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saqarTvelos teqnikuri universiteti saqarTvelos sapatriarqo iberiul-kavkasiuri saerTaSoriso centri

Teologiis kaTedra
5 wlisaa
samecniero konferenciis masalaTa krebuli

ibeWdeba uwmindesisa da unetaresis sruliad saqarTvelos kaTalikos - patriarqis uwmindesisa da unetaresis ilia meoris locva - kurTxeviT

The Chair of Theology is 5 Years Old 5

saqarTvelos teqnikuri universitetis

Teologiis kaTedra 5 wlisaa


saiubileo samecniero konferenciis masalaTa krebuli

2007

2007
Tbilisi
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ibeWdeba uwmidesisa da unetaresis sruliad saqarTvelos kaTolikos-patriarqis ilia meoris locva-kurTxeviT

Technical University of Georgia Patriarchate of Georgia Iberian-Caucasian International Scientific-Educational Centre


The book is published with the blessing of his holiness and beatitude Ilia II, catholicos patriarch of all Georgia

The book is published with the blessing of his holiness and beatitude Ilia II, catholicos-patriarch of all Georgia

The Chair of Theology


of the Technical University of Georgia is 5 Years Old

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Materials of the Anniversary Scientific Conference

gamomcemloba `teqnikuri universiteti", 2007


ISBN-99940-57-63-4

2007
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Tbilisi
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qarTveli eris istoriaSi gansakuTrebuli adgili uWiravs saqarTvelos samociqulo eklesias. saukuneebis manZilze (vidre Cvens qveyanas sabWoTa imperia daipyrobda), qarTuli kulturisa da ganaTlebis umTavres veqtors marTlmadidebluri rwmena gansazRvravda, Sesabamisad, postkomunistur saqarTvelos erT-erT RirsSesaniSnav faqtad unda CaiTvalos saqarTvelos teqnikur universitetSi Teologiis kaTedris daarseba da warmatebuli funqcionireba. pativcemulo mkiTxvelo, warmodgenil samecniero krebulSi gaecnobiT: saqarTvelos kaTalikos - patriarqis ilia meoris dalocvas da sityvas, romelic man warmoTqva Teologiis kaTedris daarsebis dros; cnobebs saqarTvelos teqnikuri universitetis Teologiis kaTedrisa da misi damaarseblis, profesoris, saqarTvelos eklesiis istoriis cnobili mkvlevaris, mitropolit anania jafaraZis Sesaxeb; saqarTvelos teqnikur universitetSi Catarebuli saiubileo konferenciis masalebs. krebuls Tan erTvis danarTi, sadac qveyndeba: prof. zaza abaSiZis, prof. giuli alasanias da prof. bondo arvelaZis recenziebi profesor anania jafariZis naSromebis Sesaxeb, agreTve, prof. a.jafariZis SromaTa anotirebuli bibliografia da misi bolodroindeli ramdenime sayuradRebo publikacia.
redaqtorTa sabWo: prof. arCil mowoneliZe, prof. arCil frangiSvili, prof. ivane gorgiZe, prof. Salva naWyebia, prof. zurab gasitaSvili, prof. guram javaxaZe prof. Teimuraz gvancelaZe, prof. manana tabiZe, prof. tariel futkaraZe

2007
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The Georgian Apostolic Church occupies a special place in the history of the Georgian nation. Over the centuries (before the occupation of our country by the Soviet empire), the Orthodox faith defined the main vector of Georgian culture and education. Accordingly, the foundation of the Chair of Theology and its successful functioning at the Technical University of Georgia must be regarded as a noteworthy fact in post-communist Georgia. In the present scientific publication readers will find: the blessing of Ilia II, Catholicos-Patriarch of All Georgia, and his address at the opening of the Chair of Theology, information on the Chair of Theology of the Technical University of Georgia and its founder Metropolitan Anania Japaridze, Professor, well-known researcher of the history of the Georgian Church; materials of the Anniversary Scientific Conference held at the Technical University of Georgia. The appendix to the collected papers includes: reviews of Prof. Zaza abashidze, Prof. Giuli Alasania, and Prof. Bondo Arveladze concerning Prof. Anania Japaridze's studies, as well as the annotated bibliography of Prof. A.Japaridze's papers and his several recent noteworthy publications.

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Editorial Board: Archil Motsonelidze, Archil Prangishvili, Ivane Gorgidze, Shalva Nachkebia, Zurab Gasitashvili, Guram Javaxadze, Teimuraz Gvantseladze, Manana Tabidze, Tariel Putkaradze

:
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sruliad saqarTvelos kaTalikos-patriarqs, uwmidesobas da unetaresobas, ilia meores Tqveno uwmidesobav!

mis

sarCevi
saqarTvelos kaTalikos-patriarqis ilia II - morwmune adamiani aris mona RvTisa, xolo morwmune ganaTlebuli adamiani aris megobari RvTisa............................................................................................................. 15 mitropoliti anania (jafariZe) - sabWoTa istoriografiaSi gabatonebuli Sexeduleba saqarTvelos eklesiis prozelitizmis Sesaxeb da misi kritika..................................... .......................................... 23 i.gorgiZe, g.guguSvili, g.javaxaZe - saqarTvelos teqnikuri universitetis Teologiis kaTedra - sasuliero da saero samecniero centri..............................................................................................................45 Salva naWyebia - Teologiis kaTedris dafuZneba ...................... 48

gvaqvs pativi gacnoboT, rom saqarTvelos teqnikuri universitetis didi sabWos 28.09.2001 w. erTsulovani gadawyvetilebiT universitetSi dafuZnda Teologiis kaTedra. gTxovT Teologiis kaTedris winamZRolad moavlinoT misi maRalyovladusamRvdeloesoba manglisisa da walkis mTavarepiskoposi, saqarTvelos sapatriarqos wmida sinodis wevri meufe anania. Tqveno uwmidesobav! universitetis profesor-maswavlebloba da umorCilesad iTxovs Tqvengan locva-kurTxevas. studentoba

uRrmesi pativiscemiT r. xuroZe 29.09.2001 Teologiis kaTedris 5 wlisTavisadmi miZRvnili samecniero konferenciis saorganizacio komiteti: TanaTavmjdomareebi: mitropiliti anania (jafariZe) prof. arCil mowoneliZe wevrebi: episkoposi gerasime (SaraSeniZe), protopresviteri giorgi (gamrekeli), dekanozi giorgi (zviadaZe) (Tbilisis sasuliero akademiis proreqtori), prof. a. frangiSvili (saqarTvelos teqnikuri universiteti, saqarTvelos mecnierebaTa akademiis wevr-korespodenti), prof. z. gasitaSvili (saqarTvelos teqnikuri universiteti), prof. i. gorgiZe (saqarTvelos teqnikuri universiteti), prof. d. gorgiZe (saqarTvelos teqnikuri universiteti), prof. g. guguSvili (Tbilisis sasuliero akademia), prof. s. esaZe ( saqarTvelos teqnikuri universiteti), n. vaniSvili (saqarTvelos teqnikuri universiteti), prof. S. naWyebia (saqarTvelos teqnikuri universiteti), prof. t. futkaraZe (akaki wereTlis saxelmwifo universiteti), prof. a. SavguliZe (saqarTvelos teqnikuri universiteti), prof. r. Ciqovani (saqarTvelos teqnikuri universiteti), prof. g. javaxaZe (saqarTvelos teqnikuri universiteti).

g.guguSvili - saqarTvelos teqnikuri universitetis Teologiis kaTedris istoria ....................................................................................... 51 n. vaniSvili - Cveni studentoba - eris siamaye, Teologiis kaTedra Cveni monapovari.......................................................................................... 59 n. barTaia - qarTul-iranuli enobrivi urTierTobebidan (qaquca, qura, garna) .................................................................................................. 62 T. gvancelaZe, m. tabiZe, m. naWyebia - guria-samegrelos episkoposi grigol dadiani........... .................................................................................66 v. guruli - erovnul-saxelmwifoebrivi cnobiereba: warsuli da Tanamedroveoba ............................................................................................. 86 r. gujejiani - erTobilni svanni saqarTveloSi rusifikatoruli politikis winaaRmdeg. 1. dekanozi ioane margiani.................................. 104 g. papuaSvili - kulturis cnebis providenciuri gaazrebisaTvis....114 l. maTeSvili - rwmenis, warmarTuli ganaTlebisa da elinisturi filosofiis mimarTebisaTvis ................................................................ 120 t. futkaraZe - asomTavruli anbanisa da qarTuli samwignobro enis saTave - Zv.w. II-I aTaswleulebSi arsebuli saerToqarTveluri ena... 127

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m. Cuxua - zogi qarTuli samwerlo terminis istoriisaTvis..............158 m. WabaSvili - qalis daniSnuleba gabriel episkoposis qadagebebSi 162 danarTi...................................................................................................169-232 z. abaSiZe - samagido wigni eklesiis istoriaSi......................................170 g. alasania - mTavarepiskopos anania jafariZis saqarTvelos eklesiis istoria Sua saukuneebSi (XII-XVIII ss) ................................................172 b. arvelaZe - mitropolitis, prof. anania jafariZis saqarTvelos saeklesio krebebi (t. I, t. II, t. III, Tb, 2003) da qarTuli eklesiis istoriis zogierTi sakiTxi........................................................................177 mitropoliti anania (jafariZe) - xelmwife iveriisa - levan II dadiani...........................................................................................................198 mitropoliti anania (jafariZe) - dasavleT saqarTvelos saeklesio iurisdiqcia wm. maqsime aRmsareblis cxovrebis mixedviT.....................206 mitropoliti anania (jafariZe): "maT srulebiT ar ainteresebT qarTuli saeklesio ena, arc bibliis Targmna, sinamdvileSi ganzraxuli aqvT, amgvari saSualebebiT xalxi dayon, eri daanawevron..." ...............................................................................................211 mitropolit ananias (jafariZe) ZiriTad SromaTa anotirebuli bibliografia ............................................................................................ 21 7

CONTENTS Ilia II, Catholicos, Patriarch of All Georgia - "A Faithful Person is a Servant of God, and a Faithful Educated Person is a Friend of God" .16

Metropolitan Anania (Japaridze) - The Dominant View in Soviet Historiography on Proselytism of the Georgian Church and its Criticism.............................................................................................39 I.Gorgidze, G.Gugushvili, G.Javakhadze-The Chair of Theology of the Technical University of Georgia-A Spiritual and Secular Scientific Research Centre.......................................................................................................................42 Sh. Nachkebia Foundation of The Chair of Thelogy....................................... 45 G.Gugushvili - History of the Chair of Theology of the Technical University of Georgia ..48 N.Bartaia - From Georgian-Iranian Linguistic Relations (Kakutsa, kura, Garna) 59 T.Gvantseladze, M.Tabidze, M.Nachqebia - Bishop Grigol Dadiani of Guria and Samegrelo (The Struggle for the Mother Tongue in the Second Half of the 19th Century) .77 V.Guruli - National and State Consciousness: the Past and the Present Day96 R.Gujejiani - "Ertobilni Svanni" (All Svans) against the Russification Policy in Georgia.106 G.Papuashvili -On the Providential Interpretation of the Concept of Culture...113 L.Mateshvili - On Interrelation of Faith, Pagan Education and Hellenistic Philosophy......120 T.Putkaradze - The Source of the Asomtavruli Alphabet and the Georgian Literary Language - the Common Kartvelian Language Existing in the 2nd-1st Millennia BC........................................................................................................148 M.Chukhua - On the History of Some Georgian Literary Terms 154

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M.Chabashvili - The Role of Woman in Sermons of Bishop Gabriel .160 Appendix ...............................................................................................163-225 Z.Abashidze - Handbook in Church History ..................................................164 G.Alasania - "History of the Georgian Church in the Middle Ages (the 12th-18th cc.)" by Archbishop Anania Japaridze .............................................................166 B.Arveladze - "Church Councils of Georgia" (volumes I, II, III, Tb., 2003) by Metropolitan Prof. Anania Japaridze and Some Questions of the Georgian Church History..............................................................................................................171 N.Vanishvili - Our Students - Pride of the Nation, the Chair of Theology - our Achievement . 192

- II , ............. ............18 () ........ ................................................................................................................................40 ., ., . . ..................................................................................42 . .................................................. 45

Metropolitan Anania (Japaridze) - Levan II Dadiani, King of Iveria ........195 Metropolitan Anania (Japaridze) - The Church Jurisdiction of Western Georgia according to the Life of St. Maximus the Confessor ....................................203

. ........................................................................................................48 . - (, , )........................... .......................................................................................59 ., ., . - ( I )... ................................................................................................................................78 . - ...... ................................................................................................97 . 1. ............ .............................................................107 . 113 . , ............................................................... ...........................................120 . II-I .. . .......................................................................................150 . ..155

Metropolitan Anania (Japaridze): "They are not Interested in the Georgian


Church Language or in the Translation of the Bible, in Fact, they Intend to Divide the Nation by Similar Methods" ...................................................................208 Annotated Bibliography of Metropolitan Anania Japaridze 'e Papers...214

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. 161 ............................................................................................. 163-225 . ....................................164 . (XII-XVIII .) ...............................................................166 . . (.I, .II, .III, . 2003) ......................................................................................... 171 . , . ...................................................................................................192 () II ... 195 () . ................................................203 (): , , , ... .......................208 a ......................................................................................................214

ilia II - sruliad saqarTvelos kaTalikospatriarqi "morwmune adamiani aris mona RvTisa, xolo morwmune ganaTlebuli adamiani aris megobari RvTisa"
19 oqtombris sxdomaze warmoTqmuli sityva).

(saqarTvelos teqnikuri universitetis didi sabWos 2001 wlis


Tqveno aRmatebulebav, batono reqtoro, profesor maswavleblebo, studentebo, qalbatonebo da batonebo! me moxaruli var, rom dRes vimyofebi TqvenTan erTad. me minda vTqva, rom es aris istoriuli dRe, roca teqnikur universitetSi fuZndeba Teologiis kaTedra, Tqven kargad mogexsenebaT, ramdenad rTulia es dro, romelSic Cven vcxovrobT. gadadgmulia uzarmazari nabijebi mecnierebaSi da teqnikaSi win, magram, amave dros gadadgmulia uzarmazari nabijebi ukan rwmenaSi da sulier saqmeSi. Tqven kargad mogexsenebaT, rom mecniereba da teqnika es aris RvTis didi madli. magram Zalian saSiSia mecniereba da teqnika arasulieri adamianis, urwmuno adamianis xelSi... ai, amitom mimaCnia me, rom RvTismetyvelebis kaTedris dafuZvneba teqnikur universitetSi drouli da aucilebelia. marTlac, dRes sulierebis, siyvarulis saocari deficitia da Cven yvelaferi unda gavakeToT imisaTvis, rom aRdges es harmonia sulsa da materias Soris. Tqven kargad mogexsenebaT, rom jer kidev pirvel saukuneebSi iyo msjeloba imis Sesaxeb, Tu ra urTierTdamokidebulebaSia rwmena da codna. amas Seexo iseTi didi mecnieri, rogoric iyo klimenti aleqsandrieli. man Tqva, rom pirveladi aris rwmena da codna rwmenaze unda iyos dafuZnebuli. klimenti aleqsandrieli ambobs, agreTve, rom ar aris sakmarisi adamiani iyos morwmune, mas aucileblad codna unda axldeso da is aseT daskvnas akeTebs: mxolod morwmune adamiani aris mona RvTisa, xolo morwmune ganaTlebuli adamiani aris megobari RvTisa. - 16 -

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Tqven gaxsovT, rom es saxarebidan amoRebuli sityvebia, azria, Tqven gaxsovT, roca jvarcmis win, ufali Cveni, ieso qriste eubneba mociqulebs: megobarno Cemno. amitom Cven sapatriarqoSi yvelafers vakeTebT imisaTvis, rom RvTismetyvelebis kaTedram imuSaos, rom Tqven codna miiRoT, magram amave dros, visac surs, rom Rrma RvTismetyveli iyos, Rrmad Caswvdes RvTismetyvelebas, aucileblad saWiroa codna, aucileblad saWiroa Rrma metyveleba, filosofiuri azrovneba, analitikuri azrovneba.

Tqven gaxsovT didi RvTismetyvelebi: basili didi, grigol RvTismetyveli, ioane oqropiri.... upirveles yovlisa, maT Seiswavles antikuri filosofia da yvelaferi gaakeTes imisaTvis, rom filosofia gamxdariyo safuZveli Tu msaxuri RvTismetyvelebisa. aseTi gamoTqmac arsebobs: filosofia aris msaxuri RvTismetyvelebisao. amitom codna saWiroa, Rrma azrovneba saWiroa da me mogiwodebT Cvens axalgazrdebs, studentebs, rom yoveldRiurad Tqveni ganuyofeli megobari da Tanamgzavri iyos wigni. me ara erTxel Sevexe am sakiTxs da vfiqrob, rom saskolo programaSi aucileblad unda Sevides - 17 -

Rrma azrovneba. Cven bavSvebs pirveli klasidan unda vaswavloT analitikuri, logikuri azrovneba da saSualo skolis damTavrebis Semdeg miviRebT moazrovne axalgazrdobas. me gilocavT am bednier dRes. me ase warmomidgenia RvTismetyvelebis kaTedris muSaoba: aq aris zRva masala. adamianma SeiZleba yvelaferi icodes zereled, zedapirulad da zogadad. ra Tqma unda yovelma Cvenganma unda iswavlos, magram es swavla me ase warmomidgenia: yovelma Cvenganma, yovelma Tqvenganma romelime wminda mama unda airCios, davuSvaT, basili didi, grigol RvTismetyveli, netari avgustine da mTeli Tqveni sicocxlis manZilze unda swavlobdeT am wminda Sromebs, Tu ra aris da ar aris Targmnili qarTulad, ra aris rusulad, ra moipoveba berZnul enaze da Tqven ama Tu im wminda mamis specialisti iqnebiT. me minda SegaxsenoT, rom, magaliTad, grigol RvTismetyveli imave dros poeti iyo. grigol RvTismetyvels zedmetsaxelad goneba, ganusazRvreli goneba daarqves. ai, ase warmomidgenia me aq Teologiis kaTedris muSaoba. es ar unda iyos marto raRac patara jgufi, Tu wre. am RvTismetyvelebis kaTedram marto Tqveni universitetis studentoba ki ar unda moicvas, aramed saerTod Cvens eklesiaSi da Cvens saqarTveloSi unda danergos, rom yoveli Tqvengani ama Tu im wminda mamis specialisti iyos. ase rom axlave ifiqreT, Tu romel wminda mamas airCevT. me gilocavT am bednier dRes da mogaxsenebT, rom kaTedris gamged arCeulia mTavarepiskoposi meufe anania, romelic wminda sinodSi Tavisi erudiciiTa da Rrma azrovnebiT gamoirCeva da minda vTqva, rom es Zalian kargi arCevania. es aris Tqveni didi damsaxureba da upirveles yovlisa, es aris batoni reqtoris damsaxureba da madlobas vwirav mas.

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Ilia II, Catholicos-Patriarch of All Georgia - "A Faithful Person is a Servant of God, and a Faithful Educated Person is a Friend of God"
(address at the session of the Great Council of the Technical University of Georgia on October 19, 2001)

Mr. Rector, Professors and Teachers, Students, Ladies and Gentlemen! I am glad to be here with you today. I would like to say that this is a historic day, when the Chair of Theology is being set up at the Technical University. You are well aware at how difficult time we live. Gigantic steps have been made forward in science and technology, however, at the same time gigantic steps have been made backwards in faith and the spiritual sphere. You know very well that science and technology are great grace given by God. But science and technology are very dangerous in the hands of an unspiritual man, an unfaithful person Therefore, I think that the establishment of the Chair of Theology at the Technical University is timely and necessary. There is an amazing lack of spirituality, love today indeed and we must do our best to restore this harmony between spirit and matter. As you know, the interrelation of faith and knowledge was the object of consideration already in the first centuries. Great scholar Clement of Alexandria expressed his view in this regard. He noted that faith is primary and knowledge should be based on it. Clement of Alexandria also notes that it is not sufficient for a person to be a believer, and that it must be accompanied by knowledge. He concludes: a person who is only faithful is a servant of God, and an educated faithful person is a friend of God". As you remember, these words and idea are taken from the Gospel. Before the Crucifixion Our Lord Jesus Christ addresses His Disciples as "my friends". That is why at the Patriarchate we do everything to enable the Chair of Theology to function properly, to allow you to receive education. At the same time, those who wish to be profound theologians, to gain an insight into theology, require knowledge; philosophical thought, and analytical thinking are absolutely necessary. You remember great theologians: Basil the Great, Gregory the Theologian, John ChrysostomFirst of all, they studied ancient philosophy and did their best to turn philosophy into the basis or servant of theology. There is even a saying: Philosophy is a servant of theology. Therefore, knowledge and profound thinking are necessary and I call upon you - our youth, students - to make friends with books. I have repeatedly touched upon this - 19 -

question and I believe that profound thinking must be entered in the curriculum of schools. We must teach children from the first form to think analytically, logically and when they finish the secondary school, they will be intellectual young persons, capable of thinking. I congratulate you on this happy day. I view the work of the Chair of Theology in the following way: there is a tremendous amount of material here. One may know everything superficially and generally. Each of us should of course study, but this is how I imagine this study: each of you should choose one saint father, e.g. Basil the Great, Gregory the Theologian, St. Augustine, and study these sacred works during your lifetime, find out what is translated into Georgian, Russian, what is available in the Greek language, and thus you will specialize in one or another saint father. I would like to remind you that e.g. Gregory the Theologian was a poet at the same time. His nickname was "reason", "infinite reason". I think that the Chair of Theology must not be a certain small group or circle. This Chair of Theology must not cover only the students of your university, but it should introduce this principle in our Church and entire Georgia, to allow each of you to be a specialist on one or another saint father. So already consider which saint father you will choose. I would like to congratulate you once again on this happy day and tell you that Archbishop Anania is elected the Head of the Chair, who is distinguished in the Holy Synod for his erudition and profound thinking, therefore, I believe that this is a very good choice. This is due to your great services, and primarily to the service of Mr. Rector, for which I am very grateful to him".

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(, 19 2001 ).

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mitropoliti anania (jafariZe) - saqarTvelos teqnikuri universitetis Teologiis kaTedris gamge sabWour istoriografiaSi gabatonebuli Teoria saqarTvelos eklesiis prozelitizmis Sesaxeb da misi kritika
sagnobriv jgufSi, romelsac aswavlian Teologiis kaTedraze, Sedis: msoflio religiebi, religiebi da sazogadoeba, religiebi saqarTveloSi, religiebis istoria evropaSi, maxlobel aRmosavleTsa da kavkasiaSi (saqarTveloSi). Teologiis sagnobrivi jgufis mizania, gamoumuSavos students unari, viTarca saqarTvelos moqalaqes, gansazRvros Tavisi adgili msoflioSi istoriuli, religiuri da kulturuli realobebis gaTvaliswinebiT, miawodos mas codna da informacia, amasTanave daexmaros, raTa gamoimuSavos iseTi unar-Cvevebi, romelic moamzadebs mas (students) aqtiuri moqalaqeobisaTvis pasuxismgeblobis grZnobiT samSoblos winaSe, raTa Seicnos sakuTari da sazogadoebrivi interesebi, gamoimuSavos pativiscema da Semwynarebloba sakuTari da sxva kulturebis (maTi warmomadgenlebis) mimarT, amasTanave, ganuviTardes, gauRrmavdes iseTi Rirebulebebi, rogoricaa Rirseba da samarTlianoba. Teologiis dargTagan uZvelesi xanidanve saqarTveloSi gamorCeulad Seiswavleboda saistorio RvTismetyveleba, Tumca arc misi egzegetikuri, sistematuri da praqtikuli nawilebi iyo uyuradRebod datovebuli. saistorio RvTismetyveleba, rogorc cnobilia, swavlobda saeklesio da bibliur istorias. misi kerZo disciplinebis patrologiis, simbolikis, saeklesio arqiteqturis, qristianuli literaturis, xelovnebis, RvTismsaxurebisa da dogmatebis istoriis ZiriTad makavSirebel samecniero RerZs eklesiis itoria warmoadgenda. saqarTvelos eklesiis istoriis, viTarca saistorio saRvTismetyvelo nawilis Seswavlis ZiriTadi mizania Secnoba WeSmaritebisa, viTarca Tavisuflebis (pirovnuli, erovnuli, saeklesio da sxva) safuZvlisa. macxovari brZanebs: scaniT WeSmariti da WeSmariteba gangaTavisuflebT Tqven (ioane, 8, 32). - 24 -

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wminda mamebi ki aRniSnavdnen - TavisuflebaTvisiTa sisxliTa mogvaniWa Cven ufalman Cvenman ieso qristeman ganmaTavisuflebelman yovelTa kacTaman (III msoflio krebis merve kanoni, didi sjulis kanoni, 1975, gv.267). RvTis didi SiSiTa da krZalviT WeSmaritebiT Zieba simarTlisa mizani iyo saqarTvelos istoriis sasuliero mwerlebisa, uZvelesi saistorio wyaroebis - moqcevai qarTlisa~sa da qarTlis cxovrebis avtorebisa da Semkreblebisa. amis sapirispirod, XX s-Si, aTeistur-bolSevikuri represiebis Semdeg istoriul mecnierebaSi WeSmaritebis Zieba waxalisebuli ar yofila, ufro metic, moiTxoveboda wyaroebis gayalbeba an maTi interpretireba ise, rom SesaZlebeli yofiliyo maTi Cayeneba marqsistuli ideologiis samsaxurSi. WeSmaritebiT Seqmnili Cveni xalxis Zveli istoria reaqciul Teoriad gamocxadda, daiwyo mis winaaRmdeg gadamwyveti brZola (aucilebelia dromoWmuli reaqciuli Teoriebis winaaRmdeg gadamwyveti brZola - gazeTi pravda 18. 2. 1949). ufro adre XX s-is 30-ian wlebSi saqarTvelos Zvel istoriografias cixe-simagre uwodes, romelic uTuod unda daengriaT, saxelmwifos didmoxele acxadebda - Cven winaSe dgas cixe-simagre, romelsac saqarTvelos istoria ewodeba da romelic jer auRebelia, magram ar arsebobs iseTi cixe-simagre, romlis aReba bolSevikebs ar SeeZloT, saWiroa energiuli muSaoba da mtkice bolSevikuri nebisyofa am cixe-simagris asaRebad (iv. javaxiSvili tiraniis winaaRmdeg, Tb. 2004, gv.172). XX s-is 20-ian-30-ian wlebSive Caeyara safuZveli qarTizaciis Teorias. es Teoria bolSevikebis xelSi gadaiqca ara mxolod berketad saqarTvelos Zveli istoriis dasangrevad, aramed mis Casanacvlebladac. amJamad qarTizaciis Teoria erTaderT da utyuar samecniero mimarTulebadaa aRiarebuli. is absoluturadaa gabatonebuli XXs. da XXI s-is dasawyisis qarTul istoriografiasa da, aseve, filologiaSi. marTalia, Zveli qarTuli istoriografiis adgili axalma daiWira, magram, samwuxarod, rogorc amJamindeli realuri faqtebi aCvenebs, man ver SeZlo qarTveli eris interesebis dacva da istoriuli simarTlis warmoCena separatistebis mier - 25 -

gaCaRebul afxazeTisa da samaCablos konfliqtebis dros. okupantebis mier afxazeTis daWeris win e.w. ideologiur omSi qarTvelTa damarcxeba unda aixsnas axali qarTuli istoriografiis sisustiTac, romelic iqamde aTeuli wlebis manZilze acxadebda, rom Tavdapirvelad, uZveles xanaSive, kolxeTis samefos epoqaSive, mTeli dasavleT saqarTvelos zRvispireTi dasaxlebuli iyo afxazur-adiReuri tomebiT da Semdgom dros maT adgilze Casaxldnen qarTveluri tomebi. ara mxolod afxazeTSi, samaCablos konfliqtis dros mxolod enTuziasti istorikosebi icavdnen erovnul interesebs. samwuxarod, oficialurma qarTizaciis TeoriiT xelSekrulma istoriografiam ver SeZlo simarTlis warmoCena. marTlac, mas gauWirda qarTvelTa samarTlianobis warmoCena, radganac iqamde mecnierulad amtkicebda qarTizaciis Teoriis Sesabamisad, rom aRmosavleT saqarTvelos mTianeTis mosaxleoba, maT Soris, samaCabloSi istoriulad mcxovrebi dvalebi iyvnen ara qarTvelebi, aramed - araqarTvelebi, romelTa qarTizacia gaqarTveleba moxda garkveul istoriul etapze. TiTqosda aramarto dvalebi da sxva mTiulebi _ gaqarTvelebuli qarTizebuli xalxi yofilan her-kaxebi, qvemo qarTlelebi, tao-klarjelebi, dasavleT saqarTvelos mosaxleoba, Tanac Turme maTi asimilaciis procesSi saqarTvelos eklesias didi wvlili miuZRoda. qarTul sabWoTa enciklopediaSi statiaSi qarTvelebi aseTi terminologiiT aris aRwerili es procesi: qarTis tomma SeZlo aRmosavleT saqarTveloSi mcxovrebi araqarTul da araqarTvelur tomebSi SeRweva - infiltracia da maTi asimilaciis Semdeg IX-X ss-Si Camoyalibda aRmosavlurqarTuli erovneba (qse, tomi 10, 1986w. statia "qarTvelebi" gv.459). am statiis mixedviT, qarTis tomma SeZlo herulalbanuri mosaxleobis qarTizacia (qse, 10, gv.460). maSasadame, oficialuri TvalsazrisiT, herebi da albanelebi erTi xalxia anda herul-albanuri mosaxleoba erTi eTnosia, romelic Semdgom qarTizebuli iqna da Seemata aRmosavlur-qarTul erovnebas. aqedanac Cans, rom oficialuri istoriografiis TvalsazrisiT iyo dro rodesac herebi qarTvelebi ar iyvnen. pravoslavnaia enciklopediis mixedviT ki, Tavdapirvelad isini albaneTis sakaTalikosos iurisdiqciaSi iyvnen. sainteresoa, rom miuxedavad am oficialuri mosazrebis arsebobisa, Tbilisidan amJamad dabejiTebiT unergaven saingilos mosaxleobas Tvalsazriss, rom isini herebi arian. - 26 -

Tumca iqamde ingiloebma TavianTi herobis Sesaxeb araferi icodnen da isini TavianT Tavs aRmosavleT kaxeTis mosaxleobad miiCnevdnen. amJamad ki Tvalsazrisi, rom ingiloebi herebi arian, Zalze gavrcelda, amis paralelurad, azerbaijaneli istorikosebi da mecnierebi amtkiceben, rom herebi da albanelebi erTi xalxi iyo da, amasTanave, albanelebi azerbaijaneli xalxis winaprebi iyvnen, Sesabamisad, albanuri kultura azerbaijanuli kulturis sakuTrebaa da Semdgom qarTulma eklesiam is miisakuTra. maSasadame, ingiloebi Tu herebi arian, isini amis gamo azerbaijanul tomad moiazreba. qarTuli enciklopediis mixedviT, rogorc vTqviT, IX-X ssSi Camoyalibebula aRmosavlur-qarTuli erovneba da misi saxeli yofila - qarTvelebi. ra mdgomareobaa dasavleT saqarTveloSi? dasavleT saqarTveloSi Turme Camoyalibebula sxva dasavlur-qarTuli erovneba da aseTi procesebi ganviTarebula: Cveni enciklopediis Tanaxmad, daiwyo dasavleT saqarTvelos qarTizacia eklesiis meoxebiT - IXs-dan mTel dasavleT saqarTveloSi qarTuli eklesia gabatonda, ris Sedegadac terminma qarTveli kulturul-politikuri mniSvneloba SeiZina (qse, 10, gv.460). meore avtoris azriT, da esaa sayovelTao oficialuri Tvalsazrisi - eTnikuri araqarTveli, romelic qristianobas miiRebda, qarTvelad iTvleboda(r. TofCiSvili, 2002, gv.15). am avtoris azriT, dasavleT saqarTveloSi iqamde ukve Camoyalibebuli iyo maRali klasis safexuris kolxuri anu megrul-Wanuri eTnosi da Semdgom daiwyo misi qarTizacia (iqve, gv.5, gv.7, gv.83). rogorc vTqviT, es procesi qarTuli eklesiis meoxebiT xorcieldeboda, romelic iWreboda sxva ucxo eklesiis, am SemTxvevaSi, dasavleT saqarTvelos konstantinopolis iurisdiqciis sazRvrebSi da maT mrevls iTvisebda. cxadia, esaa dadanaSauleba prozelitizmSi. iyo Tu ara qarTuli eklesia prozelituri? prozelitizmi dagmobilia mociqulTa droidanve da prozelitizmi anu sxvisi samwysos misakuTreba eklesiisTvis saTakilo qmedebad iTvleboda jer kidev I msoflio krebidan. qarTuli eklesiisaTvis aseTi epiTeti sasiamovno ar aris. am saTakilo epiTetiT, Tanamedrove avtorebs, Cans, eris winaSe Cveni eklesiis mniSvnelobis warmoCena surT: - 27 -

saerTaSoriso konferenciaze, romelic saqarTveloSi qristianobis oc saukunes eZRvneboda, istoriis institutis direqtori d. musxeliSvili wardga moxsenebiT, qarTuli eklesia da saxelmwifo teritoria Sua saukuneebSi, sadac brZana: qarTuli eklesiis kulturul-ideologiuri prozelitizmi winaswar qmnida mkvidr niadags politikuri procesebis warmatebiT ganviTarebisaTvis. (d. musxeliSvili, 2005, gv. 33). aRsaniSnavia, rom Cveni saxelmwifosa da eklesiis arakeTilismsurvelebma, gansakuTrebiT ki separatistma ideologebma imTaviTve aitaces Cveni istoriografiis qarTizaciis Teoriis daskvnebi Cveni eklesiis prozelitizmis Sesaxeb TavianT sasargeblod. isini vrcel samecniero naSromebSi (maT Soris, qvemoT ganvixilavT pravoslavnaia enciklopedias statiebs) amtkiceben, rom saqarTvelos esa Tu is kuTxe istoriulad araqarTuli regionia da, Sesabamisad, qarTvelebs istoriuli ufleba ara aqvs am kuTxeebze. Cven ki vacxadebT: SeuZlebelia, saqarTvelos wminda eklesia prozelituri yofiliyo, ratom? istoriulad sityva prozeliti erqva iudaur sarwmunoebaze miqceul warmarTs, magram amJamad prozelituri eklesia iseTs ewodeba, romelic iWreba sxva eklesiis samrevloSi misi misakuTrebis mizniT. aseTi qmedeba ki msoflio saeklesio kanonebiT miuRebeli iyo da aris. magaliTad, mociqulTa 35-e kanoni brZanebs: episkoposma ar unda gabedos xeldasxma Tavisi samrevlos gareT, qalaqebsa da soflebSi, romlebic ar eqvemdebarebian mis eklesias. xolo Tu igi mxilebuli iqneba unda ganikveTos isic da mis mis mier xeldasxmulebic (didi sjulis kanoni, saqarTvelos eklesiis kalendari, 1987, gv.166). mociqulTa am kanons kidev ufro amtkicebs 381 wels konstantinopolSi mowveuli II msoflio krebis me-2 kanoni: eklesiaTa keTilad gangebisa da mSvidobisaTvis arcerT episkoposs aqvs ufleba, gascdes Tavisi eklesiis sazRvrebs da SeiWras sxva eklesiis sazRvrebSi, raTa ar moaxdinos eklesiebis aRreva. kanonis Tanaxmad, aleqsandriis episkoposi unda ganagebdes mxolod egviptis eklesiebs... pontoeli episkoposni unda marTavdnen mxolod pontos eklesiebs, xolo Trakiis episkoposni - mxolod Trakiis eklesiebs. episkoposi ar unda gavides Tavisi samTavros eklesiis farglebidan xeldasxmisaTvis (didi sjulis kanoni, kalendari, 1987, gv.210). - 28 -

III msoflio krebis mamebma kidev ufro dabejiTebiT damoZRvres eklesiaTa meTaurebi, ar daemorCilebinaT sxvisi samwyso: - nurc erTi episkoposi nu miitacebs sxva eparqias, romelic Tavidanve da ZvelTaganve ar emorCileboda mas da ar iyo mis winamorbed saydrismpyrobelTa gamgeblobis qveS, xolo Tu vinme miitacebs sxvis eparqias iZulebiT, ganTavisuflebuli unda iyos igi, raTa ar dairRves mamaTa kanonebi, (III msoflio krebis me-8 kanoni, dasax. naSr. gv.212). imaves wers da aRniSnavs sxva saeklesio kanonebic. Tu qarTuli eklesia prozelituri iyo da mas ZvelTaganve ar emorCileboda dasavleT saqarTvelos, aRmosavleT saqarTvelos erTi nawilis, samxreT saqarTvelos samwysoebi, qarTulma eklesiam ki miiTvisa isini, amiT daurRvevia msoflio saeklesio kanonebi, kerZod, mociqulTa 35-e, II msoflio krebis me-2, III msoflio krebis me-8, karTagenis 74-e da sxva kanonebi, da gana kanondamrRvevi eklesia SeiZleba yofiliyo marTali da marTlmadidebluri, romliTac amayobdnen saqarTvelos eklesiis wminda mamebi? romlis Sesaxeb miuTiTebda prokofi kesarieli, rom qarTvelebi marTlmadideblobis wesebs yvelaze ukeT icavdnen, somexi ierarqebi werdnen, rom qarTvelebi amayoben TavianTi sarwmunoebrivi siwmidiT da TavianTi saeklesio upiratesobiT? qarTuli eklesia ki Turme arRvevda umTavres saeklesio kanonebs da sxvis iurisdiqciaSi iWreboda: - dasavleT saqarTveloSi gabatonda qarTuli eklesia da mRvdelTmsaxurebac qarTul enaze sruldeboda, ramac didad Seuwyo xeli dasavleT saqarTveloSi qarTizaciis process (qarTuli sabWoTa enciklopedia (qse), tomi saq. ssr, 1981w. gv.61). qarTuli eklesiis gabatonebamde dasavleT saqarTveloSi, Cveni istorikosebis mtkicebiT, Turme arsebobda egrisisa da afxazeTis eklesiebi, romlebic imyofebodnen konstantinopolis iurisdiqciaSi, isini Semdgom gaerTianebulan konstantinopolis iurisdiqciaSive, magram IX s-Si mcxeTis sakaTalikosos gabatonebis Sedegad konstantinopolis sapatriarqos daukargavs mTeli dasavleT saqarTvelos momcveli es mniSvnelovani samitropolitoebi da saepiskoposoebi. oficialuri istorikosi wers: es saeklesio gamoyofa, rogorc vTqviT, erTbaSad ar momxdara. jer xorcieldeba egris-afxazeTis eklesiebis gaerTianeba, rogorc - 29 -

konstantinopolis samwysoSi Semavali eparqiisa, romelsac saTaveSi afxazTa kaTalikosi edga (VIII s. bolo an IX s. dasawyisi); Semdeg IXs. manZilze (safiqrebelia, ufro mis pirvel naxevarSive) dasavleT saqarTvelos eklesia gamoeyofa konstantinopols da mcxeTis taxts uerTiandeba, xolo afxazTa kaTalikosi sruliad saqarTvelos kaTalikoss eqvemdebareba. konstantinopolidan gamoyofis Semdeg iwyeba berZnuli kaTedrebis moSla da maT sapirispirod qarTuli saepiskoposo centrebis daarseba, es saeklesio reforma, n. berZeniSvilis varaudiT, sabolood X s-Si sruldeba (narkvevebi, t. II, 1973, gv.427). Tu rogori reaqciuli iyo qarTuli eklesiis es prozelitizmi anu konstantinopolis sapatriarqos iurisdiqciaSi SeWra - amis Sesaxeb Cveni oficialuri istoriografia wers: qarTvelebi aqedan sdevnian berZnul enas, berZnul viwro erovnul kulturas, SemoaqvT da avrceleben sakuTar, qarTul enas, qarTul RvTismsaxurebas da qarTul saeklesio-samonastro wesebs. qarTul kulturas Tan mohqonda qarTuli politikuri Segneba da ideali, ase rom mcxeTa jer enobrivad (eTnikur elementze dayrdnobiT) SeiWra lixTimereTSi, xolo Semdeg, rogorc Cans, es saintereso formula wamoayena Tavisi organizaciuli gabatonebis dasasafuZvleblad - qarTlia iq, sadac mRvdelTmsaxureba qarTul enazea (mxolod "kvirieleisoni" SeiZleba berZnulad). mironis kurTxeva qarTls ganeweseba. maS qarTls nakurTxi mironi savaldebuloa yvela im eklesiisaTvis, sadac mRvdelTmsaxureba qarTul enazea. cxadia, mcxeTis sakaTalikosos mxriv, es aris kanonikuri safuZvlebis dacviT konstantinopolis sapatriarqos winaaRmdeg mimarTuli brZola lixT-imereTis eklesiaze organizaciulad gabatonebis mizniT (T. papuaSili, 1973, gv. 586). am mosazrebis sapirispirod XX s. bolos qarTulma saeklesio istoriografiam sul sxvagvarad axsna is procesebi, romelnic mimdinareobdnen VIII-IX ss-Si hereTSi, tao-klarjeTsa da dasavleT saqarTveloSi (ix. a. jafariZe, 1996-1999). sabWoTa kavSiris sazRvrebis Caketilobis gamo berZnul samyaroSi da, maT Soris, konstantinopolis sapatriarqoSic XX s. bolosac ar icnobdnen iqamde sruliad axal sabWoTa saistorio Teorias qarTuli eklesiis prozelitizmisa da misi konstantinopolis sapatriarqos winaaRmdeg mimarTuli brZolis Sesaxeb (sabWouri sityvebia). cnobili berZeni - 30 -

kanonistis - mitropolit maqsimes wigni saqarTvelos eklesia da misi avtokefalia, ar flobs cnobebs amasTan dakavSirebiT. SeiZleba daisvas kiTxva, ra problemebi Seeqmneba saqarTvelos eklesias samomavlod, Tu konstantinopolis sapatriarqo anu ucxoeTis romelime eklesia oficialurad aRiarebs aRniSnul Teorias qarTuli eklesiis SeWris Sesaxeb iqamde konstantinopolis iurisdiqciaSi myof dasavleT saqarTveloSi, es Teoria xom ar SeuqmniT maT myar samarTlebriv safuZvels, raTa cnon da aRiaron separatistuli eklesiebi afxazeTsa da dasavleT saqarTvelos sxva kuTxeebSi. meore mxriv, es Teoria iZleva karg saSualebas da masze dayrdnobiT ukve aqezeben am kuTxeTa separatist moazrovneebs, raTa deda eklesiad aRiaron ara saqarTvelos wminda eklesia, aramed konstantinopolis sapatriarqo. mravalgzis aRiniSna, rom ucxoeTSi es Teoria yvelaze ufro metad gaitana da gaavrcela pravasavlania enciklopediam. arasodes arcerT saukuneSi konstantinopolis sapatriarqos ar gamouTqvams araviTari Tvalsazrisi anda SeniSvnac ki dasavleT saqarTvelos mis eparqiebSi qarTuli eklesiis SeWris Sesaxeb. es rom ase yofiliyo, qarTul-berZnuli aTaswlovani saeklesio urTierTobis dros amis Sesaxeb erTxel mainc gamoiTqmoda Tundac mcire SeniSvna. saqme is aris, rom konstantinopolis iurisdiqciaSi myofi fazisis samitropolito da misi oTxi saepiskoposo, romelic TiTqosda qarTuli eklesiis mier iyvnen gauqmebulni, sinamdvileSi mdebareobdnen ara dasavleT saqarTveloSi, aramed qarTveli eris uZveles qveyanaSi, romelsac trapezonis olqi ewoda, iqamde ki mas erqva qaldea, sofeli megrelTa. iq trapezonis olqSi mdebare Woroxis anu fasisis marcxena sanapiroze mdebareobdnen fasisis samitropolito da misi saepiskoposoebi - rodopolisisa, saisinisa, petronisa da ziganasi, rogorc es kargad aris garkveuli n. adoncis mier. es samitropolito konstantinopolis iurisdiqciaSi imyofeboda, xolo mis CrdiloeTiT moqceuli miwa-wyali Woroxidan vidre mdinare egriswyalamde (vaxtang gorgaslis Semdgom mdinare klisuramde) - wminda ninos droidanve qarTuli eklesiis iurisdiqciaSi imyofeboda, ase rom, Cveni Zveli saeklesio matianeebis cnobebiT, dasavleT saqarTveloSi imTaviTve ZvelTaganve saqarTvelos eklesiis iurisdiqcia vrceldeboda. sxva saeklesio wyaroebTan erTad amis Sesaxeb xazgasmiT miuTiTebda ruis-urbnisis - 31 -

sakanonmdeblo krebis Zegliswera - andria pirvelwodebulma saxareba iqadaga yovelsa qveyanasa saqarTveloisasa (didi sjulis kanoni, 1975, gv.545), xolo wminda ninom qristianul sarwmunoebaze moaqcia yoveli savseba yovlisa qarTvelTa naTesavisa (iqve, gv.546). am krebis wminda mamebis TvalsazrisiT, dasavleT saqarTvelo mudam istoriuli saqarTvelo iyo, romlis mosaxleoba, aRmosavleT saqarTvelosTan erTad moaqcia wminda ninom. maSasadame, dasavleT saqarTveloSi saeklesio iurisdiqcia imTaviTve mcxeTis xelSi iyo da ara konstantinopolisa. dasavleT saqarTvelo eklesiurad rodesme konstantinopolis iurisdiqciaSi rom yofiliyo, amis Sesaxeb uTuod SemorCeboda pirdapiri an iribi cnobebi TviT berZnul wyaroebSive, an raime sayvedurnarevi miniSneba mainc berZeni ierarqebisa, aseTi ki ar arsebobs. magaliTad, konstantinopolis patriarqi nikoloz mistikosi Zalze Tbil da megobrul werilebs werda afxazTa mefes - giorgi II-s X s-is Sua wlebSi, roca sabWoTa istorikosebis azriT, mis samefoSi brZola iyo gaCaRebuli konstantinopolis sapatriarqos winaaRmdeg, ase rom yofiliyo, konstantinopolis patriarqi nikoloz mistikosi rogorme moaxerxebda protestis gancxadebas afxazTa mefis - giorgi meorisadmi (922-957), (ix., misi werilebi giorgi II-isadmi georgika, IV, narkv. II); erTi sityviT, wyaroebi ar adastureben sabWour Tvalsazriss. aRmosavleTSi, baton daviT musxeliSvilis TvalsazrisiT, TviT wminda ninos saqmianoba TiTqosda mimarTuli iyo iqiTken, rom hereTSi mcxovrebi araqarTuli mosaxleoba (albanelebi) gaeqarTvelebina. Cemi azriT, aseTi warmodgena wminda ninosi Zalze ucnauria. d. musxeliSvili wers: bodbe sujeTisa da kambeCovanis sazRvarze mefe mirianis dros axladSemoerTebuli qveyana iyo, aq albanelebic (herebi) cxovrobdnen ... maTi saboloo asimilacia drois ambavi iyo (d. musxeliSvili, 2003, gv. 38). Cans, mirian mefis da wminda ninos intensiuri kulturul - saganmanaTleblo saqmianoba mimarTuli hereTSi qarTuli qristianobis gavrcelebisaken... romelic winaaRmdegobas awydeboda, ara mxolod alvanelTagan, aramed somxebisganac (iqve, gv. 38). sxva sityvebiT rom vTqvaT, wminda nino aqarTvelebda ara marto her-alvanelebs, aramed, somxebsac; Cveni mecnierebis am mosazrebis sapirispirod, movses xorenacs mTeli mosaxleoba klarjeTidan masquTebamde (anu - 32 -

kaspiis zRvispireTSi mcxovreb tom masquTebamde) - eTnikur qarTvelebad miaCnia (sadac iqadaga wminda ninom) da ara somxebad, anda albanelebad (herebad), rogorc warmoadgina sabWoTa istoriografiam. somxuri saistorio mwerlobis mama, somexTa herodoted wodebuli movses xorenaci wers: sanatreli nune wavida iqedan (e.i. mcxeTidan), raTa Tavisi advilgasagebi saubriT qarTvelTa (!) qveynis sxva kuTxeebic daemoZRvra. gavbedav da vityvi, rom nune mociquli qali gaxda. man iqadaga saxareba klarjeTidan dawyebuli vidre alanTa da kaspiis karamde. masquTTa sazRvrebamde, rogorc amas agaTangelozi gauwyebs Sen (m. xorenaci, 1984, gv. 172). wminda ninos somxebi, anda Tundac albanelebi (igive herebi, d. musxeliSvilis azriT) rom gaeqarTvelebina, rogorme xorenaci miuTiTebda amis Sesaxeb, magram is sul sxva raimes gvauwyebs, kerZod, sazRvravs qarTvelebis eTnikur gansaxlebas esaa klarjeTi, vidre alanTa da kaspiis karamde (e.i. darialamde), vidre masquTTa sazRvramde - am sazRvrebSi qarTvelebi saxloben, maT uqadaga wminda ninom; ase rom, darialis karamde mcxovrebi dvalebi gaqarTvelebuli vainaxebi ar iyvnen, rogorc warmoudgenia sabWouri epoqis istoriografias, aramed qarTvelebi, aseve masquTebis qveynamde, anu aRniSnul mtkvar araqsis SesarTavamde mcxovrebi herebi m. xorenacs eTnikur qarTvelebad miaCnia da ara albanelebad. d. musxeliSvili fiqrobs, rom wminda ninos prozelitizmis simbolo aRumarTavs axlad SemoerTebul albanur qalaq bodisSi (e.i. sadRac ujarma - bodbeSi) da wers - mgonia ase unda gavigoT wminda ninos gadawyvetileba, rom jvari - qristianuli prozelitizmis simbolo - droebiT aRimarTos igi ujarmas qalaqsa da daba bodisi ara win aRudges qalaqsa mas mefeTasa, rameTu erisa simravle ars mun (d. musxeliSvili, 2003, gv. 39). ase iqca daviT musxeliSvilis sityviT, ori faqtobrivad eTnikurad erTmaneTisgan gansxvavebuli qveyana erT kulturul erTeulad (iqve, gv. 41). aqedan Cans, rom sabWoTa epoqis istorikosebis azriT, wminda nino qarTlis garda, albaneTSic moRvaweobda da man albaneTis qveynis erTi nawili qarTul eklesias SemouerTa. bodbis miCneva ara qarTlis, aramed albaneTis qalaqad, qarTul wyaroebs ewinaaRmdegeba; wminda nino, qarTvelTa ganmanaTlebelia da ara albanelebisa. jvari ar aris prozelitizmis simbolo, qarTul eklesias jvari prozelituri mizniT arasodes gamouyenebia, miT umetes, - 33 -

araqarTuli tomebis "asimilacia - gaqarTvelebis mizniT; aseTi mosazreba usafuZvloa, igi ar eyrdnoba wyaroebs. "qarTizaciis Teoriis gacnobis Semdeg ucxoelT eqmnebaT STabeWdileba qarTvelTa "imperializmis" Sesaxeb, rom, TiTqos, maT patara "erebi hyavT dapyrobili; amgvar STabeWdilebas mxars umagrebs enaTmecnierTa nawilis Teoriac qarTvelTa e.w. sami/oTxi enis Sesaxeb, romelTagan erTis - qarTulis "aRzevebiT" iCagreba sxva qarTveluri "enebi"; es yovelive ki mavanTaTvis safuZvels qmnis araqarTvelebad gamoacxadon qarTvelTa erTi nawili, Sesabamisad, araqarTulad miiCnion maTi metyveleba (msjelobisa da literaturis mimoxilvisTvis ix., t.futkaraZe, 2005, gv. 42-77); mag., n. quTelia amasTan dakavSirebiT wers: "internetis vebsaitebze musirebs Tema megrelebi da svanebi patara erebi yofilan da qarTvel okupantebs daupyriaT da axla maT enebs ganviTarebis saSualebas ar aZleven. arsebobs doqtrina - ar arsebobs qarTveli eri, arsebobs calkeul tomTa konglomerati (n. quTelia, 2005, gv. 273). araTu ucxoelebi, TviT qarTvelebi e.w. qarTizaciis "Teoriis" gacnobis Semdeg iviwyeben nacionalur intersebs da kuTxurobis apologetebi xdebian, amis erTi kargi magaliTia a. liparteliani, romelmac 1994 wels gamosca wigni "svanur qarTuli leqsikoni, Coloruli kilo. a. liparteliani Tavisi wignis SesavalSi wers: aRmosavleT saqarTveloSi iberebis moqmedebiT ganadgurda svanuri mosaxleoba (a. liparteliani, 1994, gv. X). Sdr., sxva msgavsi citatebi misi wignidan: mirianma sastikad dasaja es henioxi heri - wanari - svanebi, vinc Jletas gadaurCa, ayara da daasaxla axlandel teritoriaze, rbevas gadarCa albaneTis mosazRvre teritoria (iqve, gv. XI). ai, amonaridebi misi wignidan: herebis kulturul - eTnikuri Serwyma qarTul tomebTan, herebis asimilireba daiwyo Zv.w. II-I ss. mijnaze (saq. ist. nark. t. II, gv. 402). aRmosavleT saqarTvelos mTel teritoriaze mis iberizaciamde svanuri mosaxleoba iyo (a. liparteliani, leqsikoni, gv. XIII). qarTvel glexTa politikuri momZlavrebis Semdeg moxda svanuri eTnikuri Stos ganadgureba. aRmosavleT saqarTvelos teritoriaze es momxdara ara erTbaSad, magram ZaldatanebiT. amas amtkicebs vaxtang batoniSvilis cnoba mirian mefis mier svanebis ayris Sesaxeb da bagrat mefis mier monRolTa - 34 -

jaris moSvelieba da svanebis gawyveta. amasve amtkicebs b. egnataSvili mefe bagrat mimarTa lang - Temurs: momec simravleni spaTa TqvenTani, warval TemTa da samefoTa CemTa, movxado kacTa mTiulTa, osTa, dvalTa, svanTa, afxazTa da yovelTa mun myofTa da me davarwmuneb rjulsa Tqvensa (iqve, gv. XVII). a.lipartelians ar esmis sityva movxados mniSvneloba. mefe bagrati ambobs movxado e.i. movixmob mTielebs CemTan da maT vuqadageb mahmadianobas, a. lipartelians ki hgonia, TiTqosda maT daxocvas apirebs mefe monRolTa daxmarebiT da askvnis: bagrat IV-m moixmo monRolebi da gaJlita svanebi(iqve, gv. XVIII), Tumca ki monRolebi ara bagrat IV-is, aramed bagrat V-s dros iyvnen saqarTveloSi. a. liparteliani Tavis wignSive uTiTebs misi azrebis wyaros - esaa niko mari da imowmebs n. maris sityvebs: Tubal kainebsa (dasavleTiT) da qarTebs (aRmosavleTiT) Soris e.i. mosxebis samosaxlos sazRvrebSi Tavdapirvelad cxovrobdnen svanur enaze molaparake tomebi... somexiaSi e.i. istoriul somxeTSi V-VI saukuneebSi jer kidev svanebi cxovrobdnen. aq Seiqmna pirveli qristianuli mwerloba, aqedan aiTvises qarTvelebma TavianTi qristianuli literaturis pirveli Zeglebi (iqve, gv. XVIII). a. liparteliani imowmebs niko maris rusulenovan wignebs niko mari, mogzauroba svaneTSi (1911-1912) da n. mari, xe mcenareulobis iafeturi saxelebi(1913). qarTizaciis Teoria, rogorc cnobilia, XX saukuneSi daefuZna q.patkanovisa da n.maris mosazrebebs. patkanov-maris Teoriis saSiSroebis Sesaxeb jer kidev didi ilia marTali brZanebda da, sxvaTa Soris, amasve miuTiTebdnen ivane javaxiSvils misi mSoblebi werilebSi, romelsac werdnen axalgazrda vaJiSvils (werilebi gamoqveynebulia). TiTqos Cvens Temas exmianeba didi konstantine gamsaxurdia Tavis cnobil werilSi: troaseuli cxeni (akad. niko maris werilis gamo) wers - "arsad iseTi feldefeluri morCilebiT ar ixris qeds sazogadoebrivi azri avtoritetian universitetis profesorebis winaSe, rogorc CvenSi, radgan yvelaze naklebad CvenSi SeugniaT ucilo WeSmariteba goeTes didi sityvebisa: xSirad didi adamiani did gemsaviT Secdomebis did zolebs tovebs Tavis sarbielze (k. gamsaxurdia, troaseuli cxeni, Txz. t. VIII, 1967, gv. 140). - 35 -

Cven, cxadia, qeds vixriT im didi adamianebis winaSe, romelTac SevexeT Cvens werilSi, magram mxolod im gulistkiviliT, rom ar daiSalos Cveni erovnuli saxli, radganac wmida werilSi nabrZanebia: Tu samefo Tvisive Tavis winaaRmdeg daiyofa, is samefo veRar gaZlebs (markozi, 3, 24). Tu Cveni didi adamianebi yvela qarTul Temsa da toms sakuTar winapars gamouZebnian - magaliTad, ingiloebsa da kaxelebs - her-albanelebs, fSav-xevsurebs - vainaxebs (z.didebuliZe, 1983, gv. 33-34), qvemo qarTlelebs - somxebs, dasavlel qarTvelebs - adiRe-Cerqerzebs da a.S. Tu ganacxadeben, rom dasavleT saqarTveloSi sxva eTnosi Camoyalibda, romelic Semdeg "qarTizebul iqna - eri - saxelmwifo daiyofa. miT umetes, rom wyaroebi, Tu maT kargad da sworad wavikiTxavT, mikerZoebis gareSe, ar iZleva amis uflebas, piriqiT, Cveni wyaroebi: "moqceva~ qarTlisa~ Tu qarTlis cxovreba RaRadeben, rom qristes Sobamde Seqmnili erTiani saqarTvelos qarTlis samefos mosaxleoba imTaviTve iyo qarTveli xalxi da am saxelmwifos Crdilo - dasavleTi sazRvari md. egriswyalze gadioda azonisa da farnavazis dros; Tu ras niSnavs wyaros es miTiTeba, gvixsnis wminda ambrosi xelaia: "jer kidev araqristiani qarTuli tomis modgmebma Seqmnes patara sivrciT, magram Zlieri nebisyofiT saxelmwifo, romelic cnobilia istoriaSi saqarTvelos saxeliT erTaderTi matarebeli wina aziaSi qristianuli kulturisa da evropuli humanizmisa (a. xelaia, 1990). maSasadame, kaTalikos-patriarq wmida ambrosi xelaias, zogadad saqarTvelos wminda eklesiis TvalsazrisiT, jer kidev gaqristianebamde I-IV saukuneebamde qarTvelTa modgmam Seqmna dasavleT-aRmosavleT saqarTvelos momcveli erTiani saxelmwifo, matarebeli Sesabamisi erTiani kulturisa. sabWoTa imperias Cveni didi adamianebisaTvis Tavisufali muSaobis saSualeba rom mieca, saWiro ar iqneboda Cveni mosazrebebis gamoTqma da arc wminda eklesia ganaCenda Semdegs: dauSvebelia istoriis gayalbeba - megrelebisa da svanebis mwignobrobisa da qristianuli kulturis armqoneebad gamocxadeba da am kuTxis SvilebisaTvis XXI saukuneSi bibliis Targmna, rac upirveles yovlisa miznad isaxavs eris gaTiSvas da qveynis mTlianobis darRvevis mcdelobas(wm. sinodis sxdomis oqmi, 23, 2005, sapatriarqos uwyebani, #45, gv. 7). - 36 -

amJamad, garkveuli qarTuli wreebi ise warmoadgenen saqmes, TiTqosda pravoslavnaia enciklopediaSi mxolod taoklarjeTis eTnikuri da kulturuli saxe iyos damaxinjebuli, sinamdvileSi aq saqarTvelos yoveli kuTxis da saerTod qarTveli eris istoria gayalbebulia, rogorc TandarTuli literaturis CamonaTvalidan Cans, statiebis avtorebi qarTul oficialur istoriografias eyrdnobodnen. pravoslavnaia enciklopedias mixedviT, aRmosavleT saqarTvelo, kerZod kaxeTis da mcxeTis aRmosavleTiT mdebare mxareebi istoriuli albaneTis miwa-wyladaa gamocxadebuli, albanelebi ki azerbaijaneli eris winaprebad miiCneva, herebi - albaneli xalxis erT-erT jgufadaa warmodgenili. bodbe, gurjaani, saingilo da maxlobeli mxareebi - albanelebis anu azerbaijanelebis winaprebis istoriul sacxovrisad moiazreba. saqme isaa, rom am mosazrebas safuZvlad udevs eklesiis istoriis gayalbeba, wyaroebze zewola misi monacemebis TviTneburi interpretirebiT kardinaluri daskvnebis miReba, jer TviT saqarTvelos mecnierTa mier da Semdgom maTi damowmebiT ucxoel avtorTa mier. kerZod, statia albaneTis sakaTalikosos rukis mixedviT, mcxeTis aRmosavleTiT mdebare miwa-wyali (qvemo kaxeTi) - albaneTis sakaTalikosos iurisdiqciaSi Semaval teritoriad miiCneva. aseve pravoslavnaia enciklopediaSi statiaSi: alaniis samitropolito aRmosavleT saqarTvelos mTianeTi, kerZod leningoris, yazbegis da mimdebare miwa - wyali warmodgenilia konstantinopolis sapatriarqos iurisdiqciis qveS myof alaniis samitropolitos iurisdiqciaSi, mravali qarTuli eklesia-monasteri da, rac mTavaria, miwa-wyali alanur konstantinopoluradaa gamocxadebuli. dasavleT saqarTveloSi amave enciklopediis statia afxazeTis sakaTalikosos azriT, arabebis dros gadasaxlda aRmosavleT saqarvelos mosaxleoba da iq Seitana qarTuli ena da kultura. es imis Sedegad moxda, rom iqamde konstantinopolis iurisdiqciaSi myof dasavleT saqarTveloSi SeiWra mcxeTa da iq gabatonda. afxazi separatistebic am Tvalsazriss arian CaWidebulni; axlaxan gamoica afxazeTis marTlmadidebluri eklesiis mokle narkvevi mRvdel-monazon doroTe dbaris avtorobiT, sadac damowmebuliapravoslavnaia enciklopediis aRniSnuli statia - qarTvelebis dasavleT saqarTveloSi gadasaxlebis - 37 -

Sesaxeb VIII-X ss-Si, avtori eWvmiutanel faqtad miiCnevs Tvalsazriss, rom dasavleT saqarTvelo konstantinopolis iurisdiqciaSi imyofeboda da iq RvTismsaxurebisaTvis eklesiebSi aramxolod berZnuli, aramed afxazuri enac gamoiyeneboda, xolo Semdeg TiTqosda es eklesia da afxazuri saxelmwifo qarTvelma agresorebma qarTuli eklesiis winamZRolobiT daipyres da afxazuri eklesia Cakles (ix. wignSi () , 2005). pravoslavnaia enciklopediis tomeulebSi, dasavleT saqarTvelos msgavsad, samxreTi saqarTveloc araqarTul qveynadaa gamocxadebuli, sadac, TiTqosda, qarTuli eklesiis gabatonebis Semdeg moxda mkvidri somxebis gaqarTveleba. somxebis gaqarTvelebis Tvalsazrisi imdenadaa gavrcelebuli, rom man ukve qarTul saeklesio gamocemebSic SeaRwia. magaliTad, kirion I kaTalikosma TiTqosda qvemo qarTlSi araqarTuli mosaxleobis gasaqarTveleblad marjved gamoiyena politikuri viTareba (saqarTvelos kaTolikospatriarqebi, Tb, 2000. gv.28). somexi avtorebi da ara mxolod isini, aseT statiebs safuZvlad udeben Teorias, rom qvemo qarTli da saerTod samxreT saqarTvelo somxuri qveyana iyo, romelic eklesiis mier gaqarTvelda. Tu gadavSliT aRniSnuli statiis avtoris uamrav Zvel Sromas da mis wignebs, yvelgan saubaria somexTa gaqarTvelebis Sesaxeb. esaa Teoria, romelic qarTuli sabWoTa oficialuri istoriografiisaTvis ueWvel dogmad iqca da mas aviTarebda bolo saukunis manZilze. erTi sityviT pravoslavanaia enciklopedias sxvadasxva tomSi gamoqveynebuli statiebi aris marcxi qarTuli Tanamedrove istoriografiisa. mosalodneli iyo, rom samecniero wreebi am sakiTxis gansaxilvelad gamarTavdnen seminarebs da moxdeboda samecniero azris urTierTgacvla, magram moxda am statiebis ignorireba. saqme isaa, rom Tanamedrove qarTul istoriografias, romelic eyrdnoba qarTizacia - gaqarTvelebis Teorias (rac TiTqos eklesiis winamZRolobiT qarTis tomma VIII-Xss-Si moaxdina), ar SeuZlia amJamad am sakiTxis gadaWra. qarTuli istoriografia am sakiTxis gadaWras SeZlebs, Tu is gaiziarebs Zveli qarTveli istorikosebis Tvalsazriss, rom qarTveli xalxi Camoyalibda ara VIII-X ss-Si eklesiis meoxebiT mezobeli tomebis qarTizaciis Sedegad, aramed rom istoriaSi gamoCenis - 38 -

dros qarTveli xalxi warmoadgenda eTnikur mTlianobas, erT xalxs, erTi eniTa da kulturiT, romlis sacxovrisi moicavda dasavleT, aRmosavleT da samxreT saqarTvelos, rom imTaviTve qarTvelebi iyvnen ara mxolod Sida qarTlis mosaxleoba, aramed - egriselebi, svanebi, kaxelebi da samxreT saqarTvelos mosaxleoba, rom maT hqondaT erTi ena (sustad diferencirebuli fuZe qarTuli ena) romelsac daeyrdno saRvTismsaxuro liturgikuli ena (qristianobis gavrcelebis Semdeg), rom mxolod Semdgom daiwyo am erTiani enis SigniT dialeqtebis warmoqmna. aseTi viTareba ar aris umagaliTo (magaliTad, erTi slavi xalxi, erTiani eniT mxolod gaqristianebis Semdeg daiyo sxvadasxva did enobriv jgufebad). faqti erTiani qarTveli xalxis qristeSobamde arsebobis Sesaxeb dafiqsirebulia Zvel qarTul wyaroebSi, magaliTad, roca moqceva~ qarTlisa~ wers, rom azoni daadgines mefed mTeli istoriuli saqarTvelosi, rom misi pirveli erTiani qarTlis samefos dasavleT sazRvari gadioda mdinare egriswyalze, cxadia, gulisxmobs, rom egriswyalTan mdebare egrisi qarTlia, qarTlis samefos nawilia, da misi mosaxleoba qarTveli eris nawilia. pirveli erTiani qarTuli saxelmwifos sazRvrebi aseTia: sazRvari daudva mas hereTi da egriswyali da somxeTi da mTa crolisa (moqceva~ qarTlisa~, Zegl. I, 1964, gv. 81). amave Tvalsazriss atarebs qarTlis cxovreba", misi yvela mefe uklebliv, farnavazidan vaxtang gorgaslamde, flobs dasavleT saqarTvelos, maSasadame dasavleT saqarTvelos mosaxleoba qarTvelebia (Cveni saeklesio wyaroebis cnobiT) da am mosaxleobas ar esaWiroeba araviTari qarTizacia gaqarTveleba (a. jafariZe, 1994, gv. 62, 65). rogorc aRiniSna, amave Tvalsazriss gamoTqvams ruis-urbnisis krebis Zegliswerac, sadac andria pirvelwodebuli mTeli saqarTvelos momaqcevlad, xolo wminda nino mTeli qarTveli eris gamaqristianeblad iwodeba. Tu am Zvel istorikosTa Tvalsazriss ar gaiziarebs oficialuri istoriografia, cxadia, ver SeZlebs pravoslavnaia enciklopediis da verc e.w. separatistTa (sinamdvileSi - mezobeli imperiis mesveurTa) miznebis jerovan Sefasebas. yovelive zemoTqmuli ase SegviZlia SevajamoT: saqarTvelos samociqulo eklesiis mTlianobis darRvevis mizniT ruseTis imperiis wiaRSi SemuSavda Sexeduleba - 39 -

saqarTvelos eklesiis prozeliturobis Sesaxeb, kerZod, TiTqosda mxolod aRmosavleT saqarTvelos centralur nawilSi arsebulma saqarTvelos eklesiam arakanonikurad daiqvemdebara (da mosaxleobac gaaqarTvela): konstantinopolis iurisdiqciis qveS myofi dasavleT saqarTvelos momcveli fazisis samitropolitos, samxreT saqarTvelos (tao-klarjeTis), mcxeTis aRmosavleTiT arsebuli, maTi azriT, albaneTis (hereTis) sakaTalikosos iurisdiqciis qveS myofi saepiskoposoebi da aRmosavleT saqarTvelos mTianeTis konstantinopolis iurisdiqciaSi myofi alaniis samitropolitos eklesiebi... es Tvalsazrisi kargad gamoixata moskovSi 2000-2006 wlebSi dastambul "pravoslavnaia enciklopediis" statiebSi, romelTa ZiriTadi safuZveli aris sabWoTa istorikosTa naSromebi (asaxuli qarTul sabWoTa enciklopediasa da sxva gamocemebSi). amgvar Sexedulebas araviTari istoriuli safuZveli ara aqvs; kerZod, Zveli qarTuli matianeebisa da saeklesio istoriografiis mravali dokumentiT dasturdeba: organizaciulad CamoyalibebisTanave da Semdgom periodSic saqarTvelos eklesiis iurisdiqcia moicavda qarTlSi/saqarTveloSi Semaval yvela mxares: egriss, istoriul tao-klarjeTs, aRmosavleT saqarTvelos aRmosavleT nawils, kavkasionis samxreT da CrdiloeT kalTebze arsebul qarTvelur TemTa sacxovrisebs... kvleva gviCvenebs, rom fazisis samitropolito mdebareobda ara qalaq foTSi, aramed mdinare Woroxis (fazisis) marcxena sanapiroze, romelic trapizonis olqSi iyo moqceuli, iqve mdebareobda fazisis samitropolitos oTxive saepiskoposo da ara - dasavleT saqarTveloSi. mcxeTis aRmosavleTiT miwa-wyali mudam saqarTvelos iurisdiqciaSi imyofeboda qarTuli wyaroebis mixedviT, da amitom iqadaga iq, rogorc movses xorenacic wers, wm. ninom qarTvelTa Soris klarjeTidan masquTebamde (Sdr., "didi sjulis kanonis "Zegliswera", gv. 545-546: "andria pirvelwodebulma saxareba iqadaga "yovelsa queyanasa saqarTveloisa", xolo wmida ninom qristianul sarwmunoebaze moaqcia "yoveli savseba yovlisa qarTvelTa naTesavisa"). aseve, taosa da nawilobriv klarjeTis qarTveli mosaxleoba IX-X ss-Si iyvnen ara gaqarTvelebuli somxebi, aramed eTnikuri qarTvelebi, romlebic iqamde VI-VII ss-Si dampyrobelTa iZulebiT imyofebodnen somxur-qalkedonuri eklesiis
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iurisdiqciaSi, xelsayreli politikuri momentisTanave maT gadaigdes somxur-qalkedonuri eklesiis iurisdiqciis uReli da daubrundnen TavianT mSobliur-erovnul qarTul eklesias. rac Seexeba saqarTvelos mTianeTs - is arasodes yofila konstantinopolis sapatriarqos iurisdiqciaSi, rogorc amas wyaroebi, aseve samxreT da CrdiloeT kavkasiis mTianeTis eklesiebis naSTebis warwerebi aCvenebs.
gamoyenebuli literatura:

16. m. xorenaci, 1984 - m. xorenaci, somxeTis istoria, 1984 17. a. jafariZe, 1994 - a. jafariZe, qarTvelTa winaprebis bibliuri istoria adamidan iesomde, Tb., 1994 18. a. jafariZe,1996-1999 - a. jafariZe, saqarTvelos samociqulo eklesiis istoria, t.I-II, 1996-1999

Metropolitan Anania (Japaridze) - Head of the Chair of Theology of the Technical University of Georgia The Dominant View in Soviet Historiography on Proselytism of the Georgian Church and its Criticism Summary In order to destroy the unity of the Georgian Apostolic Church, Russian imperial circles elaborated the view concerning the proselytism of the Georgian Church, namely, allegedly the Georgian Church existing only in the central part of eastern Georgia uncanonically subordinated (and georgianized the population too): the Metropolitan Diocese of Phasis covering western Georgia being under the jurisdiction of Constantinople, southern Georgia (Tao-Klarjeti), dioceses existing to the east of Mtskheta, being, in their view, under the jurisdiction of the Catholicosate of Albania (Hereti) and churches of the Metropolitan Diocese of Alania of eastern Georgian highland regions being under the jurisdiction of ConstantinopleThis view was expressed in entries of "Pravaslavnaia entsiklopedia" published in 2000-2006 in Moscow, which are based mainly on works of Soviet historians (found in Georgian Soviet Encyclopaedia and other publications). The above-mentioned view is devoid of any historical foundation, in particular, old Georgian annals and numerous documents of church historiography confirm that: The jurisdiction of the Georgian Church immediately after its establishment and in the subsequent period covered all the areas forming part of Kartli/Georgia: Egrisi, historical Tao-Klarjeti, the eastern part of eastern Georgia, homelands of the Kartvelian communities existing on the southern and northern slopes of the CaucasusThe study shows that the Metropolitan Diocese of Phasis was located not in the town of Poti but on the left bank of the river Chorokhi (Phasis), which was within the Trapezus district. All the four dioceses of the Metropolitan Diocese of Phasis were also there, and not in western Georgia. The land to the east of Mtskheta has always been within the Georgian jurisdiction according to Georgian sources, that is why there, as Moses Khorenaci notes as well, St. Nino preached among the - 42 -

1. k. gamsaxurdia, 1967 - k. gamsaxurdia, troaseuli cxeni (akad. n.marris werilis gamo), Txz. t. VIII, 1967 2. didi sjuliskanoni, Tbilisi, 1975 3. didi sjuliskanoni, saqarTvelos eklesiis kalendari, Tbilisi, 1987 4. z.didebuliZe, 1983 - . , , 1983 5. m. vaCnaZe, v. guruli, 2004 - iv. javaxiSvili, tiraniis samsjavros winaSe, Tb., 2004. 6. r. TofCiSvili, 2002 - r. TofCiSvili, qarTvelTa eTnikuri istoria, Tb., 2002. 7. (), 2005 - (), , , 2005 8. a. liparteliani, 1994 - a. liparteliani, svanur-qarTuli leqsikoni, (Coloruli kilo), Tb., 1994 9. d. musxeliSvili, 2003 - d. musxeliSvili, saqarTvelo IV-VIII saukuneebSi, 2003 10. d. musxeliSvili, 2005 - d. musxeliSvili, qarTuli eklesia da saxelmwifo teritoria Sua saukuneebSi, saqarTvelos sapatriarqos qristianuli kvlevis saerTaSoriso centri, II saerTaSoriso simpoziumi, 24-26 noemberi, 2005. 11. narkvevebi, 1973 - saqarTvelos istoriis narkvevebi, t.II, Tb., 1973 12. T papuaSvili, 1973 - adrefeodaluri xanis qarTuli literatura da saistorio mwerloba, wignSi: saqarTvelos istoriis narkvevebi, tomi II, Tb., 1973 13. t. futkaraZe, 2005 - t. futkaraZe, qarTvelebi, nawili I, quTaisi, 2005 14. n. quTelia, 2005 - n. quTelia, qarTuli ena, rogorc kulturul - erovnuli da politikuri mTlianobis safuZveli, krebulSi: axlo aRmosavleTi da saqarTvelo, IV, Tb., 2005 15. a. xelaia, 1988 - a. xelaia, mimarTva genuis konferencias, Jurnali mnaTobi, 1988

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Georgians from Klarjeti to Maskuts (cf. "Accounts of the Great Nomocanon", pp.545-546: Andrew who was first called preached the Gospel "in all the regions of Georgia", and St. Nino converted to Christianity "all communities of the Kartvelian stock"). Similarly, the Georgian population of Tao and partially Klarjeti in the 9th-10th cc. was not georgianized Armenians but ethnic Georgians who had found themselves within the jurisdiction of the Armenian-Chalcedonic Church under the pressure of invaders in the 6th-7th cc. At a suitable moment they freed themselves from the burden of the jurisdiction of the Armenian-Chalcedonic Church and returned to their native and national Georgian Church. As regards the highland region of Georgia, it has never been in the jurisdiction of the Patriarchate of Constantinople, as evidenced by sources as well as inscriptions on ruins of churches in the southern and northern Caucasian mountains. () . , ( ): , , (), , , , () , , ... . , 2000-2006 , ( ). ; : : - 43 -

, /: , -, , , ... , , (), , , . . , , , (., , . 545-546; , ). IX-X . , , VI-VII . , - . , , , . 8. XI. 2006.

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ivane gorgiZe - saqarTvelos sainJinro akademiis akademikosmdivani, goCa guguSvili - sasuliero akademiis profesori, guram javaxaZe - saqarTvelos sainJinro akademiis prezidentis moadgile saqarTvelos teqnikuri universitetis Teologiis kaTedra - sasuliero da saero samecniero centri
saqarTvelos teqnikuri universitetis Teologiis kaTedras 5 weli Seusrulda. es is wlebia, rodesac uwmidesi da unetaresi sruliad saqarTvelos kaTolikos-patriarqis ilia II-is locva-kurTxeviT, mitropolit ananias (jafariZe) ZalisxmeviT kaTedra dakompleqtda maRalkvalificiuri profesor-maswavleblebiT. Seiqmna didi avtoriteti da dRes warmoudgenelia saqarTvelos teqnikuri universiteti Teologiis kaTedris gareSe. kaTedra daarsebis dRidan TanamSromlobs gamoCenil mecnierebTan, sazogado moRvaweebTan. kaTedris did avtoritetze metyvelebs isic, rom 2001-2006 wlebSi mravali saintereso RonisZieba Catarda, magram Cven or konferencias gamovyofdiT: pirveli saerTaSoriso konferencia mecniereba da religia, romelic Catarda 2005 wels uwmidesi da unetaresi ilia II-is locvakurTxeviT, mitropolit ananias (jafariZe), akademikosebis iveri frangiSvilis, vladimer burkovis, boris gusevis, konstantine frolovis da sxva gamoCenili mecnierebis monawileobiT. saWirod vTvliT, humanitaruli dargis mkiTxvels zogadad mainc warmovudginoT konferenciis monawile teqnikuri dargis mecnierebi, romlebic did pativs scemen, rogorc mitropolit ananias (jafariZes), aseve, Teologiis kaTedris wevrebs. daarsebis pirvelive dRidan Teologiis kaTedris wevrebs, mitropolit ananiasa (jafariZe) da iveri frangiSvils Soris damyarda saqmiani megobruli urTierToba, TanamSromloba. akademikosi iveri frangiSvili - ruseTis mecnierebaTa akademiis v.trapeznikovis sax. marTvis problemebis institutis direqtori, saqarTvelos mecnierebaTa akademiis viceprezidenti, saqarTvelos sainJinro akademiis perzidenti, saerTaSoriso sainJinro akademiis pirveli vice-prezidenti da sxvadasxva akademiebis wevri, gamoCenili specialisti, oTxasi samecniero naSromis avtori, maT Soris 15 monografiis, 30 - 45 -

gamogonebis da erTi aRmoCenis. misi moRvaweobis ZiriTadi mimarTulebebia mecnierebisa da religiis kavSiri, saerTo sistemuri kanonzomierebebis Teoriis, principebis Seqmna, mravalprocesoriani gamoTvliTi teqnikis Seqmna da sxv. akademikosi vladimer burkovi ruseTis sabunebismetyvelo akademiis kibernetikis ganyofilebis akademikos-mdivani, proeqtebis marTvis ruseTis asociaciis prezidenti, kaTedris gamge, saqarTvelos sainJinro akademiis sapatio akademikosi, saqarTvelos teqnikuri universitetis sapatio doqtori, didi sistemebis marTvis Teoriis - aqtiuri sistemebis marTvis erT-erTi fuZemdebeli, saxelmwifo premiebis laureati, oTxasze meti samecniero naSromis avtori. akademikosi boris gusevi - saerTaSoriso da ruseTis sainJinro akademiebis prezidenti, saxelmwifo premiebis laureati, saqarTvelos sainJinro akademiis sapatio akademikosi, saqarTvelos teqnikuri universitetis sapatio doqtori, oTxasamde samecniero naSromis avtori, aqvs 100 patenti, aRiarebuli mecnieria teqnologiur meqanikaSi, uwyvet tanTa meqanikaSi da sxvadasxva dargebSi,. akademikosi konstantine frolovi - ruseTis sainJinro akademiis sapatio prezidenti, saxelmwifo premiebis laureati, saqarTvelos sainJinro akademiis sapatio akademikosi, saqarTvelos teqnikuri universitetis sapatio doqtori, axali mimarTulebis - biomeqanikis, adamiani - manqana - garemos fuZemdebeli; cnobili specialisti meqanikis sxvadasxva dargebSi,. meore konferencia, miZRvnili akademikos iveri frangiSvilis xsovnisadmi, sruliad saqarTvelos kaTolikospatriarqis uwmidesi da unetaresi ilia II-is locva-kurTxeviT Catarda 2006 wlis 6 ivniss saqarTvelos teqnikur universitetSi. konferenciis organizatorebi iyvnen: saqarTvelos teqnikuri universitetis Teologiis kaTedra, saqarTvelos sapatriarqos enisa da kulturis samecniero sabWo, saqarTvelos sainJinro akademia, mecnierebis istoriis saqarTvelos sazogadoeba. saorganizacio komitets warmoadgendnen: maRalyovladusamRvdeloesi, manglisisa da walkis mitropoliti anania (jafariZe), saqarTvelos teqnikuri universitetis reqtori r. xuroZe da komitetis wevrebi: z. gasitaSvili, i. gorgiZe (pm/mdivani), g. guguSvili, S. aWyebia, v. guruli, r. Ciqovani, g. javaxaZe. konferencia gaxsna akademikosma - 46 -

ramaz xuroZem. vrceli sityviT gamovida sruliad saqarTvelos kaTolikos-patriarqi, uwmidesi da unetaresi ilia II. mogonebebiT gamovidnen m. saluqvaZe, m. lorTqifaniZe; g. abduSeliSvili, r. Ciqovani, a. vefxvaZe, k. kamkamiZe.

Salva naWyebia - saqarTvelos teqnikuri universiteti Teologiis kaTedris dafuZneba


xuTma welma ganvlo mas Semdeg, rac saqarTvelos teqnikur universitetSi sulierebis didi kera _ Teologiis kaTedra iqna dafuZnebuli. universitetis istoriis es erT-erTi umniSvnelovanesi movlena Cveni qveynis marTlmadidebluri eklesiis saWeTmpyroblis, misi uwmindesobisa da unetaresobis, saqarTvelos kaTolikos-patriarqis ilia II-is saxelTan aris dakavSirebuli. 2001 wlis 4 ianvars senakis fakultetis dekanTan, docent koba gvazavasTan erTad mqonda bedniereba sapatriarqos rezidenciaSi vyofiliyavi imaTTan erTad, vinc gulmxurvaled ulocavda uwmindessa da unetares dabadebis dRes. es iyo RvTis zeciuri madliT ganaTebuli dauviwyari dRe. patriarqTan Soriaxlos yofnisas vgrZnobdi, rom saocrebamde usazRvroa gangeba RvTisa. am bednier dRes mis uwmindesobas gverds umSvenebda saqarTvelos marTlmadidebeli eklesiis erT-erTi uTvalsaCinoesi moRvawe manglisisa da walkis mTavarepiskoposi meufe anania, romlis Sesaxeb bevri msmenoda. wakiTxuli mqonda misi fundamenturi Sromebi saqarTvelos eklesiis istoriis Sesaxeb. im sadResaswaulo wuTebSi uflis nebiT saSualeba mogveca meufe ananiasaTvis gagveziarebina saqarTvelos teqnikur universitetis akademiur wreebsa da studentaxalgazrdobaSi momwifebuli azri universitetis kedlebSi Teologiis kaTedris dafuZvnebis Taobaze. meufe udidesi sixaruliT Sexvda am winadadebas, rac universitetis reqtoris profesor ramaz xuroZis gansakuTrebuli mxardaWeriT iyo nakarnaxevi. momdevno dReebSi reqtorTan meufe ananias Sexvedris Semdeg, Teologiis kaTedris dafuZvnebis Taobaze TxovniT mivmarTeT mis uwmindessa da unetares saqarTvelos kaTolokos-patriarqs ilia II. dauviwyaria is wuTebi, rodesac patriarqma migviRo, man didis yuradRebiT moismina universitetis Txovna Teologiis kaTedris gaxsnis Taobaze da dawvrilebiT gamogvkiTxa Tu rogor gvqonda gaazrebuli am erTob sapasuxismgeblo da ukeTilSobilesi Canafiqris ganxorcieleba. moismina ra - 48 -

moxsenebebi waikiTxes: z. gasitaSvilma, s. xuciSvilma iveri frangiSvilis moRvaweoba; mitropolitma ananiam (jafariZe) -"dasavleT saqarTvelos saeklesio iurisdiqcia IVIX saukeneebSi; t. futkaraZem -"termini, movlena, motivacia, Sefaseba; S. naWyebiam - "Teologiis swavleba umaRles saswavleblebSi; m. tabiZem -"enobrivi problemebi qarTuli ganaTlebis sistemaSi; n. barTaiam - fereidneli qarTvelebi. i. gorgiZem uwmides da unetares ilia II-s da maRalyovladusamRvdeloess, manglisisa da walkis mitropolit ananias (jafariZe) gadasca saqarTvelos sainJinro akademiis sapatio akademikosebis diplomebi. imeds gamovTqvamT, uflis nebiT meore saerTaSoriso konferencia Catardeba 2007 wels. dasasrul, siamayiT aRvniSnavT: saqarTvelos teqnikuri universitetis Teologiis kaTedra aris Cveni qveynis mniSvnelovani sasuliero-samecniero saswavlo centri. vusurvebT mitropolit ananiasa da kaTedris yvela wevrs xangrZliv da nayofier Semoqmedebas Cveni qveynis sakeTildReod. - 47 -

Tbilisi 2005 weli, saerTaSoriso konferenciis mecniereba da religia monawileebi sapatriarqoSi

Cveni mosazrebebi, uwmindesma udidesi kmayofileba gamoTqva am didi saqmis wamowyebasTan dakavSirebiT da brZana _ieso qriste beTlemSi iSva, magram es sakmaris araa, is unda iSvas yoveli adamianis gulSi da ara marto iSvas, aramed imyofebodes masTan. mxolod am SemTxvevaSi iqneba CvenTvis misawvdomi is zeciuri madli, romelic dedamiwaze saukuneTuwinaresma logosma mogvitana _ mSvidoba mSvidoba RmerTTan, mSvidoba moyvasTan, mSvidoba sakuTar TavTan. uwmindesma sagangebod gausva xazi axalgazrdobis sulierebis aRzrdis mniSvnelobas da am ukeTilSibiles saqmeSi Teologiis kaTedris misias. uwmindessa da unetaress sagangebod vTxoveT, rom mTels saqarTveloSi cnobili saeklesio moRvawe da mecnieri wminda sinodis wevri, manglisisa da walkis mTavarepiskoposi meufe anania Casdgomoda saTaveSi. uwmindesi udidesi kmayofilebiT Sexvda universitetis reqtoratis am winadadebas da mogvca kurTxeva. dadga nanatri dRec. saqarTvelos teqnikur universitetSi evropisa da msoflio saxelovan umaRles saswavlebelTa darad 2001 wlis 19 oqtombers dafuZnda Teologiis kaTedra. amasTan dakavSirebiT gaimarTa teqnikuri universitetis didi sabWos sxdoma. sxdomas daeswro sruliad saqarTvelos kaTolikos-patriarqi, uwmindesi da unetaresi ilia II, wminda sinodis wevrebi. Tavis gamosvlaSi saqarTvelos patriarqma brZana: didi mecnieri klimenti aleqsandrieli ambobs, rom ara aris sakmarisi adamiani iyos morwmune, mas aucileblad codna unda axldeso da is aseT daskvnas akeTebs: mxolod morwmune adamiani aris mona RvTisa, xolo morwmune da ganaTlebuli adamiani aris megobari RvTisa. uwmindesma Tavisi gamosvla Semdegi sityvebiT daasrula: me gilocavT am bednier dRes da mogaxsenebT, rom kaTedris gamged arCeulia mTavarepiskoposi meufe anania, romelic wminda sinodSi Tavisi erudiciiTa da Rrma azrovnebiT gamoirCeva da minda vTqva, rom es Zalian kargi arCevania. es aris Tqveni didi damsaxureba da upirveles yovlisa, es aris batoni reqtoris damsaxureba da madlobas vwirav mas. am bednieri dRidan xuTma weliwadma ganvlo. drois am mcire monakveTSi meufe ananias xelmZRvanelobiT, romelic - 49 -

didi saeklesio RvawlisaTvis mitropolitis rangSi iqna aRvlenili, bevri ram gakeTda. reqtoratis SenobaSi gaixsna wminda giorgis saxelobis samlocvelo. samlocveloebi gaixsna stu-s I da II saswavlo korpusebSic. kaTedraze moRvaweoben umaRlesi ierarqiis cnobili mRvdelmsaxurebi. studenturi razmebi aqtiurad monawileoben eklesiamonastrebis aRdgenisa da mSeneblobis saqmeSi. kaTedraze intensiurad mimdinareobs saswavlo-meToduri da samecniero muSaoba. kaTedris xelmZRvanelobiT Catarebuli profesor-maswavlebelTa da studentTa saerTaSoriso samecniero konferenciebi amis SesaniSnavi dadasturebaa. gaweuli Rvawlis Sedegad kaTedram sayovelTao pativiscema da aRiareba moipova. didi ilia brZanebda: bevrs hgonia, rom mecniereba da sarwmunoeba erTmaneTSi mourigebelni arian, magram am or samflobelos Soris SemaerTebeli xidi aris sibrZne. gamecnierebuli sarwmunoeba da gasarwmunoebuli mecniereba aris wyaro eris msaxurebisa. am did msaxurebas eweva Cveni universitetis Teologiis kaTedra. winsvlasa da axal warmatebebs vusurvebT mas.

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goCa guguSvili - saqarTvelos sasuliero akademiis profesori saqarTvelos teqnikuri universitetis Teologiis kaTedris istoria
saqarTvelos teqnikur universitetSi 2001 wlis 19 oqtombers, uwmindesisa da unetaresis, sruliad saqarTvelos kaTalikos-patriarqis, ilia II-is locva-kurTxeviT da universitetis reqtoris ZalisxmeviT sagangebod mowveul teqnikuri universitetis didi sabWos sxdomaze dafuZnda Teologiis kaTedra. kaTedris gaxsnas win uZRoda universitetis TanamSromelTa da saqarTvelos sapatriarqos warmomadgenelTagan Seqmnili specialuri sainiciativo jgufis safuZvliani muSaoba, struqturul-organizaciuli sakiTxebis ganxilva-Sejereba, kaTedris gamgis da wevr-pedagogTa kandidaturebis SerCeva-dakompleqteba, rac universitetis reqtoris, baton ramaz xuroZis uSualo xelmZRvanelobiT warimarTa. 19 oqtombris did samecniero sabWos sxdomaze mobrZanda da samecniero sabWos wevri mecnierebi daloca uwmindesma da unetaresma, sruliad saqarTvelos kaTalikospatriarqma ilia II-m. mis uwmindesobas axldnen saqarTvelos sapatriarqos wminda sinodis wevri mRvdelmTavrebi: maRalyovladusamRvdeloesi cxum-afxazeTis mitropoliti danieli (daTuaSvili) da axlad dafuZnebuli kaTedris gamge, manglis-walkis maRalyovladusamRvdeloesi, mTavarepiskoposi anania (jafariZe), aseve sxva sasuliero pirebi. saqarTvelos kaTalikos-patriarqma didi Sefaseba misca, msoflios saxelovan umaRles saswavlebelTa darad, saqarTvelos teqnikur universitetSi Teologiis kaTedris dafuZnebas (misi sityva ix. warmodgenili krebulis Sesaval nawilSi). axlad dafuZnebul kaTedris gamged wardgenilma maRalyovladusamRvdeloesma manglis-walkis mTavarepikoposma ananiam axali kaTedris gaxsna miuloca uwmindessa da unetaress, sruliad saqarTvelos kaTalikos-patriarqs, ilia II-s, universitetis reqtors, baton ramaz xuroZes, reqtoratisa da gafarToebuli samecniero sabWos wevrebs; man aRniSna Teologiis kaTedris didi mniSvneloba da Camoayaliba samuSao programa: - 51 -

"saqarTvelos teqnikuri universiteti mTeli qarTveli erisaTvis warmoadgens mecnierebis, kulturisa da ganaTlebis saamayo keras, amitomac aq Teologiis kaTedris daarsebas da mis kurTxevas uwmindesisa da unetaresis, kaTalikos-patriarqis mier, gansakuTrebuli mniSvneloba unda mieniWos. Teologiis kaTedris dafuZneba erTi nawilia saqarTvelos teqnikuri univeristetis im didi programisa, romlis mixedviTac sauniversiteto teqnikuri ganaTleba, amasTanave, humanitaruli ganaTlebis sruliad axal safexurze ayvanas, profesionali inJinris mier erovnuli sulieri kulturis gaTavisebasa da erovnuli fenomenis matarebel moqalaqed aRzrdas gulisxmobs. Teologiis kaTedras am mxriv didi misia ekisreba; mis muSaobas safuZvlad daedeba uwmindesisa da unetaresis ilia II swavleba rwmenisa da codnis urTierTdamokidebulebis Sesaxeb; kerZod: "saqarTvelos kulturuli, inteleqtualuri, Tundac materialuri potencialis aRorZineba sulieri amaRlebiT unda daiwyos. mecnierebis da mis warmomadgenelTa suliereba iqneba saTave Cveni qveynis ganaxlebisa. inteligenciaSi didi potenciuri Zalaa. warsuli drois umZimes periodebSic ki moazrovne fena Cveni qveynisa xalxSi nergavda ganaTlebisa da - 52 -

socialuri progresis maRal idealebs. erTaderTi rac mas aklda, es iyo WeSmariti sarwmunoebis sruli gaazreba. Tavisi funqciis sworad Sefasebas da Sesrulebas inteligencia mxolod maSin SesZlebs, roca Tavis codnas rwmenas daukavSirebs. am SemTxvevaSi miaRwevs is did da sasurvel Sedegs". sarwmunoebisa da mecnierebis dakavSirebis Sesaxeb mTavarepiskoposma ananiam wmida ilia marTlis (WavWavaZis) cnobili moZRvrebac gaixsena: "bevrsa hgonia, rom mecniereba da sarwmunoeba erTmaneTSi mourigebelni arian, magram am or samflobelos Soris SemaerTebeli xidi aris sibrZne. gamecnierebuli sarwmunoeba da gasarwmunoebuli mecniereba aris wyaro eris msaxurebisa, Rvawlisa, madlisa da saqmisa, radganac kacTaTvis msaxureba msaxurebaa RvTisa"; Semdeg man aRniSna: mecniereba da sarwmunoeba SeiZleba or mZlavr frTas SevadaroT, romelzec dayrdnobisas qarTvel ers SeuZlia kvlav moipovos sulieri da saxelmwifoebrivi siZliere. axali Taoba uTuod kvlav gadebs SemaerTebel sibrZnis xids mecnierebasa da sarwmunoebas Soris. ilias ukvdavi ideebi, cxadia, sayrdeni iqneba Cveni kaTedris muSaobisa. daarseba am mniSvnelovani kaTedrisa, kidev ufro warmoaCens im faqts, rom saqarTvelos eklesia dRes aRmavlobis gzazea. es migviTiTebs, rom eris qristianuli suli cocxalia da eri imediT uyurebs momavals. qarTuli eklesiis aRorZineba sawindaria saqarTvelos saxelmwifoebrivi gaZlierebisa; qarTuli eklesia sulia qarTveli erisa. rogorc sxeuls ar SeuZlia sicocxle usulod, iseve qarTvel ers misi macocxlebeli sulis gareSe, da dRes, roca xalxi sulier sazrdos ewafeba, misTvis Sesabamisi pirobebis micemaa saWiro. saqarTvelos teqnikuri universitetis Teologiis kaTedra, Zveli qarTuli saswavleblebis, agreTve, ucxoeTis universitetebSi arsebuli Teologiis fakultetebis programebis Sesabamisad unda Seecados, yuradReba miapyros bibliologiis (Zveli da axali aRTqmis wminda werilis), RvTismetyvelebis, qarTvelologiis, aseve, kulturologiuri, fsiqologiuri, anTropologiuri, istoriografiuli da sxva mimarTulebis problemebis kvlevasa da swavlebas; Sesabamisad, aq unda iRvawon saero da sasuliero mkvlevarebma.
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dasasrul, misi uwmindesobis locviT, guliTadad vulocavT saqarTvelos teqnikuri universitetis did sabWos, mis yvela wevrs, reqtorats, studentobas, romelTac sixaruliT miiRes maTTvis uCveulo Teologiis kaTedris daarseba. RmerTma dalocos da akurTxos Teologiis axali kaTedra". axladdafuZnebuli kaTedris wevr-pedagogTa SerCeva da dakompleqteba uwmindesisa da unetaresis, sruliad saqarTvelos kaTalikos-patriarqi ilia II-is rekomendaciiT da locva-kurTxeviT aRsrulda. saswavlo procesi 2002 wlis martis Tvidan daiwyo. swavlis dawyebis win misma uwmindesobam da unetaresobam saqarTvelos sapatriarqoSi pedagogebTan Sexvedrisas aRniSna Teologiis kaTedris didi mniSvnelobis Sesaxeb rogorc universitetis, ise mTeli qveynis winaSe; kaTedris srulfasovani muSaobisaTvis ki pedagogebs miznad dausaxa: universitetis specifikis gaTvaliswineba, studentebTan da sxva dargis pedagogebTan urTierTobisas gansakuTrebuli gulisxmierebis gamomJRavneba, saleqcio, seminaruli da samecniero-sakonferencio muSaobis seriozuli warmarTva, TiToeuli leqtorisaTvis gegmis Sedgena, konspeqtCanawerebis warmoeba da sxva. kaTedris pirveli pedagogebi gaxldnen saqarTvelos sapatriarqos daqvemdebarebaSi arsebuli saswavleblebis (ZiriTadad, Tbilisis sasuliero akademiiis) pedagogebi da eklesia-monastrebSi moRvawe pirebi, romelTac pedagogiuri da samecniero muSaobis didi gamocdileba hqondaT; kerZod: protopresviteri giorgi gamrekeli, dekanozebi: zaqaria ZinZibaZe, giorgi jibuti, amiran amiranaSvili, vaxtang asaTiani, miqael WabaSvili; mRvdlebi: biZina gunia, giorgi malxaziSvili, konstantine giorgaZe, maqsime Wanturia, miqael Wanturia, miqael maWaraZe, guram guramiSvili, Teodore gignaZe, giorgi doreuli, miqael kapanaZe, daviT Wanturia, miqael bukia; arqidiakoni demetre (daviTaSvili); diakoni elizbar diakoniZe; pedagogebi: zurab cxovrebaZe, zurab ekalaZe, giorgi maisuraZe, sergo farulava, levan bukia, zviad barkalaia, mzia wiklauri, goCa guguSvili. droTa ganmavlobaSi pedagogTa Semadgenloba icvleboda da kaTedraze muSaoba mouwiaT: mRvdlebs: ilia wereTels, samoel zviadaurs, levan meqoSvils, giorgi baRiaurs, avTandil gulaSvils; pedagogebs: goCa asaTians, giorgi weroZes, daviT amaSukels da sxvebs. - 54 -

axladdafuZnebuli kaTedris gamgem da pedagogebma kaTedris pirvelsave sxdomaze miznad daisaxes, erTi mxriv, studentTa ganswavla-katexizacia saRvTismetyvelo kuTxiT, meore mxriv ki saqarTvelos eklesiis istoriis mniSvnelovani etapebis Seswavla. leqtorTa simciris gamo leqciebis Catarebisas TiToeul nakadze aseulobiT studentis daswreba garkveul sirTules warmoadgens saswavlo procesis normalurad warmarTvisaTvis; Tumca, vfiqrobT, droTa ganmavlobaSi, es sakiTxi nel-nela mogvardeba. pirvelsave sxdomaze kaTedris gamgem manglisisa da walkis maRalyovladusamRvdeloesma mTavarepiskoposma ananiam gamoirCia xuTkaciani jgufi - mrCevelTa sabWo protopresviter giorgi gamrekelis xelmZRvanelobiT da pedagogebs gaacno funqciebi da uflebamovaleobebi. mRvdel biZina gunias da am striqonebis avtors daevalaT studentebis muSaobis wliuri, semestruli da saTveo gegmebis, aseve, saswavlo programebis Sedgena. me, aseve, damevala, yovel semestrSi studentebisa da padagogebis monawileobiT ori da meti samecniero konferenciis momzadeba (kaTedris da universitetis masStabiT). am dRidan moyolebuli, kaTedris mier momzadebuli konferenciebi da seminarebi eZRvneba Cveni qveynis istoriis mniSvnelovan movlenebsa da did saeklesio dResaswaulebs; Tematikac aRsaniSnav movlenebs asaxavs: saqarTvelos eklesiis avtokefaliis aRdgena, mociqulTa mier saqarTveloSi qristianobis qadageba, qriastianobis saxelmwifo religiad gamocxadebis istoria, eklesiis struqturul-organizaciuli mowyoba adre da Tanamedrove etapze, eklesiis roli da mniSvneloba qveynis gaerTianebis saqmeSi, monarqiuli mmarTvelobis bibliuri safuZvlebi da saqarTveloSi samefo dinastiis istoriis mniSvnelovani etapebi, wminda mefeTa da dedofalTa: mirianisa da nanas, vaxtang gorgaslis, arCilisa da miris, daviT da konstantine mxeiZeebis, aToneli mamebis, asureli mamebis, daviT aRmaSeneblis, Tamar mefis, giorgi brwyinvalis, qeTevan dedoflis, luarsab mefis, biZina ColoyaSvilis, Salva da elizbar erisTavebis (da sxvaTa) cxovreba-moRvaweoba; agreTve, konferenciebze damuSavda Temebi: saqarTvelos didi omebis (didgoris, baxtrionis, krwanisis da sxva), wminda ilia marTlis (WavWavaZis), Tergdaleulebis, wminda gabriel qiqoZis, kirion saZagliSvilis, aleqsandre oqropiris, - 55 -

nazari leJavas, bolo periodSi afxazeTsa da Sida qarTlSi moRvawe mamuliSvilTa Sesaxeb... Teologiis kaTedris xuTwliani istoriidan gansakuTrebiT aRsaniSnavia studentTa daintereseba saRvTismetyvelo literaturiTa da eklesiis istoriiT. sagangebod gamosayofia is faqtic, rom teqnikuri universitetis studentTa, magistrantTa da aspirantTa bolo periodis samecniero konferenciebze monawileTa mravalricxovanebiT gamoirCeoda Teologiis seqcia; Cveni kaTedris maswavlebelTa xelmZRvanelobiT momzadebuli studentebis Temebi yvelaze meti diplomiTa da sigeliT jildovdeba; studentTa samecniero muSaobis sferoSi miRweul warmatebaTa gamo Teologiis kaTedras yovelwliurad gadaecema sagangebod Seqmnili Weduri dafa. Teologiis kaTedris warmatebuli muSaoba dadebiTad aris Sefasebuli, rogorc saqarTvelos sapatriarqos, ise, teqnikuri universitetis reqtoratis mier. kaTedris gamges, manglisisa da walkis mmarTvels, anania jafariZes saqarTvelos eklesiis winaSe damsaxurebisaTvis maRali samRvdelmTavro wodeba mitropolitoba, xolo universitetis samecniero sabWom, profesoris wodeba mianiWa. meufe anania aseve arCeulia saqarTvelos sainJinro akademiis sapatio akademikosad, ruseTis sabunebismetyvelo akademiis sapatio wevrad. erTguli samsaxurisaTis dekanozobis wodeba mieniWaT mRvdlebs: biZina gunias, giorgi malxaziSvils da sxvebs. mRvdlebad akurTxes diakvnebi: giorgi baRiauri, avTandil gulaSvili da sxva. Teologiis kaTedris gamgem manglisisa da walkis maRalyovladusamRvdeloesma mitropolitma, profesorma ananiam studentTa saeklesio msaxurebasa da taZris agebulebis struqturaSi ukeT garkvevis mizniT, universitetis sam korpusSi daafuZna da akurTxa wminda giorgis, wminda daviT aRmaSeneblis da wminda ninos saxelobis samlocveloebi. Sromatevadi saswavlo procesis miuxedavad, Teologiis kaTedris wevrebi seriozul samecniero RvawlSic arian; kerZod, mimdinare xuTi wlis ganmavlobaSi sqeltanian wignebad, broSurebad da samecniero saxiT gamoica: kaTedris gamgis maRalyovladusamRvdeloesi mitropolitis, profesor ananias aTeulobiT wigni (ix krebulis danarTSi warmodgenili anotirebuli bibliografia). protopresviter giorgi gamrekelis redaqtorobiT da locva-kurTxeviT gamodis - 56 -

samecniero Jurnali "rwmena da codna", misive xelmZRvanelobiT mecnierTa jgufs Tanamedrove qarTul saliteraturo enaze gadmoaqvs wminda werilis Zveli qarTuli redaqciebis wignebi. dekanoz biZina gunias mier safuZvlianad damuSavda eklesiis liturgikuli msaxurebisTvis aucileblad saWiro literatura; aRsaniSnavia is faqtic, rom dekanozi biZina samecniero xarisxis maZieblad aris gaformebuli xelnawerTa institutSi. dekanozma miqael WabaSvilma literaturis institutSi daicva filologiis mecnierebaTa kandidatis samecniero xarisxi (naSromis Tema: "abibos nekreselis homiliebi"); garda amisa, dekanoz miqaels bolo periodSi gamoqveynebuli aqvs ramdenime wigni da 8 samecniero werili. amave periodSi aTeulobiT samecniero naSromi gamoaqveyna da istoriis mecnierebaTa xarisxi moipova (sakvalifikacio Tema: "JamTaaRmwerlis aswlovani matianis saRvTismetyvelo safuZvlebi") am striqonebis avtorma; erT-erTi gamokvleva Sevida sruliad saqarTvelos kaTalikos-patriarqis ilia II-is aRsaydrebis 25 wlisaTvisadmi miZRvnil samtomeulSi: "naTeli qristesi saqarTvelo"; agreTve, Cven mier rusulenovani marTlmadidebluri enciklopediisTvis momzadebulia Zalze vrceli masala saqarTvelos marTlmadidebeli eklesiis dReisaTvis arsebul da moqmed eparqiaTa (sul 35) Sesaxeb. Teologiis kaTedris wevrebi vTanamSromlobT "saeklesio kalendris" redaqciasTan, gazeT "sapatriarqos uwyebanis" koleqtivTan, sapatriarqos radio "iveriasTan" da sxv. am striqonebis avtori, aseve, xelmZRvanelobs nikorwmindis eparqiis sainformacio samsaxurs; redaqtorobs samecniero Jurnals - "ornati" da gazeTs - "nikorwminda". Teologiis kaTedris istoriidan gansakuTrebiT aRsaniSnavia 2005 wlis gazafxulze, 23-25 maiss, kaTedris aqtiuri monawileobiT Catarebuli pirveli saerTaSoriso konferencia "mecniereba da religia"; 2006 w. ivnisis TveSi ki kaTedris TanamonawileobiT teqnikur universitetSi Catarda akademikos iveri frangiSvilis xsovnisadmi miZRvnili samecniero konferencia. Teologiis kaTedras aseve sxva mravalmxriv saintereso RonisZiebaSi miuRia monawileoba, romelTa CamoTvla sxvaTaTvis migvindia... dasasruls, aRvniSnavT: - 57 -

profesori anania jafariZe da kaTedris pedagogebi ganvlil xuT weliwadSi aRasruleben saqmeebs TviTkmayofilebis gancdis gareSe; ramdenime epizods mxolod Sedegebis Sejamebis oficialuri moTxovnis gamo vixsenebT. darwmunebulni varT imaSi, rom sakeTebeli momavalSi kidev bevria, romlis aRsrulebasac kvlav ganvagrZobT yovladsaxieri RmerTis usazRvro Semweobis imediT aRvsebulni, uwmindesisa da unetaresis, kaTalikos-patriarqis ilia II-is locva-kurTxeviT da kaTedris gamgis, maRalyovladusamRvdeloesi mitropolitis, profesor anania jafariZis winamZRolobiT.

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nugzar vaniSvili - stu-is studentTa, aspirantTa da magistrantTa samecniero ganyofilebis ufrosi Cveni studentoba - eris siamaye, Teologiis kaTedra - Cveni monapovari
maqvs pativi da bedniereba, Cveni universitetis studentTa samecniero konferenciebSi monawileTa da friadosanTa saxeliT mogilocoT iubile, gisurvoT fiqrTa, mizanTa da imedTa asruleba, mSvidoba da dRegrZeloba. dRemudam erze da qveyanaze mofiqralni Cveni Teologiis kaTedris sasuliero pirni da sruliad universitetis profesor-maswavleblebi minda davarwmuno, rom aTasobiT studenti warCinebulia swavlaSi, zogad ganaTlebaSi, cxovrebis wesTa da mizanTa arCevaSi, erovnul-saxelmwifoebrivmarTlmadideblur faseulobaTa dacvasa da swavlis Semdgom gavlaSic. Cveni universitetis studentoba yovelTvis gamorCeuli, lamazi, vaJkacuri da mravalferovani iyo. dRevandeli Taoba ki ormagad bedniericaa, vidre aTeuli wlebis win. maTTvis gacilebiT metia saswavlo, samecniero da SemecnebiTi saSualebebi saerTaSoriso da adgilobriv doneebze. axalgazrdebi Tavisufalni arian mraval arCevanSi. ZaldatanebiT aRar Sedian komkavSirSi. valdebulni aRar arian iswavlon aTeizmisa da mecnieruli komunizmis safuZvlebi. ufro metic, sabednierod, bolo 5 wlis ganmavlobaSi studentebma pirvelive kursze moismines Teologiis, saqarTvelos eklesiis istoriisa da RvTismetyvelebis leqciebi da saamayoa isic, rom es codna maT miiRes profesormaswavlebelTagan, dekanozTa da moZRvarTagan, romelTa kaTedrasac mitropoliti anania jafariZe udgas saTaveSi. Cveni azriT igi Tanamedroveobis leonti mrovelia. mogmarTavT TxovniT: SeixedoT Teologiis leqciis msvlelobisas auditoriaSi. iq yovelTvis sruli daswreba da akademiuri moswrebaa, iq yovelTvis cxoveli interesi, olimpiuri simSvide da naTeli saxeebia... da aqvea mwvervalic: mis maRalyovladusamRvdloesobas, profesor, mitropolit ananias moxsenebebi mraval saerTaSoriso, respublikur, - 59 -

sauniversiteto da studentur samecniero konferenciebze, xSir seminarebsa da gafarToebul leqciaTa kursebze. ...stu-is sxvadasxva korpusSi arsebul samlocveloTa mimdebare derefnebSi sasiamovno sakmevlis suni trialebs; aTasobiT studenti pirjvris gadaweriT Sedis korpusebsa da auditoriebSi. mravali studenti locvis wamZRvarebiT iwyebs mecadineobas da goneba ufro sxartiao, mexsiereba ki Rrmao, xmamaRla aRniSnaven xolme. es yovelive ki codnis, Semecnebisa da WeSmariti liberalizmis mdinarea, romelsac swori da saWiro raodenobiT ewafeba Cveni axalgazrdoba - eris xvalindeli dRe. es aris mecnierebasa da rwmenas Soris gadebuli aucilebeli xidi, romelzedac siaruli da dgoma saamuria da usafrTxo.

studentobamac ar gaamtyuna imedebi: aTobiT studenti moxsenebebiT, aseulebi ki msmenelad monawileobda Teologiis kaTedris mowyobil umaRlesi kategoriisa da akademiuri donis samecniero forumebSi, dRidan kaTedris dafuZnebisa 184 studentma samecniero TemiT da pedagogis xelmZRvanelobiT monawileoba miiRo stu-is Ria, studentTa samecniero konferenciebis Teologiis seqciaSi. gamoCnda aTobiT maRali donis naSromi da naTeli, talanti goneba. udidesia maTi bedniereba reqtorisa da mitropolitis Seqebisa da - 60 -

waxalisebisas. aTasamde studenti monawileobda studenturi kavSiris organizebul da meufe ananias mier kurTxeul aRdgeniT da samSeneblo samuSaoebze eklesia-monastrebSi. aTiaTasobiT studenti gaerkva Teologiur WeSmaritebaSi da gauZlierda rwmena, marTlmadidebloba, Sesabamisad erovnuloba. udidesi monapovari SeiZleba ewodos stu-is Teologiis kaTedris Seqmnasa da muSaobas am aTaswleulebis mijnaze, msoflio globalizaciisa da mRelvarebis fonze, saxelmwifo da erovnuli konsolidaciis mimdinare procesisas. "maRalTa Sina RmerTma ineba saqarTvelos teqnikur universitetSi Teologiis kaTedris arseboba; uwmindesma da unetaresma, sruliad saqarTvelos kaTalikos-patriarqma, eris sulierma mamam daloca da akurTxa igi, reqtoratma da universitetma mis dasafuZneblad ibrZola da iSroma, saqmes xelmZRvanelobs da aq uSurvelad iRvwis mitropoliti anania, aqve msaxuroben da leqciebs kiTxuloben saxelovani da patiosani profesor-maswavlebelni da dekanoz-mRvdelni; kaTedrasTan TanamSrobloben da megobroben eris udidesi mecnierebi da metrebi; maT usmenen da tkbebian qarTveli axalgazrdebi. sapasuxod, rwmeniT gamsWvalulni qarTveli studentebi mudam iqnebian saqarTvelos samociqulo eklesiis gverdiT. "dideba maRalTa Sina RmerTsa, qveyanasa zeda mSvidoba da kacTa Soris saTnoeba. amin! Tbilisi 05.11.2006

nomadi barTaia - ivane javaxiSvilis universitetis asocirebuli profesori qarTul-iranuli enobrivi urTierTobebidan (qaquca, qura da kera garna)
1925 wels erayis teritoriaze, nuziSi, profesor eduard Cieras arqeologiuri gaTxrebis Sedegad aRmoCenilma firfitebma, romlebsac daaxloebiT Zv.w.a.XVs. meore naxevars miakuTvneben, axali biZgi misca xuritul saxelTa kvlevas. qarTvelma mecnierma givi Jordaniam 1956 wels gamoaqveyna wigni - "mexurelni", sadac calke Tavi miuZRvna, misi azriT, qarTul niadagze damkvidrebul xuritul samyarodan momdinare ocdacxra sakuTar saxels, esenia: 1.aki, 2.baTu, 3.budu, 4.kaki, 5.giga, gigi, kika, kiko, kikola, 6.kako, qaqu, 7.qaquca, 8.kale, 9.kuku, gugu, 10.zaza, jaju, 11.Tedo, Tedua, 12.dada, dadi, daTa, daTia, 13.daTu, daTuna, Tado, Taduna, 14.dutu, 15.Saqria, Suqria, 16.kutu, quTu, 17.uta, utu, 18.puku, poko, 19.papa, fafa, fafala, babala/e, 20.xuxu, xuxa, 21.naia, nai, 22.nana, nani, 23.nina/o, ninia, 24. Tamar, 25.Tako, 26.maTka, matka, 27.quTaTi, 28.fazi, facia, 29.faTala/i. wignis avtori mecnierulad asabuTebs maT xuritul warmomavlobas. Cven gansxvavebuli mosazreba gveqneba mxolod erTi maTganis - qaqucas etimologiasTan dakavSirebiT, romelzedac ai, ras wers igi: `nuzis teqstebSi dasturdeba xurituli saxeli qaquzi/kaqquzi/kaquzi/gaquzi (Kakkuzi/ Quakkuzi/ Gokuzi). aseTi yofila magaliTad, mama vinme aqqua (Akkua)-si da mama vinme zige (Zige)-si. (NPN,78,222). gr.Rafanciani fiqrobs, rom swored aqedan aris warmoSobili qarTuli mamakacis saxeli qaquci (Kakusi) (Kan, 226), rac momxdara z (z)-s gadasvliT fSvinvier "c"-Si (2,139). avtori ukomentarod tovebs gr. Rafancianis am mosazrebas, rac imaze miuTiTebs, rom Tu ar iziarebs, arc uaryofs mas. Cven ki, es mosazreba, mxolod erT-erT versiad SeiZleba miviCnioT, risi daSvebis uflebas, mravalsaukunovani qarTuliranuli urTierTobani gvkarnaxobs. SevecdebiT, davakonkretoT saTqmeli: - 62 -

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iranul miTologiaSi aris qaianTa dinastiis mefeTa mTeli pleada, Semdegi Sedgenili sakuTari saxelebiT: qaiomarsi, qai-xosrovi, qai-geSasfi, qai-yobadi, qai-qausi... sadac kompozitis pirveli wevri qai dinastiis aRmniSvnelia, romelsac mosdevs ama Tu im mefis saxeli. iranuli miTologiis gmirTa saxelebi qarTulSi, odiTganve, rogorc werilobiTi, ise zepiri gziT Semodioda. Cvens winaprebs iranuli gmirebi gauTavisebiaT da maTi saxelebic gaqarTulebula, magaliTad: rostomi (rosTam), zurabi (sohrab), givi (giv), goderZi (godarz), manuCari (manuCehr), uSangi (huSang), Tamazi (Tahmasb), luarsabi (lohrasb), Teimurazi (Tahmuras), fridoni (feridun). erTerTi iranulidan Semosuli qai-aneli mefis saxelis gaqarTulebuli formaa - qaixosro (qai-xosrov). bunebrivad migvaCnia, rom qai-xosrov-Tan erTad, qaianTa dinastiis sxva mefis saxelic Semosuliyo qarTulSi da aseve gaqarTulebuliyo, magaliTad - qa(e)i-qausi, saidanac, Cveni azriT, unda modiodes sakuTari saxeli qaquca. qa(e)i-qaus-idan qaquca SeiZleboda Semdegi fonetikuri gziT miRebuliyo: qa(e)i-qaus qa(e)-qaus q(e)-qus qa(e)qusa q(e)a-quca qaquca. aqve aRvniSnavT, rom qa(e)i-qaus-i qarTulSi gvxvdeba qe qaoz-is formiTac. vfiqrobT, xuritulis gverdiT, qaquca-s iranulidan warmomavlobis versias arsebobis ufleba unda qondes.

qarTulSi, quras paralelurad, aris leqsema kera, romlis mniSnvelobebia: 1.cecxlis dasanTebi adgili miwis iatakze... 2. ojaxi, saxl-kari. 3. gadatan. (wign.) adgili, sadac raime warmoiSoba (5). kera SeiZleboda migveCnia quradan miRebulad, magram gverds ver avuliT im faqts, rom Zvel qarTulSi aris leqsema kerak-i-kerias, cecxlis adgilis mniSvnelobiT (1). saidan unda modiodes kerak-i? ( qura)-s falauri da maniqeuri formebia: koorg da kwrg -samWedlo sacecxluri, Tone, adgili, sadac agursa da kirs gamoswvaven (7). Cveni azriT, kerak-isa da koorg da kwrg-is bgerobrivSinaarsobrivi urTierT siaxlove qarTulSi saSualo sparsulidan kerak-is Semosvlas ar gamoricxavs. amgvarad, qura da kera erTi da igive leqsema Cans; isini erTmaneTisgan damoukideblad unda iyos damkvidrebuli qarTulSi: axali sparsulidan - qura, saSualo sparsulidan - kera (Tumca, ar gamoiricxeba, kera fuZis sxvagvari warmomavlobac), rogorc vnaxeT, keras, qarTulSi ojaxis, saxl-karis Sinaarsobrivi datvirTvac gaaCnia. ar aris gamoricxuli, rom aseTi mniSnvneloba mas saSualo sparsulSic hqonoda da is qarTuls Semoenaxos.

qura qarTul enaSi aris leqsikuri erTeuli qura, romlis mniSvnelobebia: 1. sabervliani samWedlo kera liTonis gasaxureblad. 2. Rumeli Tixis WurWlis da misT. gamosawvavad. 3. brZmedis qveda nawili. 4. mowyobiloba cecxlis gasaCaReblad, an raisme sxva saxis simxurvalis misaRebad. eleqtro qura gazis qura (5). axal sparsulSi, identuri fonetikuri formiTa da TiTqmis aseTive semantikuri datvirTviT, aris leqsikuri erTeuli ( qura): 1.Rumeli, kera; saTbobi saSualeba; 2. krateri (yeli vulkanisa) (6). aSkaraa, rom qarTuli qura da axali sparsuli ( qura) erTi da igive leqsikuri erTeulebia.
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garna kavSiri garna ilia abulaZes Zveli qarTuli enis leqsikonSi ase aqvs ganmartebuli: - Tu ara, garda, gareSe; "Tvinier": "aravin icis Zei, garna mamaman, da arca mamai vin icis, garna RmrTisa mier" mT. 11,27; "ara aris xelmwifebai, garna RmrTisa mier" hrom. 13,1; "aravin ixiles, garna iesu xolo maT Tana" mr. 9,8; "garna (Tvinier)... tyvisa da brpenisa" ricxv. M,31,22. amas mohyveba kidev calke budeSi misi aseTi ganmarteba mxolod, magram, aramed: "garna Tu Cvven warvideT da uyidoT... sazrdeli" l. 9,13; "garna esemca uwyiT" l. 10,11; "garna ver Zal-mic... yofai m.cx. 68 (1). sparsul enaSi aris kavSiri ( garna), romelic fonetikurad da semantikurad identuria Zveli qarTuli kavSirisa
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garna. misi paraleluri formebia: ( agarna), ( arna), ( agarni), ( garni) (6). aRsaniSnavia, rom i.abulaZe garnas pirvelsave ganmartebaSi aZlevs Semdeg sityvasityviT axsnas - Tu ara. sparsulSic xom ( garna) orwevriani kompozitia - - (gar) - Tu da (na) - ara. rogorc Cans, garna qarTulSi sparsulidan Semosula. Tanamedrove qarTulSi garna-dan aris miRebuli kiTxvis, gakvirvebis gamomxatveli nawilaki gana.
damowmebuli literatura: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. abulaZe i., Zveli qarTuli enis leqsikoni, Tb., 1973 Jordania g., mexurelni, Tb., 1956 firdousi abul-yasem, "Sah-name" (saiubileo gamocema), Tb., 1934 qajaia o., megrul-qarTuli elqsikoni, Tb., 1981 qarTuli enis ganmartebiTi leqsikoni, Tb., 1986 1371 1377

Teimuraz gvancelaZe - Tbilisis ivane javaxiSvilis saxelmwifo universitetis sruli profesori, merab naWyebia - Tbilisis ivane javaxiSvilis saxelmwifo universitetis soxumis filialis asocirebuli profesori, manana tabiZe iberiul-kavkasiuri saeraSoriso samecniero-saswavlo centris mTavari mecnieri TanamSromeli
(brZola dedaenisaTvis XIX saukunis meore naxevarSi) grigol dadiani - XIX saukunis saqarTvelos erT-erT uTvalsaCinoesi warmomadgeneli, qarTuli enisa da kulturis didi moamage, Cveni eklesiis istoriis erT-erT umZimes periodSi, rusuli eklesiis daqvemdebarebaSi yofnis Jams, guria-samegrelos episkoposi. gr. dadiani daibada 1827 wels samegrelos mTavarTa STamomavlis elizbaris ojaxSi. 1849 wels daamTavra samegrelos sasuliero saswavlebeli, Semdeg - Tbilisis sasuliero seminaria. 1849 wels berad aRikveca. 1862 wels ukve arqimandritia. 1865 wels moRvaweobs bodbis monasterSi. 1875 wels airCies saqarTvelos sinodaluri kantoris wevrad. 1886 wels dainiSna guria-samegrelos episkoposad. 1898 wels piradad ruseTis episkoposis brZanebiT moskovis sinodaluri kantoris wevrad gadaiyvanes, rasac gvatyobinebs gazeT iverias 1998 wlis 16 aprilis (#89) cnoba, romelic, grigol dadianis moRvaweobas didi yuradRebiTa da pativiscemiT aSuqebs sxva drosac (gazeT iveriaSi aris asaxuli misi guriasamegrelos episkoposad xeldasxmac). grigol dadianis ganswavlulobasa da Rrma sulierebaze miuTiTebs misi nawerebi; oratoruli ostatobisa da qristianuli Tavmdablobis nimuSs warmoadgens misi moskovSi gadayvanasTan dakavSirebiT warmoTqmuli gamosaTxovari sityva mrevlisadmi. saxasiaToa, rom didi Tedo Jordania grigol dadians did mamuliSvils uwodebs. samwuxarod, jer ver davadgineT grigol dadianis gardacvalebis TariRi, viciT ki, rom 1904 wels igi jer kidev - 66 -

guria-samegrelos episkoposi grigol dadiani

Nomadi BARTAIA - Associate Professor, Ivane Javakhishvili State University From Georgian-Iranian Linguistic Relations (Kakutsa, kura, Garna) Summary

I think, Georgian words: Kakutsa, Kera and kura, Garna must have derived from Persian ( Kai - Kaus), ( kura/e/ ), (Garna).

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, : , , .

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cocxalia, rasac adasturebs iona meunargiasadmi gagzavnili piradi werili, romelic inaxeba zugdidis muzeumSi. amjerad Cven grigol dadianis xelmZRvanelobiT Sedgenil erT dokumentze gveqneba saubari. esaa gr. dadianis specialuri gamokvleva, romelic sayoveldReo locvaTa da aTi mcnebis megrulad gadatanas exeba. arn. Ciqobavas saxelobis enaTmecnierebis institutis ufrosma mecnierma TanamSromelma, filologiis mecnierebaTa kandidatma, megruli da lazuri dialeqtebis cnobilma mkvlevarma, qalbatonma irine asaTianma am cota xnis win gadmogvca metad sayuradRebo dokumentTa krebulis asli (dedani inaxeba akademikos arnold Ciqobavas pirad arqivSi). dokumentTa krebuli TariRdeba 1895 wlis 15 martidan - 2 ivnisamde periodiT da asaxavs samegrelos sasuliero da saero moRvaweTa brZolas qarTveli eris erTianobis gadasarCenad, RvTismsaxurebis sferoSi qarTuli enis gamoyenebis SesanarCuneblad, sayoveldReo locvaTa da aTi mcnebis megrulad gadaRebis sawinaaRmdegod. dokumentTa es krebuli, anu Jurnali Sedgenilia rusul enaze da moicavs stamburi wesiT awyobil 26 gverds. Jurnalis Sinaarsis sworad gagebisa da marTebuli analizisaTvis aucilebelia zogi sakiTxis winaswari gaxseneba. kerZod: ruseTis imperiis mier saqarTvelos dapyrobamde CvenSi gavrcelebuli iyo erTaderTi Sexeduleba imis Sesaxeb, rom qarTveli eri laparakobs erT zogadqarTvelur enaze, yovelTa qarTvelTa dedaenaze - qarTulad, romlis teritoriul variantebad moiazreboda qveynis sxvadasxva mxareSi gavrcelebuli uklebliv yvela kuTxuri sametyvelo erTeuli: qarTluri da lazuri, kaxuri da megruli, mesxuri da svanuri, imeruli da TuSuri, xevsuruli da aWaruli, raWuli da heruli (ingilouri), fSauri da guruli, mTiuluri da SavSuri, imerxeuli da leCxumuri... swored erTaderTi zogadqarTveluri enis mqonebloba iyo is mtkice safuZveli, romelic gansazRvravda qarTveli eris erTianobasac da yoveli regionis mcxovrebTa qarTveluri cnobierebis SenarCunebasac maSinac ki, roca XV saukunis Semdgom daiSala erTiani qarTuli saxelmwifo da Seiqmna mcire "saqarTveloebi". yoveli mcire saqarTvelo danarCenebs qarTvelobaSi, dedaenis siyvarulSi, qarTuli kulturis mesveurobaSi ejibreboda, swored amitom - 67 -

iyo, rom XVII saukuneSi samegrelos mTavari levan II dadiani, erTi mxriv, aramcTu ar emorCileboda imereTis mefes, aramed sakuTar Tavs xelmwifed moixseniebda da amas ruseTis mefec ki aRiarebda, meore mxriv ki mas hqonda pretenzia qarTuli kulturis ganviTarebaSi liderobisa, rac imiT gamoixata, rom goridan zugdidSi Caiyvana saukeTeso gadamwerebi da qarTuli wignebi gadaawerina. levan dadians fiqradac ar mosvlia Tavi araqarTvelad mieCnia da wignebis Seqmna megrulad daewyebinebina. igi verc ki ifiqrebda imas, Tu aseTi ram SesaZlebeli iyo, vinaidan maSin ara marto megruli kilo, aramed saqarTvelos uklebliv yvela sxva mxareSi gavrcelebuli kiloebi, rogorc iTqva, qarTuli samwignobro enis teritoriul variantebad miiCneoda, romlebzec damwerlobis Seqmna warmoudgeneli iyo. metic, arsebobda mtkiced fexmokidebuli Sexeduleba imis Sesaxeb, rom erTaderTi swori, gamarTuli, amaRlebuli da daxvewili forma enisa samwignobro qarTuli iyo, kiloebi ki iwodeboda daRvlarWnil, damaxinjebul, Seryvnil, avenovan metyvelebebad, romelTac sxvagvarad damxe, mdabiur Tu msoflioTa (e.i. glexur) saubrad miiCnevdnen. ra Tqma unda, amgvari epiTetebiT markirebul dialeqtebze damwerlobis Seqmna dedaenis Seuracxyofa iqneboda, swored amiT aixsneba is faqtic, rom Zvel saqarTveloSi cud tonad miiCneoda ukiduresad piraduli Sinaarsis werilebis werac ki dialeqtebze - wera da normirebuli samwignobro ena erT doneze ganixileboda (es tradicia dRemde ZalaSi rCeba). Sexeduleba imis Sesaxeb, rom qarTvelebi erTaderT enaze laparakoben, xolo megruli, lazuri da svanuri jgufis kiloebi am enis iseTive dialeqtebia, rogorc qarTluri, kaxuri, imeruli, guruli, xevsuruli, fSauri da sxvani, gavrcelebuli iyo uZvelesi droidan XX saukunis 40-ian wlebamde. am Sexedulebas iziarebdnen cnobili sazogado moRvaweebi da mecnierebi: sulxan-saba orbeliani, vaxuSti bagrationi, ilia WavWavaZe, akaki wereTeli, iakob gogebaSvili, dimitri baqraZe, sergei mesxi, rafiel erisTavi, mose janaSvili, silovan xundaZe, valerian gunia, sosiko merkvilaZe, petre Waraia, Tedo Jordania, noe Jordania, Tedo saxokia, dutu megreli, geronti qiqoZe, luarsab lolua, konstantine gamsaxurdia..., sasuliero pirebidan: wm.kirioni (saZagliSvili), wm. ambrosi (xelaia), wm. aleqsi (SuSania), - 68 -

kaTolikos-patriarqi leonide (oqropiriZe), kaTolikospatriarqi kalistrate (cincaZe), guria-samegrelos episkoposi aleqsandre (oqropiriZe), guria-samegrelos episkoposi grigoli (dadiani), mRvdeli ioane margiani da mravali sxva. am sayovelTaod gaziarebul Tvalsazriss XIX saukunis pirveli naxevridan ruseTis imperiis xelisuflebam daupirispira mosazreba, TiTqos megruli, lazuri da svanuri zogadqarTuli (qarTveluri) enis kiloebi ki ara, aramed damoukidebeli enebi iyos. es axali mosazreba araviTar mecnierul safuZvels ar eyrdnoboda da mas wminda ideologiur-politikuri miznebi hqonda, kerZod, qarTveli eris erTianobis saboloo moSla da qarTvelTa nawil-nawil garuseba-gadajiSeba. carizmis moxeleebi ukve XIX saukunis 60ian wlebSi, roca TiTqmis damTavrda ruseTis mier kavkasiis udidesi nawilis dapyroba, aRar sjerdebodnen mxolod imis gancxadebas, rom megrelebi, lazebi da svanebi qarTvelebi ar arian, xolo maTi kuTxuri metyvelebani damoukidebeli enebia. isini aSkara Setevaze gadmovidnen da scades megrulisa da svanuris samwignobro enebad gadaqceva: 1860 wels rusuli grafikis safuZvelze Sedgenili megruli anbanis gamoyenebiT megrul dialeqtze gadaiRes wminda werilis calkeuli adgilebi, 1864 wels ki aseve rusuli grafikis gamoyenebiT gamosces luSnu anban (svanuri anbani), rasac mohyva megruli saanbano saxelmZRvaneloebis samjer gamocema (avtorebi iyvnen: Tada aSordia, f. levitski da aleqsandre greni). am qmedebaTa WeSmariti provokaciuli miznebi daufaravadaaa gancxadebuli 1899 wels a.grenis mier gamocemuli megruli saanbano saxelmZRvanelos winasityvaobaSi, sadac avtori acxadebs: am anbanis Sedgenisas me miznad mqonda, rogorme, Tundac arapirdapir, gamomewvia erovnuli brZolisaTvis megrelebi, romlebsac fexqveS Telavs ufro Zlieri qarTveli xalxi. WeSmaritad, aseTi brZola sruliad SeuZlebelia sakuTari erovnuli anbanis uqonlad, [im anbanisa,] romliTac megreli iseve gamoxatavda Tavis azrebs, rogorc misi mteri, am SemTxvevaSi - qarTveli (xundaZe, 1940, gv.104). sayuradReboa, rom imperiis mesveurTa am RonisZiebebs uaryofiTi gamoxmaureba hqonda TviT samegreloSi. magaliTad,
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prof. givi rogavas cnobiT, 1860 wels, roca megrulad gadaiRes wminda werilis nawyvetebi da scades samegreloSi RvTismsaxurebis SemoReba megrulad, axal senakSi gaimarTa samRvdeloebis yriloba, romelzec es mcdelobani erTxmad Sefasda rogorc mwvalebloba, kuTxurobisa da gankerZoebis gaRviveba da wminda werilis gamasxreba (rogava, 1999, gv.13-14). amgvari gamoxmaurebis gamo carizmma droebiT daixia ukan, Tumca male sxva xerxs mimarTa: brZola gadaitana enaTmecnierebis sferoSi, raTa Seeqmna myari mecnieruli safuZvlebi da axali ZaliT mietana ieriSi qarTvelTa erTianobis winaaRmdeg. am mizniT gamoyenebul iqna is faqti, rom germanel lingvists georg rozens 1844-45 wlebSi gamoTqmuli hqonda uargumento Tvalsazrisi, romlis mixedviTac megruli, lazuri da svanuri damoukidebeli enebi yofila da ara qarTveluri enis dialeqtebi. ra Tqma unda, imperiisaTvis idealuri iqneboda, Tu g.rozenis dausabuTebel Tvalsazriss gaimeorebda romelime avtoritetiani qarTveli mecnieri. aseTi kacic moiZebna peterburgis universitetis profesor aleqsandre cagarlis saxiT, romelmac 1872 da 1880 wlebSi gamocemul naSromebSi megruls, lazursa da svanurs enebi uwoda. Tumca imave avtors 1873 wels megruli, lazuri da svanuri iberiuli fuZe-enis dialeqtebad miaCnda da gurulis, TuSuris, fSaurisa da xevsurulisagan mxolod imiT asxvavebda, rom am ukanasknelT kilokavebad () acxadebda. ara marto samegreloSi, aramed sruliad saqarTveloSic gansakuTrebiT mZafrad gamoexmaurnen 1880 wels gamocemul a.cagarlis ortomeuls . rogorc wm. eqvTime (TayaiSvili) da akad. ivane javaxiSvili igoneben, a. cagarlis saqcieli eris Ralatad iqna Seracxuli didi iliasa da mis TanamebrZolTa mier, carizmis moxeleebma ki (magaliTad, kavkasiis saswavlo olqis mzrunvelma kirile ianovskim, egzarqosma pavle lebedevma, Savrazmelma ioane vostorgovma...) xelze daixvies es samecniero faqti da axali ieriSi miitanes qarTveli eris erTianobaze XIX saukunis 80-iani wlebidan (vrclad amis Sesaxeb ix.: gvancelaZe, tabiZe, Serozia, Wanturia, 2001; gvancelaZe, 2003; gvancelaZe, 2006; tabiZe, 2005). al. cagarelma am reaqciis gamo saerTod Sewyvita enaTmecnierebaSi muSaoba da sigelTmcodneobaSi gadainacvla. rogorc Cans, mas sindisi qenjnida da cdilobda danaSaulis gamosyidvas: roca 1902 wels imperiam kidev erTxel scada samegrelos dawyebiT skolebSi megrulis swavlebis - 70 -

SemoReba, iakob gogebaSvilma am aqciis sawinaaRmdegod dawera werili megruli dawyebiTi skolis sakiTxisaTvis, romelic swored a. cagarels gadaugzavna peterburgSi da sTxova daxmareba mis gamoqveynebaSi. mecnierma iakobis Txovna gadaWarbebiT Seasrula - man iakobis werili gamoaqveynebina jer gazeT peterburgskie vedomostis 1903 wlis 27 Tebervlis nomerSi, Semdeg ki igive werili broSuradac gamosca iqve (orive publikacia daibeWda varianelis fsevdonimiT). amiT a.cagarelma daadastura, rom 1872 da 1880 wlebSi igi aiZules megruli, lazuri da svanuri enebad gamoecxadebina, sinamdvileSi ki es metyvelebani dialeqtebad miaCnda. sxvagvarad am faqtebis axsna alogikuria. am eqskursis Semdgom mivubrundeT akad. arn.Ciqobavas arqivSi daculi dokumentebis krebuls, guria-samegrelos eparqiis 1895 wlis Jurnals, romelic metad Zvirfasia mravali TvalsazrisiT, gansakuTrebiT ki im mxriv, rom masSi TvalnaTliv Cans, Tu ra TavdadebiT ibrZoda grigol dadianis meTaurobiT guria-samegrelos eparqiis samRvdeloeba da samegrelos inteligencia ruseTis imperiis gamarusebeli politikis winaaRmdeg da qarTveli eris erTianobis SesanarCuneblad, qarTuli enis uflebebis dasacavad. eparqiis Jurnalidan irkveva, rom 1892 wels kavkasiis saswavlo olqis mzrunvel kirile ianovskis (igi am postze muSaobda 1878 wlis dekembridan 1900 wlamde) specialuri moxseneba gaugzavnia imperiis saxalxo ganaTlebis ministrisaTvis, romelSic moiTxovda, rom saqarTvelos samRvdeloebisaTvis CamoerTmiaT saeklesio-samrevlo da e.w. wera-kiTxvis skolebis marTvis ufleba, vinaidan samRvdeloTa umravlesoba qarTvelebi arian da maTma didma nawilma ar icis rusuli ena, Tanac qarTveli sasuliero pirebi daabrkoleben mTavrobis miswrafebis ganxorcielebas ganapira mxareebis imperiasTan Sesarwymelado. k. ianovski Tavis moxsenebaSi sxvadasxva xalxebad acxadebs megrelebsa da danarCen qarTvelebs. megrelebs qarTulisagan gansxvavebuli ena aqvT da megrulze aucilebelia gadaviRoT saeklesio wignebi da locvaTa teqstebio, werda ianovski. ianovskis am moxsenebaSi wamoWrili sakiTxebis ganxilva ruseTis eklesiis uwmindesi sinodis ober-prokurors dauvalebia saqarTvelos egzarqosis paladisaTvis 1892 wlis 24 maisis #2729 weriliT, egzarqosma ki imave wlis 5 ivnisis # 2646 weriliT sakiTxis gamokvleva da - 71 -

daskvnis wardgena mosTxova guria-samegrelos episkopos grigols (dadians). imave wlis 12 agvistos #2168 werilSi episkoposma grigolma gamanadgurebeli pasuxi gasca k.ianovskis, gansakuTrebiT mis debulebebs megrelebis araqarTvelobisa da megruli enis arsebobis Sesaxeb. ianovskis megrelTa araqarTvelebad gamocxadebisa da megruli enis arsebobis mtkicebaSi gamocdileba ukve hqonda: 1880 wels axalsenakis skolaSi stumrobisas man ganacxada, rakiRa megrelebi qarTvelebi ar arian, maT qarTuli ena ar unda vaswavloT da bavSvebma ganaTleba megrulad unda miiRono. am gancxadebam adgilobrivi mosaxleobis aRSfoTeba gamoiwvia. incidents gamoexmaura gazeTi droeba (1880 wlis 30 noemberi, # 253), rasac mohyva saprotesto werilebi droebasa da iveriaSi ilia WavWavaZisa, sergei mesxisa, dimitri yifianisa, iakob gogebaSvilisa, geronti qiqoZisa, rafiel erisTavisa. ianovski iZulebuli gaxda ukan daexia, magram, rogorc zemoT iTqva, Seteva ganaaxla umaRles saxelisuflo doneze 1892 wels. episkopos grigols ukve naxseneb werilSi egzarqosisadmi, romelic mTlianadaa Setanili eparqiis JurnalSi, mravali sabuTi moaqvs ianovskis proeqtis sawinaaRmdegod. igi miiCnevs, rom megrulad saeklesio wignebis gadaReba gaumarTlebelia Semdeg mizezTa gamo: megruli qarTuli enis dialeqtia da ara damoukidebeli ena.megreli qarTul enas aRiqvams rogorc Tavis Zireul sakuTrebas. raki megruli mxolod kiloa da ara ena, SeuZlebelia RvTaebriv WeSmariebaTa Semcveli saeklesio wignebis gadaReba arasrulyofil, mciresityvian da werilobiTi TxrobisaTvis sruliad gamousadegar metyvelebaze. pativi unda miegos samegreloSi RvTismsaxurebis qarTul enaze (megrelTa dedaenaze) aRsrulebis mravalsaukunovan tradicias. megrulad saeklesio wignebis gadaReba mwvaleblobaa. saero skolebSi axlaxan SemoRebul megrulis swavlebas mosaxleoba mowonebiT ar uyurebs. megrulis swavleba amuxruWebs rusuli enis Seswavlis saqmes. eparqiaSi moqmed 89 samrevlo da e.w. wera-kiTxvis skolaSi swavlebas uZRvebian akademiuri ganaTlebis mqone pirebi. dasasruls episkoposi grigoli acxadebs, ...me ar viziareb misi udidebulesobis, kavkasiis saswavlo olqis baton - 72 -

mzrunvelis Sexedulebebs da Cemdami rwmunebuli samRvdeloebis amJamindeli mdgomareoba mimaCnia sruliad damakmayofileblad Tavisi skolebis damoukideblad marTvisaTvis-o.

egzarqosma paladim meufe grigols mxari dauWira. mas, ra Tqma unda, megrelebis dardi sulac ar hqonda, - samrevlo da wera-kiTxvis skolebis ianovskis uwyebisaTvis daTmoba ar surda, - magram amiT man Tavisdauneburad droebiT SeaCera imperiis Seteva qarTveli eris erTianobis winaaRmdeg. esec didi saqme iyo! male asparezze daCagrul megrelTa axali qomagebi gamoCndnen TviT ruseTis imperator aleqsandre mesamisa da egzarqos vladimiris miTiTebebiT moqmedi qarTl-imereTis sinodaluri kantoris saxiT. (kantoras rusulad erqva. am saxelwodebidan Cans, rom carizmi ara marto megrelebs, aramed imerlebsac ki ar miiCnevda qarTvelebad!). imperatoris brZanebulebiT megrulad gadaiRes aTi mcneba da sayoveldReo locvebis teqsti. 1894 wlis 28 ianvars am Targmanis Sesaxeb daskvna daweres alaverdis episkoposma besarionma (igive ambrosi xelaia), Tbilisis sasuliero seminariis maswavlebelma Tevdore (Tedo) Jordaniam da mRvdelma giorgi Cagunavam. daskvnis avtorebi sastikad ewinaaRmdegebodnen rogorc am teqstTa megrulad gadaRebas, ise proeqts wirva-locvis megrulad SemoRebis Sesaxeb. maTi daskvna (#4) ganuxilavs qarTl-imereTis sinodalur kantoras da ar dasTanxmebia mas. imave wlis 9 martis #2132 brZanebulebiT sinodalurma kantoram daavala guria-samegrelos episkopos grigols: Seemowmebina teqstebis Targmanis sizuste, daerTo gaugebar sityvaTa ganmartebani da kantorisaTvis waredgina daskvna imis Sesaxeb, gamoiwvevda Tu ara am proeqtis danergva ukmayofilebas mosaxleobaSi. meufe grigolma 1894 wlis 30 maiss Tavisi TavmjdomareobiT Seqmna komisia am sakiTxze samuSaod. komisiaSi Sevidnen blaRoCinebi: dekanozi mixeil meunargia, dekanozi giorgi beriZe, mRvdeli nestor alSibaia, mRvdeli kapiton gawerelia, mRvdeli anton kekelia, agreTve samegrelos sasuliero saswavleblis maswavlebeli stefane ZimistariSvili. meufe grigolma daskvnis warmodgena sTxova agreTve Tavadebs: daviT giorgis Ze dadiansa da mweralsa da mTargmnels nikoloz tarielis Ze dadians (ilias TanamebrZols, mweral Salva dadianis mamas). azris gamoTqma daevala agreTve samegreloSi arsebuli yvela sablaRoCinos xelmZRvanels. - 74 -

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komisias TavianTi mosazrebani warmoudgines rogorc komisiis wevrebma, ise sablaRoCinoTa xelmZRvanelebma: k. beriZem, p. goSuam, n. Toloraiam, i. grigoliam, a. reviam, s. qavTaraZem, k. CaCibaiam, a. kekeliam, k. gawereliam, k. Wanturaiam, m. meunargiam (mweral iona meunargias mamam), e. Sengelaiam, n. alSibaiam, g. beriZem, a. kalandariSvilma, a. qvarcxavam, T. xoStariam, aseve d. dadianma da n. dadianma. amaTgan yvela, garda blaRoCin dekanoz Tevdore xoStariasi, winaaRmdegi iyo aTi mcnebisa da sayoveldReo locvebis megrulad gadaRebisa da wirva-locvis am enaze aRsrulebisa (dekanozi T.xoStaria werda, am saxelmwifoebrivi mniSvnelobis saqmis Sefaseba Cems Zalebs aRemateba da ar ZalmiZs Tanxmoba an uari vTqva aseTi proeqtis Sesaxebo). es daskvnebi grigol episkoposs imiT gaumyarebia, rom mouwvevia samegrelos samRvdeloebis yriloba, romelmac daaskvna, rom aTi mcnebisa da sayoveldReo locvebis gadaReba megrulad damRupvel zegavlenas moaxdenda xalxis religiur grZnobebze. imisaTvis, rom mkiTxvels Seeqmnas zusti warmodgena meufe grigolis mier Seqmnili komisiis argumentaciis Sesaxeb, warmovadgenT JurnalSi Setanili erT-erTi daskvnis ZiriTad debulebebs. misi avtoria blaRoCini mRvdeli kapiton gawerelia, romelic komisiis wevri yofila. mama kapitons Tavisi argumentebi dayofili aqvs 3 punqtad: 1. locvebisa da saeklesio wignebis gadaReba megrulad SeuZlebelia. am daskvnis safuZvelia Semdegi garemoebani: yoveli umwignobro (arasaliteraturo) ena ganuviTarebelia, radgan maT ara aqvT azris gadmocemis is saSualebebi, rac moepovebaT xangrZlivi samwignobro tradiciis mqone enebs. rac Seexeba megruls, igi enac ki ar aris - qarTuli enis kiloa da ara aqvs arc religiuri Sinaarsis gadmosacemad samyofi leqsika da arc damwerloba. religiuri wignebis saTargmnelad aucilebelia sizustisa da dogmaturobis dacva, raTa ar damaxinjdes maTi Rrma azri. ena, romelzec aseTi wignebi unda iTargmnos, ganviTarebis maRal doneze unda idges da saTanadod iyos damuSavebuli. megruli ver upasuxebs am moTxovnebs. religiuri teqstebis qarTuli samwignobro enidan megrul kiloze gadaRebisas aRmoCndeba, rom samwignobro qarTuli sityvebisa da frazebis erT nawils saerTod ara aqvs Sesatyvisi megrulSi, meore nawili gansxvavebulia SinaarsiT - 75 -

(mniSvnelobiT) da arRvevs teqstis sizustes, mesame nawili ki iqneba igive qarTuli sityvebi, mcired saxecvlili megrulSi. mTargmnels unda hqondes umaRlesi saRvTismetyvelo ganaTleba, magram es Tviseba mainc ver iqneba Targmanis sizustis garantia zemoT dasaxelebul mizezTa gamo. amitom momavalSi aucileblad gaCndeba saWiroeba Targmanis dazustebisa da Secvlisa. gansaxilvelad warmodgenil Targmanis nimuSebSi xSiria SemTxvevebi, roca megrulSi SerCeuli sityvebi megrelTaTvis sruliad gaugebari, an Znelad gasagebia, vidre samwignobro qarTulis sityvebia, sityvaTa erTi nawili ki sulac ar gamoxatavs im azrs, rac sinamdvileSi unda gadmoices. avtors iqve mohyavs 23 aseTi magaliTi. mama kapitoni imasac aRniSnavs, Targmanis nimuSi iseTia, rom xalxSi an sicils iwvevs, anda zizRs, rac yovlad dauSvebeliao. wminda werilisa da locvaTa Targmna wminda saqmea da unda Sesruldes RvTaebrivi STagonebis safuZvelze, garda amisa, am saqmisaTvis aucilebelia zebunebrivi niWic. Cven ki samegreloSi amJamad ara gvyavs aseTi RvTis rCeulni da imis mtkiceba, rom aseTni arseboben, mZime codvaa. saeklesio wignebisa da locvaTa teqsti, unda iyos zusti, unda axasiaTebdes siwminde da seriozuloba, rac mxolod saeklesio enis arsebobis SemTxvevaSia SesaZlebeli. saeklesio enas unda hqondes Tavisi gramatika (igulisxmeba samwignobro enis normebi - T.g., m.n., m.t.). megruli ar aris saeklesio ena da arc gramatika (e.i. marTlweris wesebi) moepoveba. saeklesio enis Camoyalibebas saukuneebi sWirdeba. erTdroulad religiuri wignebis Targmna da saeklesio enis Seqmna SeuZlebelia. 2. religiuri teqstebis gadaReba megrulad saxifaToa zneobriv-religiuri TvalsazrisiT. am debulebas k. gawerelia Semdegnairad asabuTebs: saeklesio wignebis gadaReba megrulad Taviseburi reformaa. msoflio istoria gviCvenebs, rom religiis sferoSi ganxorcielebul reformebs xSirad mosdevs ganxeTqilebani. ase gaiTiSa erTmaneTisagan romis eklesia da marTlmadidebloba, romaul eklesiaSi gaCnda protestantoba, warmoiSva aTasgvari seqtebi da dajgufebani. ganxeTqileba ar ascdenia arc rusul eklesias: saSineli dapirispireba gamoiwvia wminda werilis Targmanis teqstis gadasinjva-dazutebis mcdelobebma, gaCnda staroobriadcoba... igive moxdeba samegreloSic. megrul - 76 -

Targmans uamravi kritikosi gauCndeba, mrevlSi gaCndeba ganxeTqileba, rasac xels isic Seuwyobs, rom megruls ara aqvs samwignobro tradicia, myari saliteraturo normebi, da daiwyeba religiuri kamaTi, daundobeli brZola dajgufebaTa Soris, Camoyalibdeba gancalkevebuli seqtebi da ... samegrelo SemdgomSi SeiZleba gadaiqces gandgomilTa cema-tyepis adgilad, sxvagvarad mofiqralTa bunagad da TavSesafrad. 3. religiuri teqstebis gadaReba megrulad zedmetia. avtors am daskvnis gamosatanad aseTi sabuTebi moaqvs: nebismier sferoSi siaxlis danergvas aucilebloba unda ganapirobebdes. megrulad religiuri teqstebis gadaRebis aucilebloba ar arsebobs, vinaidan megrels aqvs dedaena qarTulis saxiT da kargad esmis qarTuli wignebisa da qarTuli wirva-locvis Sinaarsi. megruli metyveleba qarTuli enis kiloa da masze arasodes arsebula damwerloba. es imitom, rom saamiso moTxovnileba arasodes gaCenila. samegrelo mudam imarTeboda qarTuli enis gamoyenebiT, megrelebi mxolod am enaze ismendnen locvebsa da RvTismsaxurebas, maT SesaniSnavad esmiT qarTuli, kargad igeben RvTis sityvis azrsa da mniSvnelobas. amrigad, mrevlis zneobriv-religiuri uzrunvelyofis TvalsazrisiT mizani didi xania miRweulia, rac gamoricxavs religiuri wignebis megrulad gadaRebis saWiroebas. garda amisa, TviT megrelebs arc warsulSi da arc amJamad arasodes mouTxoviaT amgvari ram, vinaidan ...locvebis kiTxva da RvTismsaxurebis aRsruleba saeklesio qarTul enaze srulad exmatkbileboda megrelTa sulier wyobasa da religiur moTxovnilebebs; swored amitom miiCneven megrelebi locvaTa Targmnas sasacilo da codvian saqmedac ki, rogorc me davrwmundi maTTan am sakiTxze gamarTuli kerZo saubrisas... dasaxelebuli teqstebis megrulad gadaReba zedmetia imitomac, rom es iqneba droisa da saxsrebis amao xarjva. megruli dialeqtis samwignobro enad gadaqceva arabunebrivic iqneba da RvTis nebis sawinaaRmdego saqmeco, dasZens k. gawerelia. - Tavis droze ufalma adamianebs erTaderTi ena Seuqmna, magram adamianebi zedmetad gaTavxeddnen, ris gamoc RmerTma isini dasaja mravali enis SeqmniT. am axal enaTa Soris megruli ar yofila, axla ki cdiloben ararsebuli enis xelovnurad Seqmnas, rac RvTis saqmeSi uxeSi Careva da didi mkrexelobaa. amgvari mcdelobiT av - 77 -

xsovnas davutovebT samSoblosac da eklesiis istoriasaco, acxadebs mama kapitoni. ai, amgvari argumentebis safuZvelze episkopos grigolis TavmjdomareobiT momuSave komisiam 1895 wlis 2 ivniss daadgina: aTi mcnebisa da sayoveldReo locvebis gadaReba megrulad SeuZlebelia, zneobriv-religiuri TvalsazrisiT mavne da zedmetia, vinaidan megruli kilo aris megreli mosaxleobisaTvis gasagebi qarTuli enis dialeqti. guria-samegrelos eparqiis Jurnali naTlad gviCvenebs, rom 1892-95 wlebSi carizmis provokaciul politikas didi winaaRmdegoba gauwies samegrelos samRvdeloebam, inteligenciam da mosaxleobam. maT sanimuSo mamuliSviloba da didi Segneba gamoamJRavnes. imperia samegrelosa da afxazeTsamurzayanoSi xan droebiT ixevda ukan, xan ki kvlav utevda saqarTvelosa da qarTveli eris erTianobas. magaliTad, 1898 wlis 17 martis brZanebulebiT qarTl-imereTis sinodalurma kantoram afxazeTisa da samurzayanos samrevlo skolebSi akrZala qarTuli enis swavleba, Tumca imave 1898 wlis 3 seqtembris brZanebulebiT ruseTis eklesiis uwmindesma sinodma neba darTo qarTul enaze wirva-locvis aRsrulebisa im eklesiebSi, romelTa mrevlis umravlesobas qarTvelebi qmnidnen, magram soxumis episkoposma arsenim (zotovma) ar Seasrula es brZanebuleba, aqaoda samurzayanoelebi qarTvelebi ar ariano. arsenis qmedebam mZafri protesti gamoiwvia afxazeTis qarTvelTa Soris da saqmeSi Tedo saxokias xelmZRvanelobiT moqmedi qarTuli partia CaerTo.qarTuli partiis gaaqtiurebas mis meTaurTa mimarT sisxlis samarTlis saqmis aRZvra mohyva. xangrZlivi Ziebis Semdeg saqme ganixila kavkasiis mTavarmarTeblis sabWom infanteriis general a. frezes TamjdomareobiT, romelmac 1904 wlis 1 maiss qarTuli partiis wevrebs - Tedo saxokias, anTimoz juRels, ivane gegias, grigol kandelaks, ivane burWulaZes, farna daviTaias (akad. Teofane daviTaias mamas), spiridon norakiZes, akaki Cxenkels (SemdgomSi cnobil politikur moRvawes), romlebic sabWos ganaCenis Tanaxmad, ewinaaRmdegebodnen mTavrobis RonisZiebebs (soxumis olqis) mosaxleobis gasaruseblad, miesajaT kavkasiaSi cxovrebis uvadod akrZalva (vrclad ix.: silagaZe, guruli, 1999). samegrelos, samurzayanosa da afxazeTis qarTvelobas dedaenis SenarCunebisaTvis brZola ar Seuwyvetia arc 1900- 78 -

1917 wlebisa da arc 1921-36 wlebis periodSi, roca jer carizmi, Semdgom ki misi memkvidre sabWoTa reJimi cdilobdnen megrelTa mowyvetas danarCeni saqarTvelosagan megruli dialeqtis samwignobro enad gadaqcevis gziT. magram es ukve sxva naSromis ganxilvis Temaa da masze amjerad aRarafers vityviT. meufe grigolis (dadianis) didbunebovnebas, ganswavlulobasa da Rvawls saukeTesod warmoaCens misi mimarTva mrevlisadmi, romelic wminda moRvawem saqarTvelodan gamgzavrebis win dawera;1 sayvarelo samwyso! Tormeti weliwadi gmsaxure Sen. aRzrdili Wyondidis sakaTedro adgilsa, ganswavluli saqmeTa R[mr]Tis metyvelebisaTa, masve wmidasa adgilsa wignTagan w[mida]Ta mamaTa saqarTvelos eklesiisaTa, me vevedrebodi RmerTsa dausabamosa guliTa, ganmsWvaluliTa mxurvalisa sarwmunoebiTa, raTa man moganiWos Sen cxovreba bednieri WeSmaritis qristianisa, cxovreba, aRsavse ama soflisa didebiTa, ganmSvenebuli magaliTebiTa swavlaTa da mcnebaTa iesosTa. simdablesa S[in]a Cemsa me vgrZnobdi Tavsa Cemsa ganmagrZobelad locvaTa da vedrebaTa winaSe R[mrT]isa dedisa mis[i]sa wilxdomil saqarTvelos, missa mlocvelsa saqarTvelos ersa, mravlad tanjulsa; magram sarwmunoebasa S[in]a mtkicesa da mterTagan uZlevelsa missave mfarvelobasa vavedrebdi mxaresa, romelsa ganaSenebdnen Zeglni, madidebelni warsulTa droTa saqarTvelos qristianobisa; martvili, xobi, Semoqmedi da jumaTi.
mimarTvis xelnaweri asli daculia zugdidis saxelmwifo istoriul-eTnografiul muzeumSi (zsiem 30. 050, l.a. 1880). teqsti mogvawoda filologiis mecnierebaTa kandidatma, qalbatonma manana bukiam, risTvisac mas gulwrfel madlobas movaxsenebT. episkopos grigol dadianis biografiis dadgenaSi daxmareba gagviwies qalbatonebma manana bukiam da mariam CxartiSvilma, batonebma eldar bubulaSvilma da abesalom tuRuSma, romelTac aseve madlobas movaxsenebT.
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samsaxuri Cemi winaSe guria-samengrelos eklesiisa iyo Sedegi aRzrdisa Cemisa, romelica miviRe me memkvidreobiT RirsTa samengrelos episkoposTagan. rogorc eseni, meca viyav Tavi mlocvelis Cemis samwysosa, romlisa fiqri maradJam ganuSorebel iyo dideba saqarTvelos ekklesiisa, sufeva qarTulis wignisa, qarTulis kiTxvisa, qarTuli saeklesio galobisa. Zala Cemi ar aRemateboda Zalasa wina-moadgileTa CemTa, me Sors vsdeg maTgan, romelnica maRalis Tvisis swavliTa da saTnoebiT moaqusT ama soflad saukuno ram sikeTe. simdable Cemi erTgulebda warsulTa droTa da pirTa, romelTa meoxebiTa dResaca vegebiT Cven marTlmadidebel qristianed. amisgan umTavresi zrunva Cemi iyo mimarTuli ganSvenebisadmi ama saukunoisa Zeglisa Cvenis qveynisa, romelica iyo ganwmedil ferxTagan pirvelwodebulisa andriasa da romelica Seiqmna wyarod ganvrcelebisa qristianobisa Cvens R[mr]Tisagan kurTxeuls saqarTveloSi. igive azri erTgulebisa saukunoisa mis adgilisadmi miTqmida me miyvanebad msaxurebisadmi guriasamengrelos ekklesiisa pirTa, romelTaca iswavles saekklesio wigni da galoba monasterTa da ekklesiaTa Sina CvenTa da eziarnen R[mr]Tisa SiSsa da saTnoebasa samRudelo msaxurTagan ama wmidaTa adgilTa. msgavsisave gulsmodginebiT vcdilobdi me warmatebisaTvis sasulieroTa saswavlebelTa guriasamengrelosaTa da gamravlebisaTvis samrevloTa SkolaTa. 1-d, daarsda y[ovla]d mowyale xelmwifis nebarTviT sasuliero wodebis qvriv-obolTaTvis samzrunvelo. 2-d, martvilis monasteri ganvaSvene saarqiero saxlis aSenebiT, saswavleblis saxliT, ZmaTaTvis saxlebiT da sxva saWiro saxlebiT, romelic eRireba umetes 40-i aTas maneTamdi. 3-d, aRSenda baTumSi sobori, romlis safuZvlis kurTxevis dros daeswro didi xelmwife Cveni imperatori aleqsandre mesame da miiRo monawileoba qvebis CawyobaSi Tavisis uaRustesis elmwifa imperatrica mariam feodores asuliT erTad uaRustesis SvilebiTa, da masTan baTumSive aRSendnen TviT qalaqSi ekklesiebi, romelnic arian Cemni nakurTxni, Cemive TaosnobiT aRSenebulni. 4-d, baTumis axalSemoerTebul okruRSi TaTrebis [mahmadianebis- red.] soflebSi aRSenebul iqmnen xuTni mSvenieri qvis ekklesiebi, berZenTagan Seuwevnelad, qristianobis gamavrcelebeli sazogadoebisa, qobuleTSi, kvirikeSi, dagvaSi, aWkovSi [unda yofiliyo: aWyvaSi-red.] da axalSenSi, xuTive prixodebi dakmayofilebulni arian - 80 -

jamagiriT. 5-e, TviT am foTSi drtvinavda sazogadoeba sasaflaozed eklesiis uqonlobazed, romelic gulsmodgine da mRviZare adgilobiTis mRvdlis mecadineobiT aRSenda, Sesaferi ekklesia da ganewyo y[ov]lis saWiro samkauliT. amiTi mravalni sargebloben da daukleblis saRmrTo msaxurebis aRsrulebiT didi warmateba mieca qristianeTa mcxovrebTa. amasTan aRSenda ori prixodis Skola, romelTa moaquT didi sargebloba. 6-e, sxvadasxva mxareSi amave eparxiaSi aRaSenes ara umcires samoci ekklesiebi qvitkirisa Tu xisa. 7-e, aRSenebul iqmnen ori dedaT monasteri TavianT ekklesiebiT, erTi senakis uezdSi saxarbedios TeklaTSi da meore ozurgeTis uezdSi, jixeTSi, oriveSi scxovreben dani niadag as ormoci sulisa da mesamec exla apirebs TviT poTSi [foTSi-red.] zRviT piraT daarsebas. 8-e, ganaTlebis Sesaxeb: Cemis SuamdgomlobiT gaixsna umaRlesis mTavrobis gardawyvetilebiT samudamod Svidi orklasiani saswavleblebi: martvilSi, banZaSi, kiwiaSi, xeTaSi, qobuleTSi, TamakonSi da ewerSi, yvelas amaT eZlevaT xazinidan saWiro xarji, rogorc uCitlebs jamagirebi, egreTve saxlis asaSenebeli da Sesanaxi, ramdenime aTasi maneTi. ameebSi izrdeba ramdenime asi suli orive sqesisa da sarwmunoebisa. prixodis Skola da Skola wera-kiTxvis gamavrcelebelia as samocamde gaxsnili, romelSidac iricxvian 2500 sulze meti orive sqesisani. 9-e, marTlmadidebel ekklesias SemouerTdnen maxmedianni, uriani da warmarTni samasamdi. yvela eseebi dawyobili da gzagakvaluli arian Cemis TaosnobiT Cems droSive da mmarTvelobaSi, romelic maimedeben, momavalSi TandaTan aRyvavdebian, gavrceldebian, ganmtkicdebian da mxare miiRebs jeroans warmatebas, romlisa smeniT me, sadac unda viyo, yovelgan momcems did nugeSs, v[iTarc]a Cem mier dawyobili sasuliero da samoqalaqo warmatebis mxriT. gareSe sarwmunoebis ganmtkicebisa da ganaTlebisa swavliTa, mxare ver iqmnebis keTildReobaSi. amisTvis vilocav winaSe R[mrT]isa, rom misces am samwysos warmateba yovels keTilsa S[in]a da siyvaruli R[mr]Tisa da elmwifisa, romelic esoden mfarveli, gamomzrdeli da mowyalea Cuni. saSval Cemisa eseviTaris siyvarulisa samwysoisa qveynisadmi, nebiTa R[mr]TisaTa da brZanebiTa y[ovla]d mowyale elmwifisaTa me viqmen gardayvanil sataxtosa qalaqsa moskovs wevrad uwmindesis sinodis kantorisa da dRes ukanasknelad vsaxav jvarsa sayvarelsa Cemsa samwysosa. mSvidobiT, sulierno - 81 -

Svilno, mSvidobiT, mamano da Zmano, dedano da asulno, mSvidobiT, Tanamsaxurno Cemno samRvdelono da samonazvno pirno, mSvidobiT, romelTa ismineT locva Cemi da vera ismineT, mSvidobiT dabano da sofelno, mSvidobiT, patiosano samwysov sakaTedrosa qalaqisa foTisa! ukueTu raime gcodeT, momiteveT, raTa Tqvenca mogiteos mamaman zecaTaman. me dRes gSordebiT Tqven, magram suliT da guliT TqvenTana var, rogorc dRemdis, ise dReis Semdeg me vilocav Tqvenis bednierebisaTvis. dRemdis me muxlmodrekiT vevedrebodi martvilisa R[mr]TismSobels da w[mid]asa jumaTs Tqvenis bednierebisaTvis. dReis Semdeg me vilocav TqvenTvis winaSe moskovis iveriis R[mr]TismSoblisa, romelica aris kavSiri umaRlesi SeerTebisa orTa RirsTa marTlmadidebelTa erTa. madli uflisa Cvenisa ieso qristesi iyavn Tqven y[ove]lTa Tana. amin.
Tqmuli foTis sakaTedro soboroSi y[ovla]d samRvdelo grigorisagan 1898-s wels 18-s maisis ricxvSi.

damowmebuli literatura:

1. gvancelaZe, 2003 - Teimuraz gvancelaZe, enaTa genealogiuri klasifikaciis ZiriTadi kriteriumebi da qarTveluri enobrivi samyaro. - qarTveluri memkvidreoba, t.VII, quTaisi, 2003. 2. gvancelaZe, 2006 - Teimuraz gvancelaZe, enisa da dialeqtis sakiTxi qarTvelologiaSi., gamomc.: universali Tbilisi, 2006 3. gvancelaZe, tabiZe Serozia, Wanturia, 2001 - Teimuraz gvancelaZe, manana tabiZe, revaz Serozia, revaz Wanturia, RvTismsaxurebisa da sasuliero ganaTlebis ena rogorc rusifikatoruli politikis ganxorcielebis saSualeba. qarTveluri memkvidreoba, t.V, quTaisi, 2001. 4. rogava, 1999 - givi rogava, ruseTis saeklesio politika saqarTveloSi (1801-1917), sadoqtoro disertaciis avtoreferati. Tbilisi, 1999. 5. silagaZe, guruli, 1999 - apolon silagaZe, vaxtang guruli, saqarTvelos ganuyoflobisaTvis brZolis istoriidan. nakveTi II, Tedo saxokias qarTuli partia afxazeTSi (1895-1904), Tbilisi, 1999. 6. tabiZe, 2005 - manana tabiZe, enobrivi situacia saqarTveloSi da qarTuli enis funqcionirebis sakiTxebi, gamomc. qarTuli ena. Tbilisi, 2005.

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7. xundaZe, 1940 - t.xundaZe, carizmis saganmanaTleblo politika saqarTveloSi (XIX s. 80-iani wlebi). Tbilisi, 1940. Teimuraz Gvantseladze - Full Professor, Ivane Javakhishvili State University Merab Nachqebia - Associate Professor, Ivane Javakhishvili State University Manana Tabidze - Chief Research Worker oF Iberian-Caucasian International Scientific-Educational Centre

Bishop Grigol Dadiani of Guria and Samegrelo (The Struggle for the Mother Tongue in the Second Half of the 19th Century) Summary The paper deals with a collection of documents preserved in Acad. Arn. Chikobava's archive, "Journal of the Guria and Samegrelo Eparchy of 1895", which demonstrates clearly the self-sacrificing struggle of the clergy from Guria and Samegrelo headed by Bishop Grigol Dadiani and intellectuals of Samegrelo against the russification policy of the Russian empire, for the retaining of the integrity of the Georgian nation, and for the protection of rights of the Georgian language. The view that the Georgians speak a single language, and Megrelian, Laz and Svan are dialects of this language similar as Kartlian, Kakhetian, Imeretian, Gurian, Khevsur, Pshavian, etc. was current from ancient times until the 1940s. This view was shared by well-known public figures and scientists: Sulkhan-Saba Orbeliani, Vakhushti Bagrationi, Ilia Chavchavadze, Akaki Tsereteli, Iakob Gogebashvili, Dimitri Bakradze, Sergei Meskhi, Rapiel Eristavi, Mose Janashvili, Silovan Khundadze, Valerian Gunia, Sosiko Merkviladze, Petre Charaia, Tedo Zhordania, Noe Zhordania, Tedo Sakhokia, Dutu Megreli, Geronti Kikodze, Luarsab Lolua, Konstantine Gamsakhurdia, clergymen: St. Kirion (Sadzaglishvili), St. Ambrosi (Khelaia), St.Aleksi (Shushania), Catholicos-Patriarch Leonide (Okropiridze), Catholicos-Patriarch Kalistrate (Tsintsadze), St. Bishop Aleksandre (Okropiridze) of Guria and Samegrelo, Bishop Grigol (Dadiani) of Guria and Samegrelo, and many others. From the first half of the 19th c. the Russian imperial government opposed this universally accepted view with the opinion that allegedly Megrelian, Laz and Svan are independent languages, and not dialects of the Common Georgian (Kartvelian) language. This new opinion was unfounded scientifically, and it had purely ideological and political purposes, in particular, the final disintegration of the Georgian nation and gradual russification and degradation. In the 1860s, when Russia had occupied the great part of Caucasia, tsarist officials were no longer content with proclaiming that the Me- 83 -

grels, the Laz and the Svans were not Georgians and that their dialects were independent languages. They made an attack openly, and tried to turn Megrelian and Svan into literary languages. The celebration of the divine service in the Megrelian dialect was intended as the main stage in this direction. The present authors offer a survey of the discussion concerning problems of the linguistic and cultural integrity of the Georgians at the end of the 19th c. and demonstrate the great service of Grigol Dadiani in the objective evaluation of these problems. Owing to the tireless efforts of G.Dadiani and other Georgian figures, the evil intents of persons interested in the division of Georgia into separate regions were exposed and attempts of any kind aimed at the division of the Georgian language was averted by balanced and laconic arguments.

- . , - . ., - - - . ( XIX ). . .. , 1895 - , , - - . , , , , , , , 40- XX . : - , , , , - 84 -

, , , , , , , , , , , , , , , ... : . (), . (), . (), - (), - (), - (), - () . XIX , , () , . - , , . 60- XIX , , , , , . , . XIX ; , , .

vaxtang guruli - Tbilisis ivane javaxiSvilis saxelmwifo universitetis asocirebuli profesori erovnul-saxelmwifoebrivi cnobiereba: warsuli da Tanamedroveoba
erovnul-saxelmwifoebrivi cnobierebis Camoyalibeba rTuli da xangrZlivi procesia. am procesze bevri ram axdens gavlenas. Cveulebriv erovnuli cnobierebis gaCena win uswrebs saxelmwifoebrivi cnobierebis Camoyalibebas. saxelmwifos warmoSoba TavisTavad xels uwyobs erovnuli cnobierebis gaZlierebas, radgan saxelmwifoebrivi cnobiereba swored erovnul cnobierebas emyareba. es ori fenomeni qmnis saxelmwifos Zlierebis safuZvels - erovnul-saxelmwifoebriv cnobierebas. erovnul-saxelmwifoebrivi cnobierebis Camoyalibebaze, mis Sesustebasa Tu gaZlierebaze mniSvnelovan gavlenas axdens qonebis gadanawileba da misi Tanamdevi procesebi ersa da saxelmwifoSi. dRevandeli qarTuli erovnul-saxelmwifoebrivi cnobiereba sul mcire ocdaaTsaukunovani ganviTarebis Sedegia. XIX saukunis damdegs ruseTis imperiis mier qarTuli samefosamTavroebis dapyrobam Zlieri dartyma miayena qarTul erovnul-saxelmwifoebriv cnobierebas. saqarTvelos saxelmwifoebriobis mopovebis Semdeg erovnulsaxelmwifoebriv cnobierebaze uaryofiTi gavlena iqonia saqarTvelos samociqulo marTlmadidebluri eklesiis avtokefaliis gauqmebam (1811 wels gauqmda mcxeTis sakaTalikoso taxti, xolo 1814 wels - afxazeTis sakaTalikoso taxti). bagrationTa samefo dinastiis uflebebis fexqveS gaTelvam da samefo saxlis wevrebis ruseTSi gadasaxlebam, iseve rogorc saqarTvelos eklesiis avtokefaliis gauqmebam da uZvelesi eklesiis rusi egzarqosisaTvis daqvemdebarebam, cxadia, didi ziani miayena erovnul-saxelmwifoebriv cnobierebas. qarTveli eris momavali damokidebuli iyo imaze, Tu drois ra monakveTSi moxdeboda erovnul-saxelmwifoebrivi - 86 -

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cnobierebis gamococxleba, raTa SesaZlebeli gamxdariyo brZolis dawyeba Selaxuli erovnuli Rirsebis aRdgenisaTvis. sagangebod unda aRiniSnos erTi gansakuTrebuli movlenis Sesaxeb. qarTuli erovnul-saxelmwifoebrivi cnobiereba rom did sirTules Seuqmnida ruseTis imperiis politikas dapyrobil saqarTveloSi, es imTaviTve gaxda cnobili. 1802 wlis aprilSi, TbilisSi, sionis taZarSi, wakiTxul iqna ruseTis imperator aleqsandre I-is mier 1801 wlis 12 seqtembers xelmowerili manifesti qarTl-kaxeTis samefos gauqmebis Sesaxeb. manifestis wakiTxvis Semdeg sionis taZarSi Sekrebil qarTvelobas ruseTis imperatoris erTgulebaze unda daefica. kaxeTis Tavadebisa da aznaurebis nawilma ar daifica, rusis jaris alya gaarRvia da Tbilisi datova. amas erovnul-saxelmwifoebrivi cnobierebis TvalsazrisiT metad saintereso movlenebi mohyva: 1802 wlis politikuri gamosvla kaxeTSi, 1804 wlis ajanyeba qarTlis mTianeTSi, 1812 wlis ajanyeba kaxeTSi, 1819-1820 wlebis ajanyeba imereTSi. 1832 wlis SeTqmulebam ki aSkarad daadastura, rom qarTuli erovnulsaxelmwifoebrivi cnobierebis aRdgena-gaZliereba ukve Seuqcevadi procesi iyo, Tumca yovelive es exeboda qarTul aristokratias da ara mTel qarTvel ers. XIX-XX saukuneebSi (1801-1917 ww.) qarTuli erovnulsaxelmwifoebrivi cnobierebis aRdgena-gaZlierebis procesi zogadad kargad aris cnobili. dRes Cven gvinda yuradReba gavamaxviloT erT umniSvnelovanes sakiTxze - qonebis gadanawilebis procesze saqarTveloSi da mis gavlenaze erovnul-saxelmwifoebriv cnobierebaze (XIX-XXI ss.).

* * * revoluciis gamarjvebad tradiciulad politikuri Zalauflebis dapyroba aRiqmeba. sinamdvileSi ki revoluciis saboloo gamarjveba damokidebulia imaze, Tu rogor ganviTardeba qonebis gadanawilebis procesi saxelmwifoSi anu daTmoben Tu ara qonebas (an mis udides nawils mainc) is klasebi, romlebic revoluciis mier damxobili xelisuflebis socialur da ekonomikur sayrdens warmoadgendnen. winaaRmdeg SemTxvevaSi revolucia mizans ver miaRwevs da mas male SeiZleba mohyves sruliad logikuri movlena - kontrrevolucia. swored amitom politikuri Zalauflebis dapyroba mizani ki araa,
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aramed saSualebaa miznis misaRwevad - qonebis gadanawilebis gansaxorcieleblad. revoluciis gziT politikuri Zalauflebis dapyrobis Semdeg qonebis gadanawilebis nimuSad SeiZleba CaiTvalos inglisi da safrangeTi. inglisis revoluciam (XVII saukunis Suaxanebi), iseve rogorc safrangeTis revoluciam (XVIII saukunis dasasruli), qonebis gadanawilebis iseTi principebi wamoayena da gaatara, romelmac dasabami misca axal saxelmwifoebriobas - burJuaziul saxelmwifos. burJuaziul saxelmwifoSi, cxadia, qonebis Tanasworad gadanawileba utopia iyo. samagierod burJuaziulma saxelmwifom rogorc didi, ise saSualo da mcire ekonomikuri SeZlebis moqalaqeebs misca politikuri Tanasworoba (saarCevno da sxva uflebani), adamianis uflebaTa dacvis garantia (pirovnebis xelSeuxebloba, kanonis winaSe Tanasworoba da sxv.), sabazro ekonomika (Tavisufali konkurenciis pirobebSi qonebis dagrovebis ufleba da sxv.). yovelive es adamianisTvis imdenad mniSvnelovani iyo, rom gamoiricxa seriozuli kontrrevolucia, an saerTo-erovnuli socialuri amboxis SesaZlebloba. es ki stabiluri politikuri, ekonomikuri, socialuri da kulturuli ganviTarebis garantias iZleoda. yovelive aman gansazRvra ingliselisa da frangis Zlieri erovnul-saxelmwifoebrivi cnobierebis Camoyalibeba, patriotizmisa da moqalaqeobriobis mZafri SegrZneba. politikuri Zalauflebis dapyrobis Semdeg qonebis gadanawileba ver SeZlo ruseTis im politikurma elitam, romelic saxelmwifo Zalauflebas 1917 wlis Teberval-martis revoluciis Semdeg daeufla. amis uSualo Sedegi iyo politikuri, ekonomikuri da socialuri krizisi, rac 1917 wlis oqtomberSi bolSevikebis mier ganxorcielebuli kontrrevoluciuri saxelmwifo gadatrialebiTa da diqtatoruli reJimis CamoyalibebiT dasrulda. Sedegi metad savalalo iyo. erovnul-saxelmwifoebrivi cnobierebis nacvlad ruseTSi Camoyalibda socialuri jgufebisa da klasebis (partiul-klanuri) cnobiereba. sabWoTa (bolSevikurma) ideologiam es procesi kidev ufro gaaRrmava, radgan socialuri jgufebisa da klasebis cnobierebis gaZliereba diqtatoruli reJimis simtkicis aucilebeli piroba iyo. bolSevikebma realurad ar dauSves araferi, rac xels uwyobda erovnul-saxelmwifoebrivi cnobierebis Camoyalibebas
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(politikuri Tanasworoba, adamianis uflebaTa dacva, sabazro ekonomika). qonebis gadanawileba da mis Sesabamisad axali politikuri, ekonomikuri da socialuri sistemis Camoyalibeba revoluciis gareSec SeiZleba. amis mcdelobis magaliTi mogvces mefis ruseTma da prusiam. batonymobis gauqmeba (memamuleTa miwis nawilis glexTa xelSi gadasvla), sasamarTlo reforma (wodebrivi sasamarTlos gauqmeba da yvela moqalaqisaTvis erTiani sasamarTlos daweseba), sasoflo mmarTvelobis reforma (glexobis monawileoba soflis mmarTvelobaSi), saqalaqo mmarTvelobis reforma (mosaxleobis monawileoba qalaqis mmarTvelobaSi) imis momaswavebeli iyo, rom Zveli ekonomikuri da socialuri sistema ngrevas iwyebda. qonebis gadanawilebas aucileblad mohyveboda politikuri sistemis Secvla. warmatebiT dawyebuli procesi, garkveuli mizezebis gamo, Seferxda, ramac sabolood 1905-1907 wlebis revolucia gamoiwvia. revoluciis damarcxebis Semdeg, qonebis gadanawilebis procesi calmxrivad (mxolod soflad) ganviTarda, sayovelTaod ver iqca, ver Camoyalibda erovnulsaxelmwifoebrivi cnobiereba. aman ki ruseTi meore revoluciis aucileblobis winaSe daayena. revoluciis gareSe qonebis gadanawilebis procesi warmatebiT ganviTarda prusiaSi, ramac, sxva SedegebTan erTad, Zlieri erovnul-saxelmwifoebrivi cnobierebis gaCenac gamoiwvia. * * * qonebis gadanawilebis procesi Taviseburad mimdinareobda saqarTveloSi, ramac mniSvnelovanwilad gansazRvra qarTvelis erovnuli da saxelmwifoebrivi cnobiereba. XIX saukunis damdegisaTvis saqarTveloSi arsebul socialur fenebsa da klasebs Soris qonebis gadanawileba aseT suraTs iZleoda. mrewvelobis ar arsebobisa da Zalze sustad ganviTarebuli xelosnobisa da vaWrobis pirobebSi im periodisaTvis saqarTveloSi warmoebis mTavar saSualebas miwa warmoadgenda. miwis mTeli fondi gadanawilebuli iyo samefo ojaxs, aristokratias (Tavadebs, aznaurebs) da eklesias Soris. warmoebis saSualebis gareSe (miwis sakuTrebaSi flobis gareSe) iyo darCenili eris udidesi nawili - glexoba. glexobaSi anu eris absolutur umravlesobaSi erovnul- 89 -

saxelmwifoebrivi cnobierebis aRorZineba-gaZlierebis aucilebel pirobas glexis miwis mesakuTred qceva warmoadgenda. movlenebi ki sul sxvagvarad ganviTarda. samefo ojaxis wevrTa miwebi ruseTis saxelmwifo uwyebis gankargulebaSi gadavida, xolo saqarTvelos eklesiisa ruseTis eklesiis mflobelobaSi. aristokratiam (Tavadebma, aznaurebma) miwa SeinarCuna. ruseTis glexobis msgavsad qarTveli glexoba miwis mesakuTred ver iqca. batonymoba jerjerobiT ZalaSi rCeboda. aseT viTarebaSi gadamwyveti mniSvneloba eniWeboda xelosnobisa da vaWrobis ganviTarebas, kapitalis dagrovebis procesis dawyebas da qarTuli erovnuli burJuaziis Camoyalibebas. burJuazias Tavidanve uyalibdeba erovnuli cnobiereba, radgan misi arsebobis aucilebeli pirobaa qveynis bazris dacva konkurentebisagan. am rTul saqmes erovnuli burJuazia, cxadia, Tavs marto ver arTmevs da igi ucxo qveynebis burJuaziis winaaRmdeg brZolaSi daxmarebisTvis mimarTavs xalxs. Tavisi ekonomikuri interesebidan gamomdinare burJuazias xalxSi Seaqvs erovnul-saxelmwifoebrivi cnobiereba. ruseTis saimperatoro karisaTvis, cxadia, saqarTveloSi procesis aseTi gziT ganviTareba sasurveli ar iyo. qarTuli erovnuli burJuazia politikur Zalad ar unda qceuliyo. swored amitom ruseTis saimperatoro karma da kavkasiis koloniurma administraciam yvelaferi gaakeTes imisaTvis, rom saqarTvelos ekonomika araqarTuli burJuaziis (ZiriTadad somxuris) xelSi aRmoCeniliyo. somxurma burJuaziam Caigdo xelSi xelosnoba da vaWroba, wvrili samrewvelo sawarmoebi da bolos - fabrika-qarxnebi. mdgomareobis xsna kidev SeiZleboda Tu miwa qarTuli aristokratiisa da glexobis xelSi darCeboda. movlenaTa ganviTarebam am SemTxvevaSic savalalo xasiaTi SeiZina. saqarTvelos dapyrobisTanave (XIX saukunis damdegi) ruseTis saimperatoro karma qarTuli aristokratia, rogorc erovnulsaxelmwifoebrivi cnobierebis matarebeli socialuri Zala, gandevna saxelmwifo cxovrebis yvela sferodan. mniSvnelovan Tu SedarebiT umniSvnelo saxelmwifo Tanamdebobaze mxolod ucxotomelebi (rusebi, somxebi da a.S.) iniSnebodnen. qarTulma aristokratiam Semosavlis mniSvnelovani wyaro (jamagiri) dakarga. Semosavlis erTaderT wyarod rCeboda miwa. saqarTveloSi maioratis sistemis ararsebobis gamo - 90 -

aristokratiuli sagvareuloebis mflobelobaSi arsebuli miwis fondi dausruleblad nawildeboda ojaxis wevrebs (Svilebs) Soris. amitom TiToeuli ojaxis mflobelobaSi arsebuli miwis raodenoba sul ufro mcirdeboda, klebulobda mamulidan miRebuli Semosavalic. XIX saukunis damdegisaTvis, rom araferi vTqvaT saSualo da wvril aznaurobaze, TviT cnobili Tavaduri sagvareuloebis mniSvnelovani nawilic ki mcire miwas flobda, e.i. mcire iyo mamulidan miRebuli Semosavalic. 1832 wlisaTvis qarTlisa da kaxeTis cnobili Tavaduri sagvareuloebis warmomadgenelTa did nawils miwa imdenad mcire Semosavals aZlevda, rom mxolod elementaruli moTxovnilebebis dasakmayofileblad Tu kmaroda. am SemosavliT SeuZlebeli iyo, magaliTad, SvilebisaTvis ruseTSi an sazRvargareT ganaTlebis micema, ojaxisaTvis profesionali eqimis daqiraveba, Tanamedrove evropuli tansacmlisa da avejis SeZena, mTeli wlis manZilze qalaqSi cxovreba da a.S. fulis naklebobis gamo qarTulma aristokratiam masobrivad daiwyo valis aReba somxuri burJuaziisagan, rac male Zvirad daujda. Tu aristokratiis nawilma miwa dakarga pirdapiri gayidvis gziT, meore da ufro mniSvnelovani nawili valebis gadauxdelobis gamo gaxda iZulebuli miwa gaeyida. orive SemTxvevaSi miwis myidveli isev araqarTuli (ZiriTadad somxuri) burJuazia iyo. saqarTveloSi ruseTis gabatonebis samoci wlisTavze (XIX saukunis 60-iani wlebis damdegisaTvis) qonebis gadanawilebis procesis TaviseburebaTa gamo praqtikulad ver Camoyalibda qarTuli erovnuli burJuazia, anu ar arsebobda erovnulsaxelmwifoebrivi cnobierebis matarebeli da misi xalxSi Semtani organizebuli politikuri Zala. erovnulsaxelmwifoebrivi cnobiereba Zlieri iyo qarTul aristokratiaSi, magram didi inteleqtualuri SesaZleblobebis mqone qarTuli aristokratia moklebuli iyo ekonomikur saxsars, rac aucilebeli iyo xalxSi erovnulsaxelmwifoebrivi cnobierebis SetanisaTvis, qarTuli erovnuli cnobierebis winaaRmdeg mebrZoli ruseTis saimperatoro karis, kavkasiis koloniuri administraciisa da ucxotomeli burJuaziis winaaRmdegobis dasaZlevad. aseT mZime, TiTqmis uimedo, viTarebaSi didi tradiciebis mqone qarTulma aristokratiam daiwyo brZola erovnul-saxelmwifoebrivi cnobierebisa da Selaxuli erovnuli Rirsebis aRdgenisaTvis. - 91 -

am moZraobas saTaveSi edga moRvaweTa dasi ilia WavWavaZis winamZRolobiT. XIX saukunis 60-iani wlebis erovnul moZraobas hqonda yvelaferi, rac aucilebeli iyo miznis misaRwevad: didi winamZRoli, moRvaweTa brwyinvale dasi, SesaniSnavi programa, programis ganxorcielebis kargad gaazrebuli gzebi. ar hqonda mxolod erTi ram: programis realizebisaTvis aucilebeli ekonomikuri saxsari. qveyanaSi ar iyo arc erovnuli burJuazia (didi kapitalis mflobeli burJuazia) da arc saSualo da wvril kerZo mesakuTreTa fena (glexoba, xelosnebi, wvrili vaWrebi). marTalia, batonymoba am droisaTvis ukve gauqmebuli iyo, magram saglexo reformis gansakuTrebuli xasiaTis gamo qarTveli glexoba kerZo mesakuTreTa SeZlebul fenad ver Camoyalibda. xelisuflebis mxardaWerisa da ukve dagrovili kapitalis wyalobiT somxurma burJuaziam arc warmoebis (mrewvelobis) da arc vaWrobis sfero ar dauTmo qarTvelobas. marTalia saglexo reformis ZaliT glexma miwa miiRo (kerZo mesakuTre gaxda), magram kanoniT glexs miRebuli (memamulisagan gamosyiduli) miwis gayidva ekrZaleboda. seriozuli kapitalis gareSe ki glexs qalaqSi wasvla da sabazro ekonomikis upiratesobiT sargebloba (vaWroba-mrewvelobaSi Cabma) ar SeeZlo. soflad miwis yidva-gayidvis akrZalvam Seaferxa burJuaziul urTierTobaTa ganviTareba, mdidari glexobis fenis (fermerebis) warmoqmnisa da soflad dagrovili kapitalis qalaqSi gadatanis procesi. somxuri burJuazia konkurenciisagan daculi aRmoCnda. soflad darCenili qarTveli glexi ki mZime mdgomareobaSi Cavarda. mcire miwaze meurneobis mowyoba da SeZlebul mesakuTred gadaqceva Zneli iyo. saglexo reformis Semdeg kvlav grZeldeboda qarTuli aristokratiis miwebis somxuri burJuaziis xelSi gadasvla. aseT viTarebaSi qarTuli erovnuli burJuazia nela imarTeboda welSi da sabolood 1917-1918 wlebisaTvis seriozul ekonomikur da politikur Zalad ver Camoyalibda. mas mudmivad Trgunavda somxuri da rusuli kapitali. zemoT aRniSnulma movlenebma gamoiwvia is, rom ormocdaaTwliani brZolis Sedegad, marTalia, erovnulsaxelmwifoebrivi cnobiereba ki gaZlierda, magram mis gverdiT sul ufro ikidebda fexs klasobrivi da partiuli - 92 -

cnobiereba. klasobrivi da partiuli cnobierebis gaZlierebis mauwyebeli iyo 1905-1907 wlebis revolucia - XIX saukunis 6090-iani wlebis erovnuli moZraobis monapovris (erovnulsaxelmwifoebrivi cnobierebis) mospobis seriozuli mcdeloba. 1917-1918 wlebSi ganviTarebulma movlenebma cxadad daadastura, rom 1905-1907 wlebis revoluciam ver mospo erovnul-saxelmwifoebrivi cnobiereba. Tumca cxadi gaxda, rom muSebis da glexebis garda klasobrivma da partiulma cnobierebam fexi moikida qarTul aristokratiaSi. TiTqmis auxsnelia, Tu ratom aRmoCnda qarTuli aristokratiis (Tavadebis, aznaurebis) nawili socialisturi orientaciis partiebSi, ratom gandevna maTi cnobierebidan erovnulsaxelmwifoebrivi klasobrivma da partiulma. am movlenas erTaderTi axsna aqvs. qonebis gadanawilebis procesma, romelic XIX saukunis damdegidan daiwyo da gansakuTrebiT daCqarda XIX saukunis 60-iani wlebis Sua xanebidan, qarTuli aristokratia fenebad daSala. aristokratiis mcire nawilma, qonebrivi mdgomareobis miuxedavad, erovnulsaxelmwifoebrivi cnobiereba SeinarCuna. aristokratiis udidesi nawili, romelic Zalze mZime ekonomikur mdgomareobaSi iyo, orad aRmoCnda gayofili. erTma nawilma samxedro da samoqalaqo biurokratiul sistemebSi moikalaTa. maT umravlesobas aRar gaaCnda erovnuli cnobiereba. meore nawili socialistur moZraobaSi Caeba, socialuri TanasworobisaTvis brZola gaixada miznad da saerTod dakarga erovnul-saxelmwifoebrivi cnobiereba. es iyo didi erovnuli tragedia. cota mogvianebiT, kerZod, saqarTvelos demokratiuli respublikis arsebobis periodSi (1918-1921 ww.) naTeli gaxda, rom qarTveli eri urTulesi problemis winaSe idga - XIX-XX saukuneTa (1801-1917 ww.) ganmavlobaSi saqarTveloSi mimdinare qonebis gadanawilebis procesis Tanamdevi uaryofiTi movlenebi did safrTxes uqmnida qarTul saxelmwifos. swored qonebis gadanawilebis Sedegi iyo erovnul-saxelmwifoebrivi da klasobrivi (partiuli) cnobierebis savalalo Tanafardoba. politikuri elita (aristokratiis, samRvdeloebis, glexobis, muSebis, vaWrebis warmomadgenlebi) mxolod erovnulsaxelmwifoebrivi cnobierebiT rodi iyo gamsWvaluli. masSi warmodgeneli iyvnen klasobrivi (partiuli) cnobierebis matarebeli moRvaweebi. politikuri elita aSkarad orad iyo
- 93 -

gaxleCili. ufro zustad rom vTqvaT, politikur elitaSi, Tundac 20-25 wlis winandel periodTan SedarebiT, didi cvlilebebi moxda - klasobrivi (partiuli) cnobiereba aSkarad Crdilavda erovnul-saxelmwifoebriv cnobierebas. politikuri elitis didi nawili social-demokratiuli, socialistur-federalisturi, socialist-revoluciuri da anarqistuli ideebiT iyo gatacebuli. SedarebiT mcire nawili (erovnul-demokratebi da upartioebi) inarCunebda erovnulsaxelmwifoebriv cnobierebas. es cxadad igrZnoboda, rogorc qveynis umaRles sakanonmdeblo ogranoSi(erovnul sabWoSi, parlamentSi, damfuZnebel krebaSi), ise umaRles aRmasrulebel xelisuflebaSi (mTavrobaSi). glexobis nawili klasobrivi (partiuli) cnobierebis matarebeli iyo. glexobaSi dabali iyo patriotuli, moqalaqeobrivi SemarTeba, Sesabamisad dabali iyo saxelmwifoebrivi azrovnebis done. glexobis mniSvnelovani nawili social-demokratiuli ideologiis gavlenis qveS imyofeboda, nawili ki socialist-revolucionerebs uWerda mxars. saerTod glexobis ganwyoba socialisturi moZRvrebidan gamomdinare radikalur-eqstremistuli iyo. es seni glexobam 1905-1907 wlebis revoluciis periodSi SeiZina. glexobis ganwyobilebaze Zalze uaryofiTi gavlena iqonia pirveli msoflio omidan sofelSi dabrunebulma jariskacebis agitaciam. omidan dabrunebuli jariskacebi socialuri Tanasworobis ideiT iyvnen Sepyrobilni. maTi didi nawili bolSeviki agitatorebis rols asrulebda da glexobas SeiaraRebuli ajanyebis gziT miwis xelSi Cagdebisaken mouwodebda. yovelive aman katastrofulad dasca armiis brZolisunarianoba, romelic ZiriTadad glexobidan kompleqtdeboda. muSebis didi nawili klasobrivi (partiuli) cnobierebiT iyo mowamluli da erovnul cnobierebas warsulis mavne gadmonaSTad Tvlida. muSebis umravlesobas glexebis msgavsad ar gaaCnda patriotuli, moqalaqeobrivi Segneba. muSebi Tavis misias klasobrivi cnobierebiT Sepyrobili politikuri elitis mxardaWeraSi xedavdnen da ara saxelmwifos (samSoblos) erTgulebaSi. amisi magaliTia qarTuli saxalxo gvardiis pozicia. saxalxo gvardia, romelic ZiriTadad Tbilisis muSebisgan Seiqmna, Tavis misias sakanonmdeblo da - 94 -

aRmasrulebeli xelisuflebaSi myofi social-demokratiuli partiis da ara samSoblos dacvaSi xedavda. saqarTvelos demokratiuli respublikis mTavrobam qonebis gadanawilebis TvalsazrisiT radikaluri RonisZiebani ver gaatara. garda imisa, rom viTarebis gamosworeba obieqturi mizezebis gamo Zneli iyo, xelisuflebis politikur mrwamss ewinaaRmdegeboda Zlieri erovnuli burJuaziisa da glexobisagan kerZo mesakuTreTa Zlieri fenis Seqmna. saqarTvelos demokratiuli respublikis mTavrobis mier gatarebuli agraruli reforma warmoudgenlad ukeTesi iyo, vidre sabWoTa ruseTSi gatarebuli agraruli reforma, magram igi mainc ver uzrunvelyofda fermerTa Zlieri fenis Seqmnas, romelic xelisuflebis socialuri dasayrdeni iqneboda. sabolood politikurma elitam saqarTvelos demokratiuli respublika dacemamde miiyvana. aucileblobis Jams xelisufleba Zlieri socialuri dasayrdenis gareSe da susti armiis amara aRmoCnda. 1918 w. 26 maisi, TavisTavad erovnul-saxelmwifoebrivi cnobierebis aRmavlobis mauwyebeli iyo. miuxedavad amisa, Tu Rrmad gaviazrebT qarTuli politikuri elitis mier 1917 wlis martidan (ruseTis imperiis damxobidan) 1918 wlis maisamde (saxelmwifoebriobis aRdgenamde) ganvlil gzas, aSkarad SevniSnavT or metad arasasurvel moments: pirveli. qarTuli politikuri elita, marTalia, ibrZoda saqarTvelos saxelmwifoebrivi damoukideblobis aRdgenisaTvis, magram Tavs sulac ar miiCnevda XIX saukunis 60-90-iani wlebis erovnuli moZraobis memkvidred (es exeba rogorc socialisturi orientaciis partiebs, ise erovnul-demokratiuli partiis warmomadgenlebs); meore. ruseTTan saxelmwifoebrivi gamijvnis umTavresi (ganmsazRvreli) mizezi iyo ara erovnuli, aramed partiuli. qarTuli politikuri elita emijneboda ara zogadad ruseTs, ruseTis saxelmwifos, aramed sabWoTa, bolSevikur ruseTs. vis azrs gamoxatavda qarTuli politikuri elita? mxolod da mxolod Tavis partiul azrs. vis eyrdnoboda politikuri elita? isev da isev partiuli ideebiT Sepyrobil sxvadasxva socialur Zalebs (muSebs, glexebs, inteligencias). ra gaakeTa politikurma elitam mTeli qarTveli eris erovnul-saxelmwifoebrivi ideebis garSemo gaerTianebisaTvis? praqtikulad araferi. qveynis sakanonmdeblo organo (erovnuli sabWo, parlamenti, - 95 -

damfuZnebeli kreba) partiuli principiT iyo gaTiSuli. ufro metic, TiToeuli partia fraqciebad daiSala da partiuli gamijvnis nacvlad partiul-klanuri gamijvna miviReT. erovnulsaxelmwifoebrivi cnobiereba damfuZnebeli krebis arCevnebis periodSi aSkarad daCrdila partiul-klanurma cnobierebam. damfuZnebeli krebis wevri ver gaxda bevri cnobili erovnuli moRvawe, maT Soris Tbilisis saxelmwifo universitetis damaarsebeli, imJamad ukve saqveynod cnobili istorikosi ivane javaxiSvili. damfuZnebeli krebis arCevnebSi socialdemokratebma warmoudgenel Sedegebs miaRwies - daamarcxes ara marto erovnul-demokratebi, aramed socialisturi orientaciis partiebic. amrigad, qveynis umaRles sakanonmdeblo organos daepatrona ukve socialdemokratiuli politikuri elita, romelic erovnulsaxelmwifoebrivi cnobierebis ganmtkicebaze ver izrunebda, radgan TviTon partiul-klanuri cnobierebis matarebeli iyo. saqarTvelos demokratiuli respublikis (1918-1921 ww.) arsebobis periodSi erovnul-saxelmwifoebrivi cnobierebis ganmtkicebas seriozulad SeuSala xeli qveynis xelisuflebis aTeisturma politikam. marTalia, saqarTvelo ganTavisuflda ruseTis batonobisagan(1918 w.), aRdga saqarTvelos samociqulo marTlmadidebluri eklesiis avtokefalia (1917 w.), magram eklesiam saxelmwifos cxovrebaSi tradiciuli adgili veRar daibruna. kaTolikos-patriarqi iqca umniSvnelo figurad, mis azrs qveynis umaRlesi sakanonmdeblo da aRmasrulebeli xelisufleba ar iTvaliswinebda. dakninda eklesiis roli moswavle-axalgazrdobisa da studentobis aRzrdis saqmeSi, qarTul jarSi. saqarTveloSi saxelmwifosagan eklesiis gamoyofa TiTqmis igive formiTa da SinaarsiT ganxorcielda, rogorc sabWoTa ruseTSi. saqarTvelos demokratiuli respublikis aTeisturi politikis gamovlena iyo saRvTo rjulis swavlebis akrZalva saero skolebSi. 1920 wels Tbilisis saxelmwifo universitetis SenobaSi (dRevandel pirvel korpusSi) moqmedi daviT aRmaSeneblis saxelobis eklesia, romelic 800 adamians itevda, xelisuflebis miTiTebiT universitets gadaeca, rogorc ubralo farTi. saqarTvelos demokratiuli respublikis xelisuflebam qarTul jarSi ar dauSva kapralis Tanamdeboba. saeklesio ierarqiis mier brZolaSi mimavali qarTuli jaris dalocva aikrZala. - 96 -

xelisuflebis warmomadgenlebi ar monawileobdnen did saeklesio dResaswaulebSi. ufro metic, qveynis umaRlesi piri noe Jordania kaTolikos-patriarqis mier misi locvebSi moxseniebis winaaRmdegic ki wavida da masTan sadarbazod misul kaTolikos-patriarq leonids mxolod kabinetidan gasuls daawia Tanxmoba. 1921 wels saqarTvelo sabWoTa ruseTma daipyro, xolo 1922 wels igi sabWoTa kavSiris SemadgenlobaSi aRmoCnda. sabWoTa ruseTsa da sabWoTa kavSirSi qonebis gadanawileba Semdegnairad ganxorcielda: mTeli qoneba gadavida saxelmwifos xelSi. formalurad mxolod koleqtiuri meurneobebi (kooperatiuli sakuTreba) rCeboda saxelmwifo sakuTrebis gareT. realurad kooperatiuli sakuTrebis ganmkargvelic saxelmwifo iyo. aikrZala miwisa da samrewvelo simZlavreebis kerZo sakuTrebaSi floba da yidva-gayidva. praqtikulad yvela klasi da socialuri fena qonebis (kerZo sakuTrebis) gareSe darCa. brZola gamoucxades erovnul cnobierebasac. 1921 wlidan saqarTveloSi klasobrivi (partiuli) cnobierebis damnergavi xelisufleba iyo. erovnuli cnobiereba warsulis mavne gadmonaSTad iqna gamocxadebuli, xolo is, rasac saxelmwifoebriv cnobierebad warmoadgendnen, sinamdvileSi klasobrivi (partiuli) cnobiereba iyo. xelisuflebis mier mosaxleobis dayofa sabWoTa wyobilebis momxreebad da mowinaaRmdegeebad, revolucionerebad da kontrrevolucionerebad, wiTlebad da TeTrebad, internacionalistebad da nacionalistebad, aTeistebad da Teistebad, proletarebad da burJuebad TavisTavad gamoricxavda erovnul-saxelmwifoebrivi cnobierebis Camoyalibebas. amasTan erTad, unda aRiniSnos Semdegi: sabWoTa (bolSevikurma) ideologiam da masze damyarebulma politikurma, ekonomikurma da socialurma sistemam realurad farTo asparezi gauxsna velikorusul Sovinizms. samagierod daundobeli brZola gamoucxades sxva erebis, maT Soris qarTvelebis, erovnulsaxelmwifoebriv cnobierebas. patriotizmis (sabWoTa patriotizmis) da moqalaqeobis (sabWoTa moqalaqeobis) SegrZneba mosaxleobaSi namdvilad iyo. es SegrZneba yalibdeboda ara bunebrivad, qonebis gadanawilebis kvalobaze, aramed sabWoTa agitaciisa da propagandis daxvewili demagogiis wyalobiT. agitaciisa da propagandis RerZi iyo Zveli - 97 -

wyobilebis aRdgenis safrTxeze miniSneba. muSebs aSinebdnen imiT, rom Zveli wyobilebis aRdgenis SemTxvevaSi qarxnebsa da fabrikebs kvlav burJuebi daeuflebodnen. glexobaSi Tesdnen memamuluri miwaTmflobelobis aRdgenis SiSs. amasTan erTad moxerxebulad iqmneboda qveynis marTvaSi xalxis monawileobis iluzia. roca glexi an muSa uaxloes warsuls gaixsenebda (pirveli msoflio omisa da samoqalaqo omisagan motanili ubedureba, SimSili da a.S.), cxadia, sabWoTa wyobilebisadmi simpaTiiT imsWvaleboda da xelisuflebis mxardamWerad gvevlineboda. es ar exeba mosaxleobis im nawils, romelic imTaviTve kargad xedavda sabWoTa propagandis mTel sicrues. aseTi mdgomareoba SenarCunebul iqna meore msoflio omis (1939-1945 ww.) CaTvliT. meore msoflio omis Semdeg mosaxleobam nel-nela daaRwia Tavi didi sicruis tyveobas. saqarTveloSi patriotizms, namdvils da ara sabWoTa patriotizms, kvebavda tradiciulad Zlieri eris istoriuli mexsiereba da nostalgia dakarguli saxelmwifoebriobisadmi. yovelive aman gansakuTrebiT iCina Tavi XX saukunis 70-80-ian wlebSi, roca cnebebi - sabWoTa patriotizmi, sabWoTa moqalaqeoba, sabWoTa samSoblo, sabWoTa kultura, sabWoTa morali - mxolod Rimils hgvrida da protestis grZnobasac ki aRar iwvevda arc erTi Taobis warmomadgenlebSi. 1921-1991 wlebSi anu sabWoTa saqarTvelos arsebobis periodSi erovnul-saxelmwifoebrivi cnobierebis gaZlierebaSi didi roli Seasrula inteligenciam. eris istoriuli mexsierebis SemnarCunebeli da dakarguli saxelmwifoebriobisadmi nostalgiis gamRvivebeli swored qarTveli inteligenciis erovnulad moazrovne (da ara sabWoTa xelisuflebisaTvis sulmiyiduli) nawili iyo. XX saukunis 7080-iani wlebis qarTveli inteligenciis saukeTeso warmomadgenlebi XIX saukunis 60-90-iani wlebis erovnuli moZraobis moRvaweTa gzas daadgnen. XX saukunis 70-ian-80-iani wlebis erovnuli moZraobis winamZRolebi (zviad gamsaxurdia, merab kostava da sxv.) upirveles amocanad swored erovnulsaxelmwifoebrivi cnobierebis aRdgenasa da ganmtkicebas miiCnevdnen. saqarTvelos saxelmwifoebrivi damoukideblobis aRdgenam (1991 w.), cxadia, erovnul-saxelmwifoebrivi cnobierebis gaZliereba gamoiwvia. am procesSi did rols - 98 -

asrulebda saqarTvelos samociqulo marTlmadidebeli eklesia. eris cxovrebaSi eklesiis rolis zrda, eklesiisaTvis tradiciuli adgilis dabruneba jer kidev sabWoTa epoqaSi daiwyo. es movlena, ukavSirdeba sruliad saqarTvelos kaTolikos-patriarqad uwmidesisa da unetaresis ilia II-is aRsaydrebas da erovnuli moZraobis axali etapis dawyebas: eri Semobrunda eklesiisken, moZRvarma daibruna Tavisi tradiciuli adgili qarTvelis cxovrebaSi. sazogadoebis udidesma nawilma Segnebulad uaryo aTeizmis epoqaSi SemuSavebuli stereotipebi. marTalia, Cven jer kidev Sorsa varT imisgan, rom qarTveli eri da saqarTvelos eklesia identur cnebebad moiazrebodes, magram cxadia isic, rom eklesiis mrevlis zrda Seuqcevadi procesi gaxda. sabWoTa kavSiris daSlisa da saqarTvelos saxelmwifoebrivi damoukideblobis aRdgenis (1991 w.) Semdeg saqarTvelo imave mdgomareobaSi aRmoCnda, ra mdgomareobaSic iyo igi 1918-1921 wlebSi. XX saukunis 90-ian wlebsa da XXI saukunis damdegs erovnul-saxelmwifoebrivi cnobierebis ganmtkicebas xeli SeuSala mravalma faqtorma, maT Soris aRsaniSnavia Semdegi: pirveli. kosmopolituri, antierovnuli da antieklesiuri Zalebis gaaqtiureba mTels msoflioSi, kerZod, postsabWoTa sivrceSi, aRmosavleT evropis qveynebSi. meore. saqarTvelos erovnuli xelisuflebis opoziciis mier gare Zalis (ruseTis) politikuri da samxedro mxardaWeriT prezident zviad gamsaxurdias xelisuflebis damxoba (1991 wlis dekemberi-1992 wlis ianvari) da momdevno wlebis sisxliani dapirispireba ruseTsa da saqarTvelos Soris, romelic dRemde e.w. samoqalaqo omad inaTleba. mesame. eduard SevardnaZis mmarTvelobis periodSi (19922003 ww.) saxelmwifoebriobis moSla, ukanonoba, Zalmomreoba, SeiaraRebuli bandebis TareSi, korufcia, klanebis batonoba. meoTxe. ekonomikuri siduxWire da mosaxleobis didi nawilis gaRatakeba. mexuTe. lukmapuris saZieblad qarTvelTa ucxoeTSi gadaxvewa, samSoblodan didi xniT mowyveta. meeqvse. warumatebloba armiis Seqmnis saqmeSi, susti armiis prestiJis dacema. meSvide. qveynis teritoriuli mTlianobis darRveva da ruseTis mier e.w. "separatistuli de faqto" mTavrobebis dasma - 99 -

afxazeTsa da Sida qarTlis nawilSi (cxinvalis regionSi); maTgan saqarTvelos am istoriul miwa-wyalze qarTvelTa genocidi. merve. kanoniT dadgenili wesiT qonebis gadanawilebis nacvlad saxelmwifo qonebis Zarcva da ukanonod miTviseba. erovnul-saxelmwifoebrivi cnobierebis ganmtkicebis gareSe Zlieri saxelmwifos Seqmna SeuZlebelia. istoria amis bevr mware magaliTs gvaZlevs. dRes saqarTveloSi erovnulsaxelmwifoebrivi cnobierebis gaZliereba SeuZlebelia Tu ar moxda: pirveli. saqarTveloSi xelisuflebis Zaladobrivi gziT damxobis samarTlebrivi Sefaseba (yvela Sesabamisi Sedegis gaTvaliswinebiT). meore. wina aTwleulSi qonebis gadanawilebis procesSi daSvebuli Secdomebis gamosworeba, am procesis sakanonmdeblo gziT erTxel da samudamod mowesrigeba. mesame. qarTuli saxelmwifos unitarul saxelmwifod Camoyalibeba, erovnul - saxelmwifoebrivi cnobierebis ganmtkicebis mTavar Semaferxeblad regionalizmis miCneva. meoTxe. saqarTvelos samociqulo marTlmadidebluri eklesiis rolis amaRleba, saqarTvelos eklesiasa da saxelmwifos Soris dadebuli SeTanxmebis ganuxreli dacva. mexuTe. soflad da qalaqad mesakuTreTa Zlieri fenis Seqmna da misi yovelgvari waxaliseba, biznesis ganviTarebisTvis normaluri, stabiluri garemos Seqmna. meeqvse. erovnuli ekonomikis dacva ucxo qveynebis mavne zemoqmedebisagan. meSvide. SeZlebisdagvarad, ekonomikis zrdis kvalobaze, ucxoeTSi gadaxvewil qarTvelTa nawilis mainc samSobloSi dabruneba da maTi dasaqmeba. merve. mudmivi zrunva Zlieri, brZolisunariani armiis Seqmnisa da SenarCunebisaTvis, armiaSi samsaxuris prestiJul samsaxurad gadaqceva. mecxre. qveynis teritoriuli mTlianobis rac SeiZleba swrafad aRdgena, separatistuli reJimebis likvidacia. meaTe. qarTveli eris, qarTuli enis warmoSobisa da ganviTarebis crumecnieruli Sexedulebebis (e.w. qarTizaciisa da sami/oTxi qarTveluri enis arsebobis aRiareba, qarTuli eklesiisTvis "prozelitizmis" dabraleba da sxv.) argumentirebuli, Rrma da safuZvliani kritika. - 100 -

qarTveli eris, qarTuli saxelmwifoebriobis, saqarTvelos marTlmadidebeli eklesiis da qarTuli kulturis istoriis gayalbebis winaaRmdeg brZolis saxelmwifos prioritetad gamocxadeba. meTerTmete. gacnobiereba imisa, rom kuTxuri, partiuli, klanuri azrovneba vnebs ara marto erovnul da saxelmwifoebriv interesebs, aramed demokratizaciis process, saqarTvelos damkvidrebas saerTaSoriso TanamegobrobaSi. yovelive zemoT aRniSnulis ganxorcieleba TavisTavad mospobs kuTxur, partiul da klanur cnobierebas, Seiqmneba xelsayreli pirobebi erovnul-saxelmwifoebrivi cnobierebis gaZlierebisaTvis; qarTveluri kulturuli faseulobebisa da Rirsebis aRorZinebisaTvis.
literatura:

17. jafariZe anania. saqarTvelos samociqulo eklesiis istoria. tomi 1-4, axalcixe-Tbilisi, 1998-2003. 18. jafariZe anania. saqarTvelos saeklesio krebebi. wigni I-III. Tbilisi, 2003. 19. . . . I- IV. , 1912-1920. 20. , . I XII. , 1866-1904. 21. . . . XIX . . , 1906 (ix. aseve: ivane javaxiSvili. Txzulebani Tormet tomad. t XII. Tbilisi, 1998 gv. 434-458).

Vakhtang Guruli - Associate Professor, Ivane Javakhishvili State University


National and State Consciousness: the Past and the Present Day Summary The occupation of Georgia by the Russian empire and the abolition of the autocephaly of the Georgian Orthodox and Apostolic Church (beginning of the 19th c.) dealt a serious blow to the Georgian national and state consciousness. In spite of this, an irreversible process of the restoration and consolidation of the national and state consciousness began soon, which is well studied in Georgian historiography. The purpose of the present author is to study one significant question - the process of the division of property and its effect on the national and state consciousness in Georgia (the 19th21st cc.). In 1801-1921 this process developed in such a way that Georgian national bourgeoisie was not formed. Of the existing classes and social strata the aristocracy and clergy had the national and state consciousness, whereas part of the Georgian nation - peasants and workers - shared the class (party) consciousness. In 1921-1991, i.e. the period of Soviet Georgia, the authorities strove for the introduction of the class (party) consciousness among the population. However, the national and state consciousness did not disappear. Its influence was great in every class and social stratum of the population (intellectuals, clergy, workers, peasants). Exactly this served as the basis for the upsurge of the national and state consciousness in the last decades of the existence of the Soviet Union (the 1970s-1980s) and after its break-up. A new stage of the restoration and strengthening of the national and state consciousness began after the break-up of the Soviet Union and the restoration of the statehood of Georgia (1991). - 102 -

1. avaliani s. miwismflobeloba saqarTveloSi. quTaisi, 1920. 2. amier-kavkasiis mTavrobis miwis kanonebi. Tbilisi, 1918. 3. asaTiani a. miwis sakiTxi saqarTveloSi. Tbilisi, 1919. 4. batonymobis gauqmeba (1861-1911 w.). Tbilisi, 1911. 5. berZeniSvili n. dokumentebi saqarTvelos socialuri istoriidan. I. batonymuri urTierToba (XV-XVIII ss.). Tbilisi, 1940. 6. berZeniSvili n. masalebi saqarTvelos ekonomikuri istoriisaTvis. wigni I (xelfasi, qira, fasebi), Tbilisi, 1938. 7. gozaliSvili g. 1832 wlis SeTqmuleba. Tbilisi, 1835. 8. guguSvili p. saqarTvelos da amierkavkasiis ekonomiuri ganviTareba XIX-XX saukuneebSi. t1. Tbilisi, 1949. 9. guruli v. iliadan iliamde. wigni pirveli. wmida ilia marTali. Tbilisi, 2006. 10. kakabaZe s. saqarTvelos istoria. axali saukuneebis epoqa. Tbilisi, 1922. 11. kakabaZe s. qarTveli xalxis istoria. 1783-1921. Tbilisi, 1997. 12. naTaZe g. saqarTvelos istoriis mokle sociologiuri mimoxilva. nawili I-II. quTaisi, 1925. 13. sabueli a. [jorjaZe a.]. rogor unda gadawydes miwis mflobelobis saqme. Tbilisi, 1906. 14. saqarTvelos batonymobis faqtiuri masalebi. t. I-IV. Tbilisi, 1924-1925. 15. stalini i. rogor esmis social-demokratias nacionaluri sakiTxi. Txzulebani. t. 1. Tbilisi, 1947, gv. 11-31. 16. stalini i. marqsizmi da nacionaluri sakiTxi. Txzulebani. t. 2. Tbilisi, 1947, gv. 312-395.

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. - : ( XIX ) . , , . . - (XIX- XXI .). 1801-1921 , . - , - () . 1921-1991 () . - - . (, , , ). (70-80 XX ) . (1991.) - .

rozeta gujejiani - iv. javaxiSvilis saxelobis istoriisa da eTnologiis institutis ufrosi mecnieri TanamSromeli
"erTobilni svanni" saqarTveloSi rusifikatoruli politikis winaaRmdeg

1. dekanozi ioane margiani


dekanozi ioane (ivane margiani) miekuTvneba qarTvel sasuliero pirTa im saxelovan pleadas, romelTac didi wvlili miuZRviT qarTuli RvTismsaxurebis aRdgenisa da erovnulganmaTavisuflebeli moZraobis aRorZinebis saqmeSi. svaneTis samRvdeloeba (mama giorgi margiani, mama lazare dadvani, dekanozi besarion niJaraZe, mama giorgi pirveli, dekanozi ioane margiani...) XIX s-is 60-70-iani wlebidan gabriel episkoposisa da ilia WavWavaZis gverdiT aqtiurad ibrZvis qarTveli eris interesebis dasacavad. cxadia, svani sasuliero pirebi ZvelTaganve erisa da qveynis samsaxurSi idgnen. werilobiTi wyaroebiT cnobilia svaneTSi an saqarTvelos sxva mxareebsa Tu ucxoeTis qarTul samonastro koloniebSi moRvawe svani sasuliero pirebisa da mwignobrebis saxelebi (g. gasviani, 1973; v. silogava, 1986), romlebic sxva moRvaweebTan erTad qmnidnen zogadqarTul kulturas (t. futkaraZe, 2005). xolo dRes ukve aRiarebuli dakvirveba, rom "qristianoba qarTvelobis tolfasi kategoria iyo da qristianobaze zrunva qarTvelobis SenarCunebisaTvis zrunvas udrida" (a. jafariZe, 1999, gv. 319) - laitmotivad gasdevs Sua saukuneebis svaneTSi Seqmnil dokumentebs. am sabuTebiT ("dawerili qveynis samagrobeli", "wigni da niSani xevis erTpirobisa", "dawerili svaneTis erTobili xevis erTobisa da gauyrelobisa"...) mkafiod ikveTeba svanis zogadqarTuli mentalobis umTavresi maxasiaTeblebi: erTguleba dedasamSoblosa da deda-eklesiisadmi. principuli damokidebuleba am ori umniSvnelovanesi faseulobisadmi gansakuTrebiT aqtualuri qveynis Znelbedobis Jams xdeba: decentralizaciis dawyebisa da qveynis samefo-samTavroebad dayofis process svaneTis sazogadoeba saocari mamuliSviluri - 104 -

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muxtiT anTebul locvas agebebs: "wm. mTavarangelozo muxerisao... adiden mefeni bagratonianni... da erTobili saqarTvelo da erTobilni svanni" - vkiTxulobT XIV s-is erTerT xatze. xatis warweraSi gacxadebuli zneobrivi kredo svaneTis tradiciuli sazogadoebis mentalobis masazrdoebeli wyaroa mTeli gviani Sua saukuneebis manZilzec, XIX saukuneSi ki am ideis amRorZineblad swored zemoT dasaxelebuli sasuliero pirebi gvevlinebian da maT Soris gansakuTrebuli adgili dekanoz ioanes (ivane margians) ukavia. ivane margiani 1872 wels daibada svaneTSi cnobili mRvdlis giorgi margianis ojaxSi. mama giorgi wm. gabriel episkoposis xeldasxmuli iyo. es ojaxi qarTuli kulturis kerasa da erovnul-ganmaTavisuflebeli moZraobis centrs warmoadgenda zemo svaneTSi. ivane margiani swavlobda quTaisis gimnaziaSi, quTaisis sasuliero saswavlebelSi, daamTavra Tbilisis sasuliero seminaria. mRvdlad kurTxevis Semdeg mama ioane qvemo svaneTis Coluris TemSi ganaweses, sadac igi pedagogiur moRvaweobasac eweoda. mogvianebiT ivane margiani cagerSi gadaiyvanes ("blaRoCinis" xarisxSi) raWa-leCxumis samRvdeloebis dekanozad. amave dros, dekanozi ioane cageris skolaSi qarTul, rusul enebsa da fizikas aswavlida. 90-iani wlebidan ivane margiani aqtiurad TanamSromlobda erovnuli suliskveTebis mqone qarTul periodul gamocemebTan ("iveria", "moambe", "cnobis furceli", "mogzauri", "mwyemsi"...). gansakuTrebuli aRniSvnis Rirsia ivane margianis megobroba da TanamSromloba gazeT "Sinauri saqmeebis" gamomcemlebTan. igi mRvdel svmon mWedliZis megobari da Tanamoazre gaxldaT. ivane margiani zogierT werils srulad awerda saxelsa da gvars, zogsac fsevdonimiT aqveynebda ("muJaleli", "svani m-ni", "blaRoCini m-ni" da a. S.) igi fxizlad adevnebda Tvals saqarTvelos sazogadoebriv cxovrebas: mxarSi edga yovel sasikeTo wamowyebas da medgar winaaRmdegobas uwevda antiqarTul da antireligiur gamoxdomebs. bolSevikTagan saqarTvelos okupirebis Semdgom, ivane margians, cxadia, RvTismsaxureba aukrZales. saocaria, magram ivane margiani komunisturi reJimis mZvinvarebis xanaSic axerxebda qveynisaTvis sasikeTo saqmis keTebas: eweoda qarTuli jiSis futkris popularizacias, saTaveSi edga cageris ganaTlebis ganyofilebas da baritis warmoebas. 1928 wels ki Camoayaliba zemo svaneTis simRerisa da cekvis ansambli, Tavi - 105 -

mouyara da dakargvas gadaarCina uamravi ZvelqarTuli (svanuri) simRera, maT Soris, saeklesio sagaloblebic. 1931 wels ivane margiani daapatimres, represiebis mTeli simZime iwvnia misma ojaxmac. qveynis Tavisuflebis dakargviTa da RvTismsaxurebis akrZalviT gamowveulma sevdam ivane margianis janmrTeloba sagrZnoblad Searyia. igi 61 wlis asakSi gardaicvala, 1933 wels. dakrZalulia TbilisSi, veris sasaflaoze (T. leJava, 2006; eTnografiuli werilebi, 1973, gv. 113-115). ivane margianis ramdenime eTnografiuli xasiaTis naSromi 1973 wels gamoaqveynes g. avalianma da g. zurabianma (eTnografiuli werilebi... 1973). am sasiqadulo moRvawisadmi miZRvnili werilebi gamosca misma SviliSvilma batonma Tamaz leJavam (T. leJava, 2006). xolo am statiis mizania samecniero da farTo sazogadoebriobas gaacnos qveynis erT-erTi moWirnaxule da amagdari moRvawe - ivane margiani. i. margianis mamuliSviluri pozicia mkveTrad moCans mis erT-erT pirvelsave publikaciaSi: 1891 wels zemo svaneTSi skola gaixsna, magram am sasixarulo movlenas uaryofiTi datvirTvac axlda da es faqti myisve gaaxmaura ivane margianma: "qarTuls ar aswavlian da es garemoebaRa dagvrCenia samwuxarod"-o (muJaleli, 1891) am azrs ivane margiani sxva werilebSic aviTarebs. "movixsenieb xalxis azrs qarTulis enis Sesaxeb: "qarTuli Zlier saWiroa CvenTviso", amboben svanebi" (eTnografiuli werilebi, 1973, 127). ivane margianis publikaciebSi sami ZiriTadi mimarTuleba ikveTeba: 1. svaneTis skolebSi qarTuli enis swavlebis uflebis mopoveba da SenarCuneba. 2. mtkiceba im ucilobeli WeSmaritebisa, rom svaneTisaTvis swored qarTulia mSobliuri, samwignobro da saeklesio ena. 3. brZola svaneTis eklesiebsa da skolebSi RvTis sjulis slavur grafikas morgebuli svanuri sityvebiT swavlebis winaaRmdeg. ivane margiani gegmazomierad da meTodurad aviTarebda am Sexedulebebs, sazrdoobda ra gabriel episkoposis qadagebebiTa da ilia WavWavaZis ideebiT. ilias mkvlelobis Semdeg ki igi uerTdeba mRvdel svimon mWedliZis mier daarsebul gazeT "Sinauri saqmeebis" garSemo darazmul moRvaweebs. cnobilia, rom XX saukunis pirveli aTwleuli metad mZime periodia - 106 -

saqarTvelosaTvis. aTeizmiT daavadebuli qarTveli sazogadoebis nawili qveyanas SemdgomSi Tavsdatexili ubedurebis mizezi xdeba. aseT mZime viTarebaSi swored "Sinauri saqmeebi" yalibdeba dasavleT saqarTvelos kulturuli cxovrebis centrad. svimon mWedliZe da misi TanamSromlebi agrZeleben ilias gzas da miznad isaxaven "rwmenadakarguli, dabneuli da partiebad daqsaqsuli sazogadoebis suliersa da zneobriv aRzrdas" (d. meliqiSvili, 1998). werilSi "svaneTi" i. margiani dabejiTebiT amtkicebs: "Cveni fiqriT, svanebi ekuTvnian qarTvelebis toms. marTalia, aseTis azris warmoTqmas zogierTni aCqarebad CamogvarTmeven, magram... azrs ver Segvacvlevineben" (i. margiani, 1973, 131). i. margianis am sityvebis mniSvnelobis warmosaCenad moviyvanT erT magaliTs, romelic imJamindeli rusifikatori istoriografebis debulebebis TvalsaCino nimuSia. mkvlevar-mogzauri a. stoianovi svanebs ara mxolod calke eTnosad, aramed arc meti, arc naklebi malorosielebis da zaporoJielebis STamomavlebad miiCeevs (a. stoianovi, 1876). a. stoianovis "dakvirvebas" pamfletiT pasuxobs i. margiani da acamtverebs ra rusi mogzauris Sorsmimaval ideebs, iqve gvTavazobs svanuri kiloebis mcire leqsikons. masSi Tavmoyrilia XIX s-is II naxevris saliteraturo qarTulis identuri Sesatyvisobebi svanurSi. yvela maTganis fuZe qarTulia da gansxvaveba mxolod TavsarT-bolosarTebSi SeiniSneba (i. margiani, 1973; 181-193). aseve, i. margiani exmianeba qarTuli presis informacias - axali qarTuli leqsikonis Seqmnis Sesaxeb. igi leqsikografTa yuradRebas miapyrobs svanur, megrul kilokavebsa da leCxumur metyvelebas, sadac, misi dakvirvebiT, jer kidev Semonaxulia saliteraturo qarTulSi ukve dakarguli mravali ZirZveli qarTuli sityva, maT Soris, saxarebiseuli terminebic. "Tamamad vityvi, rom svanuri... uSreti salaroa Zveleburi qarTulis enisa da sazogadod xalxuri poezia da sasuliero ena savsea margaliti sityvebiT". bevr sxva sityvasTan erTad i. margians mohyavs Semdegi magaliTic: "svanurad" binZurs eZaxian "widaars" da adarebs am sityvas saxarebiseul termin "widovans" (i. margiani, 1911a). uaRresad mniSvnelovania i. margianis kidev erTi mosazreba. man, rogorc sasuliero pirma, brwyinvaled icoda Zveli qarTuli samwignobro da saeklesio ena, cxadia, erkveoda svanur kilokavebSi da amitom sruliad advilad poulobda maTi - 107 -

erTianobis damadasturebel mraval magaliTs. gamomdinare, sagulisxmoa i. margianis Semdegi daskvnac:

aqedan

kilokavebisa da qarTuli enis Sedareba unda moxdes ara XIX s-is miwurulis gamartivebul-gaRaribebuli saliteraturo qarTulis mixedviT, aramed Zveli qarTuli enis safuZvelze. amave dros, i. margiani erT-erTi pirvelTagania maT Soris, vinc eWvqveS daayena svanuri kilokavebis, rogorc calke enis, arsebobis sakiTxi: "svanuri - 108 -

"ena" (Tu SeiZleba ase vuwodoT), romelic pirvels gagonebazed ucxo enad eCveneba kacs, TiTqmis igive qarTuli enaa. sami meoTxedi svanuris sityvebis, namdvilad qarTuli sityvebia... svanurs soflebs umetes nawilad qarTuli saxelebi hqvia. svanuri gvarebi xom sul qarTuli gvarebia" (i. margiani, 1973; 131). i. margians sxva sagulisxmo argumentic mohyavs svanebis qarTvelobis dasamtkiceblad: "risTvis unda eSenebiaT svaneTSi qarTvelebs amdeni auarebeli eklesiebi, an risTvis unda egzavnaT amdeni simdidre, Tu ki ara sTvlidnen svanebs Tavis monaTesave xalxad?" (i. margiani, 1973, 132). i. margiani bedavs da Savrazmelebis mZvinvarebis periodSi xmamaRla saubrobs politikur koniunqturaze, politikur dakveTebze: "Tu romelime mecnieri aqamdisin zereled uyurebda am sakiTxs da svanebs SecdomiT TiSavda qarTvelebisagan... dRes am gvari garewrobiT veravis ver daubnelebs Tvalebs... sazogadoeba... yovelTvis afasebda... amgvar vaJbatonTa "politikanoba - gaiZverobas" (i. margiani, 1911-b). i. margiani, b. niJaraZis mxardamxar, ilaSqrebda svaneTis eklesiebsa da skolebSi slavur grafikas misadagebuli svanuri sityvebiT saRvTo sjulis gadmocemis winaaRmdeg. am mxriv, gansakuTrebiT aRsaniSnavia i. margianis erTi pamfleti "svanuri ena da axali aSordia" (i. margiani, 1911b). masSi mkiTxveli advilad amoicnobs didi ilias publicisturi stilis memkvidres. es aris mimarTva svaneTis boqaulad namyofi a. wereTlisadmi, romelsac svaneTis samRvdeloeba egzarxosTan dausmenia - nacvlad svanurisa, mRvdelmsaxurebas qarTulad asrulebeno. saocari paTosi gamosWvivis i. margianis pasuxSi: "nu swuxdebi, b. wereTelo, Cven gasageb enazed vadidebT RmerTsa... qarTuli ena CvenTvis RviZli enaa, gasagebica da saukunoebisagan nakurTxic". i. margiansve ekuTvnis aseTive mZafri kritikiT gaJRenTili werili - "svaneTis Wirisufals b. leonados". vinme leonados, social-demokrats, dausabuTebeli braldebebi gamouTqvams svaneTis samRvdeloebis mimarT. "ra ufleba gaqvT ukiJinoT umoqmedoba maT, vinc Tqvenze mets moqmedobs da Tqvenze mets argia xalxs? - wers i. margiani" (i. margiani, 1911d). i. margianis kalams ekuTvnis aseve sayuradRebo werili `ra enazed adidebdnen da adideben svanebi RmerTs (i. margiani, 1904). `maTi ena namdvili qarTulia, mxolod aqa-iq Secvlili. iq RvTis dideba ZvelTaganve qarTuls enazed swarmoebda da exlac swarmoebs. romel maTTvis ucxo enas SeeZlo qristianobis dacva - 109 -

am mivardnils qveyanaSi, Tu ara, isev qarTulsa, romelic svanebs dedaenad miaCniaT?!". aRsaniSnavia, rom i. margianma erT-erTma pirvelma wamoWra sakiTxi svaneTSi saeklesio muzeumis Seqmnis saWiroebis Sesaxeb. "vgoneb marTlac arsad ar aris amisTana qveyana, rom svaneTsaviT mdidari iyos Zveli eklesiebiT, xatebiT da saeklesio wignebiT... sasurvelia, rom svaneTis erT-erTs eklesiasTan daarsdes muzeumi - Zveli nivTebis Sesanaxi, romlis daniSnuleba iqneba Sekreba - Senaxva saeklesio wignebisa da sxva Zveli nivTebisa, romlebic eklesiisaTvis ar iqnebian saWiro" (i. margiani, 1901). i.margiani bevrs werda svaneTis samRvdeloebis SeWirvebuli materialuri mdgomareobis Sesaxeb (i. margiani, 1901). ilaSqrebda svaneTis eparqiis soxumis eparqiasTan SeerTebis winaaRmdeg (i. margiani, 1903). amave dros i. margiani, aqtiur qvelmoqmedadac moCans (Sinauri saqmeebi, 1910). sruliad fasdaudebeli mniSvnelobisaa i. margianis eTnografiuli werilebi. svaneTis tradiciuli yofis brwyinvale mcodne, ZirisZirobamde swvdeba yoveli svanuri sawesCveulebo ritualis (xalxuri saburveliT Semosilis) WeSmarit qristianul arss. warmoaCens svanuri CveulebiTi samarTlis im danaSrevebs, romlebic ZvelqarTuli feodaluri xanis saero da saeklesio kanonmdeblobis ZiriTadi postulatebiTaa nasazrdoebi. aRwers materialuri yofis sagulisxmo niuansebs. xatovnad gvisuraTebs svaneTis yofiT kulturas da xSirad iumoristuli pasaJebiTac alamazebs svanebis mentalobis ama Tu im niSan-Tvisebas. gansakuTrebiT gamovyofT erT werils - "vin iyvnen "papebi" anu "bapebi?", romelsac gverds ver auvlis saqarTvelos mTianeTis kulturis istoriiT dainteresebuli vercerTi mkvlevari (eTnografiuli werilebi, 1973; 165-170). am werilSi aRwerilia svaneTis mokle istoria da samRvdeloebis roli qristianobis dacvisa da SenarCunebis saqmeSi. "svanebis papebis sasiqadulod CaiTvleba, is ambavi, rom mahmadianobas ar gaamarjvebines qristianobaze" (eTnografiuli werilebi, 1973). i. margiani dawvrilebiT acnobda mkiTxvels qvemo svaneTis problematikas, magaliTad, "Zlier saWiroa sadadiano svaneTisaTvis naswavli mRvdlebi (metadre svanTagani) da saeklesio skolebi, romlebisganac unda movelodeT... xsnas" (i. margiani, 1902). - 110 -

calke saubris Temaa am mravalmxrivi moRvawis SemoqmedebiTi cxovrebis kidev erTi plasti. i. margiani mweralic gaxldaT. jerjerobiT mis or moTxrobas mivakvlieT "saSineli danaSauli" (i. margiani, 1911d) da "magis ra bralia?!" (i. margiani, 1911e). amrigad, i. margians Rirseuli adgili ukavia XIX s-is miwurulisa da XX s-is dasawyisis qarTvel sasuliero moRvaweTa Soris da uTuod, saWiroa, misi saxeli farTo sazogadoebisTvisac gaxdes cnobili.
gamoyenebuli literatura:
g. gasviani, 1973 - g. gasviani, dasavleT saqarTvelos mTianeTis istoriidan, Tb., 1973. eTnografiuli werilebi, 1973 - eTnografiuli werilebi svaneTze, krebuli, Tb., 1973. T. leJava, 2006 - T. leJava, vin iyo ivane margiani? `Cveni mwerloba, #12, 9 ivnisi. 2006. i. margiani, 1901 - mR. i. margiani, "mwyemsi" #16, 1901. i. margiani, 1902 - i. margiani, "cnobis furceli", 8 ivnisi, #1831, 1902. i. margiani, 1903 - i. margiani, "cnobis furceli", 11 oqtomberi, #1950, 1903. i. margiani, 1904 - b. m-ni, `ra enazed adidebdnen da adideben svanebi RmerTsa, `iveria, 4 Tebervali, #28, 1904. i. margiani, 1911-a - i. margiani, qarTuli leqsikonis SemuSavebis Sesaxeb, `Sinauri saqmeebi, #9, 1911. i. margiani, 1911-b - i. margiani (svani), svanuri ena da axali aSordia, `Sinauri saqmeebi, #25, 1911. i. margiani, 1911-g - i. margiani (svani) svaneTis Wirisufals, b. leonados, Sinauri saqmeebi, #12, 1911. i. margiani, 1911-d - i. margiani, saSineli danaSauli, `Sinauri saqmeebi, #39, 1911. i. margiani, 1911-e - i. margiani, magis ra bralia?! `Sinauri saqmeebi, 1819, 1911. d. meliqiSvili, 1998 - d. meliqiSvili, dasavleTis eparqiis sarwmunoebriv-zneobrivi gazeTi `Sinauri saqmeebi (1908-1916 ww.) da imereTis sarwmunoebriv-ganmanaTlebeli Zmoba wmidisa mTavarmowamisa, Zlevamosilisa, da sakvirvelmoqmedisa giorgisa - saqarTvelos eklesiis qarTuli sasuliero mwerlobis da qristianuli xelovnebis istoriis sakiTxebi, Tb., 1998. muJaleli, 1891 - muJaleli, `iveria, 25 seqtemberi, #204, 1891.

v. silogava, 1986 - v. silogava, svaneTis werilobiTi Zeglebi, I, Tb., 1986. stoianovi, 1876 - . . , , , . , . 2, ., 1876. . 269-279. t. futkaraZe, 2005 - t. futkaraZe, qarTvelebi, nawili I, quTaisi, 2005. Sinauri saqmeebi, 1910 - Sinauri saqmeebi, #24, 1910. a.jafariZe, 1999 - mTavarepiskoposi a. jafariZe, saqarTvelos samociqulo eklesiis istoria, tomi III, Tb; 1999.

Rozeta Gujejiani - Senior Research Worker, I.Javakhishvili Institute of History


and Ethnology

"Ertobilni Svanni" (All Svans) against the Russification Policy in Georgia 1. Chief Priest Ioane Margiani Summary The paper deals with the activities of chief priest Ioane Margiani in Svaneti at the end of the 19th c. and the beginning of the 20th c. His biography is offered and the contribution of the Svaneti clergy to the creation ad formation of common Georgian culture is demonstrated. Main aspects of I.Margiani's activities are shown: he is on the guard of public life of Georgia, he supports every good undertaking and shows strong resistance to anti-Georgian and anti-religious tricks. The adherence of I.Margiani to religious and public ideas and views of Bishop Gabriel and Ilia Chavchavadze is stressed. Basic directions of I.Margiani's publications are identified: 1. Obtainment and maintenance of the right to teach the Georgian language in schools of Svaneti; 2. Argumentation of the indisputable truth that exactly Georgian is the mother tongue, literary and church language for the Svans; Struggle against teaching Scripture in churches and schools of Svaneti using Svan words adapted to Slavic graphics. I.Margiani also appears as a close friend of Priest Simon Mchedlidze and collaborator of the national and religious newspaper "Shinauri sakmeebi". Other aspects of I.Margiani's activities are also demonstrated. He is one of the first to raise the question of the establishment of a church museum in Svaneti, etc. It is desirable to popularize the name of this worthy person and familiarize the general public with him.

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1. XIX XX . . .: , . . . .: 1. ; 2. , , ; 3. . . ( ). .. .. .

gia papuaSvili - ivane javaxiSvilis universitetis asistent- profesori

saxelmwifo

kulturis cnebis providenciuli gaazrebisaTvis


termini `kultura laTinuri sityvaa da Tavdapirveli mniSvnelobiT aRniSnavda damuSavebas, movlas, ganviTarebas. klasikur laTinurSi igi, rogorc wesi, miwis damuSavebis, samiwaTmoqmedo Sromis aRmniSvnelad gamoiyeneboda. de agri cultura- ase uwoda Tavis naSroms soflis meurneobis Sesaxeb Zv.w. III-II saukuneebis romaelma moRvawem markus porcius katonma. Tumca, ukve ciceronTan gvxvdeba gamoTqma:cultura animi autem philosopia est- sulis kultura aris filosofia. Tu ratom gaCnda aseTi azri antikur epoqaSi, gasagebia, radgan, es is droa, roca filosofia WeSmaritebis wvdomis erTaderT saSualebad iyo miCneuli. sxvadasxva filosofiuri skolebi da nairgvari filosofiuri Teoriebi cvlidnen erTmaneTs, Tumca WeSmaritebis am gziT wvdoma SeuZlebeli iyo.sokrate jer kidev Zv.w. V saukuneSi Tvlida, rom igi ar iyo mcodne, is mxolod sibrZnis raobis gamomrkvevi,moyvaruli,e.i. filosofosi iyo. misi azriT, brZeni iyo is, visac WeSmariti codna hqonda. aseT codnas, anu WeSmaritebas ki mxolod RmerTi flobs. yovelive zemoTqmulidan gamomdinareobs Semdegi daskvna: sulis damuSaveba filosofiiT ki ar xdeba, aramed WeSmariti codniT. WeSmariti codna, anu srulyofileba ki mxolod RmerTTan myofobiT miiRweva. aseTi mdgomareoba ki adamianis samoTxeSi arsebobis periodSi iyo. es idilia dairRva pirvelcodvis CadenisTanave, ramac globaluri masStabi SeiZinaadamiani da samyaro ganemsgavsa pirvelsaxes. samoTxeSi anu WeSmarit samSobloSi myofi adamiani sxva saTnoebebTan erTad Semkuli iyo aRmatebuli, saRvTo codniT, sulieri Wvretis unariT; magram gamoidevna ra igi samoTxidan, anu daaklda ra mas RvTis madli, adamianma codnis WeSmariti aRqma-gaSinaarseba veRar SeZlo. adamianTa xsovnaSi TandaTan gafermkrTalda samoTxiseuli pirvelcxovreba, magram sruliad ar amoZirkvula da raRac saxiT, raRac doneze nebismier TaobaSi narCundeba. Cven viziarebT Tvalsazriss, romlis mixedviTac kacobriobis - 114 -

- 113 -

istoria sxva araferia, Tu ara sxvadasxva zomiT uflis xsovna, sxvadasxva gamoxatulebiT dasabamieri samSoblos Zieba, rac sxvadasxva xalxSi, sxvadasxva TaobaSi sxvadasxva saxiTa da xarisxiT vlindeba. da es sxvadasxva gamoxatuleba ZiebiTi procesisa, sxvadasxva kulturaTa cnebiT SeiZleba iqnes kvalificirebuli. gza dakarguli samSoblosaken anu gza cxonebisa, Zveli aRTqmis marTalTagan Tavis droze sulieri TvaliT ganWvretili, WeSmaritad gaixsna maSin, rodesac gankacebulma RmerTma gamomxsnelobiTi msxverplSewirva aRasrula da gardamovlenili suliwmindis madlze dafuZnebuli eklesia macxovrisagan dasaZirkvlda, rogorc cxonebaSi kacobriobis axladmSobeli wiaRi. Sesabamisad eklesia da qristianuli moZRvreba - esaa kacobriobisaTvis gza samSoblosaken, wyvdiadidan aRTqmuli qveynisaken mewinamZRvre naTlis sveti (7.25). samecniero wreebSi kulturis safuZvlebis kvleva mxolod XIX-XX saukuneebSi daiwyo. amis mizezi aris aRniSnuli periodis sazogadoebaSi gamovlenili kulturis sulisSemZvreli krizisi. kulturis krizisi adrec momxdara adgili, magram maSin es ganpirobebuli iyo Zvelidan axal kulturaze gadasvlisa da zrdis siZneleebiT. Tanamedrove krizisi ki sapirispiroTi Secvlis SesaZleblobiT, anu ukulturobis niSniT xasiaTdeba. ra aris kultura? - es kiTxva, raoden paradoqsuladac unda JRerdes, maSin daisva mxolod, roca gaCnda kulturul RirebulebaTa nivelirebisa da mospobis globaluri safrTxe. es viTareba Zalian hgavs antikuri xanis berZeni oratoris demosTenes ambavs. man mTeli cxovreba zRvis pirze gaatara da arasodes ufiqria, ra aris zRva; magram roca erTxel talRebma gaitaces da Zlivs gadarCa daxrCobas, mis winaSe daisva kiTxva - ra aris zRva? zemoTqmulidan gamomdinare, udavod Cndeba Semdegi kiTxva: ra mizezebma ganapirobes aRniSnuli mdgomareoba? axali da uaxlesi periodis dasavluri kultura dafuZnebulia Semdeg wanamZRvrebze - anTropocentrizmi da racionalizmi. situaciaSi gasarkvevad, saWiroa cnebaTa zusti gansazRvreba. anTropocentrizmi aris Sexeduleba, romlis mixedviTac adamiani RvTis mier Seqmnili umaRlesi arsebaa da warmoadgens samyaros centrsa da saboloo mizans. erTi SexedviTac davrwmundebiT, rom aRniSnuli cnebis arsi bibliidan momdinareobs, ramdenadac Sesaqmis mixedviT adamiani - 115 -

imTaviTve iqna gamocxadebuli samyaros gvirgvinad.maS raSia saqme? TiTqos aranairi winaaRmdegoba ganxiluli cnebis arsSi, rac kulturis kriziss ganapirobebda, ar arsebobs. saqme ki SemdegSia. XIX saukunidan dawyebulma mecnierulma revoluciam dasavleT evropaSi gamoiwvia adamianis gonebis gakerpeba. moxda cnebis hipertrofizacia. adamianma gadawyvita Sesaqmis avtoris adgilis dakaveba. amaze metyvelebs f.nicSes sityvebi: RmerTi mokvda! es iyo adamianis cnobierebis katastrofa. rac Seexeba racionalizms, igi warmoadgens Semecnebis Teoriis im mimarTulebas, romelic WeSmariti codnis erTaderT wyarod gonebas miiCnevs. Seiqmna iluzia adamianis gonebis yovlisSemZleobis Sesaxeb. es yvelaferi dagvirgvinda C. darvinis evolucionisturi TeoriiT, ramac katastrofuli zegavlena moaxdina sazogadoebis zneobaze. aRniSnuli Teoriis Tanaxmad samyaroSi uwyvetad mimdinareobs arsebobisaTvis brZola da am daundobel brZolaSi imarjvebs uZlieresi. brZola arsebobisaTvis da bunebrivi SerCeva evoluciis mamoZravebeli Zalaa. aseT SemTxvevaSi zneoba zedmet da usargeblo bargad moevlina sazogadoebas. zneobisagan daclili sazogadoebis ganviTareba ki logikurad aRmoCnda krizisul mdgomareobaSi, radgan kultura, upirveles yovlisa, zneobrivinteleqtualuri aqtia. xolo WeSmariti zneobrivinteleqtualuri safuZvlis formireba, Cveni Rrma rwmeniT, mxolod sinergiis Sedegad aris SesaZlebeli. RvTis SiSi, meored mosvlis mudmivi molodini adamianSi aRZravs da zrdis zneobriv pasuxismgeblobas. morwmune qristianisaTvis wuTisofelSi gatarebuli yoveli dRe ukanaskneli dRis gancdiT mimdinareobs. is mudmivad emzadeba maradiulobaSi gadasasvlelad. amitom aseTi pirovneba yovelTvis fxizlobs, vinaidan kargad uwyis saxarebiseuli sibrZne: roca ar eliT, swored im saaTs mova Ze kacisa (luka, 12.40). xolo urwmuno evolucionistisaTvis wuTisofliT iwyeba da mTavrdeba yvelaferi. es ukanasknelni veluri JiniT ikmayofileben miwier moTxovnilebebs. Tanamedrove konkurentul samyaroSi aseTi tipis adamianebisaTvis araTu mteri, aramed moyvasic ki mteria. amis sapirispirod, marTlmadideblur qristianobaSi RmerTis arsebobis, adamianis sulis ukvdavebis, misi Tavisufali nebis da saiqio cxovrebis rwmena im ZiriTadi msoflmxedvelobrivi sayrdenebis rols asruleben, romlebzedac umaRles RirebulebaTa Semcveli adamianuri zneoba aRimarTeba. - 116 -

kulturas tradiciulad yofen materialur da sulier sferoebad. materialuri kultura adamianis sulieri mdgomareobis ganivTebul saxes warmoadgens. e.i. materialuri kultura, anu garemomcveli sinamdvile, Cveni sulierebis maCvenebelia. wm. daviT mefsalmune ambobs: `ufali sufevs, Suenierebai Seimosa.(fs.92). Tu adamianisa da keTilmorwmune eris sulSi ufali sufevs, samyaro mSvenierebiT imoseba. aq upriania wm.ilia marTlis sityvebis gaxseneba: `uRonoba qveynisa marto ufuloba da uqonloba ki ar aris, rogorc exla bevrsa hgonia, aramed ufro isa, roca saTnoebiani, keTil-momqmedi, maRal-zneobis kaci ara hyavs. simagre qveynisa, qveynis Zal-Rone, eris Semnaxveli da gamdidebeli qviTkiri adamianis cxovrebisa marto saTnoebaa da marto saTnoebiani kaci hqmnis am wuTisofels taZrad, sadac RmerTs adideben, da samoTxed, saca bedniereba adamianisa hsadgurobs(11.24). yoveli xalxi inaxavs, aviTarebs da Taobidan Taobas gadascems, upirveles yovlisa, im kulturas, romelic ama Tu im eTnikuri erTobis mieraa Seqmnili. metad mniSvnelovania kulturaSi erovnuli sawyisisa da kulturaTa urTierTmimarTebis sakiTxi. kulturisaTvis damaxasiaTebelia gavrceleba rogorc droSi, aseve sivrceSi. igi, erTi mxriv, Taobidan Taobaze gadadis, meore mxriv, misi elementebi gadainacvlebs geografiulad, gadadis erTi xalxis, erTi qveynis kulturidan meoreSi. ar arsebobs sruliad izolirebuli, kardaxSuli kultura, romelsac ar ganecados sxva kulturaTa zegavlena. yoveli xalxis kultura aris rogorc Sinagani, damoukidebeli, misTvis damaxasiaTebeli Rirebulebebis ganviTarebis (rac ZiriTadi faqtoria), ise sxva xalxTa kulturul monapovarTa aTvisebis produqti. kacobriobis kulturis analizisas aseve vrwmundebiT, rom sxvadasxva eTnosis kultura Sedgeba rogorc zogaduniversaluri, aseve specifikuri Rirebulebebisagan, rac kidev erTxel miuTiTebs im faqtze, rom mas erTi mSobeli hyavs. da mxolod WeSmariti samSoblodan devnilobis xangrZliv periodSi SeiZina TiToeulma specifikuri Rirebulebani. analogiur mdgomareobaSia qarTveli eric. yoveli eris, maT Soris qarTveli eris, kulturis imuniteti ganisazRvreba imiT, Tu ramdenad moaxerxa man mravalsaukunovani istoriis manZilze maradiul RirebulebaTa dacva. marTalia, am mxriv, sxvadasxva istoriul epoqaSi, subieqturi Tu obieqturi pirobebis gaTvaliswinebiT, qarTuli kultura sxvadasxvagvar - 117 -

mdgomareobaSi aRmoCenila, magram rac ki Seuqmnia, sarwmunoebriv fundamentze daumkvidrebia. roca ufals locviT vadidebdiT da Sewevnas gamovTxovdiT, maSin erTian did taZars emsgavseboda saqarTvelo; xolo roca zurgs SevaqcevdiT mama-zeciers, dgeboda Cveni dacemis Jami. magram dacemas kvlav mohyveboda aRdgoma, rac isev da isev qarTvel wminda mamaTa, mefe-dedofalTa da yovelTa saTnod mcxovrebTa locvisa da Tavdadebis Sedegi iyo. eris arseboba da funqcionireba erovnuli kulturis arseboba da funqcionirebaa. misi poziciebis Seryeva eris gadagvarebisa da gaqrobis dawyebis maniSnebelia. `sami RvTaebrivi saunje dagvrCa Cven mama-papaTagan: mamuli, ena da sarwmunoeba. Tu amaTac ar upatroneT,ra kacebi viqnebiT, ra pasuxs gavcemT STamomavlobas(11.25). dasaxelebuli sami siwmindidan ganmsazRvreli sarwmunoeba rom aris, amis dasturi kvlav wm.ilia marTalis Semdegi sityvebia:qristianoba, qristes moZRvrebis garda, CvenSi hniSnavda mTelis saqarTvelos miwawyals, hniSnavda qarTvelobas. dResac mTels amier kavkasiaSi qarTveli da qristiani erTisa da imave mniSvnelobis sityvebi arian. gaqristianebis magier getyvian ,- gaqarTveldao... qristianobam Segvinaxa Cven Cveni miwa-wyali, Cveni ena, Cveni vinaoba, Cveni erovneba (11.13-14). es azri bibliis mixedviTac dasturdeba. Tavdapirveli samSoblo adamianisa samoTxea. pirvelcodvis Sedegad ganidevna WeSmariti samSoblodan adamiani da daiwyo gansaxleba sxvadasxva regionSi. konkretuli geografiuli garemo, sadac qarTveli eris Camoyalibebis procesi warimarTa, aseve uflis mieraa Seqmnili, Cven misi stumrebi varT. Tu aRvasrulebT uflis nebas, Cveni samSoblo ayvavdeba; Tu ara da SeiZleba ise gaqres am mamulSi Cveni xseneba, rom nakvalevic ki ar darCes qarTvelTa. RvTismSoblis wilxvedri Cveni mamuli aqamde mxolod uflisa da moyvasis siyvarulma moitana. xolo, rac Seexeba enas, sxvadasxva enaze saubars xalxi iwyebs babilonis godolis dangrevis Semdeg. qarTuli ena ki, romelic`damarxul ars... meored mosvlisa misisa sawameblad, raTa yovelsa enasa RmerTman amxilos amiT eniTa (6.47.), wm. ilia marTlis mier damkvidrebuli sam-erTobis erT-erTi wamyvani elementia, romelmac uzarmazari roli Seasrula qarTuli kulturuli memkvidreobis Senaxvisa da dRemde motanis saqmeSi. ena qarTulic RvTis madlia Cvenze gadmosuli da masac didi ruduneba da gafrTxileba sWirdeba. - 118 -

damowmebuli literatura:

1. axali aRTqma da fsalmunebi, stokholmi, 1993. 2. biblia 3. r.gordeziani, qarTuli TviTSegnebis Camoyalibebis problema, Tb.,1993 4. kultura, rogorc filosofiuri kvlevis sagani, Tb.,1977 5. kulturologia, nawili I, Tb., 2001 6. g.lorTqifaniZe, n. Ciqovani, qarTuli kulturis istoria, Tb., 1997 7. e.WeliZe, qristianoba da sazogadoeba, Jurnali fuZe, 2005, #6(8). 8. saqarTvelos istoriis narkvevebi, I, Tb., 1970 9. qarTlis cxovreba, t., I. Tb., 1955 10. qarTuli mwerloba, t.I, Tb., 1987 11. i. WavWavaZe, azrebi, Tb., 1989 12. iv.javaxiSvili, qarTveli eris istoria, Txz., Tb., t.I, 1979

mRvdeli levan maTeSvili - stu Teologiis kaTedris maswavlebeli, filologiis mecnierebaTa kandidati rwmenis, warmarTuli ganaTlebisa da elinisturi filosofiis mimarTebisaTvis
I saukunis bolos moxda pirveli qristianuli Temebis gamoyofa sinagogebidan. radganac qristianoba iyo misioneruli moZraoba, samyaros warmarTul kulturasTan urTierTobis sakiTxic masSi ufro mwvaved idga, vidre iudaizmSi. qristianebs uwevdaT warmarTebTan ara marto Tanacxovreba, aramed maTi qristianul rwmenaSi moqceva. iseve rogorc ebraelebs, qristianebsac ar SeeZloT TavianT rwmenaSi SeeTvisebinaT warmarTuli kerpebis Tayvaniscema. qristianebisTvis pasiuri monawileobac ki msxverplSewirvaSi, rogori umankoc unda sCvenebodaT is warmarTebs, sjulisgan gandgomis tolfasi gaxldaT. aseve miuRebeli iyo qristianisTvis warmarTul misteriebSi gandobiloba.

Gia Papuashvili - Assistant Professor, Ivane Javakhishvili State University On the Providential Interpretation of the Concept of Culture Summary Culture is the spiritual state of man and the process of its materialization, i.e. a moral and intellectual act. The history of the culture of mankind is the process of permanent searching for the true homeland after the original sin. Georgian culture is the centuries-old, continuous history of material and spiritual creation of the Georgian nation, history of restoration of the broken link with the Creator of the universe. . -

, - . . , . - 119 -

iseTi saxis danaSauli, rogoricaa, magaliTad: aborti, monebis mimarT araadamianuri mopyroba, gladiatoruli brZolebi da sxva gasarTobebi, romlebic warmarTul sazogadoebaSi miRebulad iTvleboda, qristianebi ewinaaRmdegebodnen da Riad amxeldnen. klimenti aleqsandrieli da origene msjavrs sdebdnen warmarTul uRirs qmedebebs im TanmimdevrulobiT, rogorc amas akeTebdnen maTi dasavleli Tanamedroveni: ipolite romaeli, tertuliane karTageneli. mniSvnelovan sakiTxad idga mwignobruli sibrZne, romelic gajerebuli iyo moraluri faseulobebiTa da warmarTuli samyaros msoflmxedvelobiT. zogierTi qristiani moZRvari, magaliTad, tertuliane da tatiane, uaryofda rogorc kerpTayvanismcemlobas, aseve im dawyebiT ganaTlebas, romelic Seicavda Zvel berZnul poeziasa da literaturas. adamianma unda miiRos qristianuli WeSmariteba yovelgvari ganxilvisa Tu Sedavebis gareSe, amasTanave unda uaryos ganaTleba da kultura, rogorc demonuri Zalebis nayofi. mas Semdeg, rac adamiani rwmenaSi modis, erTaderTi, rac man sinamdvileSi unda iwamos, es aris is, rom aRar arsebobs - 120 -

araferi imaze meti, risic unda swamdes. Tumca tertuliane uSvebda dawyebiT saskolo ganaTlebas, rogorc gardauval borotebas, mxolod im pirobiT, Tu manamde bavSvi ecnoboda qristianul safuZvlebs. rac Seexeba iustines, misTvis aseve gaugebari iyo, Tu risTvis sWirdeboda momaval RvTismetyvels saskolo ganaTleba mieRo musikaSi, astromoniasa da geometriaSi, TumcaRa filosofias is pativiscemiT epyroboda. rogorc cnobilia, axalgazrda origenes ritorikisa da wmida werilis swavleba erT WerqveS SeuZleblad eCveneboda. Tumca Semdgom man Secvala Tavisi mosazreba da mogvianebiT, ukve asakSi Sesuli origene, Tavis mowafe grigols urCevs, Seiswavlos gramatika, ritorika, geometria, musika da astronomia, radgan yvela es mecniereba filosofiis Sesavals warmoadgens. saganTa sia, romelic origenes mohyavs, mTlianad Seesabameba egreTwodebul ritorikis skolebSi miRebul programas, romelic ganaTlebis umaRles safexurs warmoadgenda elinistur epoqaSi. sajaro saswavlebelSi moxvedril moswavleebs dasawyisSive SeeZloT mieRoT ganaTleba berZenTa mecnierebebSi, saerTo ganaTlebis kursi moicavda musikas, ariTmetikas, geometrias, astronomias da dialeqtikas. klimenti aleqsandrieli SeniSnavs, rom saganTa Seswavla arafriT ar aferxebs, aramed piriqiT, xels uwyobs RvTaebrivi saidumloebebis Cawvdomas. wm. grigol sakvirvelmoqmedi gadmogvcems imis Sesaxeb, Tu rogor gaiara man mosamzadebeli kursebi logikaSi, astronomiaSi, RvTaebriv maTematikaSi da eTikaSi origenesTan, kesariis saswavlebelSi. aseTive saganTa sia miRebuli iyo platonikes saswavlebelSi, romelic iyo origenes ufrosi Tanamedrove. zemoT Tqmulidan gamomdinare, naTlad Cans, Tu ramdenad gansxvavdebian panTenis mier aleqsandriaSi Cadebuli modelebi romisa da Crdilo afrikuli modelebisagan. sajaro skolebi romSi gankuTvnili iyo katexizaciisaTvis. aseTi skolis maswavleblebi dakavebulni iyvnen mxolod mozrdilTa naTlobebisaTvis momzadebaSi. sruliad sxva viTareba iyo aleqsandriaSi. filosofiis SeswavliT gansakuTrebiT axalisebdnen niWier moswavleebs. skolis meore maswavlebelTan, klimentTan, Cven vpoulobT filosofiis pirvel da sistemur gamarTlebas qristianTa ganaTlebis aucileblibisa. klimenti eyrdnoba fundamentur varauds imis Sesaxeb, rom logosi warmoadgens mTeli eris - 121 -

moZRvars. filosofia udides rols asrulebs berZnebisaTvis. ufro metic, is warmoadgens RvTis saCuqars, maTTvis, wminda werilisagan gansxvavebiT, filosofiuri nawarmoebebi Seicaven mxolod nawils WeSmaritebisas. filosofiuri kaklis mTlianad miRebas ar gvirCevs klimenti, radgan misi naWuWi datevebul unda iqnes... TumcaRa es mTeli rigi msjelobebisa gaxldaT imdenad bundovani, rom ar iZleoda naTel kriteriumebs, gansasxvaveblad filosofosTa azrebsa da rwmenis WeSmaritebebs Soris. zogierTi qristiani samarTlianad SiSobda, rom aseTi gandideba filosofiisa Tanaswors gaxdis mas wminda werilTan da mociqulTa gadmocemebTan. afrTxilebda ki pavle mociquli qristianebs, raTa ar moxibluliyvnen filosofiiTa da fuWi cdunebiT, adamianuri gadmocemisa da samyaros stiqiaTa mixedviT da ara qristes mixedviT (kol. 2.8). amis pasuxad klimenti SeniSnavs, rom filosofiidan saWiroebs mxolod imis aRebas, rac ar ewinaaRmdegeba wminda werils da mociqulTa memkvidreobas, romelic dafiqsirebulia sarwmunoebis simboloSi, rac Seexeba pavle mociqulis sityvebs, klimentis azriT is miekuTvneba ara yvela filosofiur mimdinareobas, aramed sofistebs da epikureelebs. sofistebi ar unda SeiswavloT imitom, rom isini zrunaven sityvaTa silamazeze da ara WeSmaritebaze; swored igive damokidebuleba unda gvqondes epikureelebis mimarT, radgan isini uaryofen RvTiur gangebas da amiT faqtobrivad qadageben aTeizmis swavlebas, romelic amaxinjebs saganTa bunebas da gonieri sulisTvis zianis momtania (klimenti, origene). filosofia, ver Secvlis rwmenas, miiCnevs klimenti, radgan rwmena saerTo jamSi ar efuZneba filosofiur principebs. nu agvereva sulieri sizarmace da filosofiuri eWviT moculi sizante, mogviwodebs klimenti.

rodesac saqme exeba Cvens egoistur midrekilebebs Tu grZnobier siamovnebebs, maSin ukve ganusjelad vmoqmedebT. magram rwmena RmrTisa aris adamianis pirvelxarisxovani interesi, romelic mis sulier janmrTelobas exeba. klimentis Tanaxmad, RvTis miRebasa Tu uaryofaSi igulisxmeba ufro moraluri arCevani, vidre inteleqtualuri albaToba. RvTis miReba Tu uaryofa ufro nebis problemaa, vidre gonebisa. neba paraleluri aRmoCndeba uweso warmarTuli Cvevebisa da goneba aedevneba mas, igonebs yovelgvar patiebasa Tu braldebebs. - 122 -

gonebis eWvi dakavSirebulia ara inteleqtualur siZneleebTan, aramed imasTan, rom nebis uaryofiT datovos Zveli cxovrebis wesi. klimentis TvalsazrisiT, uwignuroba ar warmoadgens adamianisTvis dabrkolebas. imisaTvis, rom man filosofiuri cxovrebis wesiT icxovros, es niSnavs: rwmenas floben ara brZenni ama qveynisa, aramed RmerTSi gabrZnobilni; rwmenaSi ganswavla SesaZlebelia wignierebis gareSe; misi saxelmZRvanelo warmoadgens ubralos da RvTaebrivs, sulier siyvarulad wodebul wigns. rwmena xels uwyobs swavlebas, radganac is aZlierebs moswavleebSi imis aTvisebis unars, razedac saubrobs maswavlebeli.

usazRvrod Zvirfasia. Rirs ki cda, SeniSnavs origene, sanam adamiani sulierad ar mokvdeba? mTeli cxovreba xom kamaTSi gava da dro aRar rCeba qristianuli cxovrebisaTvis. unda aRiniSnos is, rom klimenti da origene, tertulianes msgavsad, Sors iyvnen imisagan, rom uareyoT filosofia qristianul ganaTlebaSi. brbos azriT, filosofias mxolod rwmenis Seryeva SeuZlia. klimenti ki pasuxobs, rom kapikia im rwmenis fasi, romelic SeiZleba aseTi saxiT daangrio. simarTles ar unda eSinodes debatebisa. filosofia qristianul skolebSi unda emsaxurebodes apologetur miznebs. klimenti mas venaxis irgvliv Semovlebul Robes adarebs. pantenic mivida im daskvnamde, rom filosofia Setanil unda iqnes sajaro skolebis saganTa cxrilSi, raTa moamzados moswavleebi eresebTan dapirispirebaSi. origene darwmunebuli iyo, rom filosofiuri ganaTleba ver aRudgeba rwmenas, aramed, piriqiT, ganwmends mas crurwmenisagan da Secdomebisagan. origenes skolaSi kaTakmevelebs sruli Tavisufleba eZleodaT filosofiuri mimdinareobebis gamokvlevaSi. origene uars aravis eubneboda, visac ki surda misi skolis WerqveS mieRo filosofiuri ganaTleba, mxolod im imediT, rom amiT adamiani SeiZleboda moqceuliyo qristianad. aleqsandriaSi, miuxedavad eklesiis SigniT arsebuli mniSvnelovani opoziciisa, pirvelad qristianobis istoriaSi miRebuli iyo sarisko, araerTmniSvnelovani da amasTan erTad gansakuTrebulad nayofieri SeerTeba akademiisa da eklesiisa. pantenis, klimentisa da origenes CanafiqriT qristianul skolas unda Seecvala warmarTuli universiteti.

imasTan dakavSirebiT, rom qristianebi udides mniSvnelobas rwmenas miaweren, ganaTlebul warmarTTa umravlesoba maT gulubryvilo glaxakebad miiCnevdnen, romelTac swamT ganurCevlad yvelafris, yovelgvari gansjis gareSe. filosofosi kelsusi qristian moZRvrebs brals imaSi sdebs, rom isini bavSvebs aqezeben uaryon warmarT mSobelTa saukuno tradiciebi. rogorc ki qristianebs maTi rwmenis ganmartebas sTxoven, isini am yvelafers Semdegi saxis lozungebiT aRweven Tavs: nu msjelob, mxolod irwmune, an cudia, brZeni iyo am cxovrebaSi, rodesac iyo ugunuri - mSvenieria. kelsusi SeniSnavs, rom msgavsi argumentebiTa da sarkazmiT SeiZleba STabeWdileba moaxdino mxolod qalebze, monebsa da bavSvebze. kelsusis pasuxad origene ganmartavs, rom filosofiur debatebSi Cabmaze qristianebis mier uaris Tqma dakavSirebulia ara imasTan, rom maT ara aqvT masSi monawileobis unari, aramed, ubralod, isini ar Tvlian aseT diskusiebs maTTvis pirvelxarisxovan amocanad.

adamianTa umravlesobas ar gaaCnia sakmarisi dro imisaTvis, rom moisminon yvela momxre da sawinaaRmdego argumenti qristianuli swavlebis Sesaxeb. da ra aris ufro upiratesi: miatovo xalxi codvis WaobSi Cafluli, sanam isini ar daumtkiceben Tavis Tavs qristianul WeSmaritebas srulad da garkveviT, Tu jer amoviyvanoT isini Waobidan da Semdeg ukve SevudgeT srul ganmartebas? pirvel SemTxvevaSi sakmaod didi saSiSroebis winaSe iqneba adamianis suli, romelic filosofiur kamaTlebTan SedarebiT - 123 -

klimenti mouwodebs imisken, rom saWiro ar aris ganTqmuli aTenis akademiis maswavleblebTan an kidev sxvagan, ganaTlebaze gamodevneba, radganac TviT RmerTi movida adamianebTan sxeulSi, imisaTvis, rom gaenaTlebina isini da mieyvana gadarCenis gzamde. qristeSi dafarulia sibrZnisa da codnis yvela ganZi (kol: 2:3). amieridan moswavleebi imisaTvis, rom filosofiaSi mieRoT damatebiTi codna, aRar saWiroebdnen warmarTi maswavleblebis daxmarebas. aseTi ganaTleba ukve SeiZleboda mieRoT TviT eklesiis wiaRSi. Zveli warmosaxviT, qristes saxe Serwmuli iyo WeSmariti filosofiis saxesTan. saWiroa aRvniSnoT, rom aseTi SeerTebis Sedegad sazRvrebi - 124 -

RvTivgancxadebul codnasa da elinistur sizmars Soris naklebad mkafio xdeboda, vidre es iustines, ipolitesa da tertulianes dasavleTis skolebSi iyo. tertulianesagan gansxvavebiT, klimenti qadagebda ara kulturisagan gaqcevas, aramed yvelaferi imis SemoqmedebiTad da kritikulad aTvisebas, rasac Tavis TavSi atarebda kultura. warmarTobaze gamarjvebisTvis, misgan Tavis dasaRwevad, arasakmarisi iyo mxolod ramdenime SeZaxili imasTan dakavSirebiT, rom warmarTuli kultura eSmakis badeSi imyofeba, aramed qristian moZRvars ufro meti moeTxoveboda, kerZod ki: ganwmenda da gaeklesiureba TviT kulturisa imisaTvis, rom qristeSi moqceva SesaZlebeli yofiliyo sazogadoebis yvela fenisaTvis, aucileblad saWiro iyo qristianuli apologetikis ganviTareba yvela doneze: brZola crurwmenasa da xalxis wes-CveulebasTan, saxelmwifo CinovnikebTan, polemikaSi popularul filosofosebTan bazris moednebze da agreTve viwro, magram gavlenian filosofosTa skolebis wreebSi. qristianul skolaSi adamians sTavazobdnen RvTivgancxadebul codnas da ara marto avtoritetul filosofosTa azrs. yvela msurvelTaTvis SesaZlebeli iyo Seedarebina esa Tu is filosofiuri swavleba mocemul gancxadebasTan.
gamoyenebuli literatura 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. . , ... .. ., 1871. . , ., 1965. .. , , 1963. . , . I-III, ., 1936-1941. , , . I, , . .. , .. , .. , , , 1969. , , 1842, . . . , , 1910. . , ., 1977. . . Acta justini et sociorum. . Ruinart Th. Acta Primorum martyrum sincera. Regensburg, 1859. . . . . . .: - : , 1999. . 362-372. . . Confessiones, . Verheijen L., CCSL 27 (1981). . .: . , . . . : . 1999. . Opus imperfectum contra lulianum, PL 45. 1049-1608.

Priest Levan Mateshvili - Teacher, Chair of Theology, Technical University of


Georgia

On Interrelation of Faith, Pagan Education and Hellenistic Philosophy Summary Christianity of the first centuries as well as of the subsequent periods did not preach avoidance of culture, but assimilation in a creative and critical way of everything that culture united in itself. Calls that pagan culture was in the devil's trap were not enough to win a victory over paganism. A Christian clergyman was required to do more, namely: to purify culture proper and make it more ecclesiastical in order to enable every social stratum to be united in Christ, it was necessary to develop Christian apologetics on all levels: to struggle with prejudices and folk customs, state officials, to engage polemics with popular philosophers in market-places and also in narrow yet influential schools of philosophers. , , , , . , , . , : , , : , , , , .

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- 126 -

tariel futkaraZe - quTaisis akaki wereTlis saxelmwifo universitetis sruli profesori asomTavruli anbanisa da qarTuli samwignobro enis saTave - Zv.w. II-I aTaswleulebSi arsebuli saerToqarTveluri ena
saqarTvelos istoriaSi erTiani da Zlieri saxelmwifos ideis ganxorcielebis ori umniSvnelovanesi periodi arsebobs da orsave periodis siZlierisa da erTianobis gamoxatulebad miCneulia qarTuli enis gansakuTrebuli roli; Sdr.: qujfarnavazis epoqa: "arRara izraxeboda qarTlsa Sina sxua ena, Tvinier qarTulisa" da grigol xanZTelis epoqa: qarTlad friadi (mravali) queyana (mxare) aRiracxebis, romelsaca Sina qarTuliTa eniTa Jami Seiwirvis da locva~ yoveli aResrulebis"... pirvel SemTxvevaSi saqarTvelos gaerTianebisTvis arsebiTi roli Seasrula egrisis erisTavma qujim, meore SemTxvevaSi ki - samxreTdasavleT (taoSi) da dasavleT saqarTveloSi (egrisSi) aRzrdilma bagrationebma...

("qarTebs" zogi avtoqTonad Tvlis, zogi - mosulad); paralelurad gaCnda saocari frazac: qarTi - tomiylapia:

"qarTis tomis mier dapyroba-Serwyma sxva tomebisa da Semdeg TandaTan misi saxelmwifoebriv organizaciad gardaqmna (klasobrivi urTierTobis warmoqmna) mas ganuzomel upiratesobas aniWebda sxva tomebTan SedarebiT da moxda udidesi naxtomi: qarTis tomma mcxeTa daipyro da aq Seiqmna axali qarTli. amis Semdeg am tomTa Serwyma kidev ufro swrafi nabijiT wavida. qarTi tomiylapia: iberebi, mesxebi, zidritebi, kaxebi, herebi, fxovi, WarTali, bazali, duali, egre, svani, afxazi, afSili, sanigi" (n.berZeniSvili, 1990, gv. 237). e.w.

qarTebisgan sxva qarTvelur tomTa asimilaciis dausabuTebel mosazrebas samecniero literaturaSi "qarTizaciis", "gaqarTebis", "qarTvelizaciis", an "gaqarTulebis" saxeliT ixsenieben (ix., mag., n.berZeniSvili, 1990, gv. 225, 353, 406-409;
g.mWedliZe, 1996, gv. 111, 115, 370, 534 da sxv.).

gavrcelebuli Sexedulebis Tanaxmad, uZvelesi periodidan (Zv.w. III-II aTaswleulebidan) TiTqosda arsebobda sam monaTesave enaze molaparake sami qarTveluri tomi: qarTi, zani da svani (ix.,

2. nebayoflobiTi qarTizacia: zanuri da svanuri "enebis" mflobelebma TavianT saliteraturo enad nebayoflobiT miiRes moZme "qarTebis" saliteraturo ena. am mosazrebis TvalsaCino nimuSad warmovadgenT citatas a.onianis erT-erTi bolo naSromidan: "qarTulTan, megrulTan da lazurTan erTad
svanuri aris qarTvelur enaTa ojaxis erT-erTi wevri. qarTvelur enebze, bevri sxva monaTesave enaTa jgufisagan gansxvavebiT, ar warmoqmnila sxvadasxva erovnuli kultura (mecniereba, xelovneba)... qarTuli iyo mTeli qarTveli xalxis bunebrivi (da ara Tavsmoxveuli) saerTo-saxalxo erovnuli ena, mecnierebis, kulturis ena da erTaderTi saliteraturo ena. es aris is didi tvirTi, rac istoriam qarTvelur enaTagan mxolod qarTuls daakisra da ris gamoc is aris swored sruliad saqarTvelos saerTo-saxalxo erovnuli ena da qarTveli xalxis erTianobis burji. danarCeni qarTveluri enebi ki, romlebic lingvisturi TvalsazrisiT Cveulebrivi enebia, funqcionalurad (sazogadoebrivi funqciis mixedviT) qarTuli enis dialeqtebs utoldebian (xazgasma yvelgan Cemia - t.f.). naTqvamidan Cans, rom svanuri (megrulisa da lazuris msgavsad) umwerlobo enaa" (a.oniani, 1998, gv. 3-4; msgavsi msjelobisaTvis ix., agreTve: r.gordeziani, 1993, gv. 70).

mag., o.jafariZe, 2006, gv. 366, 353: "Zv.w. II aTaswleulis meore naxevris saqarTvelos eTnikuri ruka ase gamoiyureba: kolxeTis mTianeTSi svani, kolxeTis barSi - zani, aRmosavleT saqarTveloSi - qarTveli").

amave Teoriis mixedviT, Semdeg periodSi qarTvelebis/qarTebis enis bazaze Seiqmna saliteraturo ena, romelic, mogvianebiT, megrel-lazTa da svanTa kulturis enadac iqca. samecniero literaturaSi es ukanaskneli debuleba orgvari interpretaciiT gvxvdeba: 1. iZulebiTi qarTizacia: varaudoben, rom aRmosavleT saqarTveloSi mcxovrebma mosaxleobam - qarTvelebma - TavianTi ena da kultura ZaliT moaxvia Tavs dasavleT saqarTvelos barSi mcxovreb megrelebs, lazebs, kavkasionis kalTebze mcxovreb svanebs, fxovelebs, aRmosavleT amierkavkasiaSi mcxovreb herebs, samxreT amierkavkasiaSi mcxovreb mesxebs da sxv. ramdenadac CvenTvis cnobilia, es "koncefcia" momdinareobs peterburgis universitetis profesoris, qerope petrosis Ze patkanianisgan (patkanovisgan). aRmosavleT saqarTvelos Zveli mosaxleobis aRsaniSnavad sabWoTa periodSi daamkvidres eTnonimi qarTi - 127 -

sabWoTa periodamde cnobil qarTvel sazogado da sasuliero moRvaweebs arasodes gauziarebiaT mosazreba qarTvelTa ramdenime enis arsebobis Sesaxeb da e.w. qarTizaciis Teoria (qarTvelologiaSi enisa da kilos sakiTxis Sesaxeb ix., T.gvancelaZe, 2006), magram XX saukunis sabWoTa imperiis (bunebrivia, am periodis saqarTvelos) samecniero wreebSi es iyo aRiarebuli, wamyvani samecniero Teoria; metic, - 128 -

am varaudis (!) "srulyofis" cdad unda CaiTvalos qarTebisa da qarTlelebis gaigiveba (g.meliqiSvili, 1973, gv. 118, 125-127), qarTuli eklesiisaTvis prozelitizmis dabraleba (d.
musxeliSvili, 2005, gv. 33: "...qarTuli eklesiis kulturulideologiuri prozelitizmi winaswar qmnida mkvidr niadags politikuri procesebis warmatebiT ganviTarebisaTvis") da

Wyondidlebis, levan dadianisa traqtati") da sxvaTa Zalisxmeva.

("iberielTa

erTobis

qristianobis gamocxadeba qarTizaciis procesis xelisSewyobad

(g.mWedliZe, 1996, gv. 368: "qarTul enaze qristianobis aRmsarebloba qarTizaciis process uwyobda xels da amiT eTnikur barierebs spobda").

samecniero literaturaSi e.w. qarTizaciis Teoria pirvelad gaakritika cnobilma saeklesio moRvawem, istorikosma, profesorma anania jafariZem, romelmac, qarTul istoriul wyaroebze dayrdnobiT, Tavisi xedva ase Camoayaliba:

"n.marisgan momdinareobs idea aRmosavleT saqarTvelos mTianeTis, hereTis, dasavleT da samxreT saqarTvelos mosaxleobis "qarTizaciisa" anu gaqarTvelebis Sesaxeb. xelovnuria termini da ideac aseTivea; sinamdvileSi ki, Zveli wyaroebis Tanaxmad, mTianeTis, kaxeT-hereTis, dasavleT da samxreT saqarTvelos mosaxleobas "qarTizacia" ar esaWiroeboda, radgan ZvelTaganve (da farnavazis drosac) aRniSnul kuTxeTa mcxovrebni, rogorc mTielebi, ise egriselebi (mesxebsa da her-kaxelebze rom aRaraferi vTqvaT) qarTveli xalxis ZiriTad nawilad ganixilebodnen. es ase esmis "qarTlis cxovrebas", Zvel qronikebs da Zvel avtorebs... didma ivane javaxiSvilma gamoikvlia, rom qristianobamde yvela qarTul tomTaTvis (samegrelosa da svaneTSic) kultmsaxurebis ena iyo qarTuli ena... Sesabamisad, am tomebs qarTizacia ar sWirdebodaT..." (a.jafariZe, 1996, gv.195-197, 213, 215-216; ix., agreTve, a.jafariZe, 1998, gv.261-263; a.jafariZe, 2003).

iZulebiTi qarTizaciis Teoriis usafuZvlobas cxadyofs mravali sxva faqti da bolo periodSi Cven mier warmoebuli kvlevebic; kerZod: arc erT saistorio (Tu sxva saxis) qarTul Tu ucxour wyaroSi ar dasturdeba qarTis tomi; vinc ar arsebobda, rogor SeeZlo sxvisi dapyroba (t.futkaraZe, 2005, gv. 325)? faqtia isic, rom saistorio wyaroebis mixedviT, qarTveluri tomebis/Temebis Tu samTavroebis gaerTianebis idea TiTqmis yovelTvis dasavleT an samxreT saqarTvelos mosaxleobisgan (maTi winamZRolebisgan) modioda; ix., mag., qujis, maruSianis, daviT kurapalatis, leonidebis, bagrat III-is, - 129 -

"iZulebiTi qarTizaciisa" da qarTuli eklesiis prozeliturobis Teoria dResac atacebuli aqvT saqarTvelos daSla-daqucmacebis momxre jgufebs (gansakuTrebiT, ruseTis imperiis mesveurebs). ramdenadac iZulebiT qarTizacias faqtobrivi monacemebi mxars ar uWers, xolo I saukunidan momdinare qarTuli eklesiis istoria safuZvliani kvleviT naTladaa warmodgenili mitropolit anania jafariZis fundamentur gamokvlevevebSi (a.jafariZe, 1996; a.jafariZe, 1998; a.jafariZe, 1999; a.jafariZe, 2003; ix, agreTve, b.diasamiZe, 1999), am sakiTxebze msjelobas Cven aRar gavagrZelebT. ufro bundovnad da winaaRmdegobrivad gamoiyureba mosazreba e.w. "nebayoflobiTi qarTizaciis" Sesaxeb; am Tvalsazrisis mimdevarTa azriT, ZvelTaganve arsebul qarTvelur tomobriv enaTagan erT-erTze ("qarTebis enaze") Seqmnili saliteraturo ena droTa ganmavlobaSi qarTveli eris erovnul enad iqca (msjelobisaTvis ix., mag., ganaTlebis saministros mier studentTaTvis saxelmZRvanelod damtkicebuli "enaTmecnierebis Sesavlis sakiTxebi" g.axvledianis redaqciiT, Tb., 1972, gv. 36). aqve (gv. 22) vkiTxulobT: qarTuli da megruli imdenad aris dacilebuli
erTmaneTisgan, rom Tu an megrelma qarTuli ar icis an qarTvelma megruli, maSin isini erTmaneTs ver gaugeben"... wignis avtorTa

SeniSvna: sayuradReboa: k.kekeliZesTan kamaTSi iv.javaxiSvils sityva qarTebi brWyalebiT mohyavs (iv.javaxiSvili, 1979, gv. 236); Sdr.: k.kekeliZis rwmeniT, svanebTan narevi mesxebis kuTvnili qarTli Zv.w. IV-III saukuneebSi daukavebiaT qarTebs, romelTac axali qarTli SeuqmniaT; Cans, iv. javaxiSvili ar iziarebda qarTis tomis arsebobis ideas, Tumca, ramdenadac CvenTvis cnobilia, amis Sesaxeb mas sagangebod ar umsjelia. iv.javaxiSvilisgan gansxvavebiT, qarTizaciis Tema gaaaqtualura n.berZeniSvilma; davimowmebT mis tipur citatas (n.berZeniSvili, 1990, gv. 225): feodaluri urTierTobis Camoyalibebis xanisaTvis qarTlis eqspansia ZiriTadad dasrulebuli iyo... qsnisa da aragvis xeobebma "saxeli qarTli ar miiRes; ar miiRo es saxeli arc imereTma, miuxedavad imisa, rom qarTis kultura, qarTis ena maTTvis mSobliuri ena gaxda (SeiZleba iberni iyvnen da imTaviTve maTi enac igive iyo, rac qarTlisa, oRond dialeqti...)" [xazgasma Cemia - t.f.].

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mixedviT, qarTuli enis erovnul enad qcevis miuxedavad, megruli da qarTuli opoziciuri cnebebia, xolo megreli da qarTveli maTTvis sxvadasxva xalxad kvalificirdeba... pirvel rigSi, aRvniSnavT, rom saqarTvelos pirvel universitetSi Seqmnil am saxelmZRvaneloSi qarTvelobis warmodgena or xalxad aris logikuri Secdoma, romelic gamomdinareobs qarTveluri enobrivi samyaros im aralogikuri gaazrebisgan, romelic gabatonebuli iyo sabWoTa enaTmecnierebaSi. qarTvelur enobriv erTeulTa msgavsi kvalifikacia aqtualuria sabWoTa imperiis dasustebisa da daSlis Semdegac (ix., mag.: b.jorbenaZe, 1989, gv. 172-173; b.jorbenaZe,
1995, gv. 18-20; T.gamyreliZe, z.kiknaZe, i.Saduri, n.Sengelaia, 2003, gv. 622; v.boederi, 2005, gv. 230-232... v.boederis argumentebis kritikisaTvis ix., T.gvancelaZe, 2006); Sesabamisad, saqarTveloSi

Tu sazRvargareT bevr mkvlevars dResac ara aqvs naTeli warmodgena qarTvelTa eTnokulturuli istoriis Sesaxeb; bevrs jerac hgonia, rom Sua saukuneebidan dRemde qarTebis (/qarTvelebis/qarTlelebis) ena da kultura Tavs aqvT moxveuli sxva qarTveluri modgmis "xalxebs" (svanebs, lazebs, megrelebs, mesxebs, aWarlebs, fxovelebs... (konkretuli
masalisaTvis ix., T.gvancelaZis, m.tabiZis, r.Serozias, a.jafariZis, m.naWyebias naSromebi, romlebic damowmebul literaturaSia warmodgenili).

monaTesave tomTagan erT-erTis gaZliereba da mis mier politikur-saxelmwifoebrivi gaerTianebis organizeba Cveulebrivi movlenaa msoflios xalxTa istoriaSi; Tumca, ukve erovnebebad Camoyalibebuli monaTesave xalxebis enebisagan erT-erTi enis aRmatebulad - saxelmwifo enad - gamocxadeba da am eris saxelwodebis, kulturis, enis ganzogadeba monaTesave erovnebaTa saxelad, kulturad, enad, Zneli warmosadgenia; rogorc wesi, amgvari "daaxloebis" procesebi iwodeba: erTi eris mier sxvaTa dapyrobad, asimilaciad da a.S. Sdr.:
g.meliqiSvili, 1973, gv. 124-128: arabobis Semdeg aRmosavleT saqarTvelos mkvidri qarTis erovnebis mier moxda dasavleT saqarTvelos araqarTi mosaxleobis "enobriv-eTnikuri" daaxloebaSerwyma...

g.meliqiSvilis (da zemoT dasaxelebuli sxva mkvlevrebis) msjelobebSi erTmaneTisgan gamomdinare ori usafuZvlo daSveba gvaqvs: arsebobda qarTis tomi/erovneba; arsebobda qarTis ena. - 131 -

ukve xazgasmiT iTqva: qarTis tomis arsebobis varaudis safuZvels msoflioSi arsebuli arc erTi istoriuli wyaro ar iZleva; garda amisa, dausabuTebelia "istoriuli qarTebis", qarTvelebisa da qarTlelebis gaTanabreba. vfiqrobT, ufro logikuria istoriuli qarTlis mosaxleobis saxeldeba mesxebad (literaturisa da msjelobisaTvis ix., t.futkaraZe, 2005, gv. 87-90). sakiTxis istoriis SeswavliT gairkva, rom XX saukunis istorikosTa gamokvlevebSi qarTvelTa sam Stod warmodgenas saTave lingvistebma daudes: "qarTvelebs enaTmecniereba sam umTavres Stod hyofs: erT Stos qarTlurad (qarTis enaze) mosaubreni Seadgenen (qarTlelini, kaxelni, fSav-xevsurni, mesxebi, awindelni imerlebi da gurulebi); meores iberielni ekuTvnian, anu megrel-laz-Wanebi; xolo mesames - svanebi: (iv.javaxiSvili, 1908, gv. 19, 21; agreTve, gv. 3-6). xolo, mosazrebas Zv.w. III-II aTaswleulebSi qarTis (zanis, svanis) tomis arsebobis Sesaxeb, biZgi misca zogi lingvistis (g.klimovis, T.gamyreliZis...) mier am periodSi sami qarTveluri enis arsebobis saTuo daSvebam, romelTagan erT-erTze qarTul enaze - TiTqosda Seiqmna anbani; swored lingvistTa varaudze dayrdnobiT, istorikosTa didi nawili uSvebs, rom arsebobda qarTul enaze molaparake qarTis tomi, romelmac sxva qarTveluri tomebis asimilacia moaxdina (bolo periodis msjelobisaTvis ix., mag., o.jafariZe, 2006, gv. 339-340). amgvarad, e.w. nebayoflobiTi (Tu iZulebiTi) qarTizaciis realurobis samtkiceblad Tu uarsayofad sakvanZo mniSvnelobisaa pasuxi kiTxvebze: rodis arsebul, rogori saxis da romel enobriv erTeuls emyareba qarTvelTa anbani da qarTuli samwignobro ena? qarTuli samwignobro (saliteraturo) enis sayrdeni enobrivi erTeulis Sesaxeb samecniero literaturaSi orgvari mosazreba arsebobs: a. qarTvelTa saliteraturo ena Seiqmna erTi kilos /ekakavis (qarTluri, qarTl-kaxuri...) safuZvelze; Semdeg es ena iqca qarTvelTa saerTo enad; b. qarTuli saliteraturo ena Seiqmna saerToqarTveluri enis safuZvelze, Sesamabisad, Tavidanve is yvela qarTveluri Temis Semoqmedebis nayofia - 132 -

kerZod:

iv. javaxiSvili: "qristianobis niadagze aRmocenebuli mwerlobis ena qarTluria... qarTvelTa Zveli mwerlobis ena ki SeiZleba ekuTvnodes megrul-lazur, an svanur Stos" (iv.javaxiSvili, 1908, gv. 20); Sdr., iqve, gv. 4: "saerTo ena da mwerloba yvela qarTvelma tomma Seqmna"; Sdr., agreTve, iv.javaxiSvili, 1979, gv. 154-156: qarTlel-kaxel-imerelgurulebisa da megrel-svanebis saerTo Semoqmedebis nayofia, saerTo enaa qarTuli, romelic ara mxolod qristianuli mwerlobis, aramed ufro adreuli warmarTobic enacaa. arn. Ciqobava: "saliteraturo ena iqmneba garkveuli dialeqtis safuZvelze, ase, magaliTad, rusul erovnul enas, rogorc aRniSnavs i. stalini, safuZvlad daedo kursk-oriolis metyveleba... Zveli saliteraturo qarTuli ena Seiqmna istoriuli qarTlis metyvelebis safuZvelze; axali qarTuli saliteraturo ena qarTluris garda kaxursac emyareba" (arn. Ciqobava, 1952, gv. 114-115). g. axvlediani, g.nebieriZe: "qarTul saliteraturo enas safuZvlad udevs qarTl-kaxuri dialeqti, magram saliteraturo qarTuli ar emTxveva mTlianad qarTl-kaxur dialeqts, saliteraturo enas safuZvlad edeba is dialeqti, romlis warmomadgenlebic dawinaurebuli arian kulturuli, ekonomikuri da politikuri TvalsazrisiT; ase magaliTad, laTinurs safuZvlad daedo romis dialeqti, radgan roms gabatonebuli mdgomareoba ekava romis imperiaSi. amave mizezis gamo franguls safuZvlad daedo parizis dialeqti, Zvel berZnuls - atikuri dialeqti, qarTuls - qarTl-kaxuri da a.S." (g. axvlediani, 1972, gv.27). b.jorbenaZe: "saliteraturo ena iqmneba garkveuli dialeqtis safuZvelze... Zveli saliteraturo qarTuli ena Seiqmna istoriuli qarTlis metyvelebis safuZvelze; axali qarTuli saliteraturo ena qarTluris garda kaxursac emyareba" (1989, gv. 172-173). ra argumentebi da winaaRmdegobebi aqvs warmodgenil mosazrebebs? qarTluris (qarTl-kaxuris) gamocxadeba samwignobro enis bazad emyareba damwerlobis/mwignobrobis Seqmnis dros mcxeTis/Tbilisis anu qarTlis provinciis dawinaurebis faqts
- 133 -

a.

da saliteraturo enasTan qarTluri kilos met siaxloves. am mosazrebis gaziarebas xels uSlis ramdenime winaaRmdegoba: arc erTi faqtiT ar dasturdeba qarTis tomis arseboba; Sesabamisad, dasadgenia qarTuli anbanis/mwignobrobis Seqmnis dros arsebuli is qarTveluri Temi (/Temebi), romelic (romlebic) SeiZleba yofiliyo qveynis kulturul-politikuri cxovrebis warmmarTveli. Cvenamde moRweuli arqauli werilobiTi Zeglebis ena (fonematuri, morfologiuri, sintaqsuri struqturebi) qarTlurTan ar avlens ufro met siaxloves, vidre mesxurTan, imerulTan, xevsurulTan Tu imerxeulTan; Sesabamisad, ramdenad logikuria qarTluris (miT umetes, ar arsebuli e.w. qarTis enis) gamocxadeba samwignobro enis safuZvlad? wyaroebSi dadasturebul qarTvelur tomTa istoriam, saerToqarTveluri enis daTariRebis perspeqtivam da arqaul samwignobro enasTan saerToqarTveluris msgavsebam gvafiqrebina, rom kolxas/kilxas saxelmwifos oficialuri ena iyo saerToqarTveluri, romlis bazaze Zv.w. I aTaswleulis meore naxevarSi Seiqmna samwignobro qarTuli ena [t.futkaraZe, 2002, gv. 82-83; t.futkaraZe, 2005, gv. 278-297, 303. am gamokvlevebSic mosazreba zogadi saxiTaa mocemuli da damatebiT argumentacias saWiroebs]. warmodgenil statiaSi msjelobas warvmarTavT zemoT dasmuli problemuri sakiTxebis Sesabamisad. pirvel rigSi: qarTuli samwignobro enis dasawyisad asomTavrulis Seqmna unda davigulvoT; Sesabamisad, arsebiTia kiTxva: qarTveli eris istoriis romel SualedSi SeiZleboda Seqmniliyo asomTavruli anbani? sxvadasxva enebis anbanTa Sepirispirebis, uZvelesi xanmeti, haemeti teqstebisa da bolnisis sionis warwerebis gamowvlilviTi analizis safuZvelze iv. javaxiSvilma ivarauda, rom asomTavruli anbani warmarTuli periodis Zeglia da Seqmnilia ara ugvianes Zv. w. VII saukunisa. amave azrs emxroba p. ingoroyvac. cnobili wyaroebis axleburi analizisa da bolo wlebSi mikvleuli Zeglebis Seswavlis safuZvelze r.patariZem - 134 -

b.

qarTuli anbanis Seqmnis TariRad ivarauda Zv. w. 415 weli (r. patariZe, 1989). sxvadasxva profilis bevri sxva mkvlevaric (ak.baqraZe, g.narsiZe, m.CxartiSvili, z.aleqsiZe, l.WilaSvili...) qarTul anbans warmarTuli xanis Zeglad miiCnevs. Sdr., agreTve, "matiane SemecnebaTas" cnoba: "ara uwignoni iyvnen qarTvelni JamTaca Sina farnavazamde..." vfiqrobT, logikuri samuSao hipiTezaa: qarTuli damwerlobis Seqmnis dro - Zv. w. I aTaswleulis meore naxevari. kvlevis am etapze CvenTvis arsebiTia epoqa da ara anbanis Seqmnis konkretuli TariRi, Tumca, saorientacio drod mainc viRebT saxelmwifoebrivi Zlierebis periods - qujisa da farnavazis zeobis xanas (Sdr., T.gamyreliZe, 1989, gv. 197-198: ar
aris gamoricxuli, asomTavruli damwerloba qristianobis xanis axali qarTuli erovnuli damwerloba iyos, romelmac Secvala (an gamoaZeva) manamde arsebuli, warmarTuli epoqis werilobiTi sistema").

aseve arsebiTia kiTxva: qarTuli anbanis/mwignobrobis Seqmnis savaraudo dros, Zv.w. I aTaswleulis II naxevarSi, romeli qarTveluri Temi (/Temebi) iyo qveynis kulturul-politikuri cxovrebis warmmarTveli da romlis metyveleba daedo safuZvlad qarTul anbans? Zveli wyaroebis mixedviT, Zv.w. I aTaswleulSi istoriuli saqarTvelos teritoriaze aqtiurad Canan: kolxebi/kolaelebi, mosxebi/mesxebi, taoxebi, tibarenebi, saspeirebi, xalibebi, xaldebi/qaldebi, ekriktikes mcxovrebni/ekeqe~rebi, henioxebi, sanebi, sanigebi/sanikebi (terminebi: kolxebi da mesxebi sxvadasxva dros konkretul Temebsac miemarTeboda da tomTa gaerTianebebsac)... ucxouri wyaroebis mixedviT, am periodis qarTvelur tomTa aRmniSvnel saxelebs Soris yvelaze popularulia kolxi; ak. uruSaZis da sxvaTa varaudiT, Tavdapirvelad, berZnebi kolxeTSi mTel qarTvelur samyaros gulisxmobdnen (ak.uruSaZe, 1964, gv.6); aRsaniSnavia isic, rom sxvadasxva dros qarTveluri tomebis am teritoriis saxelad gvidasturdeba: aRmosavleTis iberia (Sdr.: pirineis naxevarkunZuli - dasavleTis iberia) da kavkasiis iberia; kerZod, terminebi: kavkasiis iberia da aRmosavleTis iberebi pirvelad Cndeba Zv.w. IV-II saukuneebis avtorebTan: megasTenesTan, TeofrastosTan, dionise periegetTan... (v.vaSakiZe, 1993, gv.61). mag., plutarqes cnobiT, kavkasiis mTavari erebi albanele- 135 -

bi da iberebi arian: iberebi binadroben dasavleTiT mesxeTis (evfrat-Worox-mtkvar-araqsis wyalgamyof) mTebTan da pontos zRvasTan, albanelebi ki - aRmosavleTiT, kaspiis zRvasTan (iv.javaxiSvili, 1950, gv.18). Sdr., agreTve: strabonTan svanebi iberiul tomadaa moxseniebuli, xolo vatikanSi daculi "saeklesio analebis" mixedviT, kolxeTi zemo iberiaa: "iberiis im nawilma, romelic pontos zRvasTan mdebareobs da kolxidad iwodeba, saxareba jer kidev imperator traianes (98-117) dros mqadagebeli papi wm. klementis (papobis wlebi - 88-97) SemweobiT miiRo... rac Seexeba qvemo iberebs, romlebic kavkasiis mTebTan, kaspiis zRvis axlos cxovroben, Tvlian, rom maT qristianoba imperator konstantines dros miiRes (i.tabaRua, 1984, gv.171)... Sesabamisad, SesaZlebelia, rom ucxouri wyaroebis kolxi qarTvelTa ucxour saxelad davsaxoT. am mosazrebas mxars uWers kolxuri arqeologiuri kulturis sazRvrebi (sinopedan soWamde; Savi zRvidan mcxeTamde): i.gagoSiZisa da j.afaqiZis gamokvlevebma savsebiT daadastura b.kuftinis mosazreba, rom Sida qarTlis arqeologiuri masala kolxuri kulturis organuli nawilia: "aTaswleulidan moyolebuli, taxtiZirisa da cxinvalis regionis arqeologiuri masala mxolod kolxuri kulturis "filtraciiT" ver aixsneba; qarTlis iberia uSualo monawilea didi kolxuri kulturisa" (i.gagoSiZe, 1964, gv.86; i.gagoSiZe, 1997; i.gagoSiZe, 2003; j.afaqiZe, 2002); Sdr., agreTve: al. ramiSvilis daskvniT, II aTaswleulis bolosa da I aTaswleulis dasawyisSi kolxuri kultura farTodaa gavrcelebuli "mTeli Sida qarTlis teritoriaze", xolo "Tlis samarovanze gamovlenili materialuri kultura, ZiriTadad, kolxur-yobanur samyarosTan Cans dakavSirebuli" (al. ramiSvili, 1999, gv.130). aseve, sayuradReboa qarTuli wyaroebis cnobebi, romelTa mixedviTac egrisi mudam qarTlis SemadgenlobaSia, xolo qujisa da farnavazis sazogadoebebs Soris Tvisobrivi eTnokulturuli sxvaoba ar Cans: quj-farnavazis dros saqarTvelos/qarTlis saxelmwifos aRorZineba, xangrZlivi nebayoflobiTi gaerTianeba ver moxdeboda, qarTvelur Temebs Soris arsebiTi enobrivi da kulturuli sxvaoba rom yofiliyo; Sdr.: "qarTlis cxovrebis" mixedviT, arabebis Semosvlamde egrisi mudam qarTlis SemadgenlobaSia, metic, tradiciis mixedviT, Sida egrisi qarTlis/saqarTvelos mefis kuTvnili miwa-wyalia. - 136 -

zemoTqmulidan gamomdinare, logikuria davuSvaT, rom asomTavruli anbani Seiqmna kolxuri/qarTveluri kulturis Semqmneli mosaxleobis oficialuri enis mixedviT, romelic, naklebmosalodnelia, rom erTi romelime Temis/tomis ena yofiliyo, vinaidan aseT SemTxvevaSi is ver Seasrulebda monaTesave TemTa makonsolidirebel rols. faqtia isic, rom asomTavrulis fonemuri safuZveli da arqauli samwignobro qarTulis fonematuri struqtura ufro naklebad emTxveva mcxeTa-Tbilisis regionis gviandeli metyvelebis - qarTluris Tu mesxurisa da egrisis gviandeli metyvelebis - megrulis monacemebs, vidre svanurisas Tu taourisas; amave dros, sxva enobrivi movlenebis mixedviT, svanuri Tu taouri SesamCnevad scildeba samwignobro enas; Sesabamisad, am faqtis gamoc, unda davuSvaT, rom anbanis Seqmnisas safuZvlad gamoyenebulia qarTveluri modgmis saerTo-salaparako koine, an saerToqarTveluri ena. asomTavrulis Semqmneli didi enaTmecnieria, ramdenadac man zustad gansazRvra enis fonemuri Semadgenloba: xmovan fonemebs, Tanxmovan fonemebs da sonantTa alofonebs (i, ; u, E) zustad miusadaga grafemebi (t.futkaraZe, 1998); arsebiTia imis gaazrebac, rom, ramdenadac arqauli fonematuri struqtura dRemde faqtobrivad ucvlelad Semogvenaxa, Cans, asomTavrulis sayrdeni ena kargad Camoyalibebuli myari enobrivi sistema iyo da ara koine; Sesabamisad, asomTavrulis sayrdeni enobrivi modelis Ziebisas mniSvnelovania saerToqarTveluri enis daTariReba. saerToqarTveluri enis qronologiasTan dakavSirebiT samecniero literaturaSi azrTa sxvadasxvaobaa. mecnierTa erTi nawili saerToqarTveluri enis arsebobis drod Zv. w. II-I aTaswleulebs asaxelebs (arn.Ciqobava, k.bergslandi, h. fogti, g.maWavariani...), meore nawili ki saerToqarTveluri enis funqcionirebas SesaZleblad miiCnevs Zv. w. V-IV aTaswleulebSi (T.gamyreliZe, v.ivanovi, T.miqelaZe, m.qurdiani...); kerZod: saerToqarTveluri enis istoriuli qronologiis dadgena pirvelad scades e.w. glotoqronologiuri meTodis gamoyenebiT. amerikeli lingvistebis - moris svodeSisa da robert lizis mier gasuli saukunis 40-ian wlebSi Seqmnili glotoqronologiuri anu leqsikur-statistikuri meTodiT monaTesave enaTa diferenciaciis dro ganisazRvreba ZiriTadi leqsikuri fondidan aRebuli 100 an 200 sityvis cvlilebis - 137 -

koeficientis mixedviT. es meTodi iTvaliswinebs ZiriTadi leqsikuri fondis cvalebadobis siCqaris erTgvarobas yvela enaSi. leqsikur-statistikuri meTodiT qarTvelur enobriv erTeulTa diferenciaciis daTariReba scades g.klimovma, T.gamyreliZem da g.maWavarianma. erTi da imave meTodiT Sesrulebuli ori gamokvlevis Sedegebi 1000-wliani sxvaobis mqone aRmoCnda, kerZod, g.klimovis azriT, saerToqarTvelurisagan svanuris gamoyofa daiwyo II aTaswleulis, xolo zanurisa - I aTaswleulis dasawyisSi (g.klimovi, 1952, gv. 119). T.gamyreliZisa da g.maWavarianis azriT ki, saerToqarTvelurisagan svanuris gamoyofa Zv. w. X saukuneSi moxda, xolo qarTul-zanuris diferencireba - Zveli da axali welTaRricxvis mijnaze (T.gamyreliZe, g.maWavariani, 1965, gv. 17). saerToqarTveluri enis divergenciis gansxvavebuli sqemaa warmodgenili T.gamyreliZisa da v.ivanovis SromaSi indoevropuli ena da indoevropelebi; kerZod, am naSromSi saerToqarTveluri enis arsebobis drod miCneulia Zv. w. IV aTaswleuli. samecniero literaturaSi miTiTebulia glotoqronologiuri meTodis naklze. igi mxedvelobaSi ar iRebs enis cvlilebis gansxvavebul temps sxvadasxva epoqaSi da leqsikis cvlis sixSiris xarisxis gansazRvrisas ver iTvaliswinebs intensiuri gavlenis an sametyvelo kodTa Serevis rols; es meTodi naklebsandoa imitomac, rom saanalizo erTeulTa siaSi erTi uzusto formis moxvedrac ki mkveTrad cvlis qronologiur CarCoebs (glotoqronologiis "myife meTodebis" Sesaxeb ix. k.bergslandi, h.fogti, 1972; d. kristali, 1989, gv. 331; b.jorbenaZe, 1997, gv.140-141; t.futkaraZe, 2000, gv, 327; T.gvancelaZe, 2004...). k.bergslandisa da h.fogtis azriT, "saerToqarTveluri ena Zveli welTaRricxvis bolo aTaswleulSi unda movaTavsoT (k. bergslandi, h. fogti, 1972, gv.255). arn. Ciqobavas TvalsazrisiT, saerToqarTveluris arseboba Zv. w. I aTaswleulSia savaraudebeli. cnobili mecnieri ase msjelobs: "iberiul-kavkasiuri enebi monaTesave enebia, maT warmoSoba aerTianebs. es ZvelisZvel viTarebas gulisxmobs; savaraudod, sami aTasi wlis winandels da, albaT, Zvel adgil-samyofels, kavkasiis samxreTiT mdebare miwa-wyals. am enaTa ganviTareba sxvadasxva gziT warimarTa; ara erTs sxva enas gadahyrian; - 138 -

saukuneTa manZilze araerTi dialeqti Tu ena warmoqmnila Tu gamqrala, gaTqvefila sxva enaSi. amitom gasakviri is ki ar aris, rom iberiul-kavkasiur enebs gasaocari nairgvaroba axasiaTebs, aramed is, rom fonetika-morfologia-sintaqsSi (aseve, leqsikaSic) niSandoblivi saerTo Tvisebebi SerCeniaT" (arn. Ciqobava,1979, gv. 253). Cveni azriT, Zv.w. V-IV aTaswleulebSi saerToindoevropulis Tanadroulad arsebobda iberiul-kavkasiuri kontinuumi (enobrivi ganfeniloba), romlisganac sakuTriv qarTveluri enobrivi samyaros gamomijvna dawyebuli Cans kavkasiasa da anatoliaSi indoevropuli nakadis Semosvlis Semdeg Zv.w. III-II aTaswleulebis mijnaze; mkveTri daSoreba ki savaraudoa Zv.w. I aTaswleulis manZilze, kerZod, skviT-kimerielTa da sparsuli modgmis tomTa Semosevebis dros. qarTveluri modgmis mier kolxur-yobanuri (yobani - sofeli Crdilo kavkasiaSi, kerZod, Tanamedrove oseTSi) kulturis Seqmnis dros, Zv.w. II aTaswleulis Sua periodidan Zv.w. I aTaswleulis dasasrulamde, Cans, winare qarTvelur tomTa metyvelebidan yalibdeba saerToqarTveluri enobrivi erTeuli - Zvel qarTvel tomTa saerTo-sametyvelo ena. vfiqrobT, arsebobs sakmarisi safuZveli, davuSvaT, rom erTmaneTs emTxveva qarTuli anbanis Seqmnisa da saerToqarTveluri enis arsebobis dro. saerToqarTveluris daTariReba Zv.w. II-I aTaswleulebiT da varaudi, rom samwignobro qarTuli efuZneba saerToqarTvelurs, unda gaamyaros (an uaryos) arqauli samwignobro qarTuli enis, qarTveluri ena-kiloebisa da saerToqarTveluri enis ZiriTad maxasiaTebelTa sistemurma analizma.

literaturaSi rekonstruirebuli saerToqarTveluri leqsikis morfologiuri da semantikuri struqturebi ZiriTadad emTxveva arqauli samwignobro qarTulis monacemebs; masala vrcladaa warmodgenili n.maris, a.cagarelis, p.Waraias, arn.Ciqobavas, g.klimovis, h.fenrixis, z.sarjvelaZis, m.Cuxuas da sxvaTa leqsikonebSi, amitom mraval nimuSTagan aq mxolod ramdenime tipur SemTxvevas warmovadgenT:
saerToqarTv. *asuli, samwign.qarT. asuli, mesx. asuli, zan. osuri, svan. asS; saerToqarTv. *Tafli, samwign.qarT. Tafli, mesx. Tafli, zan. Tofuri, svan. Tu/TEi; saerToqarTv. *yurZeni, samwign.qarT. yurZeni, mesx. yurZeni, zan. urzeni, svan. yunZel...

samecniero literaturaSi saerToqarTveluri enis modelirebis ramdenime cda arsebobs; yvela seriozuli kvlevis Sedegad miRebuli saerToqarTveluri modeli ufro hgavs Zvel qarTul samwignobro enas, vidre erT romelime qarTvelur dialeqts. samagaliTod ganvixilavT saerToqarTvelurisa da sxva qarTveluri qvesistemebis urTierTmimarTebis ramdenime faqts:
enisa

saerToqarTveluri leqsika. qarTveluri samwignobro da kiloebis monacemTa SepirispirebiT samecniero - 139 -

~, E da B bgerebi. saerToqarTveluri fuZeenis fonematur struqturaSi sami klasi gamoiyofa: Tanxmovnebi (Cqamierebi, sonorebi), sonantebi da xmovnebi. fuZeenis xmovanTa sistemaSi Tanamedrove qarTvelur ena-kiloTa mixedviT aRdgeba a, e, o xmovnebi. i da u bgerebi xan marcvlovani, xanac umarcvlo alofonebiT warmodgebian da, Sesabamisad, qmnian sonantTa klass. i/~ da u/E/v sonantebi dResac arsebobs TiTqmis yvela qarTvelur dialeqtSi (Sdr.: T. gamyreliZisa da g. maWavarianis mixedviT, Tanamedrove qarTvelur qvesistemebSi sonantTa klasi gamoiricxeba). T. gamyreliZis, g. maWavarianis, h. fenrixisa da sxvaTa azriT, saerToqarTvelur sonantTa rigSi aRdgeba m, n, r, l fonemebic. arn. Ciqobava, g.rogava, q.lomTaTiZe, T.gvancelaZe da sxva cnobili mecnierebi samarTlianad Tvlian, rom saerToqarTvelurSic da dResac m, n, r, l bgerebi sonorebia da ara sonantebi. specialistTa didi nawili saerToqarTvelurSi ZiriTadad imave Tanxmovnebs aRadgens, rac gvaqvs arqaul samwignobro qarTulSi: xSulebi: b, f, p; d, T, t; Z, c, w; j, C, W; g, q, k; B, y. napralovnebi: z, s; J, S; R, x; h. sonorebi: m, n, r, l. mkvlevarTa erTi nawilis (T.gamyreliZe, g.maWavariani, h.fenrixi, z.sarjvelaZe, m.qurdiani) azriT, saerToqarTvelur enaSi winanunismieri Z, c, w, z, s da ukananunismieri j, C, W, J, S bgerebis gverdiT damatebiT savaraudoa Suanunismieri (Suasibilanturi) Z&, c&, w&, z&, s& Tanxmovnebis arseboba. am mosazrebas faqtobrivi masala naklebad uWers mxars. amrigad: qarTuli anbanis sayrdeni modelis Ziebis TvalsazrisiT arsebiTia is, rom asomTavrulSi dasturdeba: B, ~
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da E bgerebis aRmniSvneli grafemebi, romlebic arsebobda arqaul qarTulSic, saerToqarTvelurSic da ar aris damaxasiaTebeli qarTluri da samcxur-javaxuri kiloebisTvis
(Tumca dResac bunebrivia qarTvelur kiloTa umravlesobisTvis; garda amisa, B, ~ da E-s aRmniSvneli asoebi XIX saukunemde gamoiyeneboda samwignobro enaSi). "arqaul qarTlursa" da mesxurs

Tu warmovidgenT am bgerebiTurT, bunebrivia, "arqauli qarTluris"/mesxuris da saerToqarTveluris identuri monacemebi "arqaul qarTlurs"/mesxurs saerToqarTvelurTan gagviTanabrebs; e.i. am SemTxvevaSic, logikuria vTqvaT, rom asomTavrulis fonemuri safuZveli ufro saerToqarTveluria, vidre qarTluri (sadac ar gvidasaturdeba B).

moTxrobiTi brunva. qarTvelur enobriv qvesistemebSi moTxrobiTi (ergativi) erTaderTi brunvaa, romlis niSnis dReisTvis ZiriTadi alomorfebi (-man/-ma/-m) saerToqarTvelurSi ar aRdgeba: arqaul samwignobro enaSi ergativi warmodgenilia saxelis fuZiT (abraam), ubrunveli nacvalsaxelebiT (me, Sen, Cven, Tqven, man, maT, vin, TviTon), an man nawevriani yalibiT (kac-man); svanur kiloebSi e.w. adiRuri tipis ergativia gabatonebuli, xolo zanur kiloebSi ergativs awarmoebs -q segmenti (romelic, Cveni azriT, megrul, raWul, taour,

imerxeul da sxva qarTvelur kiloebSi farTod gavrcelebuli qe/qi/qo/qve/ki/xo/ho nawilakis naSTia; t.futkaraZe, 2005, gv. 317-318).

xmovanTkompleqsebi. erTi morfemis SigniT qarTveluri qvesistemebisTvis damaxasiaTebeli ar aris xmovanTkompleqsebi; morfemaTa zRvarze warmoqmnili xmovanTmimdevrobebi (gansakuTrebiT: ae, ea, oa, ao, oe, eo) yvela qarTvelur dialeqtSi ganicdis cvlilebebs: warmoiqmneba difTongi, grZeli xmovani, an erTi xmovani. msgavsi ram ar dasturdeba samwignobro enaSi; Sesabamisad, SeuZlebelia davuSvaT, rom arqauli samwignobro ena romelime CvenTvis cnobil qarTvelur kilos eyrdnoba. am SemTxvevaSic, qarTluri (Tu sxva romelime kilo) ufro gviandeli gamodis, vidre asomTavrulis sayrdeni metyveleba. bunebrivia, es faqtic kidev erTi argumentia saimisod, rom arqauli samwignobro/standartuli enisTvis amosaval struqturad miviCnioT ara qarTluri an mesxuri, aramed - saerToqarTveluri ena.

Sesabamisad, logikuria davuSvaT, rom iberiul-kavkasiuri enebis specifikuri brunvis - ergativis -man da -q nawilakebiani amJamindeli qarTveluri variantebi Camoyalibda arqauli samwignobro enis formirebis Semdeg (Sdr.: saerTo iberiulkavkasiuri tipis ergativad Tu ar miviCnevT, svanur kiloebSi arsebuli e.w. "adiRuri ergativi" Crdilokavkasiur superstratad SeiZleba CavTvaloT; misi damkvidrebis sawyisi dro SeiZleba daukavSirdes "qarTlis cxovrebis" cnobas welTaRricxvaTa mijnaze kavkasionis samxreTiT Crdilo kavkasielebis gadmosaxlebis Sesaxeb).

SeniSvna: Tu davuSvebT e.w. "arqauli qarTluris" arsebobas da warmovidgenT, rom masSi xmovanTkompleqsebi Tavdapirveli saxiT arsebobda, aseTi "arqauli qarTluri" saerToqarTvelurs an, samwignobro enas daemTxveva. xmovanTkompleqsebis istoriidan gamomdinare TiTqos ufro logikuria davuSvaT, rom qarTluri momdinareobs samwignobro enisgan da ara samwignobro ena - qarTlurisgan; esec naklebargumentirebadia, vinaidan qarTvelur sinamdvileSi arc erTi kilo ar iRebs saTaves saliteraturo enisgan: yvela kiloSia iseTi arqauli gramatikuli Tu leqsikuri faqtebi, romlebic samwignobro enis velSi ar dasturdeba, magram savaraudoa saerToqarTvelurSi.

sxvagvarad: saerToqarTvelurisa da arqauli qarTuli samwignobri enis msgavsad, megrul-Wanurisa da svanuri kiloebis moTxrobiTSi ar gvaqvs -man morfema imitom, rom qarTveluri dialeqtebis -ma/-q elementiani moTxrobiTi Camoyalibda arqauli samwignobro enis Seqmnis Semdeg; e.i. moTxrobiTi brunvis -man, -ma da -q alomorfebi Cndeba ax w. IV-VII saukuneebis Semdeg; es ki miuTiTebs saerToqarTvelurisa da arqauli qarTulis Tanaarsebobas welTaRricxvaTa mijnaze da SiSina dialeqturi wris gviandelobas.

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xanmetoba. svanur da fxovur kiloebSi piris niSnad dRemdea SemorCenili arqauli samwignobro enisTvis damaxasiaTebeli e.w. xanmetobis droindeli x- prefiqsi: ax.w. V-VII saukuneebis qarTuli xanmeti teqstebis normis analogiurad, svanurSi x- piris niSani daculia xmovniT dawyebul zmnebTan subieqtur meore da obieqtur mesame pirSi (x-iSxi "iwvi", x-asyi "akeTeb", x-atbide "aTbob"... x-alat "uyvars", xahEdi "aZlevs", x-agdi "sZinavs"...). igive x- prefiqsi unda gamoiyos pirveli piris x+E- segmentSi (sakiTxis istoriisa da msjelobisaTvis ix.: g.rogava, 1956; m.suxiSvili, 1986; n.maWavariani, - 142 -

1986),

kerZod, saerToqarTvelurisa da samwignobro qarTulis msgavsad, svanur kiloebSic pirveli piris niSania E/v, romelic arabagismieri xmovnebis win daculia ucvlelad, bagismieri bgerebis mezoblad ikargeba, xolo TanxmovniT dawyebul zmnebSi Semonaxulia infiqsis saxiT (msgavsi distribucia Cveulebrivia sxva qarTvelur kiloebSic). rac Seexeba x+E- segmentis x-s, logikuri Cans, davuSvaT: x- pirveli piris zmnur formaSi arsebuli iribi obieqtis niSania; droTa ganmavlobaSi, svanur formebSi xE- erTian morfemad gadaazrianda da sxva SemTxvevebSic ganzogadda. h/x/s (< sa-/ra-) prefiqsisaTvis amosavali Cans klas-kategoriis niSnoba (arn.Ciqobava, 1944), vinaidan sxvagvarad gaugebari iqneboda ori, gramatikulad gansxvavebuli piris mesame obieqtisa da meore subieqtis warmodgena erTi da imave niSniT; Sdr., Zveli samwignobro enis monacemebi: aRxumarTe, SexuabT... hvscode, hkiTxe. Zvel samwignobro qarTulSic da svanur, TuSur, xevsurul masalaSic (mi-x-gvrian, x-qonda, da-x-kazmavs, x-mkidi, da-x-farven...) amosavalia s/h; dialeqtebSi savaraudoa Semdegi fonetikuri procesi: s/h > h > 0 da s/h > x > (R): saTanado fonetikur garemocvaSi swored x-s (da ara h-s) SeuZlia mogvces mJReri R; Sdr., xevsuruli: maRgvris, Rgvandi, Rgonebav (Sdr., a.SaniZe, 1920 da a.WinWarauli, 1960, gv.96-98). gurul-aWarul kiloebSic gvaqvs piris niSnad fonetikur niadagze miRebuli x (ix. q.lomTaTiZe, 1938; m.cincaZe, m.faRava, 1998 da sxv.), oRond, aq h > x procesi fuZiseuli TanxmovniTacaa ganpirobebuli; Sesabamisad, gurul-aWarulSi gamovlenili x xanmetobis periodisad ver miiCneva. aSkaraa: meore subieqturi pirisa da mesame obieqturi piris niSnad x-, anu e.w. xanmetoba saerToqarTveluri movlena Cans. saerToqarTvelurSive arsebuli h/x monacvleobis Sedegi unda iyos zog kiloSi h > 0 procesis ganviTareba, zogan ki x-s damkvidreba (Sdr.: mkvlevarTa nawili fiqrobs, rom xanmetoba da haemetoba sakuTriv qarTuli enis or kilos asaxavs). gasarkvevi rCeba amosavali fonemis sakiTxi: fonetikuri procesebis xasiaTis gaTvaliswinebiT, ufro logikuria arn.Ciqobavasa da g.rogavas Tvalsazrisi s-s uwinaresobis Sesaxeb. nivTis klas-niSani s, rogorc g.rogava varaudobda, fonetikur niadagze gvaZlevda h-sa da x-s Soris gardamaval - 143 -

bgeras (sakiTxis istoriisaTvis ix. g.rogava, 1956). Cans, samwignobro enis standartizaciis Zvel etapebze zogi literaturuli skola piris niSnad h-s azogadebda, zogi skola ki - x-s; saboloo normad ki damkvidrda zmnuri fuZis dasawyisis Sesabamisi bunebrivi fonetikuri variantebi: bagismierebTan da ukanaenismierebTan - h, winaenismierebTan - s, sxva SemTxvevebSi - 0. e.i. zanur-svanuri kiloebis formirebis procesSi meore subieqturi da mesame obieqturi piris niSnad saerToqarTvelur enaSi (enobriv koineSi) gaaqtiurebuli iyo x varianti. mTavari daskvna: x- prefiqsis povnierebiT svanuri kiloebi srulad asaxavs arqaul samwignobro enas, fxovuri kiloebi ki odnav saxecvlil variantebs; Sesabamisad, erTi mxriv, xanmetoba saerToqarTvelur monacemad unda CavTvaloT da meore mxriv, SeuZlebelia, svanuri 1000-2000 wliani SualediT davaSoroT arqaul samwignobro qarTuls, romelSic saerToqarTveluri xanmetobaa asaxuli. xanmetobasTan dakavSirebiT sayuradReboa T.gvancelaZis dakvirvebac: samwignobro qarTulis nar-Taniani mravlobiTi, xucesi da zanuri kiloebis uCaSi saSualebas unda iZleodes, zanuris gamoyofis drod ganvsazRvroT ax.w. V saukune; kerZod, xucesi asaxavs xanmetobis periods, xolo uCaSi - haemetobisas (azri gamoTqmulia zepiri saubris dros). igive x- prefiqsia svanur xoSa "ufrosi", "didi" sityvaSi (x-ucesi/uCaSi/x-oSa sityvebSi xanmetobis x- prefiqsi gamoyo a.SaniZem; ix. g.rogava, 1956, gv. 293). warmodgenil mosazrebebTan mimarTebaSia gasaazrebeli saerToqarTv. sa zan. o Sesatyvisobis sakiTxic: - cnobilia, rom samwignobro qarTulis sa- prefiqss zanurSi Seesabameba o-; jer kidev n.marisgan samarTlianad miCneulia, rom zanurSi dakargulia TanxmovniTi nawili: saqaTme/ oqoTume, saxli/oxori, *socxali/cocxali/oCxari... savaraudoa Semdegi fonetikuri procesi: saerToqarTv. *sa-/ha > zan. ho/o (ar aris aucilebeli, davuSvaT, rom zanurSi gvqonda s-s Sesatyvisi iseTi S, romelic ver Zlebs o-s win; Sdr., m.Cuxua, 2003, gv.338). vfiqrobT, samwignobro qarTulis V-X saukuneebis xanmetoba-haemetoba-sannarevoba, svanur-TuSur-xevsuruli xanmetoba, zanuri *huCaSi > uCaSi da *ho > o procesebi drois erT monakveTSi iRebs saTaves. ramdenadac, svanur-fxovurma kiloebma piris niSnad Semoinaxa -x/R, logikuria davuSvaT, rom zanur-sva- 144 -

nuri dialeqturi wre formirdeba haemetoba/xanmetobis periodSi; es dro ki emTxveva zanur-svanuri dialeqturi wris gamomijvnis Cven mier zemoT navaraudev periods axali welTaRricxvis dasawyiss (aqve aRsaniSnavia isic, rom swored am droidan Cndeba wyaroebSi svanebis Temic da maTi saxelic: soanas/Soanas "svani"). ratom ar SenarCunda xanmetoba sxva qarTvelur kiloebSi? pasuxi martivia: ganvlili 15 saukunis manZilze samwignobro qarTulis gavlena ufro aqtiuri iyo centralur, vidre ganapira qarTvelur kiloebze, Sesabamisad, politikur da kulturul centrTan mudam axlos myofi centraluri kiloebi (qarTluri, kaxuri, imeruli...) mihyvebodnen samwignobro enis normebis cvalebis dinamikas; Sdr.: qarTuli samwignobro ena normirebulia da naklebad icvleba (inarCunebs saerToqarTveluris ZiriTad niSnebs), Tumca, xalxuri metyvelebis (centraluri kiloebis!) gavleniT saero mwerlobis ena garkveulwilad mainc icvleba; Tavis mxriv, xalxuri metyvelebac (gansakuTrebiT centraluri kiloebi) ganicdis samwignobro enis gavlenas... amgvari intensiuri urTierToba ar aris samwignobro enasa da ganapira qarTvelur kiloebs Soris, amitomac, logikuria, ganapira qarTvelur kiloebSi bevri arqaizmic gvqondes (saerToqarTvelurTan metad daSorebis miuxedavad) da bevri inovaciac. aqve aRsaniSnavia isic, rom centralur kiloTa mosazRvre regionebSi am kiloebisa da samwignobro enis intensiuri gavleniT, ganapira kiloebi ufro da ufro Tmobs Tavis poziciebs; mag., bolo ramdenime saukuneSi (xalxSi gvarebis formirebis Semdeg!) megruli metyvelebis transformireba moxda zemo gurul da qvemoimerul kilokavebad. Temis niSnebi. qarTveluri kiloebis daTariRebisa da samwignobro enis sayrdeni enobrivi modelis gansazRvrisaTvis sainteresoa zmnur Temis niSanTa Cveneba: arqauli samwignobro enisaTvis bunebrivi iyo TemisniSnianic da uTemisniSno zmnebic; analogiuri viTarebaa svanur kiloebSic, rac gvavaraudebinebs, rom arqauli samwignobro ena da svanuri saerToqarTvelur viTarebas asaxavs. droTa ganmavlobaSi qarTul samwignobro enaSi gaZlierda Temis niSnis darTvis, xolo sxva qarTvelur qvesistemebSi unifikaciis tendenciac; kerZod, Tu fxovur kiloebSi, gurulSi, zemoimerulsa da aWarulSi mkrTalad SemorCa arqauli samwignobro enis (anu, saerToqarTveluris) - 145 -

msgavsi viTareba, qarTlursa da kaxurSi TiTqmis aRar gvxvdeba uTemisniSno zmnebi, xolo mesxursa da megrul-WanurSi Temis niSanTa sruli unifikaciac moxda (masalisaTvis ix., b.jorbenaZe, 1995, gv. 360-374). daskvna: svanuri da arqauli saliteraturo ena Tanadroul viTarebas asaxaven; samwignobro ena eyrdnoba im models, romelic daculi aqvs svanurs, da ara megrul-Wanurs, mesxurs, an - qarTlurs.

kavSirebiTis yalibi - momavali drois gamomxatveli. arqaul qarTul/qarTvelur saliteraturo enaSi II kavSirebiTis formebiT gadmoicema TxrobiTi kilos momavali dro (amitomac adreul gamokvlevebSi am mwkrivs myofads uwodebdnen): kacma (Se)Wamos saWmeli = kaci (Se)Wams saWmels; man daamuas igi = igi daamxobs mas... sxva qarTvelur qvesistemaTagan analogiuri viTareba SenarCunebulia mxolod lazurSi (fragmentulad gvaqvs herulsa da mesxurSic), maSin roca megruli da sxva qarTveluri kiloebi mihyveba Tanamedrove qarTuls. r.Serozias azriT, lazurisa da megrulis monacemTa sxvadasxvaoba saTaves iRebs VII-VIII saukuneebidan; Sdr.: rogorc cnobilia, daaxloebiT arabobis dros saliteraturi enaSi xdeba cvlilebebi myofadisa da aspeqtis warmoebis mxriv (z.WumburiZe, 1986). samwignobro dedaenasTan mowyvetil da bizantiur kulturul velSi moqceul lazur kilos es cvlilebebi naklebad Seexo; swored amis gamocaa, rom "zogierT sakiTxSi lazurs meti aqvs SenarCunebuli Zveli viTarebisa, vidre megruls da TviT qarTvelur saliteraturo enas" (r.Serozia, 2002, gv. 88). warmodgenili msjeloba kidev erTi argumentia arqauli samwignobro enis sayrdeni metyvelebis uwinaresobisa zanur (da sxva qarTvelur) kiloebTan SedarebiT. saqarTvelos samwignobro centrebi. qarTvelTa samwignobro kultura odiTganve saqarTvelos yvela kuTxeSi uwyvetad iqmneboda didi qarTveli moRvaweebis mier; sayuradReboa isic, rom pirveli asomTavruli warwerebi palestinaSi iovane lazis monasterSia Semonaxuli. qarTuli mwignobrobis geografiis TvalsazrisiT sainteresoa is faqtic, rom Zveli mwignobrebi saqarTvelos yvela kuTxeSi Tvisobrivad erTnairad moRvaweobdnen; Sdr., mag:
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samxreT saqarTveloSi: ioane mosxi, arsen safareli, grigol xanZTeli, giorgi merCule, basil zarzmeli, ioane mtbevari, ioane oqropiri... dasavleT saqarTveloSi: ioane lazi, iovane minCxi (martvileli), stefane sananoisZe, ioane petriwi, tbeli abuseriZe, Wyondidlebis mravali Taoba... aqve, sagangebod davasaxelebT cnobil mwignobrebs svaneTidan: grigol svani, ioane qancxiani (qacxiani), grigol qancxiani, ilarion sofromaZe, timoTe papa, ioane farjaniani, vaxtang farjaniani, ioane xaritoniani, giorgi mozdoniani, miqael odariani, uxojeliani, Sqeriani, ioane javesiani, demetre ifareli, BeSdiniani, ioane dalidiani, qerabin xojelani, demetre RoReliani, ivane mulaxeli da sxv. aRmosavleT saqarTveloSi: bakuri, petre iberi, iakob curtaveli, Sio mRvimeli, grigol diakoni, ioane sabanisZe, ioane bolneli, leonti mroveli, arsen iyalToeli... amrigad: I. istoriul saqarTvelos teritoriaze odiTganve ara mxolod sami, aramed mravali qarTveluri tomi/Temi arsebobda
(praenis leqsikis aRdgenis safuZvelze kavkasiaSi qarTvelTa avtoqTonobis Sesaxeb ix.: i.WavWavaZe, 1987, gv.79; g.klimovi, 1964, gv.37; g.meliqiSvili, 1970, gv.339-340; g.meliqiSvili, 1973, gv. 121; T.gamyreliZe, v.ivanovi, 1984, gv.880-882; b.jorbenaZe, 1997, gv. 47-50; m.qurdiani, 2002...). Sesabamisad, faqtobrivi monacemebis mixedviT, Zv.w. I

saerToqarTveluri ena > qarTuli samwignobro ena

svanuri balszemouri, balsqvemouri, laSxuri, lentexuri, Coluruli

zanuri megruli, lazuri (aTinuri, viwurarqabuli, xofuri)

mesxuri aWauli, imerxeuli, taouri, livanuri, maWaluri, samcxurjavaxuri

centra luri qarTluri, kaxuri, imeruli, guruli

Takveruli leCxumuri, barisraWuli, mTaraWuli

fxovuri TuSuri, fSavuri, xevsuruli, moxevuri, mTiulurgudamayruli

heruli kakuri, aliabaTuri

aTaswleulis manZilze SegviZlia vilaparakoT aTeulobiT qarTveluri tomis/Temis kilos arsebobis Sesaxeb; es qarTveluri Temebi quj-farnavazis periodSi qmnian erTian kulturul-saxelmwifoebriv vels, sadac gansakuTrebuli statusi hqonda saerToqarTvelurisgan momdinare qarTul (qarTvelur) saxelmwifo da samwignobro enas. II. asomTavrulis fonemuri safuZveli da arqauli samwignobro ena ufro hgavs rekonstruirebul saerToqarTvelur enas, vidre romelime qarTvelur dialeqts; Sesabamisad, dReisTvis cnobili qarTveluri dialeqtebisa da samwignobro qarTulis mimarTebis sqema ase gamoiyureba:
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III. qarTveluri tomebisa da qarTveluri enobrivi samyaros istoria araviTar safuZvels ar iZleva e.w. qarTizaciis TeoriisTvis; qarTizacia/qarTvelizacia, rogorc usafuZvlo da mecnierulad dausabuTebeli Tvalsazrisi, qarTul saganmanaTleblo sivrceSi naklebavtoritetulad unda CaiTvalos (samecniero velSi mis avkargianobaze msjeloba, bunebrivia, gagrZeldeba). qarTvelTa samwignobro ena, zogadad, erovnuli kultura mravali saukunis manZilze iqmneboda saerToqarTvelurisgan momdinare samwignobro eniT da yvela qarTveluri Temis mier. p.s. qarTveluri mwignobrobis mTeli istoriis manZilze qarTuli/qarTveluri samwignobro enis srulqmna xdeboda qarTvelTa arqauli saRvTismetyvelo enisa da qarTveluri kiloebis bazaze; dResac aqtualuri unda iyos msgavsi midgoma: samwignobro enis ganviTareba unda moxdes Zveli samwignobro enisa da Tanamedrove qarTveluri ena-kiloebis monacemTa safuZvelze; am TvalsazrisiT, saukuno anderZad rCeba konstantine gamsaxurdias Semdegi sityvebi: - 148 -

"me SemovuSvi axal qarTulSi mravali gardasuli sityva; samagierod aseve uxvad vasxure Cems leqsikas xevsurulidan, imerulidan, qarTl-kaxuridan da megrul-gurul enakavebidan motanili sityvebi... me saWirod davinaxe qarTuli tomebis (gansxvavebuli) leqsikis Sekrebis lozungi gadamesrola da es pirvelad vcade kidevac "dionisos RimilSi" da Cems novelebis wignSiac. maSasadame, qarTuli sityvieri inventaris gamdidreba axal saukuneSi unda momxdariyo calkerZ Zveli qarTulis maragidan, calkerZ cocxali dialeqtebisa da enakavebis wiaRidan, raTa qarTuli ena martooden mSrali, mwignobruli ena ar gamxdariyo... qarTul enas ar gaaCnia monaTesave enaTa ojaxi, rogorc Tundac franguls - romanuli enebi, germanulsa da inglisurs - germanTa enebisa da rusuls - slavuri enebisa da enakavebis ojaxi. amitomac saliteraturo qarTulis zrda ar SeiZleba martooden garegan sesxs - barbarizmebs - daeyrdnos. aq umTavresia "Sinagani sesxi", qarTuli enakavebidan, svanur-Wanur da odiSur dialeqtebidan axali da uxmari leqsikuri masalis moxveWa... " (k.gamsaxurdia, rvatomeuli, 1980, t. V, gv. 955-956).

8. i.gagoSiZe, 2003 - i.gagoSiZe, kolxuri kultura, kolxeTi, iberia; qarTveluri memkvidreoba, VII, quTaisi, 2003 9. z. gamsaxurdia, 1989 - z. gamsaxurdia, samegrelos sakiTxi; literaturuli saqarTvelo, 3 noemberi, 22 dekemberi, 1989 10. T. gamyreliZe, 1959 - T. gamyreliZe, sibilantTa Sesatyvisobani da qarTvelur enaTa uZvelesi struqturis zogi sakiTxi, Tb.,1959 11. T. gamyreliZe, 1998 - T. gamyreliZe, "oqros sawmisi" da Zveli kolxeTis mosaxleobis eTnikuri vinaoba, anu ra enaze metyvelebda mefe aieti? literaturuli saqarTvelo, 20-27 marti, 1998 12. T. gamyreliZe, g. maWavariani, 1965 - T. gamyreliZe, g. maWavariani, sonantTa sistema da ablauti qarTvelur enebSi, Tb.,1965 13. T. gamyreliZe, 1989 - T. gamyreliZe, weris anbanuri sistema da Zveli qarTuli damwerloba, Tb., 1989 14. T. gamyreliZe, 2000 - T. gamyreliZe, mesxeT-javaxeTi - saerTo qarTveluri winare samSoblo; mesxeTi: istoria da Tanamedroveoba, axalcixe, 2000 15. T. gamyreliZe, v.ivanovi, 1984 - T. , . , , , 1984. 16. T. gvancelaZe, m. tabiZe, r. Serozia, r. Wanturia, 2001 - T. gvancelaZe, m. tabiZe, r. Serozia, r. Wanturia, RvTismsaxurebisa da sasuliero ganaTlebis ena, rogorc rusifikatoruli politikis ganxorcielebis saSualeba; qarTveluri memkvidreoba, V, quTaisi, 2001 17. T. gvancelaZe, 2004 - T. gvancelaZe, SeniSvnebi glotoqronologiis meTodis safuZvelze qarTvelur enaTa divergenciis drois dadgenis cdebis Sesaxeb; XXIV respublikuri dialeqtologiuri samecniero sesiis masalebi, Tbilisi, 2004 18. T. gvancelaZe, 2006 - T. gvancelaZe, enisa da dialeqtis sakiTxi qarTvelologiaSi, Tb., 2006. 19. r. gordeziani, 1993 - r. gordeziani, qarTuli TviTSegnebis Camoyalibebis problema, Tb., 1993 20. g. deetersi, 1930 - G. Deeters, Das khartvelische Verbtum. Verglichende Darstellung des Verbalbaus der Sudkaukasischen Sprachen, Leipzig, 1930. 21. b. diasamiZe, 1999 - b. diasamiZe, qristianobis istoriisaTvis dasavleT saqarTveloSi, baTumi, 1999 22. v. vaSakiZe, 1993 - v.vaSakiZe, terminebi: iberia da iberebi antikur wyaroebSi; saqarTvelosa da qarTvelebis aRmniSvneli ucxouri da qarTuli terminologia, Tb., 1993 23. p. ingoroyva, 1957 - p. ingoroyva, giorgi merCule, Tb., 1957

damowmebuli literatura
1. j.afaqiZe, 2002 - j.afaqiZe, gvianbrinjaosa da adrerkinis xanis kolxuri kulturis qronologia; sadoqtoro disertaciis avtoreferati, Tb., 2002 2. g. axvlediani, 1972 - enaTmecnierebis Sesavlis sakiTxebi (g.axvledianis redaqciiT), Tb., 1972 3. g. axvlediani, 1999 - g. axvlediani, zogadi fonetikis safuZvlebi, Tb., 1999 4. n. berZeniSvili, 1975 - n. berZeniSvili, saqarTvelos istoriis sakiTxebi, Tb., 1975 5. n. berZeniSvili, 1990 - n. berZeniSvili, saqarTvelos istoriis sakiTxebi, Tb., 1990 6. k. bergslandi, h. fogti, 1972 - k. bergslandi, h. fogti, glotoqronologiis safuZvlianobisaTvis; mimomxilveli, 6/9, Tb., 1972 7. i.gagoSiZe, 1997 - i.gagoSiZe, arqeologiuri gaTxrebi taxtisZirSi (qarelis raioni); saqarTvelos mecnierebaTa akademiis arqeologiuri kvlevis centri, kavkasiis arqeologia; uaxlesi aRmoCenebi da perspeqtivebi, saerTaSoriso samecniero sesiis moxsenebaTa mokle Sinaarsebi; Tb., 1997

- 149 -

- 150 -

24. g. klimovi, 1952 - . , , , 2, ., 1952 25. d. kristali, 1989 - D. Crystal, The Cambridge Encyclopedial of Language, New York, 1989. 26. q. lomTaTiZe, 1938 - q. lomTaTiZe, naSTebi mesame piris obieqturi prefiqsisa gurulsa da aWarulSi; Tsu Sromebi, VI, Tb., 1938 27. d. losaberiZe, 1992 - d. losaberiZe, qarTvelTa eTnogenezisis sakiTxisaTvis; saqarTvelos mecnierebaTa akademiis moambe, 146, #2, 1992 28. n. mari, 1905 - n. mari, qarTvelTa erovneba, quTaisi, 1905 29. n. mari, 1922 - . , , , 1922 30. g. maWavariani,1965 - g. maWavariani, saerTo-qarTveluri konsonanturi sistema, Tb.,1965

41. 42. 43. 44. 45. 46.

31. g. maWavariani, 2002 - g. maWavariani, qarTvelur enaTa SedarebiTi gramatika, Tb., 2002 32. n. maWavariani, 1986 - n. maWavariani, obieqtisa da subieqtis piris niSanTa ganlagebisaTvis qarTul da afxazur gardamaval zmnebSi; macne, enisa da literaturis seria, # 3, Tb., 1986 33. g. meliqiSvili, 1973 - g. meliqiSvili, feodaluri saqarTvelos politikuri gaerTianeba da saqarTveloSi feodalur urTierTobaTa ganviTarebis zogierTi sakiTxi, Tb., 1973 34. d. musxeliSvili, 2005 - d. musxeliSvili, qarTuli eklesia da saxelmwifo teritoria Sua saukuneebSi, saqarTvelos sapatriarqosTan arsebuli qristianuli kvlevis saerTaSoriso centris II saerTaSoriso simpoziumi: qristianoba Cvens cxovrebaSi: warsuli, awmyo, momavali, Tbilisi, 2005 wlis 24-26 noemberi, (moxsenebaTa Tezisebi) 35. g. mWedliZe, 1996 - g. mWedliZe, bagrat mesamis saqarTvelo, quTaisi, 1996 36. T. miqelaZe, 1974 - T. miqelaZe, Ziebani kilxeTisa da samxreTaRmosavleT-SavizRvispireTis uZvelesi mosaxleobis istoriidan, Tb.,1974 37. m.naWyebia, 2005 m.naWyebia, megrulisa da lazuris urTierTmimarTebis sakiTxisaTvis, qarTvelologiuri krebuli, IV, Tb., 2005 38. r. patariZe, 1980 - r. patariZe, qarTuli asomTavruli, Tb.,1980 39. r. patariZe, 1989 - r. patariZe, qarTuli mwignobroba, Tb.,1989 40. al.ramiSvili, 1999 - al.ramiSvili, kolxuri kulturis infiltracia Sida qarTlSi; quTaisuri saubrebi, VI, simpoziumis masa-

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47. m. tabiZe, 2002 - m. tabiZe, enobrivi politikis sakiTxebi qarTul sinamdvileSi; qarTveluri memkvidreoba, VI, quTaisi, 2002 48. m. tabiZe, 2005 - m. tabiZe, enobrivi situacia saqarTveloSi da qarTuli enis funqcionirebis sakiTxebi, Tb., 2005 49. T. uTurgaiZe, 1976 - T. uTurgaiZe, qarTuli enis fonematuri struqtura, Tb.,1976 50. T. uTurgaiZe, 2002 - T. uTurgaiZe, qarTuli ena sistemuri aspeqtiT; quTaisuri saubrebi, IX, quTaisi, 2002 51. ak. uruSaZe, 1964 - ak. uruSaZe, Zveli kolxeTi argonavtebis TqmulebaSi, Tb., 1964 52. h. fenrixi, z. sarjvelaZe, 2000 - h. fenrixi, z. sarjvelaZe, qarTvelur enaTa etimologiuri leqsikoni, Tb., 2000 53. h. fogti, 1961 - h. fogti, qarTuli enis fonematuri struqtura, Tb., 1961 54. t. futkaraZe, 1986 - t. futkaraZe, saxelis mravlobiTi ricxvis warmoeba samxreT-dasavleT saqarTvelos dialeqtTa (aWarulis, gurulis, mesxur-javaxuris, imerxeulis) mixedviT; macne, enisa da literaturis sesia, 1986., #3, me-7 respublikuri dialeqtologiuri sesia, Tezisebi, Tb., 1986 55. t. futkaraZe, 1998 - t. futkaraZe, Tanamedrove qarTuli enis xmovanTa sistema, sadoqtoro disertacia, Tb., 1998 56. t. futkaraZe, 2000 - qeba~ da dideba~ qarTulisa enisa~ (Semdgenel-redaqtori t.futkaraZe), Tb., 2000 57. t. futkaraZe, 2005a - t. futkaraZe, eTnolingvisturi terminebi da evropuli qartia umciresobaTa enebis Sesaxeb, quTaisi, 2005a 58. t. futkaraZe, 2005 - t. futkaraZe, qarTvelebi, nawili I, quTaisi, 2005 59. t. futkaraZe, 2006 - qarTuli enis istoria (prof. t.futkaraZis

lebi, quTaisi, 1999 g. ramiSvili, 2000 - g. ramiSvili, dedaenis Teoria, Tb., 2000 g. rogava, 1952 - g. rogava, qarTvelur enaTa fonetikis istoriulSedarebiTi Seswavlis ZiriTadi sakiTxebi, Tb.,1952 g. rogava, 1962 - g. rogava, qarTvelur enaTa istoriuli fonetikis sakiTxebi, Tb., 1962 a. oniani, 1998 - a. oniani, svanuri ena, Tbilisi, 1998 m. suxiSvili, 1986 - m. suxiSvili, subieqturi pirveli piris prefiqsisaTvis qarTvelur enebSi; ike, XXV, Tb., 1986 i.tabaRua, 1984 - i.tabaRua, saqarTvelo evropis arqivebsa da wignTsacavebSi, Tb., 1984

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60. 61. 62.

63.

64. 65.

66. r. Serozia, 2002 - r. Serozia, sintaqsuri konstruqciebis zogi sakiTxisaTvis megrul-lazurSi, qarTvelologiuri krebuli, I, Tb., 2002 67. arn. Ciqobava, 1944 - arn. Ciqobava, gramatikul klas-kategoriaTa niSnebis etimologiisaTvis qarTvelur enebSi; smam, t. V, # 4, Tb., 1942 68. arn. Ciqobava, 1968 - arn. Ciqobava, martivi winadadebis problema qarTulSi, I, Tb., 1968 69. arn. Ciqobava, 1979 - arn. Ciqobava, iberiul-kavkasiuri enaTmecnierebis Sesavali, Tb., 1979 70. m. cincaZe, m. faRava, 1998 - m. cincaZe, m. faRava, samxruli dialeqtebi da qarTuli samwerlobo ena (V-XVIII ss), baTumi, 1998 71. i. WavWavaZe, 1987 - i. WavWavaZe, rCeuli nawerebi xuT tomad, t.IV, Tb., 1987 72. z. WumburiZe, 1986 - z WumburiZe, myofadi qarTvelur enebSi, Tb., 1986 73. i. javaxiSvili, 1908 - i. javaxiSvili, qarTveli eris istoria, tf., 1908 74. i. javaxiSvili, 1950 - i. javaxiSvili, qarTveli eris istoriis Sesavali, I, saqarTvelos, kavkasiisa da maxlobeli aRmosavleTis istoriul-eTnologiuri problemebi, Tb., 1950 75. i. javaxiSvili, 1960 - i. javaxiSvili, qarTveli eris istoria, Tb., 1960

saerTo redaqciiT), quTaisi, 2006 S. futkaraZe, 1993 - S. futkaraZe, Cveneburebis qarTuli, baTumi, 1993 n. quTelia, 1982 - n. quTelia, lazuri paramiTefe (wigni Seadgina n.quTeliam, leqsikoni daurTi s.jiqiam), Tbilisi, 1982 m. qurdiani, 1996 - m. qurdiani, saerToqarTveluri ena da misi diferenciaciis Tanamimdevrobis problema; qarTveluri memkvidreoba, I, quTaisi, 1996 m. qurdiani, 2003 - m. qurdiani, qarTvelur enaTa istoriuli enobrivi kontaqtebi da saerToqarTveluri enis diferenciaciis qronologiuri sazRvrebis problema; saenaTmecniero Ziebani, XIV, Tb., 2003 a. SaniZe, 1920 - a. SaniZe, subieqturi prefiqsi meore pirisa da obieqturi prefiqsi mesame pirisa qarTul zmnebSi, tfilisi, 1920 a. SaniZe, 1980 - a. SaniZe, qarTvel- fuZis etimologiisaTvis; Zveli qarTuli enis kaTedris Sromebi, t. 23, Tb., 1980

76. i. javaxiSvili, 1979 - i. javaxiSvili, Txzulebani Tormet tomad, t. I, Tb., 1979 77. i. javaxiSvili, 1992 - i. javaxiSvili, qarTuli da kavkasiuri enebis Tavdapirveli buneba da naTesaoba, Tb., 1992 78. a. jafariZe, 1994 - a. jafariZe, qarTvelTa winaprebis bibliuri istoria adamidan iesomde, Tb., 1994 79. a. jafariZe, 1996-2003 - a. jafariZe, saqarTvelos samociqulo eklesiis istoria, t.I-IV, Tb., 1996-2003 80. a. jafariZe, 2002 - a. jafariZe, qarTuli saeklesio enis Camoyalibebis sakiTxisaTvis (ioane lazi), Tb., 2002 81. a. jafariZe, 2003 - a. jafariZe, ori Teoria qarTveli xalxis Camoyalibebis drois Sesaxeb, Tb., 2003 82. o. jafariZe, 2006 - o. jafariZe, qarTveli eris eTnogenezisis saTaveebTan, Tb., 2006 83. b. jorbenaZe, 1989 - b. jorbenaZe, qarTuli dialeqtologia, I, Tb., 1989 84. b. jorbenaZe, 1995 - b. jorbenaZe, qarTvelur enaTa dialeqtebi, Tb., 1995 85. b. jorbenaZe, 1997 - b. jorbenaZe, ena da kultura, Tb., 1997

T.Putkaradze - Full Professor, Akaki Tsereteli State University The Source of the Asomtavruli Alphabet and the Georgian Literary Language - the Common Kartvelian Language Existing in the 2nd-1st Millennia BC Summary From time immemorial the territory of historical Georgia was inhabited not by three but numerous Kartvelian tribes/communities (on autochthony of the Georgians in Caucasia on the basis of the reconstruction of vocabulary of the parent language, see: I.Chavchavadze, 1987, p.79; G.Klimov, 1964, p.37; G.Melikishvili, 1970, pp. 339-340; G.Melikishvili, 1973, p.121; Th.Gamkrelidze, V.Ivanov, 1984, pp.880-882; B.Jorbenadze, 1997, pp. 4750; M.Kurdiani, 2002). Accordingly, based on factual data we may discuss the existence of dozens of dialects of Kartvelian tribes/communities over the 1st millennium BC. In the period of Kuji and Parnavaz these Kartvelian communities formed a single cultural and state field in which the Georgian (Kartvelian) state and literary language, derived from Common Kartvelian, had a special status. - 154 -

- 153 -

II. The phonemic basis of Asomtavruli and the archaic literary language have more in common with the reconstructed Common Kartvelian language than with any Kartvelian dialect. Hence, the diagram of interrelation of the Kartvelian dialects known today and Literary Georgian assumes the following shape:

Common Kartvelian Language > Georgian Literary Language

II-I .. , ( .: ., 1987. .79; ., 1964, .37; ., 1970, .339-340; ., 1973, 121; ., ., 1984, .880-882; ., 1997, . 47-50; ., 2002... .) , , I .. ; - - , () . II. , - , :

Svan Balszemoan, Balskvemoan, Lashkh, Lentekhian, Cholurian

Zan Megrelian, Laz (Atinian, VitseanArkabean, Khopan)

Meskhian Acharian, Imerkhevian, Taoan, Livanan, Machakhelian, Samtskhean Javakh

Central Kartlian, Kakhetian, Imeretian, Gurian

Takverian Lechkhumian, Lower Rachan, Upper Rachan

Pkhovian Tush, Khevsur, Pshavian, Khevian, MtiulGudamaqarian

Her Kakian, Aliabatian

III. The history of the Kartvelian tribes and the Kartvelian linguistic world does not give grounds for the so-called Kartization theory. Kartization/Kartvelization, as a groundless and scientifically unfounded view, should be regarded to be of little authority in the Georgian educational sphere (discussion of its good and the bad will naturally continue in scientific circles). The literary language of the Georgians, and national culture in general were created over many centuries by all the Kartvelian tribes on the basis of the literary language, derived from Common Kartvelian. - 155 - 156 -

>

- arn. Ciqobavas saxelobis enaTmecnierebis institutis mTavari mecnieri TanamSromeli

zogi qarTuli samwerlo terminis istoriisaTvis


. , , (resp. ) : , IV-III ; , . : " , , ". , () VII . : " V . . , , " (iv. javaxiSvili, 1946; samwignobro qarTulisa da saerToqarTveluris mimarTebis Sesaxeb ix, agreTve, t.futkaraZe, 2005). mosazrebas , . , , -- - , , , . : 1. , - - 158 -

, , , ,

, (, , )

, , , , ,

, , ,

, ,

, , , ,

III. .. ; /, , ( , ). , , .

- 157 -

: | Cb. , - , , . . . () - . , - (), . - , , , * , - , .: . a-SEE, . E Ga, . ", ; , " - . s ", ", . S "", . "id", . *, . * "". 2. -- : , | ( Cb) . , () . , . istoriografiaSi - - ( , . ). , -- , . .. *- fonetikuri - 159 -

, . . -/ " ", -- "", . --. . . , aq . , - *-- , - - . .-. *- "" , .: () | , , [] "", . . *-/*- . , , , .: . summaq . summaq, . () "", . , . sumac, . , . (.) sumax... , - (). , , - , *- ", " (. .-. *- *- ", . "id"), *- ", , " (. .-. *-() "; "), .-. *- ", " (. .-. * "", . " id"), . - 160 -

. , , ., 1980. - , , ., 1928. t.futkaraZe, qarTvelebi, nawili I, quTaisi, 2005. , I, . , ., 1955. . , , ., 1946. M.Chukhua - Chief Research Worker, Arn. Chikobava Institute of Linguistics, Georgian Academy of Sciences On the History of Some Georgian Literary Terms Summary The existence of the written tradition among the Georgians is assumed by the time of the common Kartvelian linguistic unity, which is also supported by the presence of cultural prototypes such as *ign- "book, letter" (cf. Common Nakh. *jagn-o*agn-o "book, Did. egen "id"), *ker- "paper, piece of writing, letter" (cf. Common Nakh. *kart-(i) "parchment; a piece of leather"), Common Kartv. *a-a "copperas, paint" (cf. Common Nakh. * aqe "ink", Khundz. aq'i "id").

dekanozi miqael WabaSvili - stu Teologiis kaTedris maswavlebeli, filologiis mecnierebaTa kandidati qalis daniSnuleba gabriel episkoposis qadagebebSi
me-19 saukunis miwuruls saqarTveloSi yuradReba mieqca qalis adgilsa da mdgomareobas sazogadoebaSi. ilia WavWavaZem erTma pirvelTaganma imsjela am sakiTxze da ramdenime werilic miuZRvna qalTa mdgomareobas: "qali maswavlebeli" ("iveria", 1886, #4), "qalTa saswavlebeli" ("iveria", 1889, #49), "dedaTa saqme da qalTa ganaTleba" ("iveria", 1889, #57), "soflis meurneobis qalTa saswavlebeli, wodebriobis winaaRmdeg ganaTlebis saqmeSi" ("iveria", 1893, #283), "nino bagrationi (nekrologi)" ("iveria",1886, #338). ilias Sexeduleba qalTa sakiTxze kargad aris gadmocemuli nekrologSi "nino bagrationi". masSi avtori natrobs, rodis ixilavs qarTvel qals "erTis mxriTa dedas mosiyvarules da meores mxriT - dedakacs mSromelsa da mxnesa" (ilia WavWavaZe, 1987, gv. 407). aRniSnuli werili STagonebulia gabriel episkoposis qadagebebiT. misi didi nawili warmoadgens sasiqadulo mRvdelmTavris qadagebaTa citirebas. ase rom, ilias qalTa sakiTxze msjelobisas hyavs winamorbedi - gabriel episkoposi, romlis mosazrebebsac aviTarebs da imowmebs igi qalis ganaTlebisa da sazogadoebrivi rolisadmi miZRvnil werilebSi. rogoria TviT imereTis episkoposis gabriel qiqoZis Sexeduleba am sakiTxze? gabriel episkoposi me-19 saukunis saqarTvelos progresulad moazrovne nawilis SesaniSnavi warmomadgenelia. misi qadagebebi gamorCeulia didi sulierebiTa da mWevrmetyvelebiT. isini did gavlenas axdendnen msmenelsa da mkiTxvelze. meufe gabrielis homiliebi ramdenjerme gamoica saqarTveloSi, iTargmna da daibeWda rusulad da inglisurad. aRsaniSnavia, rom gabriel episkoposis qadagebani exebian ara mxolod religiur cxovrebas, aramed qristianis yofacxovrebis yvela sferos: adamianebis urTierTobas, amqveyniuri sikeTis sacxoneblad gamoyenebas, socialuri statusisa da cxovrebis wesis adgils cxonebis saqmeSi, damokidebulebas simdidrisa da siRaribis mimarT. am sakiTxTa garda, - 162 -

. . , , *ign (, ). (. . * jagno < *agno *jegen id), *kert , , (. . * kar (ik) id , ). . * ZaR-a (. .*aq,e ; . aq,-i id.).

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mRvdelmTavari qalis daniSnulebis, sazogadoebaSi dedakacis adgilisa da mniSvnelobis, qalTa ganaTlebis Sesaxebac qadagebs. exeba ra qalis rols sazogadoebaSi, gabriel episkoposi aRniSnavs, rom qals SeuZlia zneobrivad aamaRlos sazogadoeba, gonieri, keTili qceviT iyos magaliTi sxvebisaTvis, siwmidiTa da simSvidiT xeli Seuwyos "ganvrcelebasa sasufevlisa RvTisasa qveyanasa zeda" (gabriel episkoposi, 1913, I, 137). marTalia, mqadageblis TanamedroveTa Soris gavrcelebuli iyo azri, rom qalisaTvis cotaa kargi dedoba, meuRleoba da doba, magram gabrielis TqmiT, dedakaci bednierebas unda poulobdes Tavisi patiosani movaleobis aRsrulebaSi. es ki aris: movaleoba dedisa, meuRlisa, SvilTa aRmzrdelisa, ojaxis mmarTvelisa, "sazogadoebasa Sina keTil zneobis ganmavrcelebelisa"(iqve). marTalia, qali kacze sustia, magram misi buneba RmerTma uxvad Seamko guliTadi grZnobiT, sinaziT, maRali zneobiT, ZeTa da ZmaTa gulSi keTili midrekilebebis danergvis unariT. Tumca qals gangebisagan mimadlebuli aqvs mravali Tviseba, keTili gavlena iqonios sazogadoebaze, magram igi sxvisgan elodeba biZgs moqmedebisTvis, amao kmayofilebas miuZinebia masSi aqtiurad moRvaweobis survili. damyoli xasiaTi dedakacisa xSirad miizidavs mas usargeblo saqmisadmi. gabriel episkoposis epoqis qalebisaTvis erTgvar samoqmedo programad SeiZleba miviCnioT mRvdelmTavris mowodeba: "iwye Senca fiqroba da ganzraxva yovelTa saganTa zeda; nu xar daZinebuli, nu xar regveni vidre siberemde! Senc gmarTebs, SeiZino simagre xasiaTisa, simtkice hazrisa, uryeveloba zneobisa, raTa sxvaTaca miizidavde keTilisa yofaqcevisadmi da ara sxvani migizidavdnen Sen codvisadmi"(gabriel episkoposi, 1913, I, 138). rogorc davinaxeT, gabriel episkoposi gansakuTrebul rols aniWebs qals sazogadoebis ukeTesobisaken Secvlis saqmeSi. ufro metic, qalis xelSia adamianTa keTildReoba: "Rirseba, Tviseba da bedniereba yovlisa adamianisa TiTqmis damtkicebul ars qalsa zeda" (iqve, 122), gansakuTrebiT, dedaze. deda ayalibebs adamianSi maRal da wminda grZnobebs, dedisgan iRebs igi "hazrTa, midrekilebaTa, RvTis rwmenas". amitom sazogadoebis mtkice saZirkvels kargi deda warmoadgens: "ukeTu deda aris aRvsebuli gonierebiTa, WkuiTa, sasoebiTa da siyvaruliTa, Svilica misi gamova keTili, RvTis-moyvare" (iqve). - 163 -

gabriel episkoposisTvis naTelia, rom qalisTvis sakmarisi aRaraa Sinauri ganaTleba. sazogadoebis ganviTarebisa da jansaRi, gonieri, samSoblosaTvis sasargeblo momavali Taobis aRzrdisaTvis drois Sesaferisad ganaTlebuli da zneobrivad sanimuSo dedaa saWiro: "ganaTleba da keTili zneoba ara waremarTebis, ukeTu qalni ar arian ganaTlebulni da winamZRolni yovlisa keTilsa Sina zneobiTsa"(gabriel episkoposi, 1913, I, 117). mqadageblis TqmiT, qarTveli qali yovelTvis iyo midrekili codnis SeZenisken, drois Sesabamisad fiqrobda da mdidrdeboda cxovrebiseuli gamocdilebiT, "igi yovelTvis fiqrobda, yovelTvis ganavrcelebda hazrsa da cnobasa" (iqve, 133). magram mTavari Rirseba iyo da aris SvilTa keTilad aRzrda. RvTismSoblis Tvisebebze qadagebisas gabriel episkoposi gansakuTrebiT mis Tavganwirul dedobaze miaqcevs qalTa yuradRebas: "esreTve unda iqceodnen yovelni keTilni dedani! maT Tavis Tavi unda daiviwyon da axsovdeT gazrda da bedniereba TvisTa ZeTa" (iqve,132). axalma droebam, ojaxuri swavlebidan sazogadoebriv saswavlebelSi qalis gadanacvlebam Tavisi anabeWdi daatyo dedakacis pirovnebas. "icvleba da sxvanairad iwyoba gazrda, swavla da cxovreba qalTa" (iqve, 120), - dafiqrebuli SeniSnavs mRvdelmTavari. sifrTxilis mizezia ara is, ajobebs Tu ara axali ganaTleba ukve arsebuls, ojaxSi miRebuls, aramed is, Tu rogor ganaviTarebs axali ganaTleba qristianul zneobas. "netavi RmerTman inebos da qalTa CvenTa araodes dahkargon zogierTni friad saqebni da sayvarelni Tvisebani, romelni Seamkoben Zveleburad mcxovrebTa qalTa, aramed SeaerTon igini axlisa ganaTlebisa da swavlisaTana; maSin mxolod iqmnebian igini Zvirfas qristianobisa da sazogadoebisaTvis" (iqve), loculobs mRvdelmTavari. amave ganwyobiTaa aRbeWdili gabriel qiqoZis qadageba quTaisis saqalebo gimnaziaSi. meufe msmenelebs usaxavs Zveli drois qalTa Rirsebebs, Seaxsenebs, rom, wodebaTa ganurCevlad, umetesi nawili qarTveli qalebisa "iyvnen WeSmaritni dedani saxlobaTa, metad uyvardaT TavianTi Svilebi da qmarni, xSirad gasaWir sazogado saqmeebSi iyvnen mxneni da keTili TanaSemweni TavianT qmarTa, ara erTxel xelSi iaraRiT Sehxdomian - 164 -

qmarTaTana mterTa da daufaravT samSoblo" (gabriel episkoposi, 1913, II, 347). axalma droebam, evropulma ganaTlebam da cxovrebis wesma sazogadoebas misca naklebad gamrje dedakaci. "yvelam icis, rom am Cveni saukunis dasawyisamdis da axlandel ganaTlebamdis, qarTvelni qalni Tavis xelis nawarmoebiT icvamdnen Tavis tans da agreTve acvamdnen mTel TavianT saxlobasac. es metad saqebari ram iyo" (iqve), - dasZens mRvdelmTavari. miuxedavad aseTi jafisa, qalebi zrdidnen tanmrTel Svilebs, aCvevdnen maT gaWirvebis atanas da "sarwmunoebis dacvisTvis Tavis gamometebas". gabriel episkoposi ritorikul SekiTxvas svams: "es iyo ager axla! raRa iqmneba amis Semdeg, riTi gamoiCenen Tavs aqauri qalebi, aRzrdilni evropulad? es mxolod RmerTma uwyis" (iqve, 348). gabriel episkoposis qadagebebSi, romlebic eklesiis mamaTa swavlebas emyarebian, qali da mamakaci Tanabari Rirsebis qmnilebebia: "dedakacs aqvs isreTi Rirseba da fasi, rogorc mamakacs" (gabriel episkoposi, 1913, I, 267). radgan, saRmrTo werilis swavlebis Tanaxmad, qali aris susti WurWeli, ufro meti yuradReba, siyvaruli da Sebraleba sWirdeba mas. mqadageblis azriT, ganaTlebuli sazogadoeba mamakacze met pativs qals miagebs, xolo gaunaTlebel sazogadoebaSi qali xSirad aris "Seuracxyofili, damdablebuli da davrdomili, raica aris friad sawyeni da winaaRmdegi Cvenis sjulisa" (iqve). marTalia, gabriel episkoposi qalisa da mamakacis Tanabar Rirsebebze qadagebs, magram kategoriulad kicxavs qalebis mier mamakacuri mouridebeli yofa-qcevis gadaRebas. "maSin daecema zneoba sazogadoebisa" (iqve, 322), - ambobs mqadagebeli. gabriel episkoposis qadagebebSi yovelTvis aRniSnulia qalis fizikuri sisuste. amiT igi Camouvardeba mamakacs. es naklulevaneba avaldebulebs dedakacs gonierebiTa da WkuiT toli ar daudos kacs. fizikuri sisuste sulieri simtkiciT, xasiaTis simagriT unda iqnes kompensirebuli. "winaaRmdeg SemTxvevaSi, Tu qali WkuiTac Sors darCa mama-kacisagan, xasiaTic susti da uRono aqvs, maSin igi pirdapir Seiqmneba mamakacis saTamaSo" (gabriel episkoposi, 1913, I, 269). . - 165 -

mqadageblis TqmiT, qali unda iyos damoukidebeli (TviT mdgomari), Tavisi gadawyvetilebis Sesabamisad, sakuTari nebasurvilis mixedviT iqceodes. "qristianoba ar moiTmens, rom qals hqondes monebrivi damokidebuleba mamakacTan, Tu gind meuRlesTan, Tu gind mamasTan" (iqve, 129), - acxadebs mRvdelmTavari. gabriel episkoposi xedavs, rom cxovrebam moiTxova qalis aqtiuri CarTva sazogadoebriv cxovrebaSi. dadga dro, dedakacma Tavis umTavres movaleobas: Svilebis aRzrdas, qmris movlas, ojaxis warmoebas, SeuTavsos sazogadoebisaTvis sasargeblo Sromac. "nu Tu Tvinier qsovisa da kervisa sxva ufro patiosani saqme ar unda hqondes dedakacsa da Tvinier dauZinebelisa Sromismoyvarebisa sxva Tviseba ar unda SeiZinos man?" (iqve, 125) - kiTxulobs igi da iqve gascems pasuxs: qals mravali patiosani saqme SeuZlia aRasrulos, magram mTavaria, ar dakargos sami gansakuTrebuli Tviseba: mxneoba, anu Sromismoyvareoba, patiosani zneoba da yofaqceva da sasargeblo magaliTis micema "SvilTa da garemos myofTa misTa". gabriel episkoposi gadauWarbeblad afasebs qalis rols sazogadoebis gakeTilSobilebis saqmeSi, rac SvilTa keTilad aRzrdiT miiRweva. mRvdelmTavari qals sxva Rvawlzec miuTiTebs. igi moZRvravs maT, TavianTi siyvaruli da gavlena gamoiyenon, raTa sikeTisaken moaqcion cudi CveulebiT Sepyrobili qmrebi. "esreT keTilad aRasrule didi igi mniSvneloba, romel mogca Sen qristeman" (iqve, 118), - mouwodebs mqadagebeli colebs. gabriel episkoposi qadagebebSi did adgils uTmobs qalTa sakiTxs. misi azriT, qali sazogadoebis ganviTarebis warmmarTvelia, metadre ganaTlebuli qali. qalTa ganaTleba unda efuZnebodes qristianul zneobas, raTa ase aRzrdilma dedakacma keTili gavlena moaxdinos Svilebze, Camoayalibos isini sazogadoebisTvis sasargeblo adamianebad. mRvdelmTavris azriT, qalma, saSinao saqmeebis garda, sazogadoebrivad sasargeblo Sromac unda Seasrulos, magram misTvis garjis upiratesi sagani unda iyos: ojaxis warmarTva, SvilTa keTilad aRzrda da maRalzneobrivi cxovrebiT qristianuli moralis qadageba garSemo myofTaTvis. - 166 -

damowmebuli literatura:

, XIX . , . . , , , . XIX . , , . , , . , . , , , - , , . , .

1. qadagebani imereTis episkoposis gabrielisa, t. I, 1913 2. qadagebani imereTis episkoposis gabrielisa, t. II, 1913 3. i. WavWavaZe, rCeuli nawarmoebebi xuT tomad, t. IV, sabWoTa saqarTvelo, Tb., 1987

Chief Priest Mikael Chabashvili - Teacher, Chair of Theology of the Technical University of Georgia, Candidate of Philology The Role of Woman in Sermons of Bishop Gabriel Summary At the end of the 19th c. attention in Georgia was focused on the place and status of woman in the society. Ilia Chavchavadze was one of the first to discuss this issue, to which he devoted several articles. These articles are inspired by the sermons of Bishop Gabriel. Thus, when discussing the women's role Ilia draws on the views of his forerunner, Bishop Gabriel, develops and cites his views in the articles on women's education and public role. Bishop Gabriel is an outstanding representative of the progressively thinking part of the 19th-century Georgia. Noteworthy, sermons of Bishop Gabriel deal with problems of the woman's role, place and significance in the society as well as women's education. According to Bishop Gabriel, the public development depends on a woman, especially an educated woman. Women's education should be based on Christian moral. As a result, a woman educated in this way will have a beneficial effect on her children and bring them up as useful persons for the public. The bishop believed that, along with housekeeping, a woman should be engaged in some useful work for the public. However, her main occupation should be guiding the family, good bringing up of children and by her righteous life preaching of Christian moral to those around her.

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profesori zaza abaSiZe samagido wigni eklesiis istoriaSi


"saqarTvelos marTlmadidebeli eklesiis srulyofili istoria jer kidev ar dawerila. ara gvaqvs qarTuli eklesiis ganmazogadebeli istoria. Tanamedrove mkiTxvels ara aqvs saSualeba waikiTxos maRal mecnierul doneze Sesrulebuli gamokvleva saqarTvelos eklesiis istoriaSi. fundamenturi saistorio naSromi eklesiis istoriaSi jer kidev momavlis saqmea" - aseT gamonaTqvamebs SexvdebodiT qarTul presaSi Tu samecniero literaturaSi jer kidev ramdenime wlis win. ramdenad samarTliania es sityvebi? saqarTvelos eklesiis istoriis Seswavlis erT-erTi pioneris platon ioselianissaqarTvelos eklesiis mokle istoria, mose janaSvilis saqarTvelos saeklesio istoria, m. sabininis, T. Jordanias, i. natroSvilis, s. gorgaZis, n.maris, m.kelenjeriZis, kaTolikos-patriarqebis - kirionis da kalistrates da sxvaTa gamokvlevebi mniSvnelovani etapia qarTul saeklesio istoriografiaSi. fasdaudebelia Cveni saeklesio istoriisaTvis m. TamaraSvilis, iv.javaxiSvilis, k. kekeliZis naazrevi. aseve metad mniSvnelovani da sayuradReboa Tanamedrove mkvlevrebis: b. lominaZis, z. aleqsiZis, v. goilaZis, giorgi mamulias naSromebi saeklesio istoriis rig sakiTxebze. rogorc vxedavT, saqarTvelos eklesiis istoriis kvlevisa da Seswavlis saqmes sakmaod xangrZlivi da mdidari tradiciebi aqvs. miuxedavad amisa, bolo dromde CvenSi marTlac ar Seqmnila ganmazogadebeli, fundamenturi monografia saqarTvelos mravalsaukunovan saeklesio istoriaze, ar dawerila naSromi, romelSic mocemuli iqneboda uwyveti, gabmuli Txroba saqarTveloSi qristianobis Sesaxeb, dawyebuli mociqulTa droidan dRemde. es xarvezi unda gamosworebuliyo. unda Semniliyo Tanamedrove istoriografiis donis Sesaferisi didi gamokvleva, romelSic ganxiluli iqneboda Cveni saeklesio istoriis yvela mniSvnelovani mxare. am xarvezis gamosworebis umZimes, erTi mecnierisTvis TiTqmis SeuZlebel saqmes xeli mohkida saqarTvelos eklesiis mRvdelmTavarma, manglisisa da walkis mTavarepiskoposma, maRalyovladsamRvdelo meufe ananiam. dRes qarTvel mkiTxvels xelT aqvs mTavarepiskopos ananias uzarmazari naSromis saqarTvelos samociqulo eklesiis istoria oTxtomeulis 2 tomi (I tomi - 447 gv.; II tomi - 170 -

danarTi

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- 399gv.), romlebSic ganxilulia saqarTvelos eklesiis istoria I saukunidan XII saukunemde. ortomeulis Sinaarsis zerele gacnobac ki daarwmunebs mkiTxvels, Tu ramdenad farToa ganxiluli sakiTxebis wre, ramdenad rTul da problematur sakiTxebs exeba avtori. magaliTisTvis sakmarisia Tunadc I Tavi qarTuli eklesia I-III saukuneebSi. sruli pasuxismgeblobiT SeiZleba ganvacxadoT, rom am periodis qristianobaze saqarTveloSi, istoriografiaSi ar mogvepoveboda raime mniSvnelovani gamokvleva da am problemas arasakmarisi yuradReba eqceoda. meufe ananias naSromSi mociqulTa droindeli saqarTvelos detaluri da saintereso suraTia mocemuli. dawvrilebiT aris ganxiluli mociqulTa mimosvlasTan dakavSirebuli yvela wyaro da saeklesio gadmocema, gamoTqmulia ramdenime mniSvnelovani mosazreba qarTvelTa saerTo warmoSobis, erTiani qarTuli kulturis, fsiqikuri wyobis erTobis Sesaxeb da sxv. rogorc aRiniSna, meufe anania ganixilavs saqarTvelos eklesiis cxovrebis faqtiurad yvela mxares da bevr saintereso da yuradsaReb varauds gamoTqvams. gansakuTrebuli aRniSvnis Rirsia avtoris Tvalsazrisi saeklesio enaze albaneTSi, qarTvel-somexTa saeklesio ganxeTqilebaze. saqarTvelos eklesiis avtokefaliasa da diptixze, agreTve saqarTvelos sapatriarqos iurisdiqciis sazRvrebze. xazgasasmelia is mdidari wyaroTmcodneobiTi da istoriografiuli baza, romelsac eyrdnoba avtori. meufe ananias gamoyenebuli aqvs TiTqmis yvela is dokumenti, romelic warsulSi Cvens saeklesio cxovrebas asaxavs, Seswavlili da gaanalizebuli aqvs uamravi avtoris naazrevi. zogierT problemasTan dakavSirebiT avtori eTanxmeba Cvens istoriografiaSi adre gamoTqmul mosazrebebs, magram bevr polemikur sakiTxSi sakmaod damajereblad axal Tvalsazriss aviTarebs. ...rasakvirvelia, Znelia srulad warmoaCino saeklesio istoriis sferoSi Seqmnili uzarmazari naSromi Tavisi RirsebebiTa Tu xarvezebiT, magram erTis Tqma dabejiTebiT SeiZleba: rogorc iqna, qarTvelma mkiTxvelma miiRo uaRresad saintereso da, rac mTavaria, saWiro da aucilebeli naSromi Cveni eklesiis istoriaze. aseTi moculobis naSromi, rasakvirvelia, unaklo ar aris da verc iqneba, magram igi namdvilad gaxdeba samagido wigni yvelasaTvis, vinc dainteresebulia saqarTvelos da Cveni eklesiis istoriiT. - 171 -

profesori giuli alasania mTavarepiskopos anania jafariZis "saqarTvelos eklesiis istoria Sua saukuneebSi (XII-XVIII ss)"
saqarTvelos eklesiis istoria iseve, rogorc saqarTvelos istoria, gadarCenisTvis mudmivi brZolaa. CamonaTvalSi ena, mamuli, sarwmunoeba, romelic qarTvel xalxs gadarCenis ZiriTad pirobad miuCnevia, Tanmimdevrobis cvlisas xSirad pirvel adgilze sarwmunoeba wamodgeboda xolme, vinaidan eris konsolidaciis saqmeSi eklesia xSir SemTxvevaSi ufro mniSvnelovan rols asrulebda, vidre saero xelisufleba. marTlmadidebloba da eklesia saukuneebis manZilze iyo is ZiriTadi RerZi, is xerxemali, romelzedac iyo daSenebuli erovnuli cnobiereba. qarTuli erovnuli cnobierebis sicocxlisunarianoba, romlis mizezis kvlevasac eZRvneba mTavarepiskopos anania jafariZis saqarTvelos samociqulo eklesiis istoria, swored saqarTvelos eklesiis sicocxlisunarianobiT iyo gamowveuli. aseTia naSromis ZiriTadi Tezisi, romelsac avtori mravali argumentiT da Zalze damajereblad asabuTebs. ukanasknel wlebSi eklesiis istoriisadmi interesis miuxedavad gansaxilveli naSromi saqarTvelos eklesiis istoriis Sesaxeb pirveli sruli gamokvlevaa. pirvelia naSromi im TvalsazrisiTac, rom didi xnis Semdeg eklesiaze mecnierul gamokvlevas qmnis sasuliero piri marTlmadidebluri xedviT, gansxvavebuli gancdiT. es aris eklesiis warsuli da dRevandeloba, danaxuli Signidan organuli codniT, rogorc avtori aRniSnavs, marTlmadidebluri TvalTaxedviT dawerili istoria (gv. 13). amgvarad, es qarTul istoriografiaSi im sisxlis gadasxmas hgavs, romelic drodadro aucilebelia jansaRi organizmis SesanarCuneblad. naSromis ZiriTadi mizani aris : 1. daubrunos saqarTvelos moqalaqes qristes rwmena da ganamtkicos mrevli am rwmenaSi; 2. gauRvivos mkiTxvels siamayis grZnoba qveynis da eris Rirseuli warsulis gamo; - 172 -

3. aRadginos saqarTvelos warsulis obieqturi da sruli suraTi da am fonze warmoaCinos eklesiis istoria da misi mniSvneloba qveynisa da eris warsulsa da awmyoSi. Tavidanve SeiZleba iTqvas, rom mizani savsebiT miRweulia. saqarTvelos eklesiis warsulis Seswavla avtors imTaviTve farTod dausaxavs. wignSi qveynis politikuri, socialuri, ekonomikuri da kulturuli cxovreba ise organulad aris Serwymuli eklesiis istoriasTan da ise msWvalavs mTel naSroms, rom xSirad Znelia imis gansazRvra, romelia avtorisaTvis ufro mniSvnelovani. saqarTvelos da met-naklebad masTan urTierTobaSi myofi qveynebis istoriis monumentur tiloze warmodgenili suraTi saqarTvelos eklesiis istoriis konteqstSia danaxuli. amdenad, naSromi mniSvnelovani SenaZenia ara marto saqarTvelos warsulis, aramed masTan urTierTobaSi myofi qveynebis, zogadag religiis da kerZod, marTlmadideblobis istoriis TvalsazrisiT. mdidari problematikiT warmodgenili saqarTvelos istoria da wyaroTmcodneoba, romelic wignis meore plans qmnis, aranakleb saintereso da aranakleb mniSvnelovania. dRes, rodesac eklesias kvlav daubrunda is mniSvnelovani funqcia (romelic mas istoriulad mudam hqonda qarTveli xalxis warsulSi), warmodgenili naSromis done kidev ufro gazrdis eklesiisa da samRvdeloebis avtoritets, xels Seuwyobs sazogadoebis konsolidacias; yovelive es mniSvnelovan wvlils Seitans eris sulier amaRlebasa da gadarCenaSi. gamokvlevaSi avtors Zalze bevr sakiTxze uxdeba msjeloba, maT Soris sakamaTosa da dadgenilzec; igi rTulia kompoziciurad, Sinaarsobrivad da, miuxedavad imisa, rom kargi eniT aris dawerili, Zneli aRsaqmelia. wignis mniSvneloba rTuli amocanis winaSe ayenebda rogorc avtors, aseve mis mkiTxvelsac, romlisganac saTanado momzadebas moiTxovs. wigni rTuli wasakiTxia emociurad, vinaidan Cvens winaSea saqarTvelos da qarTveli eris mTeli warsuli da awmyo, warmatebebi da ukusvlebi, damoukideblobis, siZlieris da gareSe Zalis mier damorCilebis wlebi da yovelive amis fonze eris Camoyalibebis uwyveti procesi. gacocxlebulia da warmodgenilia konkretul pirovnebaTa portretebi maTi dadebiTi da uaryofiTi mxareebiT, eklesiis da saero xelisuflebis rTuli urTierToba sxvadasxva xanaSi, gare - 173 -

samyarosTan Sexvedrebi, omebis da mSvidobis istoria, maTi mniSvneloba da yvelaferi es erTi amosunTqviT, erTi gancdiT aris dawerili. Tumca aseTi naSromi, cxadia, erTbaSad ar iwereba, aseTi naSromi mTeli cxovrebis nafiqria. mkvlevari kargad icnobs Sesabamis werilobiT wyaroebs, rasac amdidrebs TviTmxilvelTa monacemebiT; zogierT SemTxvevaSi TviTon gvevlineba TviTmxilvelis rolSi. es faqti zrdis gamokvlevis xarisxsa da mniSvnelobas. amasTanave mTeli naSromi dawerilia samecniero literaturis codniT da winamorbed mkvlevarTa didi pativiscemiT. aqve aRvniSnavT, rom winamorbedebTan kamaTi ar Seadgens naSromis mizans, a.jafariZis mizani ufro sakuTari mosazrebis dasabuTebaa; am polemikis dros Cans, rom avtori aramarto Tanabrad erkveva istoriul da wyaroTmcodneobiT problematikaSi, aramed TviTon aris profesionali istorikosi da wyaroTmcodne. SeuZlebelia gamokvlevaSi ganxilul sakiTxTa ubralo CamoTvlac ki. gamokvlevebis konkretuli sakiTxebi Serwymulia Teoriul problemebTan. avtori msjelobs, Tu ra aris qristianuli eklesiis istoria, rogorc disciplina, asaxelebs mis wyaroebs, gansazRvravs Tavis amocanebs, sagangebod Cerdeba jer msoflio istoriis, xolo Semdeg qarTuli eklesiis istoriis periodizaciaze. Zalze sainteresoa dakvirvebebi hagiografiul Zeglebze, sxvadasxva Sinaarsis iuridiul dokumentebze, qarTlis cxovrebis struqturaze, rac rTul mudmiv problemad rCeba. avtori cal-calke ganixilavs TiToeul Zegls, afasebs maT, rogorc wyaros eklesiis istoriisaTvis. aseve, SevniSnavT, rom erTgvarad xelovnur StabeWdilebas tovebs istorikosebis dayofa samoqalaqo da saeklesio avtorebad. yovel SemTxvevaSi, adreul saukuneebSi, vinaidan erTnic da meorenic sasuliero pirebi arian. mkvlevari Tamaris, e.w. meore istorikosad basil ezosmoZRvars miiCnevs, rac erTgvarad moZvelebuli Sexedulebaa. marTalia, Zeglis avtori jerjerobiT ar aris dadgenili, magram ivane javaxiSvilis atribucia amJamad ar aris gaziarebuli. didi adgili eTmoba naSromSi qarTveli eris eTnogenezisis sakiTxebs. avtori msjelobs qarTvelebis sxvadasxva dasaxelebebze, ganixilavs eris Camoyalibebis Teorias. aq yuradRebas ipyrobs qarTvelebis dakavSireba bibliur TubalTan. aRniSnul sakiTxze uzarmazari - 174 -

literaturaa Seqmnili. avtors TviTonac aqvs specialuri gamokvleva qarTvelebis eTnogenezisze, Sesabamisi argumentebi gansaxilvel wignSic aris motanili, vfiqrob, problema mainc moiTxovs Semdeg dakvirvebas. mkvlevari farTod aSuqebs mociqulTa moRvaweobas qarTlSi, ris Sedegadac msjelobs da akeTebs daskvnas, rom vinaidan mociqulebis mier daarsebuli yvela eklesia, sadac unda yofiliyo is, avtokefaluri iyo, amitomac qarTuli eklesia daarsebisTanave avtokefaluria. es azri naSromSi sxvaganac meordeba da avtori mas araerTxel sxvadasxva argumentiT asabuTebs. Teoriulad es iqneb marTlac ase unda yofiliyo, magram realobaSi TviT mociqulebis yofnis faqti saqarTveloSi araerTxel damdgara eWvqveS. naSromSi naCvenebia, Tu rogor uxdebodaT qarTvelebs zog SemTxvevaSi Tavisi kanonieri urTierTobis mtkiceba da rogor Znelad ikafavda gzas simarTle adrec da axlac. Sors rom ar wavideT, amis magaliTad marTlmadideblur diptixSi saqarTvelos eklesiis adgilis sakiTxic kmara. an rogor avxsnaT, magaliTad, is faqti, rom 381 wels konstantinopolis II msoflio saeklesio krebis aqtebSi episkoposTa xelmowerebidanac Cans amasiis pontos eparqiis warmomadgenlis, iberiis episkoposis pantofiles monawileoba, an me-12 s. bizantieli avtoris nilos doqsanopatriusis cnoba, romlis mixedviT 1143 w. helespontos amasia, romlis saepiskoposo iyo TviT iberiac. nabij-nabij, sxvadasxva wyaroebiT asabuTebs avtori dasavleT da aRmosavleT saqarTvelos erTianobas, aCvenebs saepiskoposoebis raodenobriv zrdas da Sesabamisad qristianobis warmatebebs saqarTveloSi, rac eris Camoyalibebis aucilebeli pirobaa. wignSi cal-calkea ganxiluli eris iseTi niSnebi, rogoric aris saerTo ena, saerTo teritoria, fsiqikuri wyoba, saerTo eTnikuri warmoSoba, ganuwyveteli istoriuli da ekonomikuri kavSiri da sxv. yvela am niSans mkvlevari Zalze adre xedavs qarTveli xalxis istoriaSi jer kidev qarTlis saxelmwifos Camoyalibebis dros, Zv.w. IV-III saukuneebSi. miuxedavad imisa, rom aq, am monakveTSi saintereso msjelobaa dasavleT da aRmosavleT teritoriebis erTianobaze, termin iberiis mniSvnelobaze da sxva sakiTxebze, Znelia gaiziaro avtoris azri qarTveli eris aseTi siZvelis Sesaxeb. Tumca kidev erTxel xdeba cxadi, rom eris Camoyalibeba xangrZlivi da rTuli procesia da - 175 -

CamoTvlili niSnebis dadastureba sxvadasxva dros garkveul safuZvels da tendencias qmnis mis dasaCqareblad. rogorc ukve aRvniSne, wigni tevadia SinaarsiT, Zalze didia Tavisi mniSvnelobiT da erT recenziaSi SeuZlebelia misi amomwuravi Sefaseba. darwmunebuli var, saqarTvelos istoriis da saqarTvelos eklesiis mkvlevrebi mas araerTxel daubrundebian da, aramarto ikamaTeben aq warmodgenil sakiTxebze, aramed, xSir SemTxvevaSi, gaiziareben da gaiTvaliswineben profesor anania jafariZis kvlevis Sedegebs.

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profesori bondo arvelaZe mitropolitis, prof. anania jafariZis "saqarTvelos saeklesio krebebi" (t. I, t. II, t. III, Tb, 2003) da qarTuli eklesiis istoriis zogierTi sakiTxi
mitropolitis, prof. anania jafariZis monografia saqarTvelos saeklesio krebebi gamosca gamomcemloba meranma (2003 w.) sam wignad. pirvel wignSi Seswavlilia XII-XX saukuneebSi saqarTveloSi mowveuli 15 saeklesio sakanonmdeblo kreba. avtors am krebebis iuridiuli mniSvneloba ganxiluli aqvs msoflio sayovelTao eklesiaTa krebebis mier miRebuli sakanonmdeblo dadgenilebebTan mimarTebaSi. qarTuli saeklesio samarTali, erTi mxriv, msoflio saeklesio kanonmdeblobas efuZneba da mis saeklesio kanonmdeblobis saTaves msoflio krebebi Seadgenen, meore mxriv ki, aseTad SeiZleba miviCnioT saqarTvelos saeklesio adgilobrivi krebebi. amdenad, mitropoliti, prof. anania jafariZe marTebulad iqceva, roca mimoixilavs zogadad samarTlis istorias da mkiTxvels awvdis am dargSi arsebuli problemebis Sesaxeb mecnierul informacias. kidev ufro mniSvnelovania masSi warmodgenili saqarTvelos saeklesio samarTlis kvlevis istoria. erTi ki aqve gvsurs aRvniSnoT - es naSromi saqarTvelos saeklesio krebebis erTiani monografiuli Seswavlis pirveli cdaa, riTac misi mecnieruli mniSvneloba ganuzomlad izrdeba. naSromis Sesaval nawilSi warmodgenilia im qarTvel mecnierTa moRvaweoba, romelTac amagi dasdes qarTuli saeklesio samarTlis Seswavlis saqmes. am dargSi pirveli iyo niko xizaniSvili (urbneli). mis SromebSi Zveli qarTuli samarTlis istoriis araerTi sayuradRebo sakiTxia Seswavlili. am mxriv SeiZleba davasaxeloT aTabagi beqa da aRbuRa da misi samarTali~, Zeglisdeba mefe giorgi brwyinvalesi. n. urbnelma specialurad Seiswavla ruisurbnisis krebis dadgenileba da samarTlianad miiCnia qarTuli samarTlis erT-erT saukeTeso werilobiT Zeglad da sxv. gansakuTrebiT mniSvnelovania iv. javaxiSvilis damsaxureba am dargSi, rac aRniSnul monografiaSi gamowvlilviT aris warmodgenili. am Temaze daweril iv.javaxiSvilis naSromTagan gamoirCeva qarTuli samarTlis - 177 -

istoria", or wignad, (1928 w.) mitropoliti anania jafariZe mimoixilavs iv. javaxiSvilis am monografias da warmoaCens didi mecnieris damsaxurebas saqarTvelos saeklesio krebebis dadgenilebebis mecnieruli kvlevis saqmeSi. agreTve yuradRebiT ekideba k. kekeliZis moRvaweobas am sferoSi da iZleva misi Sromebis mecnierul analizs. k. kekeliZe sagangebod Seexo saeklesio kanonikas Tavis wignSi Zveli qarTuli literaturis istoria" (1980, t. 1, gv. 559). k. kekeliZis azriT, X saukunis bolomde qarTuli saeklesio-iuridiuli mwerloba misi namdvili mniSvnelobiT ar arsebobda. amasTan dakavSirebiT mitropolits, prof. anania jafariZes moaqvs saeklesio kanonikis cnobili mkvlevaris vl. beneSeviCis sapirispiro azri, romlis mixedviT X s-Si qarTul enaze ukve arsebobda didi, anu 14 titulovani sjulis kanoni foti patriarqisa. am azrs iziarebs iv. javaxiSvili. k. kekeliZis mosazrebiT ki didi sjulis kanoni qarTulad iTargmna ruis-urbnisis krebis Semdeg (1103 w.) arsen iyalToelis mier, romelic Semdeg SeuvsiaT sxvadasxva statiebiT. monografiaSi naCvenebia agreTve k. kekeliZis mier moZiebuli saeklesio kanonmdeblobis wyaroebi da masalebi. mitropolits, prof. anania jafariZes ganxiluli aqvs k. kekeliZis cnobili naSromi kanonikuri wyobileba Zvel saqarTveloSi (ix. etiudebi..., t. IV, 1957, gv. 338-357). k. kekeliZem am naSromSi gamoTqva sayuradRebo mosazreba kanonikuri wyobis Sesaxeb saqarTveloSi da agreTve Tavisi Sexedulebani Camoayaliba iberiis eklesiis Sesaxeb. am Sexedulebis mixedviT iberiis eklesia Tavdapirvelad mtkice kavSirSi imyofeboda somexTa eklesiasTan da ierarqiulad qarTuli eklesia damokidebuli iyo somxurze. aq ki am sakiTxis sizustisa da sisrulisaTvis sasurvelia monografiis avtors gaekeTebina mcireodeni komentari. es saWiroa imitom, rom saqarTvelos da somxeTis eklesiebis urTierTdamokidebulebis Sesaxeb amJamad aris ori urTierTgamomricxavi azri. pirveli adrindel periodSi qarTuli eklesia ierarqiulad damokidebuli iyo somxurze (n. mari, i. javaxiSvili, k. kekeliZe, il. abulaZe da sxv.); meore, gansxvavebuli mosazrebis mixedviT qarTuli eklesia odiTgan iyo diofizituri, radgan qalkedonis saeklesio krebis (451 w.) dadgenilebebi qarTulma eklesiam uyoymanod gaiziara, gahyva diofizitur gzas da arc arasdros gadauxvevia misgan (p. ingoroyva da sxv.). - 178 -

mitropoliti, prof. anania jafariZe savsebiT marTalia, roca mRvdel polievqtos karbelaSvilis mier saeklesio krebebis da saerTod eklesiis istoriis dargSi gaweuli amagis daufaseblobas Civis. arada, mRvdeli p. karbelaSvili saqarTvelos eklesiis erT-erTi yvelaze mniSvnelovani mkvlevaria, maT Soris, vinc specialurad moRvaweobda mecnierebis am dargSi. misi wigni ierarqia saqarTvelos eklesiisa, kaTalikosni da mRvdelmTavarni (1900 w.) aris fundamenturi gamokvleva. am naSromis mniSvnelobis Sesafaseblad isic kmara, rom igi k.kekeliZis samagido wigni iyo. p. karbelaSvils didad afasebda iv. javaxiSvili da mis zogierT daskvnas yovelgvari kritikis gareSe iRebda. am naklis erTgvar gamosworebas cdilobs mitropoliti, prof. anania jafariZe da saerTod vrclad ganixilavs mRvdel p. karbelaSvilis samecniero moRvaweobas. saqarTvelos saeklesio krebebTan dakavSirebiT p. karbelaSvili aRniSnavs, rom dvinis saeklesio krebas somxeTSi (590 w.) qarTlis kaTalikosma kirion I mcxeTelma gaugzavna msoflio saeklesio krebaTa dadgenilebebi da amis Tanaxmad imwyemseba saqarTvelos eklesia-o. p. karbelaSvilis azriT, somxebma mogvianebiT mainc aRiares qalkedonis kreba. aq mitropoliti, anania jafariZe sruliad marTebul daskvnas akeTebs - p. karbelaSvili albaT gulisxmobs VII saukunes, roca somxurma eklesiam erTxans miiRo diofizitobao. kidev ara erTi mosazreba aqvs ganxiluli, mitropolit anania jafariZes, romlebSic mkafiod Cans p. karbelaSvilis mecnieruli erudicia da alRoianoba. mitropoliti, prof. anania jafariZe gansakuTrebul yuradRebas uTmobs da farTod warmoadgens n. maris Rvawls qarTuli eklesiis istoriis kvlevis saqmeSi. mas moaqvs n. maris araerTi mosazreba da mis sasaxelod unda iTqvas, rom ukritikod ki ar iRebs, aramed maT SefasebaSi iCens kritikul damokidebulebas da cdilobs daafiqsiros sakuTari pozicia ama Tu im mecnieruli sakiTxis gadawyvetis dros. magaliTad, n. maris mixedviT, qarTul eklesias IX saukunemde ar hqonda mironis kurTxevis ufleba. rogorc grigol xanZTelis cxovrebidan Cans, es ufleba man moipova 842-859 wlebSi, roca man Sewyvita ierusalimidan mironis Semotana. am sakiTxSi n. mars ar eTanxmeba mitropoliti anania jafariZe da wers qarTlis sakaTalikosoSi mironi IV-V saukuneebidanve ikurTxeboda. mogvianebiT daarsebul lazikis samitropolitos bazaze - 179 -

aRmocenebul afxazeTis sakaTalikosoSi, konstantinopolSi xatmebrZoluri eresis gavrcelebis gamo, mironis Semotana daiwyes ierusalimidan (konstantinopolis nacvlad), IX s-dan ki efrem didi mawyverelis mecadierobiT saeklesio normebis gaTvaliswinebiT, ierusalimis sapatriarqos TanxmobiT, dawesda, rom afxazeTis (da ara "aRmosavleTis") kaTalikosebs mironi ierusalimis nacvlad adgilzeve, qarTlSi unda mieRoT, radganac "afxazeTic qarTlia", saeklesio erTianobis gamo afxazeTisaTvis saWiro mironis kurTxeva "qarTls ganewesa IX sdan" (gv. 56). vfiqrob, damajerebuli da argumentirebuli mosazrebaa da misaRebad migvaCnia. mitropolit, prof. anania jafariZes vrclad aqvs ganxiluli vardapetobis instituti somxeTSi, romlis formad aris miCneuli qarTuli moZRvrobis instituti qarTlSi. unda aRiniSnos, rom vardapetis da moZRvris Sesabamisobis sakiTxi pirvelad gamoikvlia n. marma. mas miaCnda, somxuri saeklesio wyaroebis mixedviT vardapeti niSnavda ara bers, anda ubralo arqimandrits, aramed moZRvars (maswavlebels). es Sexeduleba gaiziara qarTuli samarTlis istoriis specialistma, prof. g. nadareiSvilma: Zvel somxur eklesiebSi vardapetis, rogorc moZRvar-maswavleblis roli da avtoriteti metad mniSvnelovani iyo rTuli sasuliero sakiTxebis gadawyvetaSi, rogorc Cans, mas ufro meti wona hqonda, vidre episkoposs an Tundac kaTalikoss... vardapetebs aramxolod maswavleblis moZRvris ufleba hqondaT, aramed mosamarTlisac. maT xelSi iyo msajulobac" (m.nadareiSvili, n. mari da qarTuli samarTlis istoriis sakiTxebi, 1989, gv. 23). am debulebas iziarebs mitropoliti, anania jafariZe. igi wers: qarTvel moZRvars" ruis-urbnisis krebis mowvevis dros, etyoba, iseTive uflebebi gaaCnda, rac somxur vardapets. moZRvari eklesiis maswavlebeli iyo da, Cans mosamarTlec. amas mowmobs is, rom qarTveli mefis darbazis karze myofi moZRvarT-moZRvari" umaRlesi msajulis da mosamarTlis uflebiT yofila aRWurvili. moZRvars ekisreboda msajulis funqciebi, Cans merCule rjulis mcodned, mosamarTled (msajulad) iwodeboda, eklesiis xelSi iyo Tavmoyrili mTeli Zalaufleba. rig SemTxvevaSi saero da sasuliero Zalaufleba erT xelSi iyo. amis magaliTad miaCnia n. mars Wyondidel-mwignobarTuxucesis instituti. ise Cans, moZRvarTa instituts iseTive mniSvneloba hqonda saqarTveloSi, rogorc vardapetT - somxeTSi. es iyo - 180 -

saxelmwifoebriv gaerTianebamde, magram gaerTianebis Semdeg Tavis gverdiT ver igua Zlieri da damoukidebeli eklesia da moZRvrobis instituts uflebani Seukveca. amas mowmobs ruisurbnisis krebis me-12 kanoni - "moZRvar wodebulTa maT monazonTa". am kanonis mixedviT "pirvelad amas ganvsazRvrebT, raTa umRvdelosa ara xelewifebodes ganmkiTxvelobad sulTa, araTu episkoposi iyos, anu mRvdeli anu diakoni, rameTu pirvelad Sekvrisa da gaxsnisa xelmwifobasa uxams qonebad da egreTRa gankiTxvisa sulTaisa xel-yofad" (didi sjulis kanoni, 1975, gv. 551). ai, am kanons ganmartavs ra mitropoliti anania jafariZe wers - am kanonis mixedviT gamodis, rom mecnierul ganaTlebas, ris gamoc bevri iRebda "moZRvaris" wodebas, mniSvneloba aRar hqonda. amitom moZRvris wodeba SeiZleboda miniWeboda mciremcodne bers, magram nakurTx, anu xeldasxmul sasuliero pirs. amis axsna krebis me-12 kanoniT aris gamarTlebuli "Sekvrisa da ganxsnis xelmewifeba" marTlac aqvs mociqulTagan memkvidreobiT xeldasxmul episkoposs, mRvdelsa da diakons. rac Seexeba somxur vardapets, rogorc n. mari SeniSnavs, misi umTavresi upiratesoba aris mecnieruli codna da am codnis ufleba msajulobisa, maswavleblobisa da a.S. n. mars miaCnda, rom Zvel somxeTSi vardapetebi TavianTi uflebamosilebiT Rirseul simaRleze idgnen. Zveli somxuri saeklesio wyobilebis Tanaxmad, maT sapatio adgili ekavaT sazogadoebriv urTierTobaTa sistemaSi. maT Soris samarTalSemoqmedebis sferoSi. n. mari Tvlida, rom feodaluri somxeTi qarTuli samefos SemadgenlobaSi Sedioda, magram istoriuli tao-klarjeTi mas somxeTis yofil nawilad miaCnda, amitom am instituts qarTul eklesiaze gavlena unda moexdina. am mosazrebas ar iziarebs mitropoliti anania jafariZe da aRniSnavs: sinamdvileSi, marTalia, VI s-is Semdeg qarTvelTa qveyana tao da nawilobriv misi mimdebare qarTuli mxareebi somxuri eklesiis gavlenis sferoSi imyofeboda, arabTa Semosevebis Semdeg bizantielTa gavleniT am qarTulma kuTxeebma Tavi daaRwies somxur saeklesio batonobas da VIII-IX saukuneebSi daubrundnen qarTul deda eklesias" (gv. 58). vfiqrob, marTebuli da safuZvliani azria da misi gaziareba mouwevs zogierT mkvlevars. merCule - moZRvar-maswavleblis instituts didi avtoriteti moupovebia arabTa mier qarTuli saxelmwifoebriobis dasustebis xanaSi. - 181 -

rac Seexeba vardapetis gavlenas da avtoritets, igi Taobidan Taobas gadaecemoda, maswavleblidan moswavles. amaze marTebulad SeniSnavs prof. g. nadareiSvili mis sayuradRebo gamokvlevaSi "n. mari da qarTuli samarTlis istoriis sakiTxebi" (1989, gv. 25). analogiuri mdgomareoba yofila saqarTveloSi. magaliTad, 1985 wels sinas mTaze gadawerili iakobis Jamis wirvis anderZebSi ioane zosime ixsenebs Tavis moZRvrebs, viTarca ucilobel avtoritetebs, romelTagan miiRo codna, "viTa me vicodi moZRvarTagano" - aRniSnavs igi. ase rom, moZRvarTa xelSia wminda werilis zrunva, rac TavianT movaleobad miaCniaT. mxiTar goSis samarTlis wignis mixedviT, vardapetobis kandidats evaleboda - "Zveli da axali aRqmis wignebisa da kanonikuri dadgenilebebis safuZvliani codna. Tanac gamocdis dros gamosacdels dawvrilebiT unda moeTxro gamomcdelisaTvis "sad da visTan Seiswavla man saRvTo werilis TiToeuli wigni" (g.nadareiSvili, dasax. naSr. gv. 25). ioane zosimec aseve axsenebs Tavis mecnierul moZRvars, kerZod, zemoaRniSnul wignTan dakavSirebiT, - aRniSnavs mitropoliti, prof. anania jafariZe. Semdeg ganxilulia moZRvrobis da vardapetobis institutis roli da mniSvneloba saqarTvelos da somxeTis istoriaSi. droTa ganmavlobaSi moZRvrobis institutis mniSvneloba TandaTan Semcirda, Tumca XII s-Si mas sakmao Zala hqonia. monografiaSi aris dasturad motanili daviT aRmaSeneblis anderZi, roca man Tavisi qoneba SiomRvimis monasters dautova sakuTari moZRvris xeliT: Cemma Svilma demetrem yoveli misces moZRvarsa Cemsa... raTa romelni monasterni mamulisa Cemisani gamimwaumin, moZRvarman Cemman uku cemiTa maTiTa aRxocnes CemTviso". mitropoliti, prof. anania jafariZe vardapetis da moZRvris Sesabamisobas kidev sxva ganzomilebebSic ganixilavs. am ori institutis indentifikaciis sasargeblod, mohyavs sxvadasxva mecnierTa mosazrebani. pativcemul mkvlevars msurs mivuTiTo erT avtoritetul mecnierze, romlis mosazrebam asaxva ver hpova mis naSromSi. es gaxlavs akad. k. kekeliZe, romelmac ar gaiziara n. maris xsenebuli mosazreba. man Tavis azri vardapetis da moZRvris urTierTmimarTebis Sesaxeb gamoTqva 1928 wels, prof. leon meliqseT-begis sadoqtoro disertaciis dacvis dros. - 182 -

mitropolit, prof. anania jafariZes SesavalSi mimoxiluli aqvs agreTve al. vaCeiSvilis, iv. surgulaZis, g.nasyidaSvilis, z. ratianis, e. gabiZaSvilis, b. lominaZis, is. doliZis da sxvaTa Sromebi. naSromis pirvel nawilSi warmodgenilia dRemde moRweuli saeklesio samarTlis wyaroebi. im wyaroTagan gansakuTrebiT sayuradReboa "swavleba 12 mociqulisa" ("didaqe"), romelic I-II saukuneebis mijnas ganekuTvneba, Semdeg modis msoflio saeklesio krebebi da maTi kanonebi. mokled aris ganxiluli Svidive msoflio saeklesio kreba. gaanalizebuli agreTve adgilobrivi mniSvnelobis saeklesio krebebi da kanonebi. mTeli II Tavi eZRvneba saeklesio samarTlis wyaroebis pirvel qarTul Targmanebs. iv. javaxiSvilis azriT, VI s-is bolos da VII s-is dasawyisSi msoflio sakanonmdeblo Zeglebis qarTuli Targmanebi gadmoRebuli unda yofiliyo. am mosazrebas misaRebad Tvlis mitropoliti, prof. anania jafariZe. naSromis sayuradRebo nawilia is Tavi, romelSic, SeiZleba iTqvas, zedmiwevniT aris gaanalizebuli saqarTvelos saeklesio samarTlis wyaroebi. am wyaroebis kvleva sakmaod srulad aris warmodgenili. aqve unda aRiniSnos, rom adgilobrivi, erovnuli eklesiis samarTlis erT-erT ZiriTad wyaros Seadgens sakuTari krebebis dadgenilebani. magram im SemTxvevaSi, Tu eklesia avtokefaluria, xolo Tu mas ara aqvs avtokefalia, maSin misi samarTlis wyaroa zemdgomi, kiriarqaluri eklesiis dadgenilebani. sakiTxis ufro naTelsayofad avtors moaqvs rusuli eklesiis magaliTi. rusuli eklesia XV s-mde angariSvaldebuli iyo aResrulebina konstantinopolis sapatriarqos krebaTa, patriarqTa da sinodis dadgenilebebi, radgan iqamde igi iyo konstantinopolis sapatriarqos erT-erTi mitropolia. ruseTis eklesiis analogiurad, avtokefaliis miRebamde saqarTvelos eklesiis samarTlis ZiriTadi wyaro iyo kiriarqaluri eklesia. es eklesiebi gaxldnen konstantinopolis eklesia - IV s-is dasawyisidan, Semdeg ki antioqiis iurisdiqciis qveS moeqca V s-Si. istorikosebis am daskvnas ar eTanxmeba mitropoliti, prof. anania jafariZe. misi azriT, radgan konstantinopoli imperiis dedaqalaqad akurTxes 330 wels, xolo am dros konstantinopolis episkoposi emorCileboda TrakiaSi myof Tavis mitropolits, gamodis - 183 -

konstantinopols IV s-is 30-ian wlebSi Tavisi normaluri sididis eparqiac ki ar gaaCnda. mas mTeli saukune dasWirda, raTa Tavis iurisdiqciaSi moeqcia 451 wlis qalkedonis msoflio krebis dasturiT iqamde avtokefaluri diocezebi Trakiisa, asiisa da pontosi. raxan es asea, maSin ismis kiTxva: rodis daarsda oficialuri qarTuli eklesia. am kiTxvaze sakuTari pasuxi aqvs mitropolit anania jafariZes. mecnierTa mosazrebaTa safuZvelze qarTuli eklesia daarsda an 317, an 326, an 337 wlebSi. avtori ase msjelobs: qarTuli eklesia Tu daarsda 326 wels, maSin konstantinepolis iurisdiqciaSi misi moxvedra gamoricxulia. Tu daarsda 337 wels, axlad daarsebuli (330) konstantinopolis episkoposs ar SeeZlo Tavis iurisdiqciaSi moeqcia qarTuli eklesia. radgan jer TviTon ar iyo momZlavrebuli. davuSvaT, moendomebina, mainc ver SeZlebda, radganac maSin konstantinopolsa da saqarTvelos Soris pontos diocezis avtokefaluri eklesia iyo. ase rom, "saeklesio samarTlis mixedviT, IV s-is 30-ian wlebSi aseTi daqvemdebareba SeuZlebeli iyo. msgavsadve saeWvoa, antioqiis iurisdiqcias Cveni eklesiis mimarT" (gv. 128). mitropolit, prof. anania jafariZe am mosazrebis safuZvlianobis dasamtkiceblad moaqvs giorgi mTawmindelis debuleba, romlis Tanaxmad qarTuli eklesia daarsebuli iqna ara IV s-Si, aramed III saukuneebSi TviT mociqulTa mier, rac miuTiTebs imaze, rom msgavsad sxva mociqulTa mier daarsebuli yvela eklesiisa, qarTuli eklesiac daarsebisTanave avtokefaluri iyo, Tanaxmad imdroindeli saeklesio samarTlisa. amitom antioqiis sapatriarqos pretenziebi qarTuli eklesiis mimarT ukanono iyo. antioqiis eklesia arasdros yofila qarTuli eklesiis e. w. "deda eklesia". giorgi mTawmindelis mosazrebas mitropoliti, prof. anania jafariZe nastakisSi aRmoCenili arqeologiuri masaliTac amagrebs. am arqeologiuri masalis mixedviT Cans, rom II-III saukuneebSi qarTlSi qristianul sarwmunoebas aramc Tu dabal, aramed sazogadoebis maRal fenebSic ki SeuRwevia. mitropoliti, prof. anania jafariZe erTgvari daskvnis saxiT gvTavazobs, roca aRniSnavs, balsamonis mier naxsenebi antioqiis krebis dadgenilebamde, romelmac TiTqos XI s-Si qarTul eklesias avtokefalia mianiWa, qarTuli eklesia didi xnis avtokefaluri iyo, radgan saqarTvelos episkoposebi ar emorCilebodnen ucxoeTis arc erT patriarqs. yoveli adgilobrivi saeklesio wesi saqarTveloSive "ganegeba". - 184 -

saqarTvelos eklesiaSi "TviT daisumen kaTalikosTa da episkoposTa" (gv. 140). am mosazrebis gasamkvidreblad imowmebs giorgi mTawmindels. mas saqarTvelos da antioqiis eklesiebi Tanabari uflebebis mqone, TavisTavad eklesiebad miaCnda. giorgi mTawmindeli ar cnobda antioqiis saydrisadmi qarTuli eklesiis daqvemdebarebas arc erT droSi, arc wina saukuneebSi da arc mis dros. I-II saukuneebSi saqarTvelos eklesia mociqulTa mier iyo daarsebuli, e. i. avtokefaluri, rac Seexeba mironis kurTxevas, Zvelad am uflebis upiratesobiT episkoposebi sargeblobdnen. episkoposTa es ufleba ufro ganamtkica karTagenis krebebma IV s-Si. VI-VII s.s. somxeTisa da albaneTis eklesiebi mirons TviTonve akurTxebdnen. amasTan dakavSirebiT gvsurs aRvniSnoT, rom mitropolit, prof. anania jafriZes mecnierulad aqvs dasabuTebuli is faqti, rom samarTlebrivad somxeTisa da albaneTis eklesiebis Tanatoli da Tanafardi qarTuli eklesiac TviTon xarSavda mirons ZvelTaganve. es miT ufro sarwmunoa, rom IV saukunidanve uflis kvarTze amosuli sveticxovlis Ziridan mironi gadmoedineboda, marTalia, mcire raodenobiT, magram mas urevdnen xarSvisas wminda mirons. gamowvlilviT aris gaanalizebuli saeklesio samarTlis wyaroebi dvinis krebidan ruis-urbnisis krebamde (VI-XI ss.), ruis-urbnisis krebis Semdgomi periodi (XII-XIII ss.), mimoxilulia qarTuli saxelmwifoebriobis gauqmebis xanis saeklesio samarTlis Zeglebi - "saeklesio samarTlis wyaroebi avtokefaliis gauqmebis dros". saqarTvelos eklesiis avtokefalia mefis ruseTma gaauqma 1811 wlis 30 ivniss. n. durnovosa da qarTvel umaRles sasuliero pirTa azriT, saqarTvelos eklesiis avtokefaliis gauqmeba iyo saeklesio ukanonobis aqti, radgan saqarTvelos eklesiis dadgenilebebis da msoflio eklesiis Tanxmobis gareSe gaauqma Zveli iveriis sakaTalikoso, misi ukanaskneli kaTalikos-patriarqi ZaldatanebiT gadaasaxla ucxo mxareSi, saqarTvelos eklesias CamoarTva mamulebi, gaauqma saqarTvelos eklesiis adgilobrivi krebebi mTeli saukunis manZilze, daavala saqarTvelos eklesias, misi krebis daudgenlad edResaswaula ruseTis eklesiis wmindanTa dReebi. agzavnida saqarTvelos eklesiis mmarTvelad egzarqosebs - marTebulad aRniSnavs prof. g. rogava. aqedan gamomdinare, qarTuli eklesiis Serwyma rusulTan kanonikurad ar momxdara, radganac es unda momxdariyo kanonikur safuZvelze - 185 -

- "e. i. saqarTvelos da ruseTis eklesiaTa adgilobrivi krebebis gadawyvetilebiT, aRmosavleTis patriarqTa dasturiT. sinamdvileSi ki saqarTvelos eklesiis avtokefalia gauqmebuli iqna ruseTis imperatoris nebasurviliT" (gv. 205) - daaskvnis mitropoliti, prof. anania jafariZe. SemdegSi moaqvs faqtebi, Tu rogor gaauqmes eparqiebi saqarTveloSi, qarTvel sasuliero pirTa protesti da maTi CaxSoba carizmis mier da sxv. mokled, magram amomwuravad aris warmodgenili saeklesio samarTlis wyaroebi avtokefaliis aRdgenis (1917w.) Semdeg. monografiis meore nawili moicavs saqarTvelos eklesiis sakanonmdeblo krebebis mecnierul analizs. es analizi ki aris Rrma da yovelmxrivi. SeiZleba iTqvas, saqarTvelos eklesiis sakanonmdeblo krebebis amgvari mTliani, sruli da akademiuri kvleva dRemde ar yofila Catarebuli, Tu mxedvelobaSi ar miviRebT iv.javaxiSvilis adreul naSromebs. erTi sityviT, dawyebuli ruis-urbnisis saeklesio sakanonmdeblo krebidan (1103 w.), vidre saqarTvelos eklesiis aRdgenili avtokefaliis pirveli krebis (1917 w.) mier gamocemul debulebamde", yvela saeklesio krebis mier miRebuli kanonebi, debulebebi da faqtebi gamowvlilviT aris ganxiluli. XII-XVIII saukuneebSi ki sul Sedga 10 sakanonmdeblo kreba. mitropolit, prof. anania jafariZis vrceli naSromis pirveli wigni mTavrdeba Sesabamisi daskvniT, romelSic gadmocemulia kvlevis Sedegad miRebuli ZiriTadi debulebebi. am debulebebis ZiriTadi arsi SemdegiT gamoixateba: saqarTvelos politikuri da ekonomiuri mdgomareobis gamo gamowveuli danaSaulobaTa aRmosafxvrelad sakmarisi ar aRmoCnda saero (mefis da erisTavTa) Zalaufleba. amitom saWiro gaxda eklesiis avtoriteti da misi energiuli Careva. yovelive aman asaxva hpova samarTlis ZeglebSi. saxelmwifoSi eklesiis rolis amaRlebis gamo saero samarTlisa da samoqalaqo cxovrebis mTeli rigi sakiTxebi kanonikuri samarTlis normebad wesrigdeboda da saeklesio sasamarTloebis kompetencias Seadgenda. vfiqrobT, daskvnaSi mokled, magram zedmiwevniTi sisruliTaa asaxuli avtoris mier warmoebuli kvlevis Sedegi. mitropolit, prof. anania jafariZis sasaxelod unda iTqvas, rom igi aq ar gaCerebula, gaugrZelebia kvleva da amave wels gamoucia meore wigni. igi moicavs Semdeg nawilebs: "saqarTvelos eklesiis mimdinare krebebi" (IV-XVIII ss), - 186 -

"msoflio saeklesio krebebi qarTvel episkoposTa monawileobiT". saqarTvelos eklesiis arsebobis 1600 wlis manZilze aTasobiT saeklesio kreba unda yofiliyo mowveuli, magram, samwuxarod, ramdenime kreba iyo gamovlenili da Seswavlili. amis mizezi marto is ki araa, rom saeklesio samarTlis mecnieruli Seswavla gvian daiwyo (XIX s-is bolo da XX s-is dasawyisi), anda aTeisturma reJimma Cqara Seaferxa igi, aramed isic gasaTvaliswinebelia, rom miuxedavad mowveul krebaTa sakmaod didi ricxvisa, maT Sesaxeb pirdapiri cnobebi mcire raodenobiT SemorCa. ZiriTadad "sjuldebis wignebSi", tipikonebSi, saeklesio da samonastro krebulTa ganCinebebSi, "dawerilebSi", sigel-gujrebsa da sxva saeklesio samarTlis aqtebSi. isini iv. javaxiSvilis azriT, marTalia, moqmedi saeklesio samarTlis piruTvnel sabuTebs warmoadgenen, magram maTSi kvlevis Sesabamisi masalis moZieba did Sroma-garjasTan aris dakavSirebuli. da ai, mitropoliti, prof. anania jafariZe ar SeuSinda dauRalav Sromas da wlebis manZilze keTilsindisieri mecnieruli muSaobiT gamoavlina XIV-XX ssSi Semdgari 100-mde saeklesio kreba, maT Soris 15 sakanonmdeblo. IV-XVIII ss-Si mowveuli 21 da XIX-XX ss-Si Semdgari 50-mde mimdinare saeklesio kreba, maT garda 9 msoflio da saerTaSoriso mniSvnelobis kreba, romelTa muSaobaSi qarTveli episkoposebi monawileobdnen. es ki arc Tu mcire mecnieruli warmatebaa erTi mkvlevarisaTvis. rac Seexeba meore wigns, rogorc aRvniSneT, masSi ganxilulia IV-XVIII ss-Si Semdgari 21 saeklesio kreba, maTgan zogierTi, marTalia, mowveuli iqna saqarTvelos sazRvrebs gareT, magram mieZRvna saqarTvelos saeklesio sakiTxebs. avtori sworad moiqca, roca am krebaTa mniSvnelovan nawils Tan daurTo maT mier miRebuli saeklesio samarTlis Zeglebi. mitropolitma, prof. anania jafariZem ganxilul saeklesio krebebs mowvevis adgilis mixedviT miakuTvna saxeli. man aseTi daskvna SemogvTavaza: "Seswavlili saeklesio krebebis analizi adasturebs Zveli qarTuli istoriografiis dabejiTebul mtkicebas iurisdiqciis sazRvrebis Sesaxeb (kerZod, rom IV s-dan qarTuli eklesiis iurisdiqciaSi Sedioda ara mxolod aRmosavleT saqarTvelo, aramed dasavleT saqarTvelo) Tavdapirvelad mdinare egrisis wylamde, Semdeg ki mdinare klisuramde), saeklesio enis da sxvaTa Sesaxeb" (gv. 6). SeiZleba iTqvas am daskvnis faqtobriv da - 187 -

safuZvlian mtkicebas warmoadgens mTeli am vrceli naSromis umetesi nawili. saqarTvelos eklesiis istoria dRemde periodebad ar iyo dayofili. mitropolitma, prof. anania jafariZem pirvelma dayo saqarTvelos eklesiis istoria periodebad. am dayofas safuZvlad daudo saqarTvelosa da misi eklesiis istoriis saxelmwifoebrivi, socialur-politikuri da saeklesio cxovrebis etapobrivi ganviTareba, modelad ki aiRo msoflio eklesiis istoriis perioduli sistema. qarTuli eklesiis istoriaSi gamoyo ori periodi: Zveli moicavs pirveli saukunidan XII s-is dasawyisamde (ruis-urbnisis krebamde, 11031105ww.), meore, anu Sua periodi moicavs xanas XII s-dan XIX s-is dasawyisamde, avtokefaliis gauqmebamde (1811 w.), axali periodi moicavs xanas XIX s-is 10-iani wlebidan vidre dRemde. rasakvirvelia, es periodizacia, gansakuTrebiT pirveli periodi SeiZleba sadavo iyos, magram erTi ki faqtia, avtorma warmoadgina qarTuli eklesiis istoriis periodizaciis miseuli mecnieruli xedva. mogvca yoveli periodis Sesaxeb arsebuli qarTuli da araqarTuli saistorio wyaroebis mimoxilva. mitropoliti, prof. anania jafariZe saerTod Tavis mecnierul memkvidreobaSi da am naSromSi kategoriulad icavs im azrs, rom aRmosavleT da dasavleT saqarTvelom qristianoba erTdroulad miiRo. igi eyrdnoba ruis-urbnisis krebis dadgenilebas aRniSnul sakiTxze, agreTve, saerTod, qarTvel wminda mamaTa, istoriografTa da mematianeTa mier tradiciulad gansazRvrul Tvalsazriss. mitropolit, prof. anania jafariZes Semdeg ganxiluli aqvs saqarTvelos eklesiis 19 mimdinare kreba. yvela am krebis analizs ver warmovadgenT, magram zogierTs ki garkveulwilad SevexebiT. miuxedavad imisa, rom qarTuli da somxuri eklesiebi VII s-is dasawyisSi sabolood daSordnen, maT Soris kamaTi religiur sakiTxebze mainc gagrZelda da rig SemTxvevaSi mZafr xasiaTsac iRebda. es gauTavebeli diskusia qarTveli da somexi samRvdeloebisa qarTvel mefeebs arasasurvel movlenad miaCndaT da cdilobdnen maT erTgvar morigebas. erT-erTi aseTi mcdeloba iyo daviT aRmaSeneblis da Tamar mefis dros. daviT aRmaSeneblis dros 1123 wels gamarTula qarTvel da somex sasuliero moRvaweTa paeqroba-kamaTi. kreba didxans gagrZelebula, dilaadrian dawyebula da damTavrebula gvian saRamos. magram ver SeTanxmebulan vercerT religiur sakiTxze. - 188 -

bolos mefe daviTi iZulebuli gamxdara miemarTa sityviT somexi sasuliero pirebisaTvis. es sityva imdenad RrmaSinaarsiani yofila, rom somex sasuliero pirT misi mosmenis Semdeg mefisTvis SeubediaT: "Cven, mefeo, mowafe gvegone amaT moZRvarTa TqvenTa, garna viTar vxedavT, Sen same xar moZRvarmoZRvarTa, romlis msWalsa ver mimwuTar arian ege moZRvar sagonebelni Tqvenni". am mimarTvas mitropoliti, prof. anania jafariZe swor interpretacias ukeTebs, roca wers am sityvebiT somexma RvTismetyvelebma daamcires qarTveli rjulis moZRvrebi, romelTac ara "moZRvrebi", aramed moZRvarTsagonebelni, e.i. viTom moZRvrebi uwodes. es Sefaseba subieqturi iyo. es iqidanac Cans, rom am krebaSi monawileobdnen cnobili qarTveli sasuliero moZRvrebi, aviRoT Tundac arsen iyalToeli, romelsac am dros Targmnili hqonda dogmatikurpolemikuri Txzulebani ("dogmatikoni"). polemikur TxzulebaTagan 6 mimarTuli iyo iakobitTa, monofizitTa, xolo sami - somxuri eklesiis "somexTa" winaaRmdeg. saeklesio kreba, paeqroba-kamaTi Tamar mefis drosac gamarTula qarTvel da somex sasuliero moRvaweTa Soris, magram ver SeTanxmdnen, amitom es religiuri dava rom gadawvetiliyo, mimarTes Semdeg xerxs: orive mxares sami dRiT ZaRlebi daumSeviaT, Semdeg ki maT win daudviaT wminda ZRveni, qarTvelTa Senawir sufras mSieri ZaRli ar gahkarebia, xolo somexTa Senawiri ZaRls SeuWamia. qarTvelebs, rasakvirvelia, gaxarebiaT. amis Semdeg gadauwyvetia amirspasalar ivane mxargrZels marTlmadideblad monaTvla da igi saqarTvelos kaTalikos ioanes mounaTlavs. am araordinalur kamaTSi Tamar mefe ar Careula. erT-erTi sayuradRebo Tavia svaneTis saeklesio krebebi" (XIII-XVIII ss). masSi ganxilulia saeklesio samarTlis iseTi mniSvnelovani Zegli, rogoricaa matiane suaneTisa krebisai. mas zogierTi mkvlevari pirobiT yofs svaneTis saeklesio krebaTa pirvel matianed" da meore matianed". faqtobrivad, masSi dasaxelebuli arian is pirebi, romelTac raRac garkveuli Rvawli miuZRviT eklesiis winaSe. ase rom, rogorc mitropoliti, prof. anania jafariZe SeniSnavs, aq saeklesio kreba pirdapiri gagebiT ar igulisxmeba. "pirveli matianes" mTavari teqsti XIII-XV saukuneebs moicavs da exeba svaneTis mRvdelmsaxurTa Semadgenlobas da svaneTis eklesiaTa zogad aRweras, xolo svaneTis saeklesio krebaTa meore matiane - 189 -

svaneTis cxovrebis daqveiTebis mZime, XVII-XVIII saukuneTa xanas. es kvalifikacia ekuTvnis prof. g. gasvians (dasavleT saqarTvelos mTianeTis istoriidan, 1979, gv. 62, 74). mitropolit, prof.anania jafariZes miaCnia, rom qristianoba saqarTveloSi gavrcelda pirvel saukuneebSi, mociqulTa droidan. IV saukunidan ki is Seicvala qristianuli eklesiis im epoqisaTvis misaRebi formiT da sayovelTao xasiaTi miiRo. igi aviTarebs aseT azrs: "pirvel saukuneTa qristianobas specialistebi "iudaur qristianobas" uwodeben, xolo Semdgoms "elinur qristianobas" (gv. 193). Semdeg avtori daaskvnis, rogorc Cans, IV saukunidan CvenSi gavrcelebulma elinurma mZlavrma qristianobam ver igua Zveli, e. w. iudauri qristianoba da am Zvelma qristianulma mimdinareobam mTebs Seafara Tavi. amis Semdgom mitropoliti, prof. anania jafariZe cdilobs daamtkicos, rom saqarTvelos mTebSi mcxovrebi qarTveli mosaxleoba Rrma qristiani iyo da qristianobisaTvis mzad iyo Tavis dasadebad. magram iqve SeniSnavs, Tumca zogierTi iseTi wes-Cveulebac hqondaT, romelTac axsnas ver uZebnian da warmarTobis elementebad miiCneveno. aseTia, magaliTad, aRmosavleT saqarTvelos mTaSi e. w. "sisxliT ganwmenda". es rituali ki aseTia: zvarakis sisxls asxureben sxvadasxva Senobebsa da nivTebs, maT gansawmendad. mitropoliti, prof. anania jafariZe am Cveulebas Tvlis ara warmarTobidan, an iudevelobidan momdinare ritualad, aramed fiqrobs, rom igi dafuZnebuli unda iyos "ioanes gamocxadebis" Semdeg muxlze "me vuTxari mas: "ufalo Cemo, Sen ici" da man miTxra: "eseni arian didi gasaWiridan mosulebi, gairecxes TavianTi samosi da gaaspetakes isini kravis sisxliT" (gamocxadeba 7:4). vfiqrobT, gamocxadebis" aRniSnuli muxli ar gamodgeba imis samtkiceblad, rom zvarakis sisxliT ganwmenda modis qristianobidan. SesaZloa, es Cveuleba modis ufro warmarTobidan an iudevelobidan. mitropoliti, prof. anania jafariZe aRniSnavs: sazogadoebaSi gavrcelebulia azri, rom saqarTvelos mTis mosaxleoba sarwmunoebrivad ufro warmarTebi arian, vidre qristianebi. igi am azrs ar iwynarebs da sapirispiros amtkicebs. sabuTad moaqvs "svaneTis saeklesio krebaTa matiane". am sayuradRebo dokumentTa krebulis mixedviT TiTqos mTaSi qristianuli sarwmunoeba odiTgan myarad Cans damkvidrebuli, magram gansjisaTvis gvinda SevniSnoT: gasuli saukunis 20-ian - 190 -

wlebSi, roca aTeizmis saSineli talRa agorda da eklesiamonastrebis ganadgurebis kampania gaCaRda, es vandaluri procesi mTaSic Catarda. bolSevikebma daiwyes mTaSi qristianuli saydrebis gauqmeba. maT saydrebi Cveulebrisamebr an daangries, an sawyobebad aqcies. am ukeTur saqmeSi mTis xalxs maTTvis xeli maincdamainc ar SeuSlia, magram roca maT warmarTul salocavebs miadgnen, Tavganwiruli winaaRmdegoba gauwies da axlos ar miakares eSmakis mociqulni. amiT gadaWriT arafers vamtkicebT, magram angariSgasawevi faqti kia mTaSi warmarTobis da qristianobis urTierTmimarTebis dRemde sakamaTod qceul saqmeSi. 1755-1756 wlebSi Sedga saeklesio krebebi TbilisSi. am krebebze ganixiles kaTalikos anton I-is gakaTolikebis sakiTxi. krebam anton I daadanaSaula gakaTolikebaSi da gankveTa. am sakiTxs exeba vrceli paragrafi. masSi naCvenebia am gadawyvetilebis absurduloba. ufro zustad, anton I-s cili daswames. sinamdvileSi amiT Teimuraz II-m Tavidan moiSora qarTlis taxtis kanonieri memkvidre anton I kaTalikosi. igi ruseTSi gadasaaxles. anton I-is udanaSaulobas amtkicebdnen vaxuSti batoniSvili, mari brose, d. CubinaSvili, a. cagareli da sxv. mitropolit, prof. anania jafariZes anton I-is gamarTleba da am saqmeSi erekle II-is roli sakmaod vrclad aqvs gadmocemuli. es moxda Teimuraz II-is gardacvalebis Semdeg, roca qarTl-kaxeTis samefos taxtze avida erekle meore. 1764 wels Sedga saeklesio kreba. krebam gaauqma 1755-1756 wlis krebaTa gadawyvetileba da anton I kaTalikosi taxtze daabrunes. am krebam gamoiZia, vin Seiyvana SecdomaSi wina krebebi da damnaSave mRvdeli zaqaria gabaSvili da misi Svili iosebi sastikad dasaja. mitropolit, prof. anania jafariZis Sromis mesame bolo nawilia saqarTvelos saeklesio mimdinare krebebi XIX-XX saukuneebSi. masSi ganxilulia XIX-XX saukuneebSi Semdgari 50ze meti saeklesio kreba, romelTa erTad Tavmoyra da erT monografiad gamocema pirvelad moxda qarTul istoriografiaSi. naSromis am wignSi warmodgenilia mecnieruli analizi XIX-XX saukuneebSi Semdgari mimdinare saeklesio krebebisa. avtors es krebebi dayofili aqvs sam mTavar jgufad: 1. krebebi, romelic Sedga avtokefaliis gauqmebidan mis - 191 -

aRdgenamde. 2. 1917 wels Semdgari avtokefaliis aRmdgeni krebebi. 3. krebebi 1918-1995 wlebisa. mitropoliti, prof. anania jafariZe ganixilavs ra saqarTvelos eklesiis avtokefaliis gauqmebis sakiTxs, sruliad marTebulad aRniSnavs: saqarTvelos eklesiis avtokefalia gauqmda ara 1811 wels, aramed 1821 wels, roca ruseTis xelisuflebam mTeli sisastikiT CaaxSo dasavleT saqarTveloSi saerTo-saxalxo ajanyeba, romelic Seecada qarTuli eklesiis avtokefaliis dacvas. amis Semdeg ruseTis mTavrobam gaauqma saeklesio TavisTavadoba saqarTvelos am kuTxeSi. samwuxaroa, magram faqtia: qarTuli eklesia Sedgeboda ori administraciulad damoukidebeli - qarTlisa da afxazeTis (imereTis) saeklesio erTeulisagan, romelTa meTaurebi patriarqis wodebamde amaRldnen. es ar aris uCveulo movlena. aseTi tipis saeklesio mowyoba aqvT sxva qristianul erebs berZnul eklesias gaaCnda da axlac aqvs ramdenime sapatriarqo da avtokefaluri saeklesio erTeuli. am mxriv analogiuri mdgomareoba aqvT somxebs. qarTuli eklesiis aseTi mdgomareoba gagrZelda XVIII s-mde. sarecenzio wignSi kargad aris naCvenebi, Tu rogor Seecadnen qarTuli eklesiis mesveurebi saqarTvelos eklesia gamoeyvanaT aseTi arasaxarbielo mdgomareobidan da gaeerTianebinaT. am didi erovnuli saqmis organizatorebi iyvnen dasavleT saqarTvelos kaTalikosis taxtze mjdomi quTaTeli mitropoliti dosiTeozi da mitropoliti eqvTime genaTeli. es maSin iyo mcdeloba dasavleT da aRmosavleT saqarTvelos saxelmwifoebrivi gaerTianebis safuZvlis momzadebisa, rac, samwuxarod, ver ganxorcielda. raxan es ar gamovida, amitom dasavleT saqarTvelos eklesiis ierarqebma umjobesad miiCnies sruliad saqarTvelos eklesiis gaerTianeba: quTaTelma mitropolitma dosiTeozma uari Tqva sakaTalikozo taxtze, romelic mas uboZa imereTis mefem solomon II-m, erTi sityviT, igi Tavisi nebiT daeqvemdebara qarTlis saeklesio xelisuflebas - kaTalikos anton I-s. ase rom, 1811 wlisaTvis saqarTvelos eklesia aRmosavleT-dasavleT saqarTvelos mTlianad moicavda. naSromSi mamuliSvilis gulistkiviliT aris aRwerili qarTuli eklesiis avtokefaliis gauqmeba ruseTis mTavrobis mier, rusifikatoruli politikis gatareba da qarTvelTa mizanmimarTuli garuseba. skolebSi swavleba rusulad daakanones, eklesiebSi wirva-locva rusulad daaweses. kidev meti, ruseTis imperia yvela marTlmadidebels, - 192 -

da maT Soris qarTvelebs, rusad anda potenciur rusad ganixilavda. am dros ruseTi somxebs, ebraelebs da sxva xalxebs erovnuls utovebda da xels ar axlebda. es tragikuli movlena rom ufro mkafiod warmoidginos mkiTxvelma, meufe ananias moaqvs amonaridi arqeolografiuli komisiis aqtebis me-6 tomSi dabeWdil qarTvelTa saCivridan: Tu ruseTis imperiaSi ar Seaxes xeli ebraelTa sarwmunoebas, agreTve somxebisa da kaTolikeTa eklesiebs, Cven ratom unda warmovadgendeT gamonakliss. Tu im dros, roca mahmadianTa xelSi viyaviT, aravin exeboda Cvens mtkice rwmenas da arc mraval mwuxarebas gvayenebdnen, maS raRa davaSaveT amJamad, roca gvtaceben SeCveul mRvdelmTavrebs, taZrebs da mRvdlebs (gv. 12). qarTvelTa Txovna-vedrebam ar gaWra da ruseTis mTavroba dasavleT saqarTveloSi egzarqos Teofilaqtes meTaurobiT agrZelbda egreTwodebul saeklesio reformas, romlis ZaliTac mRvdlebis ricxvi unda Semcirebuliyo erTi-orad da erTi-samad, episkoposebis SesamCnevad dasanaxi cxovreba amaliTa da stumrobiT moispoboda, rac frTebs Seakvecda maT gavlenas Tavadaznaurobasa da xalxze; rodesac saeklesio glexebis aRweras Seudgnen gadasaxadebis fulze gadatanis da maTi momatebis mizniT, xalxi SeSinda. amitom ajanyda mTeli imereTi, sazogadoebis yvela fena: 1819 wlis ivnis-ivlisSi TiTqmis yoveli soflis eklesiebTan ikribebodnen. xalxi xatze ificebda, rom ar uRalatebdnen erTmaneTs, saqristiano saqmes da a. S. ajanyebulTa mizani iyo e. w. "saeklesio reformis gauqmeba. yovelive es saboloo jamSi rusebis qveynidan gandevnas isaxavda miznad. miaCndaT, rom ajanyebis saTaveSi iyvnen quTaTeli da genaTeli mitropolitebi - dosiTeozi da eqvTime. amitom isini tomaraSi Casves da ruseTis gzas gauyenes. magram mitropoliti dosiTeozi gzaSi mokles rusis saldaTebma. igi daasaflaves ananurSi, eklesiaSi, RvTismSoblis xatis win. mitropoliti eqvTime ki gadaasaxles Soreul ruseTSi, sviris monasterSi, sadac gardaicvala 1822 wlis 21 marts. orive mitropoliti wmindanad Seracxa qarTulma eklesiam. es ajanyeba ki rusis generalma veliaminovma mTeli sisastikiT sisxlSi CaaxSo. ra samwuxaroa Tbilisis erT-erTi quCa sololakSi am rusis satrapis saxels atarebda da axlac mas inerciiT xalxi veliaminovis quCa eZaxis. kidev meti, viRac meduqnem dRes am quCaze mdebare cnobil saxinkles veliaminovis saxeli uwoda da qarTvelTa sisxlismRvreli jalaTis gvari "amSvenebs" mis abras. Tumca, movideT pirvel sityvas da mivxedoT mitropolit, prof. - 193 -

anania jafariZis mier warmodgenil qarTuli eklesiis istoriis sevdian qronikebs. amgvari represiebis, gansakuTrebiT 1832 wlis SeTqmulebis, damarcxebis Semdeg qarTveli xalxi daiTrguna. qarTuli eklesiis mravalmilioniani qoneba yaCaRurad daitaces rusis egzarqosebma. es imdenad usircxvilo da zRvargadasuli misakuTreba iyo qarTuli saeklesio qonebisa, rom TviT rusis patiosani sasuliero pirebic ki aRSfoTdnen. am mxriv gamoirCeva n. durnovo, romelmac xma aRimaRla qarTuli eklesiis avtokefaliis gauqmebis da qarTuli eklesiebis kuTvnili qonebis Zarcvis winaaRmdeg. naSromSi mocemulia mizezebi imisa, Tu rogor xdeboda rusis mTavrobis xelSewyobiT da mcdelobiT qarTvelTa gaTaTreba, gaoseba, gasomxeba da a. S. qarTvelTa gasomxebis Sesaxeb ki avtori faqtobrivi masalis analizis safuZvelze marTebulad daaskvnis; rusebis dros qarTveli grigorianelebi sabolood gasomxdnen. amis erT-erTi mizezi iyo is, rom ruseTis imperia aSkarad mfarvelobda somxur eklesias, icavda mis TavisTavadobas, ar Sexebia mis avtokefalurobas, xolo qarTuli eklesia TiTqmis gaaqro saimperio eklesiis wiaRSi" (gv. 37). miuxedavad imisa, rom qarTuli eklesia ruseTis imperiis Zlieri wnexis qveS iyo moqceuli da misi saboloo mospoba surda, qarTuli eklesiis avtokefaliis aRdgenaze fiqri mainc ar momkvdara da drodadro iRviZebda. qarTuli eklesiis avtokefaliis moTxovnam gansakuTrebiT ifeTqa XIX saukunis bolos da XX s-is dasawyisSi. avtokefaliis ideis am periodSi gaaqtiurebis Sesaxeb naSromSi motanilia mecnierTa ori gansxvavebuli azri. kirion II fiqrobda, rom es idea dabada n. durnovos gabedulma werilebma, patriarqi kalistrate ki amtkicebda, rom amas safuZveli daudo misma gamokvlevam "saqarTvelos eklesiis avtokefalia". meufe ananias marTebulad miaCnia: sazogadoebrivi azris Camoyalibebis Sedegad saqarTveloSi bunebrivad gaCnda qarTuli eklesiis avtokefaliis aRdgenis moTxovna. am moTxovnis aqtiur aRorZinebas iqneb niadagi Seumzada da biZgi misca n. durnovos da patriarq kalistrates Sromebma. asec SeiZleba vifiqroT. asea Tu ise, saqarTvelos eklesiis avtokefalias mxars uWerdnen da gulmodgined icavdnen: aleqsandre cagareli, aleqsandre xaxanaSvili, niko mari, peterburgis sasuliero akademiis profesori nikoloz zaozerski, m.kovalnicki, i. palmovi da sxv. maTi oponentebi iyvnen saqarTvelos eklesiis mtrebi: i. - 194 -

vostorgovi, i. butkeviCi, profesorebi: glubokovski, berdniakovi, almazovi, ostroumovi, episkoposi stefane, mitropolitebi vladimiri da makari, tveris episkoposi serafimi, episkoposi inokenti (q. pavliaSvili, saqarTvelos saegzarqoso 1900-1917 ww." gv. 129). mitropoliti, prof. anania jafariZe vrclad ganixilavs 1905-1916 wlebis saeklesio krebebs, romlebzec qarTuli eklesiis avtokefaliis sakiTxi araerTgzis iqna ganxiluli. am dros avtokefaliis sakiTxis gaaqtiurebas xeli Seuwyo 900-iani wlebis politikurma Zvrebma - 1905 wlis revoluciam gamoiwvia sazogadoebrivi azrovnebis da presis erTgvari ganTavisufleba cenzuris brWyalebisagan, aman ki saSualeba misca qarTuli eklesiis avtokefaliis momxreebs, energiulad moeTxovaT qarTuli eklesiis TavisTavadobis aRdgena. magram arc ruseTis uwmindes sinods eZina da sastikad gausworda qarTvel "avtokefalistebs": episkoposi kirioni saqarTvelodan gaiwvia da ruseTis erT-erT yru monasterSi gamoamwyvdia; episkoposi leonide Tavis kaTedras CamoaSores da sxvagan gadaiyvanes. naSromSi detalurad aris ganxiluli 1905-1916 wlebSi mowveuli 19 saeklesio kreba. agreTve gamowvlilviT aris gaanalizebuli 1917 wlis avtokefaliis aRmdgeneli 19 kreba. yvelaferi damTavrda 1917 wlis 12 martis "TviTgamorkvevis aqtis" miRebiT. am dRes sveticxovlis taZarSi Seikribnen saqarTvelos samRvdeloebis da eriskacTa warmomadgenlebi. maT erTxmad daadgines saqarTvelos eklesiis avtokefaluri mmarTvelobis aRdgena. ra Tqma unda, ruseTis eklesia winaaRmdegi iyo am samarTliani aqtisa da amtkicebda, TiTqos aseTi qmedeba arakanonikuri iyo da qarTuli mxare unda dalodeboda ruseTis saeklesio krebis mowvevas. 1917 wlis 17 seqtembers krebam airCia kaTalikos-patriarqi. dasaxelebuli iyo ori: episkoposi - kirioni (saZagliSvili) da mitropoliti leonide (oqropiriZe). arCevnebSi monawileoba miiRo 448 delegatma. 12 xmiT meti miiRo kirionma da krebam is gamoacxada arCeul kaTalikosad da ugaloba mas "aqsios". igi didxans ar mjdara saqarTvelos kaTalikosis taxtze - 1918 wlis 21 agvistos RamiT mokles martyofis monasterSi. mitropoliti, prof. anania jafariZe safuZvlianad ganixilavs am veragul mkvlelobas da sxva mecnierTa msgavsad (s. kakabaZe, v. guruli) isic fiqrobs, rom kirion II mokles social-demokratebma. rasakvirvelia, amis damtkicebas cdilobs saTanado sabuTebiT da argumentebiT. - 195 -

social-demokratebis simpaTiebs veravin damwamebs, magram vfiqrob, am satanis mociqulebis braleuloba am saqmeSi naklebad savaraudebelia, radgan maT xom kargad icodnen, Tu kirion II-s moklavdnen, mis adgilas sxvas airCevda saeklesio kreba. amiT araferi Seicvleboda. saqarTvelos eklesia mainc avtokefaluri gziT wavidoda. Cveni azriT, kirion II-is fizikuri ganadgurebis SemkveTi ufro im drois saqarTvelos umaRles sasuliero wreSi unda veZeboT... naSromis mniSvnelovani Tavia "saeklesio krebebi 19181995 wlebSi". am periodSi sul Catarebula 23 kreba. am krebaTa mizani iyo dakarguli erovnuli saxelmwifoebrivi cnobierebis aRdgena xalxSi. amisTvis eklesiis saxeliT gamovida "damoukidebeli saqarTvelos saxelmwifos mimarT morwmune moqalaqeTa ficis furceli". am dokumentma garkveuli roli iTamaSa ruseTis 117 wlis monobaSi myofi qarTveli xalxis erovnuli TviTSegnebis aRdgenasa da gamococxlebis saqmeSi. 1920 wlis 27 ivnisis saqarTvelos saeklesio krebas ganuxilavs saxelmwifosagan eklesiis gamoyofis, sasuliero disciplinaTa swavlebaTa saministrosadmi gadacemis, eklesiis biujetis, samRvdeloebis sayofacxovrebo da mcxeTa-Tbilisis eparqiebis gaerTianebis sakiTxebi. agreTve krebas kaTalikospatriarqad daumtkicebia mitropoliti leonide (oqropiriZe). 1921 wlis 1-5 seqtembers gelaTis RvTismSoblis taZarSi Sedga saqarTvelos mesame saeklesio kreba. krebam kaTalikospatriarqad airCia cxum-afxazeTis mitropoliti ambrosi xelaia. avtori mematianis piruTvnelobiT aRwers bolSevikebis mier qarTuli eklesia-monastrebis Zarcva-glejis da ganadgureba-gapartaxebis tragikul istorias, agreTve, saqarTvelos danawevrebas avtonomiur erTeulebad da yovelgvari erovnulobis mospobas. am barbarosobiT SeZrwunebulma kaTalikos-patriarqma ambrosi xelaiam 1922 wlis Teberval-martSi sakaTalikoso sabWos TanxmobiT memorandumi gaugzavna genuis saerTaSoriso konferencias. konferencias aTeulobiT qveynis warmomadgeneli eswreboda, maT Soris, iyvnen wiTeli ruseTis delegatebic. memorandumSi aRwerili iyo bolSevikebis mier saqarTvelos aneqsia da am aneqsiis mZime Sedegebi. saqarTvelos bolSevikurma mTavrobam kaTalikos-patriarqs ambrosi xelaias ar apatia memorandumis gagzavna, misi antierovnuli politikis saqveynod mxileba da daapatimra. patimars sabWoTa sasamarTloze Rirseulad eWira Tavi. man sasamarTlos ase mimarTa: "guli Cemi saqarTvelos ekuTvnis, suli - RmerTs, gvams rac gindac, is uyaviTo". - 196 -

kaTalikos-patriarqi ambrosi xelaia saqarTvelos wminda sinodma wmindanad Seracxa. kaTalikos-patriarqis ambrosi xelaias sasuliero moRvaweobas da martvilobas STambeWdavad gadmoscems mitropoliti, prof. anania jafariZe da es nawili, SeiZleba iTqvas, am naSromis erTi yvelaze sayuradRebo Tavia, ara marto mecnierulad, aramed samagaliToa qarTuli patriotulerovnuli saqmisaTvis Tavganwirulobis TvalsazrisiTac. mTeli aTeuli wlebi dasWirda ruseTis eklesias, raTa litergikul-kanonikuri urTierToba aRedgina saqarTvelos eklesiasTan da ecno Cveni eklesiis avtokefaliuroba, misi sapatriarqos Rirseba da VI adgili msoflio marTlmadideblur diptixSi. naSromSi mkafiod aris warmodgenili saqarTvelos kaTalikos-patriarqis ilia II-is Rvawli da adgili qarTuli eklesiis istoriaSi. ilia II-is ZalisxmeviT saqarTvelos eklesiis avtokefalia da sapatriarqo scno konstantinopolis sapatriarqom, ilia II-is mizanmimarTuli moRvaweobiT 2002 wlis 17 seqtembers daamtkica wminda sinodma, xolo 28 oqtombers, saqarTvelos parlamentma da amis Semdeg ZalaSi Sevida konstituciuri SeTanxmeba saqarTvelos saxelmwifosa da saqarTvelos samociqulo avtokefalur marTlmadideblur eklesias Soris. TiTqmis SeuZlebelia daasaxelo saqarTvelos istoriaSi iseTi periodi, roca imdeni eklesia iyos aSenebuli, ramdenic ilia IIis zeobis xanaSia agebuli. am mxriv igi SeiZleba grigol xanZTels SevadaroT. es misi brZnuli saeklesio politikis Sedegia. yvelafers rom Tavi davaneboT, rad Rirs TbilisSi, elias goraze wminda samebis taZris ageba, romelic yvelaze maRalia da moculobiT didia kavkasiaSi arsebul taZrebs Soris. dasasrul SeiZleba iTqvas, saqarTvelos samociqulo eklesiam yvela saukunis qartexilebs gauZlo. mas ar daukargavs erovnuli gza. aq gvsurs davimowmoT mitropoliti, prof. anania jafariZe: "SemTxveviTi ar yofila is movlena, rom Cveni erovnuli cxovrebis sxva nawilebTan SedarebiT eklesiam yvelaze meti brZola ganicada erovnuli Tavisuflebis dasacavad da 1917 wlis 12 marts pirvelma man aRmarTa Tavisuflebisa da damoukideblobis droSa". mitropolit, prof. anania jafariZis "saqarTvelos saeklesio krebebi" da qarTuli eklesiis istoriis zogierTi sakiTxi qarTuli saeklesio samarTlis istoriis erTi yvelaze mniSvnelovani SenaZenia, romelic ueWvelad daikavebs Tavis adgils qarTuli saistorio mecnierebis ganviTarebis saqmeSi. - 197 -

mitropoliti anania jafariZe


levan II dadiani - "xelmwife iveriisa" odiSis mTavari, levan II dadiani (1611-1657), RvTis moyvare, eklesiaTa maSenebeli, amasTanave marTlmadideblobis amaRorZinebeli iyo. Tavis samTavroSi ganaaxla yvela dangreuli eklesia da monasteri, usaxuravoni gadaxura, xelaxla moaCuqurTma, rac umTavresia, yvela eklesiaSi aRadgina wirvalocva, isini Seamko barZim-feSxumebiT, mravali Weduri xatiT. aseve aRadgina da valebisgan gamoixsna ierusalimis jvris monasteri. levan II dadiani iyo qarTuli kulturis udidesi mecenati XVII saukuneSi. misi brZanebiTa da xarjiT aris gadawerili vefxistyaosnis Cvenamde moRweuli uZvelesi TariRiani xelnaweri, romelic daasuraTebina kidec mamuka TavaqaraSvils. XVII saukune qarTuli kulturisaTvis uaRresad araxelsayreli periodi iyo. qveyana nawilebad daiSala, mterma aRmosavleT saqarTvelo daipyro. aseT viTarebaSi levan dadianma miiRo zegardmo Zali da daiwyo zrunva saqarTvelos gasaerTianeblad. man icoda, rom yvela ubedurebis mizezi iyo qveynis daSla, danawevreba, rom mxolod gaerTianebuli saqarTvelo SeZlebda mtris gandevnasa da eris gaZlierebas. levan II dadianis mimoweridan Cans, rom misi TvalsazrisiT, bagrationTa samefo dinastia XVII saukuneSi dampyrobelma sparselebma CamoaSores qveynis mmarTvelobas. manamde ki TviTon bagrationebma erTmaneTs Soris gainawiles qveyana, ramac Camoayaliba erTmaneTisagan damoukidebeli samefoebi qarTlisa, kaxeTisa da imereTisa, xolo Sah-abazis mier wmida mowame luarsab II-s mokvlis Semdgom, faqtiurad Sewyda qarTlis kanonieri samefo dinastiis mmarTveloba. aseve sparseTma SeZlo kaxeTis dapyrobac da iqedan kanonieri samefo dinastiis gaZeveba. levan II dadianis dros imereTis samefo taxtic Seryeuli iyo. aqac samefo dinastiis legitimuroba saeWvo xdeboda, samefo taxtze xan gverdiTi Stos warmomadgeneli (WuWunaiSvili) adioda, xan kidev gurielTa samTavros saxlis wevrebi. radganac aRmosavleT saqarTvelos, viTarca sparseTis xeldebul qveyanas, ar SeeZlo yofiliyo saqarTvelos politikuri gamaerTianebeli, xolo imereTis samefo dasustebuli iyo, levan II dadiani saqarTvelos suverenuli - 198 -

saxelmwifos gaerTianebas Caudga saTaveSi. mizezi amisa gaxldaT isic, rom odiSi anu samegrelos samTavro dadianis mmarTvelobis dros gaZlierda samxedro da ekonomikuri TvalsazrisiT. qarTuli kulturis centrebmac samegreloSi gadainacvla. aRmosavleT saqarTvelos rbeva-aoxrebis dros qarTuli mwignobrobis, saeklesio cxovrebis, kulturis, ferwerisa Tu Weduri xelovnebis (xatebis) mravali axali kera samegreloSi daarsda. levan II-m SeZlo Tavisi gavlenis sferoSi moeqcia sruliad dasavleT saqarTvelo. misi mmarTvelobis damdegs afxazeTi odiSis (samegrelos) ganuyofel nawils Seadgenda, aseve svaneTic, xolo guriisa da imereTis gavlenis qveS moqceva levan II dadians ar gasWirvebia. maSasadame, suverenuli saqarTvelos erTaderTi faqtiuri mepatrone iyo levan II dadiani da is aseve moixsenebda kidec Tavis Tavs: xelmwifeTa xelmwife dadiani leon, yovlisa saqarTveloTa patroni. caiSuri gulanis am minaweridan Cans, rom imJamad odiSi anu samegrelo ara mxolod saqarTveloa anu qarTvelTa qveyana, aramed odiSis mmarTveli sruliad saqarTvelos gamaerTianebeli da misi patronia. kevan II-is titulidan (yovlisa saqarTveloTa patroni~) Cans, rom XVII saukuneSi erovnuli cnobierebis ukiduresi dakninebis epoqaSi samegrelos mosaxleobis erovnuli identoba Seuryevelia da qveynis daSla-danawevrebis miuxedavad mtkicea. aqauri sazogadoeba fiqrobs ara imaze, rom gamoiyenos Seqmnili viTareba da qveynis daSlis dros aaRorZinos kuTxuri cnobiereba, aramed iRvwis, raTa qveynis sxva nawilebis uZlurebis dros mterma ar moSalos erTiani iveriis suvereniteti da saswrafod gaaerTianos daSlili qveyana. aseT dros samegrelos sazogadoebaSi Caisaxa imedi imisa, rom saqarTvelos gaerTianebis saqmeSi daexmarebinaT ruseTis Zlieri saxelmwifo. amitomac gagzavnes elCad ruseTSi mRvdeli gabriel gegenava. man 1639 wlisaTvis Sesabamisi dokumentebi warudgina ruseTis saxelmwifo moxeleebs. levan II dadiani sigelSi ruseTis xelmwifisadmi Tavis samTavros uwodebs ara odiSs, anda samegrelos, aramed iveriis mxares. levani aRniSnavs, rom: iyo iveriis miwaze xuTi xelmwife, maTgan sparseTis Sahma ori saxelmwifo daamxo, xolo darCenili sami saxelmwifo RvTis SewevniT imarTeba mis mier, e.i. mefe leontis mier (ase uwodebdnen mas ruseTSi) ( 5 2 - 199 -

, 3- , ( , (1639-1640), ., 2005, gv. 114). romeli saxelmwifoebi iyo leon II dadianis xelSi 1640 wlisaTvis? odiSis garda imereTis samefo da guriis samTavro. rac Seexeba afxazeTsa da svaneTs, rogorc aRvniSneT, isini odiSis samTavros Semadgenel nawilebad miiCneoda. amitomac imereTi, guria da odiSia is sami saxelmwifo, romelTa mmarTvelad levan II dadians miaCnda Tavisi Tavi. devnili Teimuraz I ruseTis xelmwifis kars acnobebda kidec, rom levan II dadiani Tavis Tavs miiCnevda iveriis miwebis erTaderT mefed. es iyo realuri faqti imJamad. ruseTis samefo karic adasturebda, rom im droisaTvis iveriis miwebis namdvili xelmwife (mefe") mxolod levan II dadiani anu leonti mefe iyo. kerZod, ruseTis mefe mixeili levan II dadianisaTvis micemul sigelSi aRniSnavda: iveriis miwaze iyo xuTi xelmwife. maTgan ori gaanadgura sparseTis Sahma, xolo darCenil sam saxelmwifos RvTis SewevniT marTav Sen (iqve. gv. 165). amave sigelSi samegrelos ewodeba levan II dadianis iveriis miwa. mizezi imisa, rom samegrelos ewodeba iveriis miwa, isaa, rom iveria, iberia ewodeboda mTel istoriul saqarTvelos, mis dasavleT da aRmosavleT mxareebs. leon II-s ase mimarTaven: , , , . samegrelo iveriaa, xolo dasavleT saqarTvelos mmarTveli iveriis mefea imJamindeli ruseTisaTvis. aRsaniSnavia, rom suverenuli mmarTveloba levan II dadianma Tavisi xmliTa da TurqebTan diplomatiuri da politikuri omiT moipova. imJamad TurqeTis saSinao da saerTaSoriso mdgomareoba garTulebuli iyo da levani TurqeTs mxolod mcire xarks uxdida savaWro urTierTobebis sanacvlod. mRvdeli gabriel gegenava, iveriis miwebis xelmwifis elCi ruseTSi, acxadebda, rom imJamad suverenuli iveriis saeklesio centria biWvinTa, sadac iveriis patriarqi ziso. marTlac, mcxeTa da qarTl-kaxeTi mahmadian-sparselTa mpyrobelobis gamo moklebuli iyo suverenul saeklesio mmarTvelobas da biWvinTa iyo suverenuli saqarTvelos saeklesio centri. aqedan Cans isic, rom imdroisaTvis afxazeTi jer kidev Sedioda samegrelos samTavroSi, anu afxazeTi imJamad jer kidev iveriad iwodeboda. - 200 -

dadianis elCi sarwmunoebriv sakiTxebTan dakavSirebiT acxadebda, am vrcel teritoriaze (e.i. afxazeTSi, odiSSi, svaneTSi, guriasa da imereTSi) sarwmunoeba (rjuli), saeklesio wignebi, maSasadame, wirva-locvis ena iyo mxolod qarTuli. Tumca ki SinaobaSi sakuTari sametyvelo erTmaneTTan urTierTobis enac gvaqvso. , , , . yovlisa saqarTveloTa patroni, xelmwifeTa xelmwife levan dadiani albaT SeZlebda kidec saqarTvelos gaerTianebas, rom ara adiRe-Cerqezebis da afsuebis Semosevebi, romelTac XVII_XVIII saukuneebSi sastikad gaanadgures samegrelos samTavro anu qvemo iveriis politikuri centri. ise gamZafrda Crdilo kavkasiidan adiRe-CerqezTa da afsuaTa Semosevebi, rom levani Tavisi mmarTvelobis bolo periodSi iZulebuli gaxda, Tavdacvis mizniT aego safortifikacio nagebobebi, magaliTad, amJamad cnobili afxazeTis didi kedeli. amis mowme misioneri arqanjelo lamberti ambobs, levan dadianma Zalze didi danaxarjebiT aago 60 aTasi nabijis sigrZis kedelio. amasve ambobs meore misioneri kastelic, romelic aRniSnavs, es kelasuris kedeli gamiznulia afxazTa Sesakaveblado. levan IImde adiRe-Cerqezebma da afsuebma SeZles am kedlis CrdiloeTiT istoriuli afxazeTis teritoriis dapyroba da, radganac maT mier damorCilebul qveyanas afxazeTi ewodeboda, Tavadac afxazebi ewodaT mxaris saxelis Sesabamisad. istoriuli afxazeTis anu Tanamedrove gudauTa-gagris raionebis dapyrobis Semdeg adiRe-Cerqezebma da abaza-afsuebma Seuties istoriul saqarTvelos anu Tanamedrove soxumis, gulrifSis, oCamCiris da galis regions. afxazeTis anu kelasuris kedlis sigrZe asi kilometria. levan dadianis brZanebiT igi metad swrafad augiaT. zogjer koSkebs usaZirkvlod, pirdapir miwaze dgamdnen. kedeli icavda imJamad odiSis samTavroSi Semaval aRniSnuli soxumis, gulrifSis, oCamCirisa da galis raionebis uxmosavlian samiwaTmoqmedo mxareebs da iq arsebul qarTul saepiskoposoebsa da qristianul mosaxleobas. vaxuSti bagrationi wers, rom dRevandeli axali aTonis anu anakofiis aRmosavliT zRvidam mTamde Sevlo zRude didi levan dadianma abxazTa gamousvlelobisaTvis. mas am mSeneblobis dros exmarebodnen bediis, moqvisa da drandis episkoposebi mrevliTa da TanxiT, magram momxduri - 201 -

afsuebis Sekaveba ver SeZles. sabolood afxazebad wodebulma am afsuebma daipyres samegrelos ekonomikuri siZlieris wyaro zemoT xsenebuli raionebi, mospes zemoT xsenebuli saepiskoposoebi, maTi mrevli anu samegrelos mosaxleoba daxoces anda daatyveves. gadarCenili adgilobrivi mkvidri mosaxleoba momsaxure ymebad, faqtiurad monebad gadaaqcies. dResac ki afxazurad dabal fenas agirua anu megreli da aguru (guruli) ewodeba. samegrelos im droisaTvis mravalricxovani mosaxleoba ganaxevrebula. misionerebi weren, rom ormoci aTasi kacidan qveynis mosaxleobis naxevari anu oci aTasi kaci amowyda. es im droisaTvis Zalze didi raodenoba iyo. wirva-locva sabolood gauqmda biWvinTis, drandis, moqvis da bediis saepiskopoebSi. ayvavebuli qveyana gaCanagda. levan dadianma dainaxa, rom afsua-Cerqezebis Semosevebis Sedegad iveriis anu saqarTvelos gamaerTianebeli bolo Zala iSriteboda. marTlac, TiTqmis saukuniT gadaido saqarTvelos gaerTianebis saqme da ganaxlda erekle II-is dros, levanis gardacvalebidan asi wlis Semdeg. gansakuTrebiT aRsaniSnavia, rom levan II dadianis dros XVII s-is ucxoeli saeklesio moRvaweebis SexedulebiT dasavleT saqarTvelos anu qvemo iveriis patriarqi upiratesi iyo zemo iveriis anu aRmosavleT saqarTvelos patriarqTan SedarebiT. isini qvemo iberiis (iveriis) anu dasavleT saqarTvelos (afxazeTis) kaTalikoss pirdapir uwodebdnen ufros kaTalikoss, xolo dasavleT saqarTvelos umaRles xelisufals - mTeli iberiis mefeTa mefes. ra iyo amis mizezi? amJamad sayovelTaod gavrcelebuli TvalsazrisiT mcxeTeli kaTalikosi upiratesi iyo afxazeTis kaTalikosze. erTs uxucesi, xolo meores umrwemesi ewodeboda. es marTlac ZiriTadad ase gaxldaT, magram XVII s-sa da XVIII s-is damdegs, radganac aRmosavleT saqarTvelo mahmadianTa xelSi aRmoCnda, saerTaSoriso saeklesio wreebSi Camoyalibda Tvalsazrisi, rom swored suverenuli qvemo iberiis anu dasavleT saqarTvelos meTauri aris upiratesi, da Sesabamisad sruliad iveriis saeklesio xelisufali. marTlac XVII s-is ierusalimeli patriarqi dosiTeosi wers: iberiaSi ori avtokefaluri arqiepiskoposia, romelTac qarTvelebi uwodeben kaTalikosebs. qvemo iberias, romelsac Zvelad kolxeTs da lazikas uwodebdnen, aqvs eparqiebi imereTSi, guriaSi, samegreloSi, afxazeTSi, svaneTsa da mesxeTis nawilSi. qvemo iberiis kaTalikosi pativiT ufro metia zemo iberiis kaTalikosze. iberebi qvemo iberiis kaTalikoss - 202 -

miiCneven ufros kaTalikosaT, radgan mefe, e.i. imereTis Tavi maTTan iwodeba mTeli iberiis mefeTa mefed (dosiTeosi, ierusalimeli patriarqebi, Tavi V, gv. 510, wignidan saqarTvelos samociqulo eklesiis istoria, tomi II, 1998, gv. 90). XVII s-is meore ierusalimeli patriarqi qrisanTi (xrisanfi) imaves wers: saqarTveloSi, romelsac adre iberia erqva, iyo ori avtokefaluri arqiepiskoposi, romelTac Cveulebis Tanaxmad uwodeben kaTalikosebs. arqiepiskoposi qvemo iberiisa iwodeba imereTis, oseTis, guriis da sruliad qvemo iberiis unetares kaTalikosad, anu, martivad, sruliad iberiis unetares kaTalikosad, rogorc ufrosi zemo iberiis kaTalikosze, xolo meore e.i. zemo iberiisa iwodeba qarTlis, kaxeTis, alvaneTis da sruliad zemo iberiis unetares kaTalikosad (iqve. gv. 94). aqedan kargad Cans, rom XVII s-is saerTaSoriso wreebi, ruseTis xelmwifis kari da berZnuli sapatriarqoebi aRiareben, rom dasavleT saqarTvelo anu qvemo iberia imJamad iyo saqarTvelos suverenitetisa da politikuri damoukideblobis centri. marTlac, biWvinTis kaTalikoss sruliad saqarTvelos umaRles saeklesio xelisuflad miaCnda Tavi. magaliTad: biWvinTeli kaTolikosi grigoli saqmian sabuTebsa da sigel-gujrebs adasturebda beWdiT, romelsac hqonda Semdegi warwera: grigol mwyemsi qristes mier yovlisa saqarTveloisa kaTalikosi (qarTuli samarTlis Zeglebi, III, 1970, gv. 675). ase rom, ar aris swori amJamindeli Tvalsazrisi, TiTqosda erTiani saqarTvelos saxelmwifos daSlis Semdeg afxazeTis sakaTalikoso qarTlis eklesias gamoeyo, piriqiT, Tavisi Tavi afxazeTis kaTalikoss sruliad saqarTvelos mwyemsad da qristes mier dadgenilad, yovlisa saqarTveloisa mmarTvelad miaCnda. mis am uzenaesobas, rogorc vTqviT, imJamindeli saerTaSoriso wreebic adasturebdnen. am fonze da am mniSvnelobiT aris saxeldebuli levan II dadiani yoveli iveriis xelmwifed. uamravi dokumentidan da sigel-gujaridan naTlad Cans, rom biWvinTis RvTismSoblis anu afxazeTis sakaTalikosos samwysos qarTvelebi Seadgendnen, anu imJamindel megrelebs, gurulebs, svanebs, imerlebs da sxv. ganviTarebuli hqondaT ara viwro kuTxuri, tomobrivi TviTSemecneba, aramed erTiani erovnuli. Sesabamisi dokumentis damowmebamde unda vTqvaT, rom aRniSnuli kuTxeebis mosaxleobas viwro kuTxuri TviTSemecneba ganuviTarda XIX da XX saukuneebSi rusuli da komunistur- 203 -

aTeisturi mmarTvelobis dros. amis dasamowmeblad moviyvanT amonawers afxazeTis kaTalikosis 1733 wlis sigelidan, sadac naTqvamia: pirvelwodebulsa andrias mieca CrdiloeTisa qveyana moqcevad, CvenebiTa wmidisa RvTismSobelisaTa, rameTu Cven, qarTvelni, misni wilxvdomilni varT (iqve. gv. 727). biWvinTis RvTismSoblis anu afxazeTis sakaTalikosos mrevli wmida andrias mier moqceuli mTeli dasavleT saqarTvelos mosaxleoba eTnikuri qarTvelebia. es aris ueWveli mosazreba im droisaTvis. mitomac iyo am xalxis saxelmwifo, kulturisa da saeklesio ena mxolod da mxolod qarTuli (uZvelesi xanidanve). swored am qarTvelobis gamo gandevnes afsua-Cerqezebma Tavisi kaTedrebidan jer biWvinTis kaTalikosi, Semdeg ki drandis, moqvisa da bediis episkoposebi. maTi mrevli ki, istoriuli samegrelos mosaxleni, tyveebad gaixades. levan II dadianis gardacvaleba udidesi danakargi iyo saqarTvelosTvis, radganac sul ramdenime weliwadSi odiSis anu iveriis sazRvari Zlier Semcirda Crdilokavkasiel afsuaTa Semosevebis gamo. mas ase axasiaTebs wm. giorgis gelaTuri gulanis minawerSi erTi sasuliero piri: miicvala saxelovani, saxelganTqmuli, mravaljer gamarjvebuli dadiani batoni levan, saukunomca ars xseneba misi. levanis gardacvalebisTanave afxazeTis kaTalikosma datova biWvinTa da sakaTalikoso taxti gelaTSi gadmoitana afsua-Cerqezebis mZlavrobis gamo. Cvens sazogadoebaSi gabatonebuli TvalsazrisiT md. enguris iqiT afxazeTi TiTqosda dasaxlebuli iyo eTnikuri jgufiT - afxazebiT, xolo istoriulad sazRvari megrelTa jgufsa da eTnikur afxazebs Soris TiTqosda iyo enguri. aseTi Tvalsazrisi Camoyalibda rusebis batonobis dros XIX-XX ssSi. sinamdvileSi, levan II dadianis mematianeTa cnobebiT, odiSis samTavros dasavleTi sazRvari gadioda kelasur-kodorTan. ierusalimis partiarq dosiTeosis cnobiT odiSis sazRvari kidev ufro CrdiloeTiT punqt dioskuriasTan gadioda. mTeli es mxare anu istoriuli samegrelo, igive odiSi dasaxlebuli iyo ara afxazebiT, aramed megrelebiT. es teritoria sabuTebSi ixsenieba, rogorc dadianis miwa anu iveria, xolo am miwawylis mflobeli iveriis mefed, saqarTvelos xelmwifed anu, sxva sityvebiT rom vTqvaT, am miwa-wylis (e.i. Tanamedrove soxumis, gulrifSis, oCamCiris, galis raionebis) mosaxleni levan II dadianis dros iyvnen ara afxazebi, aramed megrelebi, afxazebi ki saxlobdnen Tanamedrove gudauTisa da gagris - 204 -

raionebSi. cxadia, afxazebic adre eTnikuri qarTvelebi iyvnen, magram Tavdapirvelad swored maT SeecvalaT eTnikur-erovnuli cnobiereba, Seerivnen Crdilo kavkasiidan gadmosaxlebul afsua-Cerqezebs, meomar tomebs, Semdeg ki uwinamZRvres maT, maTze daydnobiT gadmolaxes levan II dadianis mier afsuaTa Sesakaveblad agebuli 100 km sigrZis kedeli da Seesivnen istoriul samegrelos anu Tanamedrove soxumis, gulrifSis, gudauTisa da galis raionebs. XVII s-is 80-iani wlebidan TviTmxilveli ierusalimeli patriarqis dosiTeosis cnobiT am afxazebad saxeldebulma afsuebma moaoxres teritoria dioskuriidan hipiusamde (e.i. soxumidan cxeniswylamde), Semdeg ki daiwyo dapyrobili samegrelos teritoriaze afsuaCrdilokavkasielTa masobrivi Camosaxleba. gaCnda axali istoriul-geografiuli cnebebi abJua, samurzayano. istoriuli iberia CerqezeTad gadaiqca. amitomac XIX s-is mogzaurebi spenseri da gamba am teritorias (soxumidan enguramde) CerqezeTs (CerqezeTis nawils) uwodeben. ase rom levan II dadiani WeSmaritad iyo xelmwife iveriisa anu iveriis miwebis bolo mflobeli istoriul samegreloSi dioskuria-kodoramde. TaobebisaTvis dauviwyebeli iqneba levan II dadianis zrunva qarTuli kulturisa da qristianobis asayvaveblad, qarTuli socialur-politikuri sistemis anu qarTvelobis dasacavad mTis elementebisgan (anu afsuebisgan) da gaosmalebagaTaTrebisagan. levan II dadianis ojaxSi aRizarda saqarTvelos dedofali mariami, romelmac qarTuli suliskveTeba STanerga sparselTa mier vinaobadakarguli qarTlis mefe-xanebis rostomisa da Sahnavazis karze.

mitropoliti anania jafariZe dasavleT saqarTvelos saeklesio iurisdiqcia wm. maqsime aRmsareblis cxovrebis mixedviT
Tqveno uwmidesobav da unetaresobav, yovladsamRvdelo meufeno, qalbatonebo da batonebo. uflis nebiTa da mowyalebiT qristianuli sarwmunoebis siwmindis Seupovarma damcvelma qarTvelma erma SeZlo marTlmadideblobis umwikvlod motana uZvelesi xanidan dRemde. jer kidev cnobili berZeni istorikosi da episkoposi prokofi kesarieli werda VI saukuneSi: iberebi qristianebi arian da am sarwmunoebis wesebs yvela imaTze ukeT icaven, romelTac Cven vicnobT (georgika II, 1965, gv.48), prokofi ki icnobda aziis, afrikisa da evropis mraval qveyanasa da xalxs. amasve amtkicebdnen Zveli qarTuli wyaroebic, rom qarTveli xalxi - "mieriTgan aRsasrulamde hgies SeuZvrelad marTalsa sarwmunoebasa zeda" (mitr. anania jafariZe, saqarTvelos saeklesio krebebi, t.II, 2003, gv.102). CvenTvis Zalze mniSvnelovania da Rirebuli is cnobebi qarTvelTa mtkice marTlmadideblobis Sesaxeb, romlebic daculia wmida maqsime aRmsareblis cxovrebaSi. wmida maqsime 662 wels gaaZeves bizantiidan da Tavis or mowafesTan anastasi apokrisiarTan da anastasi monazonTan erTad Cvens qveyanaSi, dasavleT saqarTveloSi gadmoasaxles - misma erT-erTma mowafem aRwera kidec TvaliT xiluli cxovreba Tavisi moZRvrisa. VIIs. dasawyisSi, herakle keisris Semdgom, jer sparsTa batonobis, Semdeg ki sparseTSi herakle keisris laSqrobis gamo saqarTvelos erTiani saxelmwifoebrioba moSlili iyo da dasavleT saqarTveloSic ramdenime calkeuli qveyana arsebobda bizantielTa xelqveiT. eseni iyvnen: lazika, afxazeTi, afSileTi, svaneTi, Takveri da sxva. ai, rogor axasiaTebs wmida marTlmadideblobis damcveli da misi siwmidis SeuryevlobisaTvis devnili wmida maqsime aRmsareblis mowafe anastasi qarTvelTa imJamindel qveynebs: kerZod is lazeTs uwodebs "qristes moyvare lazTa qveyanas" (georgika, IV, 2, gv. 41), afxazeTs ki - "qristesmoyvare abazgebis qveyanas" (iqve, gv.45), xolo am qveyanaTa meTaurebs ki - "RvTismoyvare mTavrebs" - 206 -

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(iqve, gv. 45), "iberiis Rirssaqeb patrikiossa da pretors" (iqve, gv.48). saqme isaa, rom es cxovreba wmida maqsime aRmsareblisa, misi mowafis wm. anastasis mier dawerilia VIIs. 60-ian wlebSi, maSin, roca mTel bizantiaSi boboqrobda gamarjvebuli monoTelitoba, Sesabamisad idevneboda marTlmadidebloba, bizantiaSi aRar darCa wmida marTmadideblobis damcveli mTavari da episkoposic ki, aseT dros, aseT epoqasa da garemoSi, rogorc aRvniSneT dasavleT da aRmosavleT saqarTvelos xalxi da misi mTavrebi yofilan "qristesmoyvareni" anu marTlmadideblobis mtkice damcvelni. es ase rom ar yofiliyo anastasi apokrisiari, cxadia, maT "qristesmoyvareT" ar uwodebda, is iyo kaci, romelmac ar ikadra sicrue da simarTlis, wmida sarwmunoebis dacvisaTvis, mokveTes Tavis moZRvarTan da megobarTan erTad enebi da mklavebi da mas Tavisi moZRvris wmida maqsimes cxovreba dauweria moWrili mklaviT. am mklavze mas aRar hqonia xelis mtevani da TiTebi, mklavze miumagrebia ori wvrili joxi da amiT dauweria Tavisi moZRvris cxovreba - wers VIIs.-is moRvawe Teodosi gangreli Tavis mogonebebSi. es iyo simarTlis mwerlis marjvena. saeklesio iurisdiqciis mxriv dasavleT saqarTvelo, Zveli qarTuli matianeebis, aseve ruis-urbnisis "Zeglisweris" cnobiT, IV saukunidanve imyofeboda mcxeTis kaTalikosis iurisdiqciaSi. andria mociqulma iqadaga "yovelsa qveyanasa saqarTveloisasa", xolo wmida ninom moaqcia "yovelni qarTvelni" - werdnen ruis-urbnisis wmida krebis mamebi. es iyo safuZveli dasavleT saqarTveloSi mcxeTis kaTalikosis iurisdiqciis ganvrcobisa, amasTanave, mociqulTa kanonebis 34-e muxlis Tanaxmad, IVs.-Si organizebuli saqarTvelos eklesiis iurisdiqciis sazRvrebi Tan unda damTxveoda saxelmwifo administraciuls. Zveli matianeebis dabejiTebuli cnobiT, imJamindeli saqarTvelos anu qarTlis samefos dasavleTi sazRvari gadioda Savi zRvis pirsa da mdinare egriswyalze. mdinare egriswyali (Semdegdroindeli RaliZga) erTmaneTisagan yofda qarTlis samefosa da bizantiis imperias. md.egriswylis iqiT afxazeTi anu abazgia - bizantiis xeldebuli qveyana mdebareobda. ase yofila mefe azonisa da mefe farnavazis dros da maT Semdeg mefe mirianis epoqaSic. wyaroebis cnobiT mefe mirianis gamgeblobaSi aRmosavleT saqarTvelosTan erTad iyo egrisic. Sesabamisad mis dros IVs. dasawyisSi organizebulma saqarTvelos eklesiam Tavis iurisdiqciaSi moaqcia - 207 -

aRmosavleTTan erTad dasavleT saqarTvelo, mdinare egriswylamde. mefe vaxtang gorgaslis dros saqarTvelos daubrunda klarjeTi da agreTve afxazeTis teritoria mdinare egriswylidan md. klisuramde (kelasuramde), maSasadame, Vs.-dan sazRvari qarTlis samefosa da bizantiis imperias Soris gadioda mdinare kelasurze. am mdinaremde qarTlis kaTalikosi axorcielebda Tavis saeklesio Zalauflebas. amiTaa gamowveuli somxuri wyaroebis cnoba, rom VIs. bolosa da VIIs.-is dasawyisSi kirion kaTalikosi iyo "arqiepiskoposi egrisisa". somxuri wyaroebis garda, romelnic miuTiTeben, rom VIs.-is bolos dasavleTi saqarTvelo imyofeboda mcxeTis kaTalakosis iurisdiqciaSi, vaxuSti batoniSvilic brZanebda, rom dasavleT saqarTveloSi teritoria e.w. "vake" anu miwa-wyali quTaissa da cxeniswyals Soris "saeklesio erTobis" dros anu VIIIs.-mde afxazeTis sakaTalikosos warmoSobamde imyofeboda "mcxeTis arqiepiskoposis" iurisdiqciaSi, vaxuStisve cnobiT, raWis didi nawili niqozis episkoposis samwyso iyo. viTareba Seicvala herakle keisris laSqrobos Semdeg. VIIs.-is 20-ian - 30-ian wlebSi herakle keisarma qarTlis samefos CamoaWra SavizRvispireTis vrceli teritoriebi da Seiyvana isini bizantiis SemadgenlobaSi. Sesabamisad, iberiis anu qarTlis nacvlad aq bizantielTa xelqveS Camoyalibda lazikis, abazgiisa da sxva samTavroebi. miuxedavad politikuri cvlilebebisa, dasavleT saqarTvelos mosaxleoba, Cans, mainc mcxeTis kaTalikosis iurisdiqciaSi imyofeboda. prokofi kesarieli miuTiTebda kidec, rom VIs.-Si dasavleT saqarTvelos qristianebi "kaTalikosis" iurisdiqciaSi imyofebodnen. kaTalikosi ki imJamad mcxeTaSi ijda. qarTuli wyaroebis dabejiTebuli mtkicebiT dasavleTi saqarTvelo mudam qarTuli eklesiis ganuyofeli nawili iyo. aseTi mosazreba arsebobda uZvelesi xanidan XXs.-is 30-ian wlebamde. 30-ian wlebSi konstantinopolis sapatriarqosadmi daqvemdebarebuli saepiskoposoTa nusxebis gacnobis Semdeg CvenSi miiRes axali Sexeduleba, TiTqosda dasavleT saqarTveloSi arsebobda konstantinopolosadmi daqvemdebarebuli lazikis samitropolito foTSi (fazisSi) da oTxi saepiskoposo kaTedra (ziganasi, saisinisa, petrasi da rodopolisisa). imTaviTve amave nusxebis Seswavlis Semdgom briuselis universitetis profesorma, msoflio mniSvnelobis bizantologma nikoloz giorgis Ze adoncma (1871-1942) gamoTqva mosazreba, rom aRniSnuli bizantiuri saepiskoposoebi zigana ziginebisa, rodopolisisa da saisinisa, sinamdvileSi - 208 -

ganlagebulni iyvnen ara dasavleT saqarTveloSi, aramed qarTveli xalxis uZveles qveyanaSi "lazikaSi" anu trapizonis olqSi. is werda, rom konstantinopolis sapatriarqos nusxebSi moxsenebuli ziganas saepiskoposo centri mdebareobda trapizonTan axlos, rom iqve iyo sxva toponimebic msgavsi saxelis mqoneni (mag. "ziganas mTa" da sxva). mis axlos imyofebodnen rodopolisisa da saisinis kaTedrebic. maSasadame rodopoliss is ar akavSirebda varcixesTan, da, misi azriT, varcixesTan araviTari berZnuli saepiskoposo ar yofila, aseve misi azriT, saisini ar iyo caiSis kaTedra, xolo zigana ar iyo ziganevi anu gudayva. adoncis TvalsazrisiT, dasavleT saqarTveloSi ar arsebobdnen berZnuli saepiskoposoebi, amasve dabejiTebiT miuTiTebs qarTuli wyaroebic. arcerTi qarTuli wyaro ar icnobs dasavleT saqarTveloSi berZnul saepiskoposoebs varcixes, gudayvasa da caiSs. Cveni TvalsazrisiT, imaves gviCvenebs wmida maqsime aRmsareblis cxovrebac. aq mis dros berZnuli saepiskoposoebi rom yofiliyvnen cxadia am saepiskoposoTa mrevli iqneboda iseTive monoTeliti, rogoric iyo mrevli saerTod konstantinopolis sapatriarqos saeposkoposoebisa, aRniSnul epoqaSi, maSasadame, am kuTxis xalxic da misi mTavrebic ar iqnebodnen marTmadideblebi da konstantinopolur saepiskoposoTa msgavsad monoTelitobis anu mwvaleblobisadmi iqnebodnen midrekilni. wmida maqsime aRmsareblis mowafis wm.anastasis sityviT ki, rogorc zemoT aRvniSneT, dasavleT saqarTvelos xalxi mtkiced icavda marTlmadideblobas umZimes epoqaSi, msoflio eklesiaSi monoTelitebis batonobis dros. Sesabamisad unda davaskvnaT, rom am mxriv, safuZveli gvaqvs, kidev erTxel vendoT saeklesio erovnul wyaroebs, rom dasavleTi saqarTvelo IV-VIIIs., miuxedavad mZime politikuri viTarebisa, imyofeboda mcxeTis kaTalikosis iurisdiqciaSi da icavda marTlmadideblobis simtkices aRmosavleT saqarTvelos mosaxleobis msgavsad. dasavleT saqarTvelo mcxeTis kaTalikosis iurisdiqciaSi rom imyofeboda wmida maqsime aRmsareblis epoqaSi, VII saukuneSi, amis Sesaxeb migviTiTebs martvilis SesaniSnavi taZari. VII saukunis I naxevarSi agebuli martvilis anu Wyondidis taZari, wmida andria mociqulis mier aRmarTuli jvris adgilas nagebi, sasuliero kera, romelic mTeli dasavleT saqarTvelos mosaxleobis samlocvelo iyo, agebulia mcxeTis jvris taZris analogiiT. xuroTmoZRvari egrisis centrSi, saeklesio kanonebis Tanaxmad, veraviTar SemTxvevaSi ver - 209 -

SeZlebda mcxeTis jvris tipis didebuli taZris agebas, mas rom ar hqonoda saeklesio ierarqis Sesabamisi kurTxeva da nebarTva. mcxeTis jvris taZris arqiteqturis gameoreba dasavleT saqarTvelos centrSi kidev erTxel adasturebs Zveli qarTuli wyaroebis dabejiTebul Tvalsazriss, rom es mxareebi imyofebodnen mcxeTeli kaTalikosis iurisdiqciaSi da ara konstantinopolis patriarqisa. aRniSnul viTarebaTa gamo IV, V, VI, da VII saukuneebSi, dasavleT saqarTveloSi wirva-locvis ena iyo is Zveli qarTuli liturgikuli (saliteraturo) ena, romlis Seqmna-SemuSavebasa da daxvewas, Cveni gamokvleviT, Rvawli dades petre iberis aRmzrdelma ioane lazma da dasavleT saqarTvelos sxva moRvaweebma. amitomac aRmoCnda palestinis uZvelesi qarTuli warwerebi V saukunis ierusalimis udabnos e.w. "lazTa monasterSi". saeklesio arqiteqtura sazogadod asaxavda liturgikul viTarebas da igeboda wirva-locvis saWiroebisaTvis. maSasadame, arqiteqtura Seesabameboda liturgikul tipikons. mcxeTis jvari gulisxmobda, rom im arealSi, sadac mcxeTis jvris tipis taZrebi iyvnen ganlagebuli, erTi msgavsi tipikoniT tardeboda wirvalocva. mcxeTis jvarSi ki Cven viciT, rom wirva-locva tardeboda qarTul enaze da mcxeTis kaTalokosis iurisdiqciaSi Semaval eklesiebSi erTi saxis liturgikuli wesi aResruleboda. am arealSi moqceuli yofila martvilisa da egrisis mrevlic. ruis-urbnisis krebis "Zeglisweris dadgenilebaSi asaxuli cnobiT, wmida ninos droidanve, rogorc aRvniSneT, dasavleT saqarTvelo mcxeTeli kaTalikosis iurisdiqciaSi imyofeboda da aq imTaviTve wirva-locvis ena iyo Zveli qarTuli ena da ara berZnuli. sabolod unda davaskvnaT Semdegi: 1. wmida maqsime aRmsareblis epoqaSi dasavleT saqarTvelos qristianebi iyvnen mtkice marTlmadideblebi; 2. dasavleT saqarTvelos mosaxleoba wmida ninos droidanve imyofeboda mcxeTis da ara konstantinopolis iurisdiqciaSi, miuxedavad VIs.-dan Seqmnili politikuri Zvrebisa. wmida marTlmadidebloba safuZvelia Cveni TviTmyofadobisa da erovnuli mTlianobisa. ufalma inebos wmida maqsime aRmsareblis locviT misi ganmtkiceba, amin.

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mitropoliti anania jafariZe: "maT srulebiT ar ainteresebT qarTuli saeklesio ena, arc bibliis Targmna, sinamdvileSi ganzraxuli aqvT, amgvari saSualebebiT xalxi dayon, eri daanawevron..."
gazeTi "sapatriarqos uwyebani" (26 ianvari - 1 Tebervali, 2006): uwmidesisa da unetaresis, sruliad saqarTvelos kaTolikos-patriarqis, ilia II 2005 wlis 1 noembris brZanebulebiT, saqarTvelos sapatriarqosTan Seiqmna "qarTuli enisa da kulturis samecniero sabWo", romelic organizebas gauwevs saeklesio enisa da qarTveluri enakiloebis istoriuli urTierTmimarTebis Seswavlas. komisiis Tavmjdomared dainiSna manglisisa da walkis mitropoliti anania (jafariZe). aRniSnul sakiTxTan dakavSirebiT Cveni gazeTis redaqciam mas ramdenime kiTxviT mimarTa.
- saqarTvelos sapatriarqosTan qarTuli enisa da kulturis samecniero sabWos Seqmna mniSvnelovani movlenaa. es faqti kidev ufro metad Seuwyobs xels saqarTvelos eklesiisa da qarTuli mecnierebis daaxloebisa da TanamSromlobis gaaqtiurebis sakiTxs. ra procesebi uZRoda win xsenebuli sabWos Seqmnas da ra miznebs isaxavs igi?

- mogesalmebiT. glocavT da gakurTxebT uflis saxeliT. uwmidesma da unetaresma, saqarTvelos kaTolikos-patriarqma ilia II ineba da saqarTvelos sapatriarqoSi daarsda qarTuli enisa da kulturis samecniero sabWo, rac marTlac Zalzed mniSvnelovani movlenaa da vfiqrob, rom Tavis sityvasac ityvis. misi uwmidesoba da mRvdelmTavrebi SeaSfoTa bolo xans saqarTveloSi ganviTarebulma movlenebma, rodesac qarTuli media alaparakda imis Sesaxeb, rom saWiroa iTargmnos (ukve iTargmneba kidec) wmida werili adgilobriv qarTul dialeqtebze, kerZod, - svanurad, megrulad da ase, mTels regionalur kiloebze. ratom aris ase SemaSfoTebeli es faqti? istoriulad cnobilia, rom msgavsi mizanmimarTuli procesi saqarTveloSi erTi saukunis winaTac daiwyo. maSin am saqmeSi CarTuli iyo ruseTis imperiis Zalze mniSvnelovani saxelmwifo moxeleebi. isini cdilobdnen saqarTvelos kuTxeebSi daenergaT axali kultura, kerZod, erTiani qarTuli - 211 -

kulturisagan rogorme CamoeSorebinaT qarTveli eris sxvadasxva nawilebi. es sakmaod Zneli aRmoCnda 100 wlis win, radgan imJamad mTeli sazogadoeba dairazma am moZraobis winaaRmdeg. saprotesto process saTaveSi dimitri yifiani Caudga, mas es pirdapir daavales. dimitri yifiani am droisTvis Tavadaznaurobis marSali iyo, anu Tavad-aznaurTa sakrebulos winamZRvari, kerZod ki, dasavleT saqarTvelos, quTaisis guberniis Tavad-aznaurTa winamZRoli. mas, rogorc oficialur pirs, samegrelos da sxva kuTxeebis mosaxleobam, da Tavadaznaurobam sTxova, rom rusi moxeleebis mcdeloba, samegrelo da svaneTi CamoeSorebinaT erTiani qarTveli erisagan, erTiani qarTuli kulturisagan, rogorme SeeCerebina, protesti gamoexata iseTi formiT, rom es xma Tavad imperatoris karze misuliyo. am procesSi Semdeg ilia marTali da iakob gogebaSvilic CaerTvnen. dawyebuli procesis gagrZeleba iyo is, rom sasuliero seminariis studentma - laRiaSvilma mokla seminariis reqtori Cudecki, romelic cdilobda qarTuli eris danawevreba-daSlas, qarTveli enis gaZevebas seminariidan, rac imJamad Zalze saTakilo da seriozuli movlena gaxldaT. Semdgom, roca reqtoris panaSvidebi da dakrZalva gaimarTa sionSi, rusma egzarqosma, romelic iq sityviT gamovida, dawyevla laRiaSvilis warmomSobi xalxi. es warmomSobi xalxi, rogorc maSin miiCnevdnen, ra Tqma unda, qarTveli eri iyo, amitomac mTelma sazogadoebam da mTelma inteligenciam es Seafasa da miiRo, rogorc qarTveli eris wyevla. amitomac miswera maSin dimitri yifianma egzarqoss - Sen dawyevle Seni samwyso da aseTi mwyemsi movalea, datovos igi. amis gamo dimitri yifiani dasajes, ruseTSi gadaasaxles da iq mokles. igi am saqmes Seewira. rusebis mcdelobis sawinaaRmdegod, rogorme SemoeRoT megrulenovani wirvalocva, anbani, samegreloSi tardeboda aRSfoTebuli mosaxleobis gamosvlebi. samRvdeloebam gamarTa saeklesio krebebi (amaze arsebobs sagangebo gamokvlevebi, krebis masalebi moRweulia Cvenamde), imJamindeli presa savsea am movlenebTan dakavSirebuli cnobebiT. krebebze naTqvami iyo, rom wmida mociqulebis droidan, am xalxs aqvs saeklesio da saurTierTo ena - qarTuli ena. amitom, wirva-locva, swavla-ganaTleba samegreloSi, sasuliero da saero saswavlebebSi unda iyos qarTul enaze. amasve ambobda dimitri yifianic. Semdeg moxda - 212 -

revolucia, ase vTqvaT, saqme Cawynarda, ideis ganxorcieleba ruseTis imperiam TiTqos ver SeZlo, magram Semdeg, roca komunisturma ruseTma xelaxla daipyro saqarTvelo, Seqmnes avtonomiebi, saqarTvelo daSales da daanawiles da roca es saqme daamTavres, me-20 saukunis 30-ian wlebSi, xelaxla daiwyes intrigebi samegreloSi, kerZod, gamoscemdnen megrul gazeTebs da a. S. magram Semdgom, isev xalxisa da eris winaaRmdegobis gamo, movlenebi am gziT aRar ganviTarda, igi bolSevikebmave SeaCeres. amjerad, xelaxla, garkveuli intervalis Semdeg undaT, rom kvlav daiwyon es procesi: yovel SemTxvevaSi, gveubnebian, rom saxareba unda iTargmnos megrulad, svanurad, amas eTanxmeba Tavad oficialuri piric ki, saxalxo damcveli. TiTqmis paralelurad, dapyrobil afxazeTSi gamovida da axlac gamodis gazeTi "gali", sadac cnobili ingliseli mecnieri jorj hiuti, romelic aTeuli wlebia, ebrZvis qarTul kulturasa da mecnierebas, qarTvel ers, gazeTSi akeTebs pirdapir mowodebas, droa, saxareba iTargmnos svanurad da megrulad, Seiqmnas adgilobrivi kultura da sxva msgavsi. aq saintereso is aris, rom rasac ambobs hiuti, imaves ambobs garkveuli wreebi TbilisSi. iseTi STabeWdilebaa, rom erTmaneTis sityvebs imeoreben, anu erTsa da igive saqmes akeTeben. vTqvaT, ver gavugeT Tbilisis sazogadoebis im nawils, romelic wmida werilis megrulad da svanurad Targmnis momxrea, magram xom viciT, ra surs hiuts, romelsac, sxvas rom Tavi davaneboT, sakmaod didi roli, miuZRvis afxazeTis omis dros saqarTvelom sainformacio omi rom waago da romelic aTeuli wlebia, araqarTuli mowodebebiT gamodis. meore mizezi sabWos Seqmnisa aris qarTuli enisa da kulturis lingvisturi kuTxiT Seswavla, romelic, TavisTavad, svanebisa da megrelebis ena da kulturaa. roca saqarTveloSi Semovidnen mociqulebi, 2000 wlis win, maSin is ena, romelzec Cven dRes vlaparakobT, Camoyalibebuli ar iyo. Cveni winaprebi saubrobdnen fuZe qarTvelur enaze, Zvel qarTulze, romelic saeklesio mwerlobam daafiqsira. Cveni saerTo winaprebi, rogorc qarTlelebisa, megrelebisa, svanebisa, kaxelebisa, imerlebisa, ingiloebisa, saubrobdnen erT enaze, romelic Semoinaxa eklesiam, miiRo igi, rogorc saRvTismsaxuro, saeklesio ena anu eklesiam Seinaxa Zveli qarTuli ena, romlzedac dRes saqarTvelos yvela kuTxeSi wirva-locva tardeba, is ar aris arc - 213 -

imereTis, arc kaxeTis ena, aramed ena, romelic hqonda Cvens winaprebs. roca Cven gvqonda enobrivi mTlianoba, swored maSin iTargmna wmida werili qarTul enaze, rogorc es slavur qveynebSi moxda. axla, roca zogierTebs surT, waarTvan megrelebs da svanebs es ena, amiT sinamdvileSi sulierad aRaribeben am kuTxeebs, TavianT erovnul kulturas aclian. vfiqrob, rom Cveni sabWos arsebobis erT-erTi mizani unda iyos swored is, rom Zveli qarTuli saeklesio enis, misi istoriis Sesaxeb Cvens ersa da Cvens mosaxleobas rogorme swori informacia miewodos, raTa Tavidan aviridoT qarTveli eris daSla-danawileba. es Zalian surT Cvens avadmosurneebs, maT srulebiT ar ainteresebT qarTuli saeklesio ena, arc bibliis Targmna, sinamdvileSi ganzraxuli aqvT, amgvari saSualebebiT xalxi dayon, eri daanawevron. Cveni mizania, swored am process SevuSaloT xeli.
- sainteresoa, rogor apirebT saeklesio enisa da qarTveluri ena-kiloebis urTierTmimarTebis Seswavlas im fonze, roca qarTveluri enobrivi erTeulebis saboloo diferenciaciis sakiTxze qarTul, da ara marto qarTul samecniero literaturaSi, araerTi gansxvavebuli mosazreba arsebobs?

- marTlac, am sakiTxTan dakavSirebiT uamravi azria gamoTqmuli. erT-erTi cnobili enaTmecnieri - givi maWavariani ambobs, rom fuZe qarTveluri enidan jer svanuris gamoyofa moxda, amis Sedegad Camoyalibda ori kilo - svanuri da qarTulzanuri. rodis daSordnen erTmaneTs zanuri da qarTuli? xsenebuli mecnieri brZanebs, rom es moxda Cveni welTaRricxvis mijnaze anu pirvel saukuneSi, roca qarTulzanuri enobrivi erToba kvlav arsebobda. eklesiurad es is droa, roca saqarTveloSi Semodian mociqulebi da isini xalxisTvis gasageb enaze qadageben qristes sarwmunoebas, anu enaze, romelzec saubrobda rogorc aRmosavleT saqarTvelos mosaxleoba, aseve dasavleTis. mociqulebis es ena daafiqsira eklesiamac. Cvenamde moRweuli qarTuli sasuliero mwerlobis pirveli nimuSebi Seiqmna mociqulTa epoqidan arcTu ise didi xnis Semdeg, wminda ninos dros da es mwerloba ar aRmocenebula qarTlur-kaxur dialeqtze, rogorc amas amtkicebdnen sabWoTa mecnierebi, igi Camoyalibda qarTvelTa enobrivi mTlianobis dros, igi aris saerTo fuZe enaze damkvidrebuli ena, ena rogorc svanis, aseve megrelis da yoveli qarTvelis. amas eklesia - 214 -

aRiqvams rogorc faqts, amas amtkicebs saeklesio wyaroebi, amasve amboben Cveni Zveli saeklesio moRvaweebic da yovelive es maZlevs safuZvels, igive gavimeoro. mogaxsenebT ramdenime magaliTs: XII saukunis didi moRvawe, daviT aRmaSeneblis moZRvari arsen beri brZanebs, Cven Svilni varT "arian qarTliT gamosulTani da maTi ena vuwyiT", anu ambobs, rom ena, romelic Cven viciT, aris saqarTvelos saerTo ena da ar warmoadgens misi romelime kuTxis sakuTrebas. ufro adre, episkoposi leonti mroveli ganmartavs, rom ena, romelic eklesiaSi gamoiyeneba, farnavazis dros saerTo saxelmwifoebriv enas warmoadgenda, anu "sxva ena, Tvinier qarTulisa, ar izraxeboda" mTel am miwa wyalze, pontos zRvispireTidan, mdinare egriswylidan vidre albaneTamde da somxeTamde, romelsac dRes saqarTvelo ewodeba. aqedan gamomdinare, qristesSobamde IV-III saukuneebSi, mefeebis - farnavazisa da azonis dros mxolod fuZe qarTuli ena gamoiyeneboda. anu is Zveli qarTuli ena megrelebisa da svanebis winaprebis deda enac iyo, sxvagvarad, roca amas uaryofen, svanebi, megrelebi velur tomad gamohyavT, romelTac damwerloba da kultura ar hqoniaT, rac ase ar aris, roca svaneTSi kldeebic ki savsea X-XI saukunis damwerlobiT. es mxare saukuneebis manZilze iseT izolaciaSi iyo, rom iq aravis SeeZlo eqspansia moexdina, yovelive, rac iqmneboda, adgilobriv kulturas warmoadgenda.
- Zalian bevri mecnieri ikvlevs am sakiTxebs. arian Tu ara isini sapatriarqos mier Seqmnili komisiis wevrebi?

- Cveni komisia dakompleqtebulia Zalzed seriozuli da cnobili mecnierebiT, maT Sorisaa: profesori manana tabiZe, profesori tariel futkaraZe, romelmac gamosca SesaniSnavi wigni saxelwodebiT "qarTvelebi", sadac mravali mniSvnelovani sakiTxia ganxiluli, aseve profesori Teimuraz gvancelaZe, profesori nomadi barTaia, poeti, enaTmecnieri naTela quTelia, romelmac aseve axlaxan gamosca wigni lazeTze da mravali sxva.
- apirebT Tu ara raime gamocemis daarsebas?

konferenciebis gamarTvas, iqneb telearxebmac dagviTmon dro, raTa rogorme Cveni xma mivawodoT qarTvel sazogadoebas. aq maxsendeba IX saukunis udidesi moRvawis, ilarion qarTvelis cxovreba. saberZneTSi, ulumbos mTaze, man erT-erT berZnul eklesiaSi qarTuli wirva daayena. berZenma mamasaxlisma brZana, qarTvelebi monastridan gaeZevebinaT, im Rames mamasaxliss RvTismSobeli gamoecxada, romelmac uTxra: "mravalni damkvidrebad arian mTasa amas maTisa enisa metyuelni da cxonebad arian", cxoneba RvTis naTelSi cxovrebas niSnavs. aqve gavixseneb ioanesa da eqvTimes cxovrebas, rodesac eqvTime yovladwmida RvTismSoblis mier ganikurna da romelmac mas qarTuli eniT mimarTa: "rai ars, rai gelmis, efTvime? ...ararai ars vnebai Sen Tana, aRdeg, nu geSinin, da qarTulad xsnilad ubnobdi!" aq mniSvnelovania is, rom RvTismSobeli qarTulad metyvelebda da am ambis Semdeg eqvTimes piridan, romelsac qarTulad metyveleba uWirda, rogorc wyali, ise gadmodis qarTuli sityva da Seeweva wignTagan naklul saqarTvelos. sinas mTa aris msoflioSi yvelaze wmida adgili, sadac bibliur moses ufalma aTi mcneba gadasca, adgili WeSmaritebisa da simarTlisa, sadac saukuneTa manZilze arsebobs monastrebi, aq, qarTul monasterSi qarTvel berebs xelSi eWiraT "moqcevai qarTlisai", sadac naTqvamia, rom qarTuli ena aris qarTvelTa dedaena, romlis sazRvrebSi Sedis rogorc aRmosavleTi, aseve dasavleTi saqarTvelo. maT aseve xelT hqondaT locvasadidebeli - "qebai da didebai qarTulisa enisai", romelic Zalian adreuli epoqisaa. asureli mamebi, romlebic siriidan iyvnen, bunebrivia, qarTulad ver metyvelebdnen, magram rogorc ki saqarTveloSi Semovidnen, erT wamSi suliwmidis madliT qarTulad ametyveldnen, iseve rogorc mociqulebi, am enas patronobs ufali RmerTi da am enis dakargva RvTis madlis dakargvasac niSnavs. eqvTime aTonelis mTeli Semoqmedeba RvTis madlis nayofia, iseve rogorc asureli mamebisa, mTeli saeklesio kultura, sxvagvarad rom vTqvaT, yovladwmida RvTismSoblis namuSakevia.
esaubra nino gagoSaSvili

- Cveni sazogadoebisaTvis imdenad moulodneli aRmoCnda amgvari gamosvlebi, rom jerjerobiT vcdilobT, CamovayaliboT, Tu ra SeiZleba vupasuxoT qarTveli sazogadoebis mtrebs. ra Tqma unda, vfiqrobT wignebis, broSurebis gamocemas, - 215 -

- 216 -

profesor anania jafariZis ZiriTad naSromTa anotirebuli bibliografia


1. anania jafariZe, saqarTvelos saeklesio krebebi, I, Tbilisi, 2003 w. gv. 430; recenzentebi: istoriis mecnierebaTa doqtori giuli alasania, istoriis mecnierebaTa doqtori sergo vardosaniZe. naSromSi ganxilulia saqarTvelos sakanonmdeblo saeklesio krebebi (arasruli) krebaTa analizs Tan erTvis kanonikuri samarTlis Zeglebi; sakiTxis istoriografia (gv. 5-88); nawili I. saeklesio samarTlis wyaroebi (gv. 88-212): Tavi I: msoflio saeklesio krebebi da maTi kanonebi (91); adgilobrivi krebebis kanonebi (96); wmida mamaTa kanonebi (96); kanonikuri krebulebi (98); nomokanonebi (100); kanonTa ganmartebani, aristine, zonara, balsamoni (101); Tavi II: saeklesio samarTlis wyaroebis pirveli qarTuli Targmanebi (103); sakanonmdeblo Zeglebis Targmanebi VI-VII saukuneebSi (106); sakanonmdeblo Zeglebis Targmanebi VIII-IX saukuneebSi (108); sakanonmdeblo Zeglebis Targmanebi X-XI saukuneebSi (110); wm. fotis nomokanonis anu didi sjuliskanonis qarTuli Targmanebi (116); saeklesio samarTlis Zeglebis Targmanebi XVIII saukunis I naxevarSi (119); saeklesio samarTlis Zeglebis Targmanebi XX s. II naxevarSi (124); Tavi III: saqarTvelos saeklesio samarTlis wyaroebi I-V ss-Si (126); saeklesio samarTlis wyaroebi dvinis krebidan ruis-urbnisis krebamde (VI-XI) (174); saeklesio samarTlis wyaroebi ruis-urbnisis krebis Semdeg (XII-XVIII) (190); saeklesio samarTlis wyaroebi qarTuli saxelmwifoebriobis gauqmebis periodebSi (197); saeklesio samarTlis wyaroebi XVIII s. II naxevarSi (203); saeklesio samarTlis wyaroebi avtokefaliis gauqmebisas (204); saeklesio samarTlis wyaroebi avtokefaliis aRdgenis Semdeg (210); nawili II: Tavi I: saqarTvelos eklesiis sakanonmdeblo krebebi: ruis-urbnisis saeklesio krebis "Zegliswera" (2140; ruisurbnisis krebis kanonebi [teqsti] (222); sakanonmdeblo kreba giorgi brwyinvalis dros (1335) (241); "Zeglis dadeba~" [amokrebili muxlebi] (243); Wulevis sakanonmdeblo krebis "kanonikuri samarTali" (1381-1386) (245); caiS-bediis Sekrebis "mcneba sasjulo" (1470-1474) (256); biWvinTis saeklesio krebis (1543-1549) samarTali (276); daviT-garejis saeklesio krebis "ganCineba" (1702) (285); sakanonmdeblo - 217 -

Sekrebani vaxtang VI-is karze (290); Tbilisis III saeklesio krebis "kanonni" (1748) (310); mereTis saeklesio krebis "xeliTwerili" (1759) (322); 1762, 1768, 1793 ww. krebaTa dadgenilebani saepiskoposoTa marTvis Sesaxeb, mcnebani episkoposTa da mRvdelTa mimarT [teqstebi] (327); saqarTvelos I saeklesio krebis (9-17.09.1917) mier gamocemuli "debuleba" (339); saqarTvelos II saeklesio krebis (27.06.1920) mier gamocemuli "debuleba" (353); saqarTvelos IV saeklesio krebis (21-27.06.1927) mier gamocemuli "debuleba" (368); saqarTvelos VIII saeklesio krebis saxeliT (1937) gamocemuli "debuleba" (381); saqarTvelos eklesiis XIII gafarToebuli krebis mier gamocemuli "debuleba" (18-19.09.1995) (390); daskvna (410). wigns axlavs reziume rusul da inglisur enebze. 2. anania jafariZe, saqarTvelos saeklesio krebebi, II, Tbilisi, 2003 w. gv. 304; redaqtori: lia SarvaSiZe, recenzentebi: istoriis mecnierebaTa doqtori, giuli alasania, istoriis mecnierebaTa doqtori sergo vardosaniZe. naSromSi ganxilulia werilobiT ZeglebSi gamovlenili IVXVIII saukuneebSi Semdgari 21 mimdinare saeklesio kreba da agreTve msoflio saeklesio krebebi qarTvel episkoposTa monawileobiT. pirvelad xdeba erTad Sekreba da gaanalizeba eklesiis istoriis Sesaswavlad umniSvnelovanesi krebebisa, romlebzec suliwmidis madliT aRWurvili wmida mamebi saqveyno da saeklesio samarTals gadmocemdnen. naSromis zogierT paragrafs Tan erTvis Sesabamisi krebebis mier gamocemuli samarTlis aqtebi; kerZod: saqarTvelos eklesiis mimdinare krebebi: Sesavali (5); saqarTvelos eklesiis istoriis periodizacia da saeklesio istoriografia (7); saeklesio samarTlis werilobiTi wyaroebi (32); episkoposTa Sekrebani wmida mefeTa mirianisa da vaxtang gorgaslis dros (IV-V ss) (34); dvinis saeklesio kreba (506) (40); mcxeTis krebebi (VII s.) (52); antioqiis I saeklesio kreba (VIII s. 50-iani wlebi) (54); anCis saeklesio kreba (IX s. 40-iani wlebi) (75); javaxeTis saeklesio kreba (IX s. 60-iani wlebi) (86); Rrtilas saeklesio kreba (1046) (98); antioqiis II saeklesio kreba (1056-1057) (106); quTaisis saeklesio kreba (1058) (130); Tbilisis I saeklesio kreba (1178 w.) (138); Tbilisis II saeklesio kreba (1185 w.) (145); saeklesio Sekrebani daviT aRmaSeneblisa da Tamaris karze (159); anisis Sekreba (1218) (164); SiomRvimis saeklesio kreba (XIII s. 40-iani wlebi) (169); mcxeTis saeklesio - 218 -

kreba (1263) (173); Sekreba safaraSi (1453) (86); samTavros saeklesio Sekreba (1459) (190); svaneTis saeklesio krebebi (XIIIXVIII) (192); saeklesio Sekrebani vaxtang VI-is, Teimurazisa da erekles karze (196); mcxeTa-Tbilisis (1755-1756) kreba (203); Tbilisis IV saeklesio kreba (1764) (231); daskvna (239). msoflio saeklesio krebebi qarTvel episkoposTa monawileobiT: Sesavali (256); saqarTvelos ori episkoposi I msoflio krebaze (257); qarTuli eklesiis warmomadgeneli II msoflio krebaze (260); qarTveli episkoposi III msoflio krebis muSaobaSi (262); saqarTvelos episkoposebi IV msoflio krebaze (263); cnoba V krebis muSaobaSi saqarTvelos episkoposis monawileobis Sesaxeb (265); VI msoflio krebis mier saqarTvelos eklesiis uflebaTa aRiareba (273); 691 wlis "trulis" msoflio saeklesio krebis xelismomweri episkoposebi dasavleT saqarTvelodan (277); saqarTvelos episkoposi VII msoflio krebaze (281); ferara-florenciis kreba (290); daskvna (295). naSroms axlavs reziumeebi rusul da inglisur enaze. 3.anania jafariZe, saqarTvelos saeklesio krebebi (XIX-XX saukuneebi), III, Tbilisi, 2003 w. 350 gv. redaqtori: lia SarvaSiZe, recenzentebi: istoriis mecnierebaTa doqtori giuli alasania, istoriis mecnierebaTa doqtori sergo vardosaniZe. naSromSi ganxilulia me-19 da me-20 saukuneebSi Semdgari 50-ze meti saeklesio kreba. maTi mniSvnelovani nawili, gansakuTrebiT XX s. dasawyisSi, saerTo-saxalxo yrilobas warmoadgenda saqarTvelos saxelmwifoebriobis (avtonomiis), damoukideblobisa da saeklesio avtokefaliis aRdgenisaken mimarTuls. krebaTa analizs Tan erTvis maT mier gamocemuli samarTlis Zeglebi; kerZod: Sesavali (5); saeklesio Sekrebebi, e.w. "cerkovni bunti" avtokefaliis gauqmebis dros (1819-1820) (7); avtokefaluri moZraobis Casaxva (26); saeklesio krebebi 1905-1916 ww. (19 kreba) (45); avtokefaliis aRmdgeni krebebi (9 kreba) (113); wm. kirionis mkvlelobis erTi versia (137); saeklesio krebebi 1918-1995 wlebSi (23 kreba) (141); daskvna (193). saqarTvelos eklesiis mmarTveli ierarqia: kaTalikosi (201); patriarqi (225); qorepiskoposi (231); mwignobarTuxucesi (238); moZRvarTmoZRvari (249); daskvna (270). wigns axlavs reziume rusul da inglisur enebze. 4.anania jafariZe. saqarTvelos samociqulo eklesiis istoria, axalcixe-rabaTi, 1983-1988. naSromi moicavs - 219 -

saqarTvelos eklesiis istorias pirvel saukunidan meeqvse saukunis CaTvliT. ganxilulia qarTuli qristianuli Temis problema mociqulTa xanaSi; Tanamedrove saeklesio istoriis monacemebis gaTvaliwinebiT gatarebulia Tvalsazrisi, rom mociqulebma imTaviTve iqadages qristianuli sarwmunoeba saqarTveloSi. naSromSi vrceli monakveTi ukavia mtkicebas, rom qarTveli xalxi Tavis istoriaSi gamoCenamde eTnikurad erTgvarovani iyo. adrindeli qarTuli eTnosi mociqulTa epoqis win gaudiferencirebuli iyo; amitomac, saerTo qarTuli unda yofiliyo winaqristianuli qarTuli sarwmunoebis RvTismsaxurebis ena; amitomac es ena iqca saeklesio enad mociqulebis epoqidan. jer am eniT zepirad iTargmna wminda werili, xolo IV-V ss. ukve werilobiT; amitomac qarTuli iyo saeklesio ena imTaviTve rogorc dasavleT, ise aRmosavleT saqarTveloSi. VI saukuneSi sparseTis agresiis Sedegad dapyrobili samxreT saqarTvelosa da aseve hereTSi qarTuli mosaxleoba aRmoCnda somxuri eklesiis uRelqveS; rac naSromSi qarTul da ucxour wyaroebze dayrdnobiT aris ganxiluli. 5. anania jafariZe, saqarTvelos samociqulo eklesiis istoria, tomi pirveli, Tbilisi, 1996 w. 447 gv. redaqtori lia SarvaSiZe. naSromSi gadmocemulia qarTuli eklesiis istoria mociqulTa xanidan me-6 saukunis CaTvliT, kerZod: Tavi I: qarTuli eklesia I-III saukuneebSi (15); saxelwodeba da mimarTuleba qarTuli eklesiisa (16); saqarTvelo mociqulTa dros (20); wminda andriasa da sxva mociqulebis qadageba saqarTveloSi (34); wminda andrias mimosvla saqarTveloSi (44); mociqulTa mier daarsebuli pirveli avtokefaluri eklesiebi (51); qarTuli eklesiis samwyso (56); saerTo ena (58); saerTo teritoria (63); fsiqiuri wyobis erToba (67); saerTo kulti erTmorwmuneoba (67); qarTuli tomebis saerTo kultura (70); ekonomikuri kavSiri dasavleT da aRmosavleT saqarTvelos Soris (70); qarTvelebis saerTo warmoSoba, sisxliT naTesaoba (71); qarTuli eklesiis iurisdiqciis sazRvrebi (74); qarTlis sazRvrebi da qarTvelTa vinaoba leonti mrovelis mixedviT (74); juanSeris Tanaxmad, egrisi qarTlSi Semavali qveyanaa (81); qarTuli eklesiis iurisdiqciis dasavleTis sazRvrebi vaxuStis mixedviT (85); zogierTi berZeni da romaeli istorikosis Tanaxmad, kolxeTi iberiaSi Semavali qveyanaa (86); qarTli da qarTveli eri somexi istorikosebis mixedviT (103); qarTlis cxovrebis simarTle (109); saerToqarTuli koine ena - 220 -

(114); Tavi II: qarTuli eklesia IV saukuneSi (119); saqarTvelo IV saukuneSi (120); gza qristianobisa I saukunidan wminda ninomde (127); wminda ninos cxovreba (144); qarTlis moqcevis wyaroebi (173); qarTuli eklesiis meTaurebi (180); qarTuli eklesiis uflebrivi mdgomareobis Sesaxeb (185); Tavi III: qarTuli eklesia V saukuneSi (204); qveynis zogadi mdgomareoba V saukuneSi (205); vaxtang gorgaslis cxovreba (221); ver moawies saqme ese jerisaebr sjulisa (proiranuli saeklesio dajgufebani vaxtang gorgaslis reformamde) (242); saeklesio sarwmunoebrivi viTareba saqarTvelos sakaTalikosos daarsebisas (256); saqarTvelos sakaTalikosos daarseba (290); Teoriebi qarTuli eklesiis avtokefaliis Sesaxeb (315); Tavi IV: qarTuli eklesia VI saukuneSi (325); qveynis zogadi mdgomareoba VI saukuneSi (326); qarTuli eklesiis iurisdiqciis sazRvrebi (VI) saukuneSi (330); saeklesio winaswarmetyvelebani qarTuli saxelmwifos gauqmebis Semdeg (334); saeklesio ena albaneTSi, hereTSi, gugareTsa da dasavleT saqarTveloSi VI-VII saukuneebSi (345); arseni safarelis Txzuleba ganyofisTvis qarTvelTa da somexTa (369); monofizitobis xangrZlivobis Sesaxeb saqarTveloSi (378); asureli mamebi monofizitobis winaaRmdeg (385); epistoleTa wignis mokle Sinaarsi (395); erToba qarTul da somxur eklesiaTa Soris uxtanesis mixedviT (423); somxur eklesiasTan urTierTobis mizezi da misi Sedegi (428); qarTveli monofizitebi da somxuri eklesiis wevri qarTveli qalkedonikebi (438). 6. anania jafariZe, saqarTvelos samociqulo eklesiis istoria, tomi meore, Tbilisi, 1998 w. 447 gv. redaqtori lia SarvaSiZe, naSromSi gadmocemulia qarTuli eklesiis istoria VII-XI saukuneebSi, Tavi I: qarTuli eklesia VII saukuneSi (5); qveynis zogadi mdgomareoba (6); iurisdiqciis sazRvrebis cvlileba VII saukuneSi (16); ganyofa qarTul da somxur eklesiaTa Soris (28); arsen safareli erTobisdroindeli somexi kaTalikosebis Sesaxeb (33); qarTuli eklesiis sapatriarqo eklesiad gamocxadeba VII saukuneSi (40); movses kalankatuacis mier aRwerili VII saukunis ambebi (50); Tavi II: qarTuli eklesia VIII-X saukuneebSi (66);qarTlis istoriuli geografia VIII saukunisaTvis (67); qveynis zogadi mdgomareoba VIII_X saukuneebSi (76); afxazeTis sakaTalikosos daarseba (89); mironis kurTxevis Sesaxeb (97); afxazeTi da tao-klarjeTi qarTvelTa erovnuli konsolidaciis kerebi (108); qarTuli - 221 -

eklesiis Tavdadebuli Rvawli pirveli mahmadianuri Semotevis winaaRmdeg (wm. abo Tbileli, wm. daviT da konstantine, wm. arCil mefe, wm. miqael-gobroni, wm. konstantine qarTveli) (115); wmida grigol xanZTelis samoRvaweo are (124); avtokefaliis arsi - episkoposTa kurTxeva Tavisive episkoposebis mier (140); abo Tbilelis qarTvelobisa da qarTvelTa sisxliT monaTesaobis eTnikuri momentis Sesaxeb (144); wmida nino da mociquli eliSa (153); termin naTesaviT qarTvelis Sesaxeb (160); iberia - eTnikuri Sinaarsis matarebeli termini (162); Tavi III: qarTuli eklesia XI saukuneSi (166); saqarTvelos sapatriarqos daarsebis politikuri safuZveli (167); qarTuli eklesiis devna 1021-1054 wlebSi bizantia - saqarTvelos omis dros (177); qarTuli eklesiis sapatriarqo Rirsebis aRiareba 1054-1057 wlebSi (195); saqarTvelos sapatriarqos struqtura da iurisdiqciis sazRvrebi (213); saqarTvelos sapatriarqos daarsebis kanonikuri uflebis Sesaxeb (227); diptixis Sesaxeb (232); saqarTvelos sapatriarqos adgili marTlmadideblur diptixSi (237); qarTuli eklesiis VI adgili feraraflorenciis msoflio saeklesio krebaze (245); qarTuli eklesiis Sinagani diptixi (jdomisa da dgomis wesi) (250); Tavi IV: gaqarTvelebismoZvelebuli Teoria (259); Teoria qarTuli eklesiis mier saqarTvelos kuTxeTagaqarTvelebis Sesaxeb (260); somxuri eklesiis istoria, monoTelitoba da xatmebrZoloba masTan kavSirSi a. kartaSevis mixedviT (270); somxuri eklesiis pretenziebi qarTuli eklesiis dauflebisaTvis (280); didi mTargmnelebi (299); qarTlis cxovrebis armenofiluri redaqcia (312); qarTvelTa armenizaciis Sesaxeb (350). 7. anania jafariZe, saqarTvelos samociqulo eklesiis istoria, tomi mesame, Tbilisi, 1999 w. 415 gv. redaqtori lia SarvaSiZe. naSromSi gadmocemulia qarTuli eklesiis istoria XII-XVIII ss. Tavi I: qarTuli eklesia XII saukuneSi (5); daviT aRmaSenebeli (6); mefeT mefe daviTis cxovreba (7); mefe daviTi morCili berisa (26); ruis-urbnisis kreba (34); eklesia qarTuli qveynebis gamaerTianebeli (53); yivCaRTa Casaxleba (59); Tamar mefe (68); Tamar mefis cxovrebis qronika (69); Wyondideli da aTabagi (82); Tamari wmida keTilmsaxuri mefe (96); Tavi II: qarTuli eklesia XIII saukuneSi (108); qveynis zogadi mdgomareoba XIII saukuneSi (109); suli Tavdadebisa (109); mematianis mier aRwerili ambebi deda RvTismSoblis mier - 222 -

qarTvelTa mfarvelobis Sesaxeb (125); Tavi III: qarTuli eklesia XIV saukuneSi (136); qveynis zogadi mdgomareoba XIV saukuneSi (137); mefe giorgi brwyinvale (137); Cvidmetwliani samamulo omi (143); Tavi IV: qarTuli eklesia XV saukuneSi (154); qveynis zogadi mdgomareoba XV saukuneebSi (155); mefeT mefe monazoni aleqsandre didi (156); qarTuli eklesiis Tavdadebuli brZola saqarTvelos saxelmwifoebrivi erTianobisaTvis (165); erovneba da sarwmunoeba (182); saswaulTmoqmedi xati awyurisa (188); Tavi V: qarTuli eklesia XVI saukuneSi (194); saqarTvelo XVI saukuneSi (195); iyo saqarTvelo uvno mterTagan(204); Temobriobis aRorZineba erTiani qarTuli saxelmwifos daSlis Sedegad (211); eklesia Temobriobis aRorZinebis dros (215); Tavi VI: qarTuli eklesia XVII saukuneSi (219); wmida didmowame qeTevani - mnaTobi saqarTvelosi (220); wmida mefe luarsab II (240); Teimurazis brZola qarTvelobisaTvis (246); tyveTa syidva (270); Tavi VII: qarTuli eklesia XVIII saukuneSi (282); brZola gamoxsnisa da aRdgomisaTvis (283); evropuli (kaTolikuri) orientacia da misi kraxi (296); vaxtang VI-is rusuli orientacia da misi kraxi (307); vaxtang VI-isa da muxranel bagrationTa didi ojaxis mamuliSviloba (313); eklesiis Sinauri yofa anton I-mde (321); mironcxebul mefeTa taxtis aRdgena qarTvelobis gamarjveba (353); saqarTvelo qarTvelobis gamarjvebis Semdeg (358); didi kaTalikosis epoqa (365); didi Ralati (389); suli erTobisa (404); 8. anania jafariZe, saqarTvelos samociqulo eklesiis istoria, tomi meoTxe, Tbilisi, 2003 w. 357 gv. redaqtori lia SarvaSiZe, naSromSi gadmocemulia qarTuli eklesiis istoria XIX-XX ss., kerZod: Tavi I: saqarTvelos eklesiis avtokefaliis gauqmeba (XI); saxalxo ajanyeba avtokefaliis dasacavad (XVIII); eparqiaTa gauqmebiT gamowveuli mZime sarwmunoebrivi Sedegebi(XXI); avtokefaluri moZraobis dawyeba (XXV); wmida ilia marTlisa da qarTveli mRvdelmTavrebis brZola avtokefaliis aRsadgenad (XXVII); eklesia aTeistebis batonobis dros (XLI); avtokefaluri moZraobis dagvirgvineba (LV); erovnuli saxelmwifosa da erovnuli eklesiis urTierToba (LXIV); II. saqarTvelos saeklesio krebebi IV-XVIII saukuneebSi (5); Sesavali, gamokvlevis sagani, problemis Seswavlis mdgomareoba, sakiTxis istriografia (5); nawili I. saeklesio samarTlis wyaroebi (88); - 223 -

Tavi I (89); msoflio saeklesio krebebi da maTi kanonebi (91); adgilobrivi krebebis kanonebi (96); wmida mamaTa kanonebi (96); kanonikuri krebulebi (98); nomokanonebi (100)); kanonTa ganmartebani, aristine, zonara, balsamoni (101); Tavi II (103); saeklesio samarTlis wyaroebis pirveli qarTuli Targmanebi (103); sakanonmdeblo Zeglebis Targmanebi VI_VII saukuneebSi (106); sakanonmdeblo Zeglebis Targmanebi VII_IX saukuneebSi (108); sakanonmdeblo Zeglebis Targmanebi X_XI saukuneebSi (110); wm. fotis nomokanonis anu didi sjuliskanonis qarTuli Targmanebi (116); saeklesio samarTlis Zeglebis Targmanebi XVIII saukunis I naxevarSi (119); saeklesio Zeglebis Targmanebi XX s. II naxevarSi (124); Tavi III (126); saqarTvelos saeklesio samarTlis wyaroebi I_V ss-Si (126); saeklesio samarTlis wyaroebi dvinis krebidan ruis-urbnisis krebamde (VI_XI) (174); saeklesio samarTlis wyaroebi dvinis krebidan ruis-urbnisis krebis Semdeg (XII_XVIII) (190); saeklesio samarTlis wyaroebi qarTuli saxelmwifoebriobis gauqmebis periodSi (197); saeklesio samarTlis wyaroebi XVIII s. II naxevarSi (203); saeklesio samarTlis wyaroebi avtokefaliis gauqmebisas (204); saeklesio samarTlis wyaroebi avtokefaliis aRdgenis Semdeg (210); nawili II: Tavi I. saqarTvelos sakanonmdeblo krebebi (213); ruis-urbnisis saeklesio krebis Zegliswera (214); ruisurbnisis krebis kanonebi [teqsti] (222); sakanonmdeblo kreba giorgi brwyinvales dros (1335) (241); Zeglis dadeba [amokrebili muxlebi] (243); Wulevis sakanonmdeblo krebis kanonikuri samarTali(1381-1386) [teqsti, amokrebili muxlebi] (245); caiS-bediis Sekrebis mcneba sasjulo (14701474) [sruli teqsti] (256); biWvinTis saeklesio krebis (15431549) samarTali [samarTali kaTalikosTa sruli teqsti] (276); daviT-garejis saeklesio krebis ganCineba (1702), [teqsti] (285); sakanonmdeblo Sekrebani vaxtang VI-is karze, [samarTali batoniSvilis vaxtangisa, amokrebili muxlebi] (290); Tbilisis III saeklesio krebis kanonni (1748), [sruli teqsti] (310); imereTis saeklesio krebis xeliTwerili (1759), [teqstis aRdgenili nawili] (322); 1762, 1768, 1793 ww. krebaTa dadgenilebani saepiskoposoTa marTvis Sesaxeb, mcnebani epikoposTa da mRvdelTa mimarT, [teqsti] (327); daskvna (339); 9.anania jafariZe. qarTvelTa winaprebis bibliuri istoria adamidan iesomde, Tbilisi 1994, 138 gv. naSromi eyrdnoba biblias. igi warmoadgens saqarTvelos samociqulo eklesiis
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istoriis Sesaval nawils. ganxilulia qarTuli anbanis warmoSobisa da damwerlobis, aseve qristianobis gavrcelebis istoria saqarTveloSi da sxv. gamoTqmulia mosazreba, rom kolxeTis samefos (Zv. w. VI-IV ss.) wiaRSi Caeyara safuZveli pirvel erTian qarTul saxelmwifos azon - farnavazis dros, romelic moicavda aRmosavleTTan erTad dasavleT saqarTvelosac. am dros fuZe qarTuli enis daSlis xarisxi didi ar iyo. erTianma saxelmwifom qarTveli tomebi erT qarTvel erad Sekra farnavazis epoqaSive. 10. anania jafariZe. qarTuli eklesia XVII-XVIII s.s-Si (wignSi saqarTvelos eklesiis kalendari), Tbilisi, 1994. gv. 139. pirvelad qarTul istoriografiaSi aRwerilia saqarTvelos eklesiis istoria XVII-XVIII ss. 11. anania jafariZe. Soba, jvarcma, aRdgoma da amaRleba uflisa da macxovrisa Cvenisa ieso qristesi, Tbilisi, 1995. 118 gv. naSromi eyrdnobamaTes, markozis, lukasa da ioanes saxarebebs, mociqulTa epistoleebs, wminda mamaTa ganmartebebs, Tanamedrove marTlmadidebeli Teologebis naSromebs. igi warmoadgens Cveni uflisa da macxovaris - ieso qristes cxovrebis istorias. 12. anania jafariZe. wminda mowame qeTevan dedofali, wminda mefe luarsab II, mefe Teimurazis brZola qarTvelobisaTvis, tyveTa syidva, Tbilisi, 1996. 76 gv. 13. anania jafariZe. deda eklesia, qadagebani, werilebi, Tb., 1996, 319 gv. redaqtori n. suxitaSvili. naSromSi Tavmoyrili saqarTvelos samociqulo eklesiis wminda sinodis wevris mTavarepiskopos anania jafariZis qadagebani, werilebi da gamokvlevebi gvamcnoben marTlmadideblur eklesias mowyvetil qarTvelTa beds, maT gaucxovebas mSobeli erisadmi. ganxilulia Tanamedrove saeklesio cxovreba, afxazeTisa da samaCablos tkivili, axali Taobis aRzrdis sakiTxebi. 14. anania jafariZe. qarTlis cxovrebis armenofiluri redaqcia, Tbilisi 1997. 65 gv. redaqtori T. jafariZe. naSromSi gamoTqmulia mosazreba, rom qarTlis cxovrebis SesavalSi arsebuli nihilistur - damamcirebeli Sefasebani (qarTuli enis, eTnosisa da sxvaTa mimarT) warmoadgens ara XI s. - 225 -

qalkedoniki avtoris Semoqmedebas, aramed ganekuTvneba im epoqas (VI-IX ss.), rodesac jer sparsTa, Semdeg ki arabTa meoxebiT Cveni qveynis mezoblad mdebare mZlavri somxuri monofizituri centri cdilobda qarTvelTa erovnuli sarwmunoebisa da cnobierebis dasustebas saqarTveloSi marTlmadidebluri (probizantiuri) orientaciis aRmofxvris mizniT. 15. anania jafariZe. qarTveli eris warmoSobis Sesaxeb, Tbilisi, 1997. naSromSi ganxilulia sxvadasxva Teoriebi qarTveli xalxis warmoSobis Sesaxeb, romelTaganac, avtoris TvalsazrisiT, marTebulia saqarTvelos eklesiaSi odiTganve aRiarebuli da sxvadasxva matianeebsa Tu wyaroebSi gadmocemuli Teoria. 16. anania jafariZe. saingilo, qarTvelTa galekeba, manglis-walkis eparqia, 1998, 40 gv. krebulSi aRwerilia mterTa mier dapyrobil aRmosavleT kaxeTSi (saingiloSi) mcxovreb qarTvelTa bedi, romelTac sxvadasxva mizezis gamo datoves erovnuli eklesia, samwuxarod, maTi didi nawili eTnikurad gadagvarda; xolo ZiriTadi nawili Seerwya saingiloSi Camosaxlebul sxvadasxva xalxs, maT Soris lekebsac. naSromSi uxv istoriul wyaroebze dayrdnobiT gadmocemulia saingilos istoriuli geografia, eTnikuri saxe, istoriuli bedi, socialuri yofa, gvarebi da sxva. 17. anania jafariZe. mesxeTi, qarTvelTa gamahmadianeba. saqarTvelos sapatriarqo, manglis - walkis eparqia, 1998, 43 gv. naSromSi gadmocemulia osmalTa mier dapyrobil qarTvelTa, kerZod, mesxTa gamahmadianeba. qarTuli enis daviwyeba da cvlilebebi maT gvarebSi. 18. anania jafariZe. saqarTvelos samociqulo eklesiis istoria (Semoklebuli varianti, wignSi:saqarTvelos eklesiis kalendari, 1998, gv.105-422). naSromSi pirvelad qarTul istoriografiaSi gadmocemulia saqarTvelos eklesiis istoriis periodizacia, pirveli periodi moicavs saqarTvelos eklesiis istorias mociqulebidan ruis-urbisis krebamde. meore periodi - saqarTvelos eklesiis istorias ruis-urbnisis krebidan avtokefaliis gauqmebamde. mesame periodi moicavs saqarTvelos eklesiis istorias avtokefaliis gauqmebidan dRemde. - 226 -

19. anania jafariZe. qarTl-kaxeTi, qarTvelTa gasomxeba, saqarTvelos sapatriarqos manglis-walkis eparqia, 1999, 48 gv. istoriul wyaroebze dayrdnobiT gadmocemulia osmalTa da iranelTa mier XVII-XIX ss - Si dapryrobil qarTl - kaxeTsa da mesxeTSi mcxovreb qarTvel marTlmadidebelTa xvedri, romelnic TandaTanobiT somxuri eklesiis mrevlad gadaiqcnen dampyrobelTa politikuri nebis Sesabamisad. gamonofizitebis Semdeg somxuri eklesiis mrevlSi gasul qarTvelebs TandaTanobiT SeecvalaT eTnofsiqologia; dakarges erovnuli cnobiereba, da daadgnen gasomxebis gzas. es procesi gansakuTrebiT gaRrmavda Tbilissa da qvemo qarTlSi, agreTve qarTl - kaxeTis qalaqebsa da gzispira soflebSi, sadac mahmadianebis batonoba ufro mtkice iyo. 20. anania jafariZe. lazeTi-TrialeTi, qarTvelTa gaberZneba, saqarTvelos sapatriarqo manglis-walkis eparqia - Tbilisi 1999. (wigni Seicavs 36 gverds). naSromSi istoriul wyaroebze dayrdnobiT gadmocemulia osmalTa mier dapyrobil samxreT saqarTveloSi (lazeTsa da mesxeTSi) mcxovreb qarTvel marTlmadidebelTa bedi, romelnic osmaluri kanonebis Sesabamisad konstantinopolis berZnuli sapatriarqos mrevlad gadaiqcnen. naSromi Seicavs paragrafebs mesxeTisa da lazeTis marTlmadideblebis (e.w. urumebis) sacxovrisis, osmaleTSi berZnuli eklesiis uflebebis gazrdisa da qarTveli marTlmadideblebis gaberZnebis, berZen urumebis saqarTveloSi gadmosaxlebis, gaberZnebulTa gvarebisa da sxvaTa Sesaxeb. 21. anania jafariZe. qarTveli xalxis momzadeba macxovris misaRebad. saqarTvelos sapatriarqos manglis - walkis eparqia, 2001. 18 gv. naSromSi gadmocemulia qarTvel mefeTa ojaxSi saidumlod daculi cnobebi qveynad mxsnelis movlinebis Sesaxeb. kerZod: ufali RmerTi saukuneTa manZilze amzadebda erebs macxovris misaRebad. am xalxTa Soris bibliis udides winaswarmetyvelTa mier qarTvelTa winaprebicaa moxseniebuli. naSromi eyrdnoba Zvel aRTqmas, qarTlis cxovrebasa da sxva wyaroebs. 22. anania jafariZe. afxazeTi (qarTvelTa gaafxazeba), saqarTvelos sapatriarqos manglis-walkis eparqia, 2001, 89 - 227 -

gv. naSromSi uxv saistorio wyaroebze dayrdnobiT gadmocemulia afxazeTis qarTvelTa bedi XVI s-dan XXI s-mde. kerZod: XVI s-dan erTiani saqarTvelos saxelmwifos daSlis Semdeg mis periferiul kuTxeebSi, adgilobrivi xelisuflebis sisustis gamo, Camosaxldnen Crdilo kavkasieli mTielebi. am process n. berZeniSvilimTis Camowolas uwodebs. ase moeqca aRmosavleT kaxeTi (War-belaqani) - lekuri tomebis xelSi, Sida qarTlis mTianeTi - osebis, xolo afxazeTi - adiRe-Cerqezuli tomis abazebis, anu afsuebis xelSi. XVI-XVIII ss. Cerqezi xalxi Crdilo kavkasiaSi yvelaze mravlricxovani iyo da Sedgeboda uamravi meomari tomisagan, romelTagan erT-erTi, rogorc aRiniSna, afxazeTSi Casaxlda da xangrZlivi brZolebis Semdeg daipyro istoriuli odiSi (Tanamedrove soxumis, gulrifSis, oCamCirisa da galis raionebi). mkvidri qarTuli mosaxleoba gadaiqca sazogadoebis yvelaze dabal, damorCilebul fenad, Seiswavla mebatoneebis ena da adaT-Cvevebi, maRalma fenam afxazeTisa - Zvelma qarTvelma Tavad-aznaurebma, SeZles TavianTi maRali mdgomareobis SenarCuneba qveynis axali eTnikuri saxis Camoyalibebis sanacvlod. afxazeTSi Camosaxlebul abaza-afsuebs qarTvelebma qveynis saxelis mixedviT afxazebi uwodes, mogvianebiT es saxeli gadaiRes rusebma, Tumca ki rogorc Turqi, ise ucxoeli mogzaurebi maT Cerqezebs (//abazebs) uwodebdnen.
23. anania jafariZe. qarTuli saeklesio (saliteraturo) enis Camoyalibebis sakiTxisaTvis (ioane lazi). saqaTvelos sapatriarqos manglis-walkis eparqia, 2002, 22 gv. naSromSi istoriul wyaroebze dayrdnobiT gadmocemulia qarTuli saeklesio enis Camoyalibebis procesi. kerZod: IV saukuneSi qarTvelTa gaqristianebisTanave saqarTveloSi daiwyo wminda werilis qarTuli Targmanebis momzadeba, romelSic monawileobdnen saqarTvelos yoveli kuTxidan Semokrebili mecnierebi. am Rvawlma ukve V s. dasawyisSi gamoiRo Tavisi Sedegi - Sedgenil iqna wminda saxarebis pirveli qarTuli Targmani. 24. anania jafariZe. regionalizmi Seaferxebs erovnul konsolidacias Tbilisi, 2002, 20 gv. naSromi warmoadgens erTgvar gafrTxilebas - ra SeiZleba mohyves saqarTvelos saxelmwifos daSla-danawevrebis mosurneTa mcdelobas: saqarTvelos regionizacias. kerZod: saukuneTa manZilze didi - 228 -

qarTveli mamuliSvilebi iRwvodnen saqarTvelos gaerTianebisaTvis. mterma icoda, rom erTian saqarTvelos saxelmwifos ver daamarcxebda, amitom mudam cdilobda mis kuTxeebad (regionebad) dayofas, raTa qarTvelebis aRma xnuli, kaxelebs dabla efarcxaT. wminda werilic gvaswavlis da Cveni wminda mamebic amboben:ufali RmerTi aerTianebs, eSmaki ki hyofs. amJamad mimdinareobs Zieba saqarTvelos teritoriuli mowyobis principisa, amitomac ar SeiZleba Secdomis daSveba, raTa axalma gadawyvetilebebma da kanonebma uneblied xeli ar Seuwyon saqarTvelos daSla - danawevrebas. saqarTvelos regionizacia ara Tu gadaWris afxazeTis, anda cxinvalis problemebs, aramed erTis nacvlad warmoqmnis ramdenime afxazeTs da sxva axal separatistul regionalur reJims. 25. anania jafariZe. polemika kaTolikuri orientaciis swavlulebTan. Tbilisi, 2002, 48 gv. naSromi warmoadgens krebuls mTavarepiskopos anania jafariZis sxvadasxva wlebSi gamoqveynebuli polemikuri Janris publikaciebisa, damatebis saxiT erTvis udes, xizabavras, ivlitas, valesa da sxva eklesiaTa samrevloebis Txovna deda qarTuli eklesiis wiaRSi dabrunebis Sesaxeb. 26. anania jafariZe. rCevebi ucxoeTSi wamsvlel qarTvelebs, Tbilisi, 2002 64 gv. naSromi moicavs Semdeg paragrafebs: 1. moZRvreba; 2. rCevebi; 3. marTlmadidebluri diasporas sakiTxi qarTuli wyaroebis mixedviT; 4. wminda da didi krebis mosamzadebeli marTlmadidebelTaSorisi komisiis gadawyvetileba. 5. mcire cnoba sazRvagareTis eklesiis Sesaxeb. wignSi motanilia mravali cnoba imis Sesaxeb, Tu rogor uvlian sxva erebis eklesiebi Tavis erovnul diasporas ucxoeTSi, maTi magaliTis Sesabamisad, sazRvagareT unda Camoyalibdes qarTuli samrevloebi, raTa ukanasknel wlebSi ucxoeTSi samuSaod, sacxovreblad da saswavleblad wasuli qarTvelebi ar asimilirdnen ucxo erebSi da saqarTvelos mfarvel yovladwminda dedaRvTismSobels misi erTguli Svilebi ar daekargos. 27. anania jafariZe. petre iberi _ marTlmadidebeli episkoposi Tbilisi, 2002, 22 gv. wigni moicavs Semdeg paragrafebs: qarTvelTa samonastro cxovrebis saTaveebTan IVV ss., pirveli qarTveli mTargmnelebi, ioane lazi qarTuli samwerlo enis saTaveebTan, petre iberis biografebi, - 229 -

monofizitobis gaZliereba XVII-XVIII saukuneebSi da petre iberis xsenebis gauqmeba. 28. anania jafariZe. saqarTvelos eklesiis istoriis wyaroebi, periodizacia da saeklesio istoriografia. Tbilisi, 2003 42 gv. wigni warmoadgens pirvel naSroms saqarTvelos eklesiis istoriis periodizaciis Sesaxeb. masSi agreTve ganxilulia eklesiis istoriis wyaroebi da saeklesio istoriografia. avtori msoflio da saqarTvelos saeklesio krebaTa monacemebze dayrdnobiT aSuqebs saqarTvelos eklesiis istoriis Sesaxeb TviT eklesiaSive arsebul Teoriebs da ajerebs maT Tanamedrove istoriografiis monacemebTan. 29. anania jafariZe. saqarTvelos eklesiis mokle istoria, Tbilisi, 2004, meore gamocema, 92 gv. naSromSi moTxrobilia Tu rogor ibrZoda saqarTvelos eklesia eris sulieri gadarCenisTvis. saukuneebis manZilze. aqve, pirvelad aris gamoyenebuli wminda biblia, viTarca saqarTvelos eklesiis saistorio wyaro. krebuli moicavs Cveni wminda samociqulo marTlmadidebeli eklesiis istorias I saukunidan XX saukunis CaTvliT. 30. anania jafariZe. ori Teoria qarTveli xalxis Camoyalibebis Sesaxeb, Tbilisi, 2003, 28 gv. naSromSi ganxilulia XX s. dasawyisSi rusul imperiul samecniero skolebSi Camoyalibebuli qarTizaciis Teoria, romelsac amJamad warmatebiT iyeneben separatistebi, saqarTvelos kuTxeTa misakuTrebis mizniT. qarTizaciis Teoria Tavis droze Seiqmna Zvel qarTul matianeebsa da wyaroebSi gamoTqmuli Tvalsazrisis sapirispirod, romlis mixedviTac qarTveli xalxi erTiani iyo qristeSobamde didi xniT adre da amitomac SeZlo man dasavleT da aRmosavleT saqarTvelos momcveli erTiani saxelmwifos Seqmna, mefe farnavazis dros erTi eniTa da kulturiT. naSromSi gamoyenebulia wminda bibliaSi daculi didi winaswarmetyvelis ieremiasa da ezekielis cnobebi, viTarca saqarTvelos saistorio wyaro kolxeTis samefosTan (CrdiloeTis xalxebTan) dakavSirebiT, romliTac qarTveli xalxis uZvelesi erTianoba dasturdeba. gamoTqmulia mosazreba, rom unda aRdges ZvelqarTuli Teoria qarTveli eris Camoyalibebis drois Sesaxeb da ukugdebul unda iqnas qarTizacia - gaqarTvelebis Teoria, romelic amJamad - 230 -

aferxebs qarTveli eris konsolidacias da saqarTvelos daSla danawevrebas uwyobs xels. 31. anania jafariZe. msoflio saeklesio krebebi qarTvel episkoposTa monawileobiT, Tbilisi, 2003, 44 gv. monografiis mixedviT, qarTveli episkoposebi monawileobdnen wminda krebaTa samarTlis SemuSavebaSi da msoflio saeklesio kanonebs acnobdnen Tavis mrevls, rac warmoadgenda marTlmadidebeli sarwmunoebis siwmindis safuZvels saqarTveloSi. 32. anania jafariZe. saqarTvelos dedaeklesia, sakiTxavi ymawvilTaTvis, Tbilisi, 2006, 320 gv. redaqtori naTela joloxava. naSromSi mokledaa gadmocemuli saqarTvelos eklesiis da misi samwysos istoria uZvelesi xanidan da mociqulebis epoqidan XXI s. dasawyisamde. 33. anania jafariZe (Tanaavtori). ulocvelTa Jami, Tbilisi, 2005, 43 gv. redaqtorebi: profesori merab vaCnaZe, profesori vaxtang guruli. (kosmopolitizmi: Zveli da axali). naSromSi naCvenebia erovnulisa da kosmopolituris dapirispirebis istoria saqarTveloSi XIX saukunis 80-iani wlebidan XXI saukunis damdegamde. 34. anania jafariZe. wm. vaxtang gorgasalis cxovreba, Tbilisi, 2004, 32 gv. naSromSi Tanamedrove qarTul enaze aRwerilia wminda mefis vaxtang gorgasalis cxovreba (sruli teqsti), romelic aTaswleulis manZilze saqarTvelos axalgazrdobas zrdida gmiruli suliskveTebiT, mamulisa da moyvasisadmi Tavdadebis grZnobiT. 35. anania jafariZe.wm. ninos cxovreba, Tbilisi, 2004, 42 gv. naSromSi Tanamedrove qarTul enaze gadmoRebulia IV saukuneSi salome ujarmelis mier qarTlis cxovrebaSi Cawerili wminda ninos cxovrebis sruli teqsti (romelic TiTqmis ucvlelad gamoqveynda wignSi: saqarTvelos samociqulo eklesiis istoria").

ilia WavWavaZe:
bevrs hgonia, rom mecniereba da sarwmunoeba erTmaneTSi mourigebelni arian, magram am or samflobelos Soris SemaerTebeli xidi aris sibrZne. gamecnierebuli sarwmunoeba da gasarwmunoebuli mecniereba aris wyaro eris msaxurebisa...

Ilia Chavchavadze:
Many think that science and faith are incompatible, but the bridge connecting these two domains is wisdom. Faith considered with the scientific depth and work of a faithful honest scientist is the service of the nation

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