contest; u&on $"c$ t$e E)y&t"ans sa"d t$at "n so order"n) t$e )a(es t$ey $ad $olly ("ssed t$e (ar' o% /ust"ce2 %or "t could not !e !ut t$at t$ey ould ta'e &art "t$ t$e (an o% t$e"r o n State# "% $e as contend"n)# and so act un%a"rly to t$e stran)er; !ut "% t$ey really des"red# as t$ey sa"d# to order t$e )a(es /ustly# and "% t$"s as t$e cause %or $"c$ t$ey $ad co(e to E)y&t# t$ey ad+"sed t$e( to order t$e contest so as to !e %or stran)ers alone to contend "n# and t$at no Ele"an s$ould !e &er("tted to contend. Suc$ as t$e su))est"on (ade !y t$e E)y&t"ans to t$e Ele"ans. :$en Psa(("s $ad !een '"n) o% E)y&t %or only s"* years and $ad (ade an

e*&ed"t"on to Et$"o&"a and "((ed"ately a%ter ards $ad ended $"s l"%e# A&r"es t$e son o% Psa(("s rece"+ed t$e '"n)do( "n success"on. T$"s (an ca(e to !e t$e (ost &ros&erous o% all t$e '"n)s u& to t$at t"(e e*ce&t only $"s %ore%at$er Psa((et"c$os2 and $e re")ned %"+e5and5t enty years# dur"n) $"c$ $e led an ar(y a)a"nst S"don and %ou)$t a sea5 %")$t "t$ t$e '"n) o% Tyre. S"nce $o e+er "t as %ated t$at e+"l s$ould co(e u&on $"( "t ca(e !y occas"on o% a (atter $"c$ , s$all relate at )reater len)t$ "n t$e 9"!yan $"story# and at &resent !ut s$ortly. A&r"es $a+"n) sent a )reat e*&ed"t"on a)a"nst t$e 8yren"ans# (et "t$ corres&ond"n)ly )reat d"saster2 and t$e E)y&t"ans cons"der"n) $"( to !la(e %or t$"s re+olted %ro( $"(# su&&os"n) t$at A&r"es $ad "t$ %oret$ou)$t sent t$e( out to e+"dent cala("ty# "n order @as t$ey sa"dA t$at t$ere (")$t !e a slau)$ter o% t$e(# and $e (")$t t$e (ore securely rule o+er t$e ot$er E)y&t"ans. Be"n) "nd")nant at t$"s# !ot$ t$ese (en $o $ad returned %ro( t$e e*&ed"t"on and also t$e %r"ends o% t$ose $o $ad &er"s$ed (ade re+olt o&enly. Hear"n) t$"s A&r"es sent to t$e( A(as"s# to cause t$e( to cease !y &ersuas"on2 and $en $e $ad co(e and as see'"n) to restra"n t$e E)y&t"ans# as $e as s&ea'"n) and tell"n) t$e( not to do so# one o% t$e E)y&t"ans stood u& !e$"nd $"( and &ut a $el(et u&on $"s $ead# say"n) as $e d"d so t$at $e &ut "t on to cro n $"( '"n). And to $"( t$"s t$at as done as "n so(e de)ree not un elco(e# as $e &ro+ed !y $"s !e$a+"our2 %or as soon as t$e re+olted E)y&t"ans $ad set $"( u& as '"n)# $e &re&ared to (arc$ a)a"nst A&r"es; and A&r"es $ear"n) t$"s sent to A(as"s one o% t$e E)y&t"ans $o ere a!out $"s o n &erson# a (an o% re&utat"on# $ose na(e as Patar!e("s# en/o"n"n) $"( to !r"n) A(as"s al"+e "nto $"s &resence. :$en t$"s Patar!e("s ca(e and su((oned A(as"s# t$e latter# $o $a&&ened to !e s"tt"n) on $orse!ac'# l"%ted u& $"s le) and !e$a+ed "n an unsee(ly (anner# !"dd"n) $"( ta'e t$at !ac' to A&r"es. Ne+ert$eless# t$ey say# Patar!e("s (ade de(and o% $"( t$at $e s$ould )o to t$e '"n)# see"n) t$at t$e '"n) $ad sent to su((on $"(2 and $e ans ered $"( t$at $e $ad %or so(e t"(e &ast !een &re&ar"n) to do so# and t$at A&r"es ould $a+e no occas"on to %"nd %ault "t$ $"(# %or $e ould !ot$ co(e $"(sel% and !r"n) ot$ers "t$ $"(. T$en Patar!e("s !ot$ &erce"+"n) $"s "ntent"on %ro( t$at $"c$ $e sa"d# and also see"n) $"s &re&arat"ons# de&arted "n $aste# des"r"n) to (a'e 'no n as 4u"c'ly as &oss"!le to t$e '"n) t$e t$"n)s $"c$ ere !e"n) done; and $en $e ca(e !ac' to A&r"es not !r"n)"n) A(as"s# t$e '"n) &ay"n) no re)ard to t$at $"c$ $e sa"d# !ut !e"n) (o+ed !y +"olent an)er# ordered $"s ears and $"s nose to !e cut o%%. And t$e rest o% t$e E)y&t"ans $o st"ll re(a"ned on $"s s"de# $en t$ey sa t$e (an o% (ost re&ute a(on) t$e( t$us su%%er"n) s$a(e%ul outra)e# a"ted no lon)er !ut /o"ned t$e ot$ers "n re+olt# and del"+ered t$e(sel+es o+er to A(as"s. T$en A&r"es $a+"n) $eard t$"s also# ar(ed $"s %ore")n (ercenar"es and (arc$ed a)a"nst t$e E)y&t"ans; no $e $ad a!out $"( Car"an and ,on"an

(ercenar"es to t$e nu(!er o% t$"rty t$ousand2 and $"s royal &alace as "n t$e c"ty o% Sa"s# o% )reat s"3e and ort$y to !e seen. So A&r"es and $"s ar(y ere )o"n) a)a"nst t$e E)y&t"ans# and A(as"s and t$ose "t$ $"( ere )o"n) a)a"nst t$e (ercenar"es2 and !ot$ s"des ca(e to t$e c"ty o% Mo(e(&$"s and ere a!out to (a'e tr"al o% one anot$er "n %")$t. No o% t$e E)y&t"ans t$ere are se+en classes# and o% t$ese one class "s called t$at o% t$e &r"ests# and anot$er t$at o% t$e arr"ors# $"le t$e ot$ers are t$e co $erds# s "ne$erds# s$o&'ee&ers# "nter&reters# and !oat(en. T$"s "s t$e nu(!er o% t$e classes o% t$e E)y&t"ans# and t$e"r na(es are )"+en t$e( %ro( t$e occu&at"ons $"c$ t$ey %ollo . O% t$e( t$e arr"ors are called Calas"r"ans and Her(oty!"ans# and t$ey are o% t$e %ollo "n) d"str"cts#55%or all E)y&t "s d"+"ded "nto d"str"cts. T$e d"str"cts o% t$e Her(oty!"ans are t$ose o% Bus"r"s# Sa"s# C$e(("s# Pa&re("s# t$e "sland called Proso&"t"s# and t$e $al% o% Nat$o#55o% t$ese d"str"cts are t$e Her(oty!"ans# $o reac$ed $en (ost nu(erous t$e nu(!er o% s"*teen (yr"ads. O% t$ese not one $as !een learnt anyt$"n) o% $and"cra%t# !ut t$ey are )"+en u& to ar ent"rely. A)a"n t$e d"str"cts o% t$e Calas"r"ans are t$ose o% T$e!es# Bu!ast"s# A&$t$"s# Tan"s# Mendes# Se!ennytos# At$r"!"s# P$ar!a"t$os# T$(u"s# Onu&$"s# Anyt"s# Myec&$or"s#55t$"s last "s on an "sland o&&os"te to t$e c"ty o% Bu!ast"s. T$ese are t$e d"str"cts o% t$e Calas"r"ans2 and t$ey reac$ed# $en (ost nu(erous# to t$e nu(!er o% %"+e5and5t enty (yr"ads o% (en2 nor "s "t la %ul %or t$ese# any (ore t$an %or t$e ot$ers# to &ract"se any cra%t2 !ut t$ey &ract"se t$at $"c$ $as to do "t$ ar only# $and"n) do n t$e trad"t"on %ro( %at$er to son. No $et$er t$e Hellenes $a+e learnt t$"s also %ro( t$e E)y&t"ans# , a( not a!le to say %or certa"n# s"nce , see t$at t$e T$rac"ans also and Scyt$"ans and Pers"ans and 9yd"ans and al(ost all t$e Bar!ar"ans estee( t$ose o% t$e"r c"t"3ens $o learn t$e arts# and t$e descendants o% t$e(# as less $onoura!le t$an t$e rest2 $"le t$ose $o $a+e )ot %ree %ro( all &ract"ce o% (anual arts are accounted no!le# and es&ec"ally t$ose $o are de+oted to ar; $o e+er t$at (ay !e# t$e Hellenes $a+e all learnt t$"s# and es&ec"ally t$e 9acede(on"ans2 !ut t$e Cor"nt$"ans least o% all cast sl")$t u&on t$ose $o &ract"se $and"cra%t. T$e %ollo "n) &r"+"le)e as s&ec"ally )ranted to t$"s class and to none ot$ers o% t$e E)y&t"ans e*ce&t t$e &r"ests# t$at "s to say# eac$ (an $ad t el+e yo'es o% land s&ec"ally )ranted to $"( %ree %ro( "(&osts; no t$e yo'e o% land (easures a $undred E)y&t"an cu!"ts e+ery ay# and t$e E)y&t"an cu!"t "s# as "t $a&&ens# e4ual to t$at o% Sa(os. T$"s# , say# as a s&ec"al &r"+"le)e )ranted to all# and t$ey also $ad certa"n ad+anta)es "n turn and not t$e sa(e (en t "ce2 t$at "s to say#

a t$ousand o% t$e Calas"r"ans and a t$ousand o% t$e Her(oty!"ans acted as !ody5)uard to t$e '"n) dur"n) eac$ year2 and t$ese $ad !es"des t$e"r yo'es o% land an allo ance )"+en t$e( %or eac$ day o% %"+e &ounds e")$t o% !read to eac$ (an# and t o &ounds o% !ee%# and %our $al%5&"nts o% "ne. T$"s as t$e allo ance )"+en to t$ose $o ere ser+"n) as t$e '"n)=s !ody5)uard %or t$e t"(e !e"n). So $en A&r"es lead"n) $"s %ore")n (ercenar"es# and A(as"s at t$e $ead o% t$e $ole !ody o% t$e E)y&t"ans# "n t$e"r a&&roac$ to one anot$er $ad co(e to t$e c"ty o% Mo(e(&$"s# t$ey en)a)ed "n !attle; and alt$ou)$ t$e %ore")n troo&s %ou)$t ell# yet !e"n) (uc$ "n%er"or "n nu(!er t$ey ere orsted !y reason o% t$"s. But A&r"es "s sa"d to $a+e su&&osed t$at not e+en a )od ould !e a!le to cause $"( to cease %ro( $"s rule# so %"r(ly d"d $e t$"n' t$at "t as esta!l"s$ed. ,n t$at !attle t$en# , say# $e as orsted# and !e"n) ta'en al"+e as !rou)$t a ay to t$e c"ty o% Sa"s# to t$at $"c$ $ad %or(erly !een $"s o n d ell"n) !ut %ro( t$ence%ort$ as t$e &alace o% A(as"s. T$ere %or so(e t"(e $e as 'e&t "n t$e &alace# and A(as"s dealt ell "t$ $"( !ut at last# s"nce t$e E)y&t"ans !la(ed $"(# say"n) t$at $e acted not r")$tly "n 'ee&"n) al"+e $"( $o as t$e )reatest %oe !ot$ to t$e(sel+es and to $"(# t$ere%ore $e del"+ered A&r"es o+er to t$e E)y&t"ans2 and t$ey stran)led $"(# and a%ter t$at !ur"ed $"( "n t$e !ur"al5&lace o% $"s %at$ers; t$"s "s "n t$e te(&le o% At$ene# close to t$e sanctuary# on t$e le%t $and as you enter. No t$e (en o% Sa"s !ur"ed all t$ose o% t$"s d"str"ct $o $ad !een '"n)s# "t$"n t$e te(&le2 %or t$e to(! o% A(as"s also# t$ou)$ "t "s %urt$er %ro( t$e sanctuary t$an t$at o% A&r"es and $"s %ore%at$ers# yet t$"s too "s "t$"n t$e court o% t$e te(&le# and "t cons"sts o% a colonnade o% stone o% )reat s"3e# "t$ &"llars car+ed to "("tate date5&al(s# and ot$er "se su(&tuously adorned2 and "t$"n t$e colonnade are dou!le doors# and "ns"de t$e doors a se&ulc$ral c$a(!er. Also at Sa"s t$ere "s t$e !ur"al5&lace o% $"( $o( , account "t not &"ous to na(e "n conne*"on "t$ suc$ a (atter# $"c$ "s "n t$e te(&le o% At$ene !e$"nd t$e $ouse o% t$e )oddess# stretc$"n) alon) t$e $ole all o% "t2 and "n t$e sacred enclosure stand )reat o!el"s's o% stone# and near t$e( "s a la'e adorned "t$ an ed)"n) o% stone and %a"rly (ade "n a c"rcle# !e"n) "n s"3e# as "t see(ed to (e# e4ual to t$at $"c$ "s called t$e 6Round Pool6 "n Delos. On t$"s la'e t$ey &er%or( !y n")$t t$e s$o o% $"s su%%er"n)s# and t$"s t$e E)y&t"ans call Myster"es. O% t$ese t$"n)s , 'no (ore %ully "n deta"l $o t$ey ta'e &lace# !ut , s$all lea+e t$"s uns&o'en2 and o% t$e (yst"c r"tes o% De(eter# $"c$ t$e Hellenes call <t$es(o&$or"a<# o% t$ese also# alt$ou)$ , 'no # , s$all lea+e uns&o'en all e*ce&t so (uc$ as &"ety &er("ts (e to tell. T$e dau)$ters o% Danaos ere t$ey $o !rou)$t t$"s r"te out o% E)y&t and tau)$t "t to t$e o(en o% t$e Pelas)"ans2 t$en a%ter ards $en all t$e "n$a!"tants

o% Pelo&onnese ere dr"+en out !y t$e Dor"ans# t$e r"te as lost# and only t$ose $o ere le%t !e$"nd o% t$e Pelo&onnes"ans and not dr"+en out# t$at "s to say t$e Arcad"ans# &reser+ed "t. A&r"es $a+"n) t$us !een o+ert$ro n# A(as"s !eca(e '"n)# !e"n) o% t$e d"str"ct o% Sa"s# and t$e na(e o% t$e c"ty $ence $e as "s S"u&$. No at t$e %"rst t$e E)y&t"ans des&"sed A(as"s and $eld $"( "n no )reat re)ard# !ecause $e $ad !een a (an o% t$e &eo&le and as o% no d"st"n)u"s$ed %a("ly2 !ut a%ter ards A(as"s on t$e( o+er to $"(sel% !y "sdo( and not "l%ulness. A(on) "nnu(era!le ot$er t$"n)s o% &r"ce $"c$ $e $ad# t$ere as a %oot5!as"n o% )old "n $"c$ !ot$ A(as"s $"(sel% and all $"s )uests ere ont al ays to as$ t$e"r %eet. T$"s $e !ro'e u&# and o% "t $e caused to !e (ade t$e "(a)e o% a )od# and set "t u& "n t$e c"ty# $ere "t as (ost con+en"ent2 and t$e E)y&t"ans ent cont"nually to +"s"t t$e "(a)e and d"d )reat re+erence to "t. T$en A(as"s# $a+"n) learnt t$at $"c$ as done !y t$e (en o% t$e c"ty# called to)et$er t$e E)y&t"ans and (ade 'no n to t$e( t$e (atter# say"n) t$at t$e "(a)e $ad !een &roduced %ro( t$e %oot5!as"n# "nto $"c$ %or(erly t$e E)y&t"ans used to +o("t and (a'e ater# and "n $"c$ t$ey as$ed t$e"r %eet# $ereas no t$ey d"d to "t )reat re+erence2 and /ust so# $e cont"nued# $ad $e $"(sel% no %ared# as t$e %oot5!as"n2 %or t$ou)$ %or(erly $e as a (an o% t$e &eo&le# yet no $e as t$e"r '"n)# and $e !ade t$e( accord"n)ly $onour $"( and $a+e re)ard %or $"(. ,n suc$ (anner $e on t$e E)y&t"ans to $"(sel%# so t$at t$ey consented to !e $"s su!/ects2 and $"s order"n) o% a%%a"rs as t$"s;55,n t$e early (orn"n)# and unt"l t$e t"(e o% t$e %"ll"n) o% t$e (ar'et $e d"d "t$ a )ood "ll t$e !us"ness $"c$ as !rou)$t !e%ore $"(2 !ut a%ter t$"s $e &assed t$e t"(e "n dr"n'"n) and "n /est"n) at $"s !oon5co(&an"ons# and as %r"+olous and &lay%ul. And $"s %r"ends !e"n) trou!led at "t ad(on"s$ed $"( "n so(e suc$ ords as t$ese; 6O '"n)# t$ou dost not r")$tly )o+ern t$ysel% "n t$us lett"n) t$ysel% descend to !e$a+"our so tr"%l"n)2 %or t$ou ou)$test rat$er to $a+e !een s"tt"n) t$rou)$out t$e day stately u&on a stately t$rone and ad("n"ster"n) t$y !us"ness2 and so t$e E)y&t"ans ould $a+e !een assured t$at t$ey ere ruled !y a )reat (an# and t$ou ouldest $a+e $ad a !etter re&ort; !ut as "t "s# t$ou art act"n) !y no (eans "n a '"n)ly %as$"on.6 And $e ans ered t$e( t$us; 6T$ey $o $a+e !o s stretc$ t$e( at suc$ t"(e as t$ey "s$ to use t$e(# and $en t$ey $a+e %"n"s$ed us"n) t$e( t$ey loose t$e( a)a"n2 %or "% t$ey ere stretc$ed t")$t al ays t$ey ould !rea'# so t$at t$e (en ould not !e a!le to use t$e( $en t$ey needed t$e(. So also "s t$e state o% (an; "% $e s$ould al ays !e "n earnest and not rela* $"(sel% %or s&ort at t$e due t"(e# $e ould e"t$er )o (ad or !e struc' "t$ stu&or !e%ore $e as a are2 and 'no "n) t$"s ell# , d"str"!ute a &ort"on o% t$e t"(e to eac$ o% t$e t o ays o% l"+"n).6 T$us $e re&l"ed to $"s %r"ends. ,t "s

sa"d $o e+er t$at A(as"s# e+en $en $e as "n a &r"+ate stat"on# as a lo+er o% dr"n'"n) and o% /est"n)# and not at all ser"ously d"s&osed2 and $ene+er $"s (eans o% l"+el"$ood %a"led $"( t$rou)$ $"s dr"n'"n) and lu*ur"ous l"+"n)# $e ould )o a!out and steal2 and t$ey %ro( $o( $e stole ould c$ar)e $"( "t$ $a+"n) t$e"r &ro&erty# and $en $e den"ed "t ould !r"n) $"( !e%ore t$e /ud)(ent o% an Oracle# $ene+er t$ere as one "n t$e"r &lace2 and (any t"(es $e as con+"cted !y t$e Oracles and (any t"(es $e as a!sol+ed; and t$en $en %"nally $e !eca(e '"n) $e d"d as %ollo s;55as (any o% t$e )ods as $ad a!sol+ed $"( and &ronounced $"( not to !e a t$"e%# to t$e"r te(&les $e &a"d no re)ard# nor )a+e anyt$"n) %or t$e %urt$er adorn(ent o% t$e(# nor e+en +"s"ted t$e( to o%%er sacr"%"ce# cons"der"n) t$e( to !e ort$ not$"n) and to &ossess ly"n) Oracles2 !ut as (any as $ad con+"cted $"( o% !e"n) a t$"e%# to t$ese $e &a"d +ery )reat re)ard# cons"der"n) t$e( to !e truly )ods# and to &resent Oracles $"c$ d"d not l"e. F"rst "n Sa"s $e !u"lt and co(&leted %or At$ene a te(&le5)ate ay $"c$ "s a )reat (ar+el# and $e %ar sur&assed $ere"n all $o $ad done t$e l"'e !e%ore# !ot$ "n re)ard to $e")$t and )reatness# so lar)e are t$e stones and o% suc$ 4ual"ty. T$en secondly $e ded"cated )reat colossal statues and (an5$eaded s&$"n*es +ery lar)e# and %or restorat"on $e caused to !e !rou)$t %ro( t$e stone54uarr"es $"c$ are o&&os"te Me(&$"s# ot$ers o% +ery )reat s"3e %ro( t$e c"ty o% Ele&$ant"ne# d"stant a +oya)e o% not less t$an t enty days %ro( Sa"s; and o% t$e( all , (ar+el (ost at t$"s# na(ely a (onol"t$ c$a(!er $"c$ $e !rou)$t %ro( t$e c"ty o% Ele&$ant"ne2 and t$ey ere t$ree years en)a)ed "n !r"n)"n) t$"s# and t o t$ousand (en ere a&&o"nted to con+ey "t# $o all ere o% t$e class o% !oat(en. O% t$"s $ouse t$e len)t$ outs"de "s one5and5t enty cu!"ts# t$e !readt$ "s %ourteen cu!"ts# and t$e $e")$t e")$t. T$ese are t$e (easures o% t$e (onol"t$ $ouse outs"de2 !ut t$e len)t$ "ns"de "s e")$teen cu!"ts and %"+e5s"*t$s o% a cu!"t# t$e !readt$ t el+e cu!"ts# and t$e $e")$t %"+e cu!"ts. T$"s l"es !y t$e s"de o% t$e entrance to t$e te(&le2 %or "t$"n t$e te(&le t$ey d"d not dra "t# !ecause# as "t "s sa"d# $"le t$e $ouse as !e"n) dra n alon)# t$e c$"e% art"%"cer o% "t )roaned aloud# see"n) t$at (uc$ t"(e $ad !een s&ent and $e as ear"ed !y t$e or'2 and A(as"s too' "t to $eart as a arn"n) and d"d not allo t$e( to dra "t %urt$er on ards. So(e say on t$e ot$er $and t$at a (an as '"lled !y "t# o% t$ose $o ere $ea+"n) "t "t$ le+ers# and t$at "t as not dra n "n %or t$at reason. A(as"s also ded"cated "n all t$e ot$er te(&les $"c$ ere o% re&ute# or's $"c$ are ort$ see"n) %or t$e"r s"3e# and a(on) t$e( also at Me(&$"s t$e colossal statue $"c$ l"es on "ts !ac' "n %ront o% t$e te(&le o% He&$a"stos# $ose len)t$ "s %"+e5and5se+enty %eet2 and on t$e sa(e !ase (ade o% t$e sa(e stone are set t o colossal statues# eac$ o% t enty %eet "n len)t$# one on t$"s s"de and t$e ot$er on t$at s"de o% t$e lar)e statue. T$ere "s also anot$er o% stone o% t$e sa(e s"3e "n

Sa"s# ly"n) "n t$e sa(e (anner as t$at at Me(&$"s. Moreo+er A(as"s as $e $o !u"lt and %"n"s$ed %or ,s"s $er te(&le at Me(&$"s# $"c$ "s o% )reat s"3e and +ery ort$y to !e seen. ,n t$e re")n o% A(as"s "t "s sa"d t$at E)y&t !eca(e (ore &ros&erous t$an at any ot$er t"(e !e%ore# !ot$ "n re)ard to t$at $"c$ co(es to t$e land %ro( t$e r"+er and "n re)ard to t$at $"c$ co(es %ro( t$e land to "ts "n$a!"tants# and t$at at t$"s t"(e t$e "n$a!"ted to ns "n "t nu(!ered "n all t enty t$ousand. ,t as A(as"s too $o esta!l"s$ed t$e la t$at e+ery year eac$ one o% t$e E)y&t"ans s$ould declare to t$e ruler o% $"s d"str"ct# %ro( $at source $e )ot $"s l"+el"$ood# and "% any (an d"d not do t$"s or d"d not (a'e declarat"on o% an $onest ay o% l"+"n)# $e s$ould !e &un"s$ed "t$ deat$. No Solon t$e At$en"an rece"+ed %ro( E)y&t t$"s la and $ad "t enacted %or t$e At$en"ans# and t$ey $a+e cont"nued to o!ser+e "t# s"nce "t "s a la "t$ $"c$ none can %"nd %ault. Moreo+er A(as"s !eca(e a lo+er o% t$e Hellenes2 and !es"des ot$er &roo%s o% %r"ends$"& $"c$ $e )a+e to se+eral a(on) t$e(# $e also )ranted t$e c"ty o% Naucrat"s %or t$ose o% t$e( $o ca(e to E)y&t to d ell "n2 and to t$ose $o d"d not des"re to stay# !ut $o (ade +oya)es t$"t$er# $e )ranted &ort"ons o% land to set u& altars and (a'e sacred enclosures %or t$e"r )ods. T$e"r )reatest enclosure and t$at one $"c$ $as (ost na(e and "s (ost %re4uented "s called t$e Hellen"on# and t$"s as esta!l"s$ed !y t$e %ollo "n) c"t"es "n co((on; 55o% t$e ,on"ans C$"os# Teos# P$oca"a# Cla3o(ena"# o% t$e Dor"ans R$odes# Cn"dos# Hal"carnassos# P$asel"s# and o% t$e A"ol"ans Myt"lene alone. To t$ese !elon)s t$"s enclosure and t$ese are t$e c"t"es $"c$ a&&o"nt su&er"ntendents o% t$e &ort2 and all ot$er c"t"es $"c$ cla"( a s$are "n "t# are (a'"n) a cla"( "t$out any r")$t. Bes"des t$"s t$e E)"netans esta!l"s$ed on t$e"r o n account a sacred enclosure ded"cated to >eus# t$e Sa("ans one to Hera# and t$e M"les"ans one to A&ollo. No "n old t"(es Naucrat"s alone as an o&en trad"n)5&lace# and no ot$er &lace "n E)y&t; and "% any one ca(e to any ot$er o% t$e N"le (out$s# $e as co(&elled to s ear t$at $e ca(e not t$"t$er o% $"s o n %ree "ll# and $en $e $ad t$us s orn $"s "nnocence $e $ad to sa"l "t$ $"s s$"& to t$e Cano!"c (out$# or "% "t ere not &oss"!le to sa"l !y reason o% contrary "nds# t$en $e $ad to carry $"s car)o round t$e $ead o% t$e Delta "n !oats to Naucrat"s; t$us $")$ly as Naucrat"s &r"+"le)ed. Moreo+er $en t$e A(&$"ctyons $ad let out t$e contract %or !u"ld"n) t$e te(&le $"c$ no e*"sts at Del&$"# a)ree"n) to &ay a su( o% t$ree $undred talents @%or t$e te(&le $"c$ %or(erly stood t$ere $ad !een !urnt do n o% "tsel%A# "t %ell to t$e s$are o% t$e &eo&le o% Del&$" to &ro+"de t$e %ourt$ &art o% t$e &ay(ent2 and accord"n)ly t$e Del&$"ans ent a!out to +ar"ous c"t"es and collected contr"!ut"ons.

And $en t$ey d"d t$"s t$ey )ot %ro( E)y&t as (uc$ as %ro( any &lace# %or A(as"s )a+e t$e( a t$ousand talents= e")$t o% alu(# $"le t$e Hellenes $o d elt "n E)y&t )a+e t$e( t enty &ounds o% s"l+er. Also "t$ t$e &eo&le o% 8yrene A(as"s (ade an a)ree(ent %or %r"ends$"& and all"ance2 and $e resol+ed too to (arry a "%e %ro( t$ence# $et$er !ecause $e des"red to $a+e a "%e o% Hellen"c race# or# a&art %ro( t$at# on account o% %r"ends$"& %or t$e &eo&le o% 8yrene; $o e+er t$at (ay !e# $e (arr"ed# so(e say t$e dau)$ter o% Battos# ot$ers o% Ar'es"laos# and ot$ers o% Cr"to!ulos# a (an o% re&ute a(on) t$e c"t"3ens2 and $er na(e as 9ad"'e. No $ene+er A(as"s lay "t$ $er $e %ound $"(sel% una!le to $a+e "ntercourse# !ut "t$ $"s ot$er "+es $e assoc"ated as $e as ont2 and as t$"s $a&&ened re&eatedly# A(as"s sa"d to $"s "%e# $ose na(e as 9ad"'e; 6:o(an# t$ou $ast )"+en (e dru)s# and t$ou s$all surely &er"s$ (ore ("sera!ly t$an any ot$er.6 T$en 9ad"'e# $en !y $er den"als A(as"s as not at all a&&eased "n $"s an)er a)a"nst $er# (ade a +o "n $er soul to A&$rod"te# t$at "% A(as"s on t$at n")$t $ad "ntercourse "t$ $er @see"n) t$at t$"s as t$e re(edy %or $er dan)erA# s$e ould send an "(a)e to !e ded"cated to $er at 8yrene2 and a%ter t$e +o "((ed"ately A(as"s $ad "ntercourse# and %ro( t$ence%ort$ $ene+er A(as"s ca(e "n to $er $e $ad "ntercourse "t$ $er2 and a%ter t$"s $e !eca(e +ery )reatly attac$ed to $er. And 9ad"'e &a"d t$e +o t$at s$e $ad (ade to t$e )oddess2 %or s$e $ad an "(a)e (ade and sent "t to 8yrene# and "t "s st"ll &reser+ed e+en to (y o n t"(e# stand"n) "t$ "ts %ace turned a ay %ro( t$e c"ty o% t$e 8yren"ans. T$"s 9ad"'e Ca(!yses# $a+"n) con4uered E)y&t and $eard %ro( $er $o s$e as# sent !ac' un$ar(ed to 8yrene. A(as"s also ded"cated o%%er"n)s "n Hellas# %"rst at 8yrene an "(a)e o% At$ene co+ered o+er "t$ )old and a %")ure o% $"(sel% (ade l"'e !y &a"nt"n)2 t$en "n t$e te(&le o% At$ene at 9"ndos t o "(a)es o% stone and a corslet o% l"nen ort$y to !e seen2 and also at Sa(os t o ooden %")ures o% $"(sel% ded"cated to Hera# $"c$ ere stand"n) e+en to (y o n t"(e "n t$e )reat te(&le# !e$"nd t$e doors. No at Sa(os $e ded"cated o%%er"n)s !ecause o% t$e )uest5%r"ends$"& !et een $"(sel% and Polycrates t$e son o% A"a'es2 at 9"ndos %or no )uest5%r"ends$"& !ut !ecause t$e te(&le o% At$ene at 9"ndos "s sa"d to $a+e !een %ounded !y t$e dau)$ters o% Danaos# $o $ad touc$ed land t$ere at t$e t"(e $en t$ey ere %lee"n) %ro( t$e sons o% A")y&tos. T$ese o%%er"n)s ere ded"cated !y A(as"s2 and $e as t$e %"rst o% (en $o con4uered Cy&rus and su!dued "t so t$at "t &a"d $"( tr"!ute.

End o% T$e Pro/ect Guten!er) Ete*t o% An Account o% E)y&t# !y Herodotus