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The Major Prophets

The Prophets of Israel Viewed as a Whole

Their Designation
The first division of the Old Testament was known as the Law with the second being called the Former Prophets, but these included four books which have already been outlinedJoshua, Judges, amuel, and !ings" Though these books deal with the history of #srael, they were composed from a prophetic viewpoint and possibly even the authors themselves may have been prophets by profession" The seventeen books considered in this section were classified in the $ebrew %ible as the Latter Prophets" The term &latter' speaks primarily of their place in the canon rather than of their chronological position" These prophets are sometimes called the writing prophets because their authors wrote or recorded their utterances" There were other oral prophets like (athan, )hi*ah, #ddo, Jehu, +li*ah, +lisha, Oded, hemaiah, ),ariah, $anani, Jaha,iel, and $uldah who left no records of their utterances" -ostly because of their si,e, the Latter Prophets are subdivided into the -a*or Prophets .#saiah, Jeremiah, and +,ekiel/, and the twelve -inor Prophets, whose writings could all be included in one large scroll which came to be known in 0reek as the 1o2decaprophe2ton, 3the Twelve4Prophet %ook5/"67 1aniel, usually viewed as one of the -a*or Prophets in the +nglish %ible, actually appears in the third division of the $ebrew 8anon called 3the 9ritings"5 Lamentations will also be dealt with here because of its place in the +nglish %ible, though in the $ebrew %ible it is among the five rolls or megilloth, the shorter books, which were brief enough to be read publicly on anniversaries"

Their Description
The authors of these books were described or referred to by a number of terms due to the nature of their ministry and calling" They were called prophets, seers, watchmen, men of 0od, messengers, and servants of the Lord" :nger writes; )ccording to # amuel <;< the prophet was in earlier #srael commonly called a roeh, that is one who perceives that which does not lie # the realm of natural sight or hearing" )nother early designation of similar etymology was a hozeh 3one who sees supernaturally5 .## amuel =>;??/" Later the $ebrew seer was more commonly called a nabhi .# amuel <;</" This popular name is to be related the )ccadian nabu, 3to call or announce,5 either passively, as )lbright .From the Stone Age to Christianity, ?<>7, pp" =@? ff"/, 3one who is called5 .by 0od/, or actively with !oenig .Hebraeisches and Aramaeisches Woerterbuch zum Alten Testament, ?<@A, p" =A7/, 3an announcer5 .for/, or preferably with 0uillaume .Prophecy and Di ination, ?<@B, pp" ??=f/, who construes the term to mean that the prophet is the passive recipient of a message manifest in his condition as well as in his speech, and is 3one who is in the state of announcing a message which has been given to him5 .by 0od/"6?

)s can be seen from :nger's comments, a certain amount of uncertainty eCists regarding the eCact meaning of the word 3prophet"5 The word prophet is from the $ebrew aybDnE .nabi/" The deviration of this word is a matter of controversy, but the essential idea in the word is that of an authorized spo!esman" This is clear, not from the etymology of this word which has been lost in antiFuity, but from its use in three Old Testament passages; .?/ Exodus 6:28-7:2" 9hen -oses ob*ected to being the spokesman for 0od to Pharaoh, 0od appointed )aron to be -oses prophet, i"e", his authori,ed spokesman" The issue here is one person speaking for another" .=/ Numbers 12:1-8" )aron and -iriam, perhaps out of *ealousy, sought to supplant -oses as mediator of 0od's revelation with themselves .cf" Gs" =/, but 0od dramatically intervened to show $e would speak directly with -oses alone and that $e would also speak through those called prophets by dreams and visions" %ut the implication as to the meaning of 3prophet5 is clear" ) true prophet is one who speaks for 0od to man" .@/ Deuteronomy 18:9 -22" Just before the death of -oses, we have the formal announcement of the office of the nabi, the prophet, on a continuing basis"6= These verses make it clear that the prophet is one who speaks forth the message which 0od has revealed to him"

Their Directive or Message

)s a mouthpiece or spokesman for 0od, the prophet's primary duty was to speak forth 0od's message to 0od's people in the historical conteCt of what was happening among 0od's people" The broadest meaning is that of "orthtellingH the narrower meaning is that of "oretelling" #n the process of proclaiming 0od's message, the prophet would sometimes reveal that which pertained to the future, but, contrary to popular opinion, this was only a small part of the prophets message" Forthtelling involved insight into the will of 0odH it was exhortative, challenging men to obey" On the other hand, "oretelling entailed foresight into the plan of 0odH it was predi tive, either encouraging the righteous in view of 0od's promises or warning in view of coming *udgment" o the prophet was the divinely chosen spokesman who, having received 0od's message, proclaimed it in oral, visual, or written form to the people" For this reason, a common formula used by the prophets was, 3Thus says the Lord"5 )s 0od's spokesman, their message can be seen in a three4fold function they had among the people of 0od in the Old Testament; !irst" they fun tioned as prea hers who eCpounded and interpreted the -osaic law to the nation" #t was their duty to admonish, reprove, denounce sin, threaten with the terrors of *udgment, call to repentance, and bring consolation and pardon" Their activity of rebuking sin and calling for repentance consumed far more of the prophets' time than any other feature of their work" The rebuke was driven home with predictions about the punishment that 0od intended to send on those failing to heed the prophet's warning .cf" Jonah @;>/" #e ond" they fun tioned as predi tors who announced coming *udgment, deliverance, and events relating to the -essiah and $is kingdom" Predicting the future was never intended merely to satisfy man's curiosity, but was designed to demonstrate that 0od knows and controls the future, and to give purposeful revelation" The prediction given by a true prophet would be visibly fulfilled" The failure of the prediction to be fulfilled would indicate that the prophet had not

spoken the word of #ahweh .cf" 1eut" ?B;=74==/" #n ? amuel @;?< it is said of amuel that the Lord was with him and let none of his prophetic words fail .lit", 3fall to the ground5/" !ina$$y" they fun tioned as %at hmen over the people of #srael .+,ek" @;?I/" +,ekiel stood as a watchman on the walls of Jion ready to trumpet a warning against religious apostasy" $e warned the people against political and military alliances with foreign powers, the temptation to become involved in idolatry and 8anaanite cultic worship, and the danger of placing eCcessive confidence in religious formalism and sacrificial ritual" 9hile the prophets functioned in various ways as they communicated 0od's message, they occupied one ma$or role in #srael's religious system" The prophets in #srael occupied the role of a royal diplomat or prosecuting attorney" indicting the nation for violations of the -osaic covenant"6@

A Comparison of the Four Major Prophets54

Comparison of the Four Major Prophets Isaiah Prophesied Jews in Judea To; 8oncerning; Judah and Jerusalem .#sa" ?;?H =;?/ 1uring the reigns of; :,,iah, Jotham, )ha,, $e,ekiah .kings of Judah/ Jeremiah Ezekiel Daniel Jews captive in %abylon and 0entile kings #srael and 0entile (ations .1an" =;@AffH </ Jehoiakim, Jehoiachin, Jedekiah .kings of Judah/" (ebuchadne,,ar .king of %abylon 1ates; $istorical etting; I>74AB7 %"8" = !ings ?64=?H = 8hronicles =A4 @7 A=I46B6 %"8" = !ings ==4=6 6<=46I7 %"8" 1aniel ?4A A7646@A %"8" 1aniel ?4A

Jews in Judea and Jews captive in captivity %abylon Judah and (ations The whole house of .Jer" ?;6, <4?7H #srael =;?4=/ .+,ek" =;@4AH @;>4?7, ?I/ Josiah, Jehoaha,, Jehoiakim, Jehoiachin, Jedekiah .kings of Judah/ Jedekiah .king of Judah/H (ebuchadne,,ar .king of %abylon/

A Review of the Ol Testament!s Anticipation of Christ 55

%y way of review, it would be well to remember that the Law laid the "oundation for 8hrist by the election .0enesis/, redemption .+Codus/, sanctification .Leviticus/, direction .(umbers/, and

instruction .1euteronomy/ of the nation of #srael as the custodians of the oracles of 0od .Kom" @;?/ and the channel for -essiah .0en" ?=;?fH Kom" <;>46/" Then further preparation for 8hrist was given in the Historical ooks by giving the nation the Land of #srael for their possession .Joshua/" The nation was then oppressed by foreign nations and was unfaithful, still 0od raised up *udges and found faithfulness in the nation .Kuth/" tabili,ation was given to the nation under king aul .? amuel/, then eCpansion under king 1avid .= amuel/, and glorification of the nation under olomon's reign .? !ings ?4?7/" This was followed with division in the nation .? !ings ?? 4==/ into the northern ?7 tribes and the southern tribes of Judah and %en*amin" These both suffered deterioration .= 8hronicles/ resulting eventually in deportation by )ssyria and %abylon .= !ings/" 8onseFuently, the Temple suffered depri ation .? 8hronicles/ and destruction .= 8hronicles/" $owever, 0od's faithfulness to $is promises remained and so there was reconstruction of the Temple .+,ra/ and restoration of a remnant of the nation to the land .(ehemiah/ followed by protection of 0od's people .+sther/" )ll the while, in the Poetical ooks there was always spiritual aspiration for 8hrist with the moral foundation being laid in the Law and the national framework being developed in the books of $istory" Through the Prophetical ooks we have the nation of #srael, through the prophets, looking forward with great e%pectation to 8hrist" This is done in the following ways; The earlier prophets .$osea, Joel, )mos/ eCpect a national restoration by the -essiah" #saiah and -icah predict international sal ation through the coming of 8hrist" %ut Obadiah, Jonah, (ahum, $abakkuk and Jephaniah warn of 0od's retribution on the nations" Lamentations grieves over 0od's retribution on His people but Jeremiah looks for a co enantal rea""irmation in 8hrist" +,ekiel eCpects the nation's religious restoration and 1aniel predicts its political restoration" )fter the %abylonian captivity $aggai and Jechariah eChort the people in their religious reconstruction and -alachi in their social and moral reconstruction, as they await the coming of the 3sun of righteousness LthatD shall rise, with healing in its wings5 .-al" >;=/"6A

ISAIAH (The Salvation of Yahweh)

)s the book clearly declares, the author is #saiah, the son of )mo,, an apparently influential and distinguished Jewish family" #saiah but he appears to have been on familiar terms with the royal court even in the reign of )ha," $e was evidently a well4 educated student of international affairs, who spent most of his time in the city of Jerusalem, where he rubbed shoulders with royalty and gave advice on foreign affairs because he was so in touch with the crosscurrents of world affairs" Though often scoffed at, being directed by 0od, he vigorously opposed any entangling alliances with foreign powers .whether with )ssyria as against amaria and 1amascus, or with +gypt as against )ssyria/" )s warned by the Lord in chapter siC, his cause was doomed to failure, for both government and people chose to put their trust in the political alliances of man rather than in the sure person and promises of 0od"

)n old tradition relates that he was martyred at some time in the reign of -anasseh, possibly by being sawed in two inside a hollow log .d" $eb" ??;@I/" ince he records the death of ennacherib in #sa" @I;@I4@B, it is fair to assume that #saiah lived until after ennacherib's death in AB? b"c"6I The unity of the book of #saiah has been challenged by liberal critics who hold that a 31eutero4 #saiah5 wrote chapters >74AA after the %abylonian captivity" 8oncerning the various viewpoints of the critics, Kyrie writes" -uch dispute has arisen over the authorship of chaps" >74AA" ome assign the entire section to a 31eutero4#saiah,5 who lived around 6>7 %"8" .after the %abylonian captivity/" Others see a 3Trito4#saiah,5 who wrote chaps" 6A4AA" till others see insertions and editing as late as the first century %"8", a position difficult to maintain in view of the discovery of the Mumran #saiah scroll dated in the second century %"8" These suggestions attempt to eliminate the supernatural element necessary for predictive prophecy" $ence, the %abylonian captivity and the return under a Persian king .specifically named 8yrus/ are not viewed as being predicted ?67 years in advance, but as happenings recorded after the events" %ut even if one were to grant such a conclusion, it would not invalidate predictive prophecy" The name of !ing Josiah was predicted by a prophet three centuries before his time .? !ings ?@;=/, and %ethlehem was named as the birthplace of -essiah seven centuries before the event .-ic" 6;=/" #n addition, there is predictive prophecy in chaps" ?4@< of #saiah .see I;?AH B;>,IH @I;@@4@6H @B;B for prophecies soon fulfilled and <;?4=H ?@;?I4=7 for prophecies of the more distant future/" #f 31eutero4#saiah5 lived in %abylon, as is claimed, he shows little knowledge of %abylonian geography but great familiarity with Palestine .>?;?<H >@;?>H >>;?>/" Further, it is asserted that differences in language and style can only be accounted for by assuming different authors, a theory which, if applied to -ilton, 0oethe, or hakespeare, would force us to conclude that many of their writings were spurious" On the contrary, one can point out >7 or 67 sentences and phrases that appear in both sections of the book and that therefore argue for single authorship .cf" ?;=7 with >7;6 and 6B;?>H ??;A4< with A6;=6H @6;A with >?;?B, etc"/" To claim two or more authors for this book is also to contradict the evidence of the (ew Testament" Muotations from chaps" >74AA are found in -atthew @;@H ?=;?I4=?H Luke @;>4AH )cts B;=BH Komans ?7;?A, =7, and all are attributed to #saiah" -oreover, in John ?=;@B4>?, Fuotations from #saiah A;<4?7 and 6@;? appear together, and both are ascribed to the #saiah who saw the Lord in the Temple vision of chap" A" 9e must therefore conclude that the same author was responsible for the entire book and that no part of it was written at the time of the %abylonian captivity"6B For more on this issue, see 0leason )rcher's coverage in his work, A Sur ey o" &ld Testament 'ntroduction, :pdated and Kevised +dition, ?<<>, -oody %ible #nstitute, Paperback +dition"

I>7NAB7 %"8" #saiah had a very long ministry that ranged from around I>7 to AB7" $is ministry began near the end of the reign of :,,iah .I<74I@< %"8"/ and continued through the reigns of Jotham .I@<4I@? %"8"/, )ha, .I@?4I?6 %"8"/, and $e,ekiah .I?64ABA %"8"/" From the standpoint of 0entile rulers of the time, #saiah ministered from the time of Tiglath4pileser .I>64I=I %"8"/ to the time of ennacherib .I764AB? %"8"/ of )ssyria" $e outdated $e,ekiah by a few years because chapter @I, verse @B, records the death of ennacherib in AB? %"8" $e,ekiah was succeeded by his wicked son -anasseh who overthrew the worship of #ahweh and no doubt opposed the work of #saiah"6<

Title of the #oo$"

The title, 'saiah, is obviously taken from the name of the human author who, under the inspiration of the $oly pirit, composed it" The $ebrew name of this prophet, Oes2aPya2huQ, means #ahweh is salvation, which appropriately, is an eCcellent summary of the theme and contents of the book"

Theme an Purpose"
)s *ust mentioned, #saiah's name provides the theme of the book, 3salvation is of #ahweh"5 This is most evident by the fact the term 3salvation5 occurs some twenty4siC times in #saiah but only seven time in all the other prophets combined" %ecause of this, #saiah has been called 3the evangelical prophet5 because he says so much about the salvation and redemptive work of -essiah" #n fact, more is said about the person and work of -essiah in $is first and second advents than in any other Old Testament book" #n some respects, #saiah is a miniature %ible" #t has siCty4siC chapters while the %ible has siCty4siC books" The first thirty4nine chapters of #saiah correspond to the thirty4nine books of the Old Testament which largely anticipate the coming of -essiah" The last twenty4seven chapters of #saiah neatly parallel the twenty4seven chapters of the (ew Testament because they speak a great deal about -essiah and $is !ingdom as the ervant of the Lord" 8hapters ?4@< speak of man's great need of salvation while chapters >74AA reveal 0od's provision of alvation in -essiah and $is kingdom" ummari,ing the theme and content, )rcher writes; )ppropriately enough, the basic theme of #saiah's message is that salvation is bestowed only by grace, by the power of 0od, the Kedeemer, rather than by the strength of man or the good works of the flesh" The holy 0od will not permit unholiness in $is covenant people, and will therefore deal with them in such a way as to chasten and purge them and make them fit to participate in $is program of redemption" #saiah sets forth the doctrine of 8hrist in such full detail that he has rightly been described as 3the evangelical prophet"5 1eeper 8hristological insights are to be found in his work than anywhere else in the Old Testament"A7

%e& 'or "

)gain in keeping with the theme and #saiah's name, the key word is sal ation"

%e& (erses"
!"#$% 3Therefore the Lord $imself will give you a sign; %ehold, a virgin will be with child and bear a son, and she will call $is name #mmanuel" &"'(!" For a child will be born to us, a son will be given to usH )nd the government will rest on $is shouldersH )nd $is name will be called 9onderful 8ounselor, -ighty 0od, +ternal Father, Prince of Peace" There will be no end to the increase of $is government or of peace, On the throne of 1avid and over his kingdom, To establish it and to uphold it with *ustice and righteousness From then on and forevermore" The ,eal of the LOK1 of hosts will accomplish this" )*"$(!% urely our griefs $e $imself bore, )nd our sorrows $e carriedH Oet we ourselves esteemed $im stricken, mitten of 0od, and afflicted" %ut $e was pierced through for our transgressions, $e was crushed for our iniFuitiesH The chastening for our well4being fell upon $im, )nd by $is scourging we are healed" )ll of us like sheep have gone astray, +ach of us has turned to his own wayH %ut the LOK1 has caused the iniFuity of us all To fall on $im" $e was oppressed and $e was afflicted, Oet $e did not open $is mouthH Like a lamb that is led to slaughter, )nd like a sheep that is silent before its shearers, o $e did not open $is mouth"

%e& Chapters"
Chapter )*; 9ith a book so full of rich truth and -essianic anticipation, deciding of a key chapter is not easy, but surely #saiah 6@ which points to -essiah as a suffering avior who must die for our sin, is the most remarkable and key chapters of the Old Testament"

%e& People"
#saiah the prophet is the key human personage, but #ahweh by the way $e is focused on as the (ighty &ne o" 'srael, as the Holy &ne o" 'srael, and as the )ord *od o" Hosts, is clearly the chief focus of #saiah's book"

Christ as seen in )saiah"

(o book of the Old Testament presents a portrait of 8hrist that is as complete and comprehensive as does #saiah" #saiah portrays -essiah in $is sovereignty above .A;?f/, birth and humanity .I;?>H <;AH ??;?/, in $is ministry by the pirit .??;=f/, $is divine nature .I;?>H <;A/H $is 1avidic descent .??;?/H $is work of redemption as our substitute .6@/, $is ministry as the ervant avior .><ff/, and much more"

1ue to the si,e of #saiah, we will restrict the outline to ma*or sections" #" Prophecies of 1enunciation and Judgment .?;?4@<;B/ )" Prophecies )gainst Judah .?;?4?=;A/ ?" The 8ondemnation of Judah .?;?46;@7/ =" The 8ommission of the Prophet .A;?4?@/ @" The 8oming of -essiah .I;?4?=;A/ %" Prophecies )gainst 0entile (ations .?@;?4=@;?B/ ?" )gainst %abylon .?@;?4?>;=@/ =" )gainst )ssyria .?>;=>4=I/ @" )gainst Philistia .?>;=B4@=/ >" )gainst -oab .?6;? 4 ?A;?>/ 6" )gainst 1amascus and $er )lly, #srael .?I;?4?>/ A" )gainst +thiopia .?B;?4I/ I" )gainst +gypt .?<;?4=7;A/ B" )gainst %abylon .=?;?4?7/ <" )gainst +dom .=?;??4?=/ ?7" )gainst )rabia .=?;?@4?I/ ??" )gainst Jerusalem .==;?4=6/ ?=" )gainst Tyre .=@;?4?B/ 8" Prophecies of the 1ay of the Lord .=>;?4=I;?@/ ?" Judgments of the Tribulation .=>;?4=@/ =" The Triumphs and %lessings of the !ingdom .=6;?4=I;?@/

1" Prophecies )gainst #srael and Judah .9oes and %lessings/ .=B;?4@6;?7/ ?" 9oe on amaria .=B;?4=</ =" 9oe on Judah .=<;?4@?;</ @" %ehold -essiah and $is !ingdom .@=;?4=7/ >" 9oe to )ssyria, the poiler of Jerusalem .@@;?4=>/ 6" 9oe to the (ations .@>;?4?I/ A" %ehold the 8oming !ingdom .@6;?4?7/ +" Prophecies )gainst ennacherib .@A;?4@<;B/ ?" The Taunt from )ssyria .@A;?4==/ =" The Truth from 0od .@I;?4I/ @" The Threat from )ssyria .@I;B4@6/ >" The Triumph over )ssyria .@I;@A4@B/ 6" The ickness of $e,ekiah .@B;?4==/ A" The tupidity of $e,ekiah .@<;?4B/ ##" Prophecies of 8omfort or 8onsolation .>7;?4AA;=>/ )" Prophecies of #srael's 1eliverance and the 0reatness of 0od .>7;?4>B;==/ %" Prophecy of #srael's 1elivererH the alvation of the uffering ervant .><;?46I;=?/ 8" Prophecies of #srael's 0lorious FutureH 0od's Program for Peace .6B;?4AA;=>/

JEREMIAH (Warnings Against Sin and J dg!ent)

)s with #saiah, this book clearly identifies the human author who is Jeremiah the son of $ilkiah from the priest city of )nathoth in the land of %en*amin .?;?/" Jeremiah dictated his prophecies to %aruch, his secretary" Only chapter 6= was not written by the prophet" Jeremiah is often called the 3weeping prophet5 .<;?H ?@;?I/ or the 3prophet of loneliness5 perhaps because he was commanded not to marry .?A;=/" $e is also known as the reluctant prophet .?;A/, but he faithfully

proclaimed 0od's *udgments on an apostate Judah even though he eCperienced opposition, beatings, and imprisonment .??;?B4=@H ?=;AH ?B;?BH =7;?4@H =A;?4=>H @I;??4@B;=B/"

A=I46B6 %"8" Jeremiah was a contemporary of Jephaniah, $abakkuk, 1aniel, and +,ekiel" $is prophetic ministry began in A=A %"8" and ended sometime after 6BA" $is ministry was immediately preceded by that of Jephaniah" ince +,ekiel began his ministry in %abylon in 6<@ he too was a late contemporary of this great prophet in Jerusalem" $ow and when Jeremiah died is unknown though Jewish tradition asserts that Jeremiah was put to death while living in +gypt .cf" $eb ??;@I/"

Title of the #oo$"

The book takes its name from it author, Jeremiah" 3The name Jeremiah, Oirme4Oa2hu2 apparently means &Jehovah establishes' .Orelli in # %+/, if the verb ra2maQ .3to throw5/ is to be understood in the sense of laying a foundation"5A? %ut compare the following regarding Jeremiah's name; The meaning of his name is uncertain" uggestions include 3The LOK1 eCalts5 and 3The LOK1 establishes,5 but a more likely proposal is 3The LOK1 throws,5 either in the sense of 3hurling5 the prophet into a hostile world or of 3throwing down5 the nations in divine *udgment for their sins"A=

Theme an Purpose"
Two themes are prominent; warnings of 0od's *udgment against sin are prominent throughout the book, but with that there was also the message of hope and restoration if the nation would genuinely repent" )s hinted earlier, an aura of conflict surrounded Jeremiah almost from the beginning" $e lashed out against the sins of his countrymen .>>;=@/, scoring them severely for their idolatry .?A;?74?@, =7H ==;<H @=;=<H >>;=4@, B, ?I4?<, =6/which sometimes even involved sacrificing their children to foreign gods .I;@74@>/" %ut Jeremiah loved the people of Judah in spite of their sins, and he prayed for them .?>;I, =7/ even when the Lord told him not to .I;?AH ??;?>H ?>;??/"A@

%e& 'or s or ) eas"

Judah's last hour in view of backsliding and unfaithfulness" There are more references to %abylon in Jeremiah .?A>/ than in all the rest of the %ible together"

%e& (erses"
#"$(#+% (ow the word of the Lord came to me saying, 3%efore # formed you in the womb # knew you, )nd before you were born # consecrated youH # have appointed you a prophet to the nations"5 Then # said, 3)las, Lord 0odR %ehold, # do not know how to speak, %ecause # am a youth"5 %ut the Lord said to me, 31o not say, &# am a youth,' %ecause everywhere # send you, you shall go, )nd all that # command you, you shall speak" 31o not be afraid of them, For # am with you to deliver you,5 declares the Lord" Then the Lord stretched out $is hand and touched my mouth, and the Lord said to me, 3%ehold, # have put -y words in your mouth" 3 ee, # have appointed you this day over the nations and over the kingdoms, To pluck up and to break down, To destroy and to overthrow, To build and to plant"5 !",*(,$% 3%ut this is what # commanded them, saying, &Obey -y voice, and # will be your 0od, and you will be -y peopleH and you will walk in all the way which # command you, that it may be well with you"' 3Oet they did not obey or incline their ear, but walked in their own counsels and in the stubbornness of their evil heart, and went backward and not forward" -"##(#,% 3)nd they heal the brokenness of the daughter of -y people superficially, aying, &Peace, peace,' %ut there is no peace" 39ere they ashamed because of the abomination they had doneS They certainly were not ashamed, )nd they did not know how to blushH Therefore they shall fall among those who fallH )t the time of their punishment they shall be brought down,5 1eclares the LOK1"

%e& Chapters"
#n keeping with the suffering Jeremiah eCperienced, chapter ? is surely a key chapter in that it records the call of the prophet" Then chapter ,* is key in that it gives the prophecy of the -essiah, the righteous branch who is seen in contrast to the wicked shepherds and lying prophets described in this same chapter" Twenty4four is another important chapter because it prophecies the %abylonian captivity which will last for seventy years" Finally, chapters *#(*, are key in that they speak of restoration, the (ew 8ovenant when the Lord will 3Put -y law in their minds, and write it on their heartsH T5 .@?;@@/

%e& People"
The key person throughout is of course Jeremiah, his preaching, resistance, and persecution"

Christ as seen in *eremiah"

-any pictures of 8hrist are seen in Jeremiah; $e is portrayed as the fountain of living waters .=;?@H cf" John >;?>/, the balm of 0ilead .B;==/, the 0ood hepherd .=@;>/, a Kighteous %ranch .=@;6/, and the Lord our Kighteousness .=@;A/" $e is seen as the one who will bring in the (ew 8ovenant .@?;@?4@>/" )nother prophecy in Jeremiah has significant -essianic implications"

The curse on Jehoiachin .Jeconiah, 8oniah/ meant that no physical descendant would succeed him to the throne .==;=B4@7/" -atthew ?;?4?I traces the genealogy of 8hrist through olomon and Jeconiah to $is legal .but not $is physical/ father Joseph" but no son of Joseph could sit upon the throne of 1avid, for he would be under the curse of Jehoiachin" Luke @;=@4@B traces 8hrist's lineage backward from -ary .$is physical parent/ through 1avid's other son (athan .Luke @;@?/, thereby avoiding the curse" The Kighteous %ranch will indeed reign on the throne of 1avid"A>

#" Jeremiah's 8all and 8ommission .?;?4?</ )" The 8all .?;?4?7/ %" The 8onfirmation of the 8all .?;??4?</ ##" Prophecies to Judah .=;?4>6;6/ )" The 8ondemnation of Judah .=;?4=6;@B/ ?" Judah's 9illful in .=;?4@;6/ =" Judah's 8hastening .@;A4A;@7/ @" Judah's 9rong Keligion .I;?4?7;=6/ >" Judah's %reaking of 0od's 8ovenant .??;?4?@;=I/ 6" Judah's 8oming 1rought .?>;?4?6;</ A" Judah's Prophet Kecommissioned .?6;?74?A;</ I" Judah's ins .?A;?74?I;=I/ B" Judah and the overeign Potter .?B;?4=@/ <" Judah as a %roken Jar .?<;?4=7;?B/ ?7" Judah's !ings .=?;?4=@;B/ ??" Judah's False Prophets .=@;<4>7/ ?=" Judah's 8aptivity .=>;?4=6;@B/ %" The 8onflicts of Jeremiah .=A;?4=<;@=/

?" Judah's Keaction to Jeremiah's -inistry .=A;?4=>/ =" Judah's )dvice from Jeremiah; ubmit to (ebuchadne,,ar .=I;?4=<;@=/ 8" Judah's $ope of Kestoration .@7;?4@@;=A/ 1" +vents %efore the Fall of Jerusalem .@>;?4@B;=B/ +" The Fall of Jerusalem .@<;?4?B/ F" +vents )fter the Fall of Jerusalem .>7;?4>6;6/ ###" Prophecies to the 0entiles .>A;?46?;A>/ )" Prophecies )gainst +gypt .>A;?4=B/ %" Prophecies )gainst the Philistines .>I;?4I/ 8" Prophecies )gainst -oab .>B;?4>I/ 1" Prophecies )gainst )mmon .><;?4A/ +" Prophecies )gainst +dom .><;I4==/ F" Prophecies )gainst 1amascus .><;=@4=I/ 0" Prophecies )gainst )rabia .><;=B4@@/ $" Prophecies )gainst +lam .><;@>4@</ #" Prophecies )gainst %abylon .67;?46?;A>/ #G" $istorical upplement .6=;?4@>/ )" The Fate of Jerusalem .6=;?4=@/ %" The Fate of 8ertain People .6=;=>4@>/

"AME#TATI$#S (A River of Tears)

The author of Lamentations is unnamed in the book, but two lines of evidence favor Jeremiah as the author"

?" Externa$ Eviden e: The consensus of Jewish tradition attribute the book to Jeremiah" The superscription to Lamentations in the eptuagint points to Jeremiah as the one weeping over the captivity and the desolation of Jerusalem" =" &nterna$ Eviden e: That the author is an eyewitness of Jerusalem's siege and fall is clear from the graphic nature of the scenes portrayed in the book .cf" ?;?@4?6H =;A, <H >;?4?=/" Further, there are a number of similarities between the books of Jeremiah and Lamentations .e"g", the phrase 3daughter of5 occurs about =7 times in each book/" #n addition, Jeremiah is connected with this type of literature in = 8hronicles @6;=6/"

6BA or 6B6 %"8" ince the book was written soon after Jerusalem's destruction which was completed in 6BA, the earliest possible date for the book is 6BA %"8" The graphic immediacy of Lamentations argues for a date shortly after this like 6BA or 6B6 %"8"

Title of the #oo$"

The $ebrew title of the book is UeQkaQ .3$ow T R5/, the first word found in ?;?, =;?H and >;?" %ecause of its sub*ect matter, the book is also referred to in Jewish tradition as +inot, 3Lamentations,5 which is the title given to it in the 0reek eptuagint and Latin Gulgate"

Theme an Purpose"
The primary theme of the book is a lament or mourning over the woes that had fallen on sinful Judah and the pitiable destruction of the holy city and the temple" 0od's promised *udgment for Judah's sin has come" ) second theme flows out of this of *udgment for sin" Thus the prophet appeals to the chastened nation that they recogni,e 0od was *ust and righteous in $is dealings with them, and that they cast themselves upon $is mercy in a spirit of repentance" #ahweh has poured out $is wrath, but in $is mercy $e will be faithful to $is covenant promises" 3Though the Lord's mercies we are not consumed, because $is compassions fail not" They are new every morningH great is Oour faithfulness5 .@;==4=@/"A6 The special contribution of the prophet Jeremiah as seen in Jeremiah and Lamentations can be observed by a comparison of these two books;AA

%e& 'or "

#n view of the theme and nature of the book, the key word is mourning or lamentations"

%e& (erses"
,")('% The Lord has become like an enemy" $e has swallowed up #sraelH $e has swallowed up all its palacesH $e has destroyed its strongholds )nd multiplied in the daughter of Judah -ourning and moaning" )nd $e has violently treated $is tabernacle like a garden boothH $e has destroyed $is appointed meeting placeH The LOK1 has caused to be forgotten The appointed feast and sabbath in Jion, )nd $e has despised king and priest #n the indignation of $is anger" *",#(,$% This # recall to my mind, Therefore # have hope" The LOK1' lovingkindnesses indeed never cease, For $is compassions never fail" They are new every morningH 0reat is Oour faithfulness" 3The LOK1 is my portion,5 says my soul, 3Therefore # have hope in $im"5

%e& Chapters"
urely chapter * stands as a pinnacle in the midst of the other chapters of ruin and destruction for here the author eCpresses his faith and hope in 0od's mercy who will not re*ect $is people forever"

Christ as seen in +amentations"

Lamentations includes two elements that portray the avior; .?/ #t portrays $im as the -an of orrows who was acFuainted with grief, who was afflicted, despised, and scorned by $is enemies .cf" ?;?=H @;?<; =;?64?AH @;?>, @7/" .=/ Jeremiah's weeping over the destruction of Jerusalem is perhaps also a picture of 8hrist who wept over Jerusalem .see -att" =@;@I4@B/"

#" The 1estruction of Jerusalem .?;?4==/ )" The Lament of the Prophet .?;?4??/ %" The Lament of the 8ity of Jerusalem .?;?=4==/ ##" The Lord's )nger )gainst $is People .=;?4==/ )" The )nger of 0od .=;?4?7/ %" The )uthor's Lament .=;??4==/ ###" The 1istraught Prophet .@;?4AA/

)" $is Lament .@;?4?B/ %" $is $ope .@;?<4>=/ 8" $is uffering .@;>@46>/ 1" $is Prayer .@;664AA/ #G" The 1efeated People of Jerusalem .>;?4==/ )" The iege of the 8ity .>;?4?=/ %" The Keasons for the iege .>;?@4=7/ 8" The $ope for the Future .>;=?4==/ G" The Prayer for Kestoration .6;?4==/ )" 8onfession .6;?4?B/ %" Petition .6;?<4==/

E%E&IE" (The' Shall &now That I A! Yahweh)

The author is +,ekiel the priest, son of %u,i, who received his call as a prophet while in eCile in %abylon .?;?4@/" $is ministry as a prophet demonstrates a priestly focus with his concern for the temple, priesthood, sacrifices, and the she!inah glory of 0od" 9hat is known of +,ekiel is derived entirely from the book of +,ekiel itself" $e was married .see =>;?64?B/, lived in a house of his own .cf" @;=>H B;?/ and, along with his fellow eCiles, had a relatively free eCistence"

6<@46I? %"8" The book of +,ekiel contains many dates so that its prophecies can be dated with considerable precision" Twelve of the ?@ dates in the book specify the times when +,ekiel received his message from the Lord" The other date is of the arrival of the messenger who reported the fall of Jerusalem .@@;=?/" Keceiving his call as a prophet in July, 6<@ %"8", +,ekiel was active for == years" $is last dated oracle was received in about 6I?"

Title of the #oo$"

)s with #saiah and Jeremiah, the book of +,ekiel gets its name from its author, +,ekiel, which is the $ebrew yehe,keUl and means 30od strengthens5 or 3strengthened by 0od"5

Theme an Purpose"
+,ekiel's focus is on condemnation .?4@=/ for #srael's sin and consolation .@@4>B/ in view of what 0od will do in the future" )rcher summari,e the theme; The theme of +,ekiel's prophecy is that the fall of Jerusalem and the %abylonian captivity are necessary measures for the 0od of grace to employ if $e is to correct $is disobedient people and draw them back from complete and permanent apostasy" %ut the day is coming when Jehovah will restore a repentant remnant of $is chastened people and establish them in a glorious latter4 day theocracy with a new temple"AI Kyrie adds the following word that brings out another important element of his ministry; +,ekiel's ministry was to keep before the eCiles the sins that had brought 0od's *udgment on them and to assure them of 0od's future blessing in keeping with $is covenant" 8hapters ?4=> were written before the fall of Jerusalem to remind his fellow captives that 0od's *udgment on the city and Temple was surely coming" 8hapters @@4>B contain prophecies of the still future restoration of #srael in the millennial kingdom"AB

%e& 'or "

9hile the key concept may be found in the word 3restoration,5 the words 3shall know that # am the Lord5 occurs some A@ times" Other distinctive phrases that are repeated are 3the word of the Lord came5 .67 times/, and 3glory of the Lord5 .?7 times/"

%e& (erses"
*'",$(*+% 3For # will take you from the nations, gather you from all the lands, and bring you into your own land" 3Then # will sprinkle clean water on you, and you will be cleanH # will cleanse you from all your filthiness and from all your idols" 3-oreover, # will give you a new heart and put a new spirit within youH and # will remove the heart of stone from your flesh and give you a heart of flesh" 3)nd # will put -y pirit within you and cause you to walk in -y statutes, and you will be careful to observe -y ordinances" 3)nd you will live in the land that # gave to your forefathersH so you will be -y people, and # will be your 0od" 3-oreover, # will save you from all your uncleannessH and # will call for the grain and multiply it, and # will not bring a famine on you" 3)nd # will multiply the fruit of the tree and the produce of the field, that you may not receive again the disgrace of famine among the nations" *'"**(*)" &Thus says the Lord 0O1, 3On the day that # cleanse you from all your iniFuities, # will cause the cities to be inhabited, and the waste places will be rebuilt" @> 3)nd the desolate

land will be cultivated instead of being a desolation in the sight of everyone who passed by" @6 3)nd they will say, &This desolate land has become like the garden of +denH and the waste, desolate, and ruined cities are fortified and inhabited"'

%e& Chapters"
8hapters *'(*! speak of the blessings that will come to the mountains of #srael followed by the hope of restoration of #srael in the vision of the valley of dry bones, which outlines the clear process of restoration of #srael's future" 8hapters *-(*& anticipate the great global conflict that will occur on the mountains of #srael but with #srael's enemies defeated by 0od"

%e& People"
+,ekiel, son of %usi, a priest called to be prophet to #srael before and after the %abylonian captivity"

Christ as seen in ,-e$iel"

8hrist, the -essiah, is pictured as a tender sprig that will be planted on a high and lofty mountain .?I;=@4=>/, a picture similar to that of the %ranch in #saiah .??;?/, in Jeremiah .=@;6H @@;?6/, and in Jechariah .@;B; A;?=/" +,ekiel also speaks of -essiah as the !ing who has the right to rule .=?;=A4=I/ and who will minister as the true hepherd .@>;??4@?/"

)gain, because the great length of this book, only the ma*or sections will be outlined" #" The commission and 8all of +,ekiel .?;?4@;=I/ )" +,ekiel %eholds the 0lory of 0od .?;?4=B/ %" +,ekiel is 8ommissioned to the 9ord of 0od .=;?4@;=I/ ##" Present Judgments on Jerusalem and Judah .>;?4=>;=I/ )" Four igns of 8oming Judgment .>;?46;?I/ %" Two messages of 8oming Judgment .A;?4I;=I/ 8" Four Prophecies Through Gisions .B;?4??;=6/ 1" The 8ertainty of Judgment 9ith Their 8auses Through igns, -essages, and Parables .?=;?4 =>;=I/

###" Prophecies )gainst 0entile (ations .=6;?4@=;@=/ )" )gainst )mmon .=6;?4I/ %" )gainst -oab .=6;B4??/ 8" )gainst +dom .=6;?=4?>/ 1" )gainst Philistia .=6;?64?I/ +" )gainst Tyre .=A;?4=B;?</ F" )gainst idon .=B;=74=A/ 0" )gainst +gypt .=<;?4@=;@=/ #G" Prophecies of the Kestoration of #srael .@@;?4>B;@6/ )" The Keturn of #srael to the Land .@@;?4@<;=</ %" The Kestoration of #srael in the !ingdom .>7;?4>B;@6/

(A#IE" (Israel)s *lti!ate (estin')

)s evident by 1aniel's own claim .?=;>/ and by his use of the autobiographical first person from chapter I;= onward, 1aniel is the author of this prophetic book" )rcher points out; 1espite the numerous ob*ections which have been advanced by scholars who regard this as a prophecy written after the event, there is no good reason for denying the siCth4century 1aniel the composition of the entire work" This represents a collection of his memoirs made at the end of a long and eventful career which included government service from the reign of (ebuchadne,,ar in the 6<7s to the reign of 8yrus the 0reat in the 6@7s" The appearance of Persian technical terms indicates a final recension of these memoirs at a time when Persian terminology had already infiltrated into the vocabulary of )ramaic" The most likely date for the final edition of the book, therefore, would be about 6@7 b"c", nine years after the Persian conFuest of %abylon"A< 9hile a youth, 1aniel was taken as a captive to %abylon in A76 %"8" by (ebuchadne,,ar" There he became a statesman in the court of (ebuchadne,,ar and 1arius" Though he did not occupy the office of a prophet, 8hrist identified him as a prophet .-att" =>;?6H -ark ?@;?>/" )s one who did not occupy the prophetic office, the book of 1aniel is found in 3the 9ritings,5 the third division of the $ebrew %ible rather than in 3the Prophets"5

6@I %"8" #f 1aniel is the author as the book claims, then it written after the %abylonian captivity when 1aniel and other young men were taken captive to %abylon in A76 when (ebuchadne,,ar subdued Jerusalem" %ut for various reasons, this date has been disputed with many critics arguing that 1aniel is a fraudulent book which was written in the time of the -accabees in the second century %"8" rather than the siCth century %"8" 8oncerning the arguments against the authorship of 1aniel in the siCth century Kyrie writes; The first attack on the traditional siCth century %"8" date for the composition of the book came from Porphyry .)"1" =@=4 @7@/, a vigorous opponent of 8hristianity, who maintained that the book was written by an unknown Jew who lived at the time of )ntiochus +piphanes .?I64?A@ %"8"/" This view was widely promoted by scholars of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries for the following reasons; it is alleged that 1aniel could not have made these predictions, since they were accurately fulfilled and could therefore have been written only after the events occurredH Persian and 0reek words used in the book would have been unknown to a siCth4century Jewish authorH the )ramaic used in =;>4I;=B belongs to a time after that of 1anielH and there are certain alleged historical inaccuracies" #n answer, we observe that predictive prophecy is not only possible but eCpected from a true prophet of 0od" ince 1aniel lived into the Persian period, he would have known Persian words" The presence of 0reek words is easily accounted for, since one hundred years before 1aniel, 0reek mercenaries served in the )ssyrian army under +sarhaddon .AB@/ and in the %abylonian army under (ebuchadne,,ar" Kecent discoveries of fifth century %"8" )ramaic documents have shown that 1aniel was written in a form of #mperial )ramaic, an official dialect known in all parts of the (ear +ast at that time" )lleged historical inaccuracies are fast disappearing, especially with the information provided by the (abonidus 8hronicle as to the identity of %elsha,,ar .6;?/ and with evidence that identifies 1arius the -ede with a governor named 0ubaru .6;@?/" #n addition, how can the use of relatively few 0reek words be eCplained if the book was written around ?I7 %"8", when a 0reek4speaking government had controlled Palestine for ?A7 yearsS One would eCpect the presence of many 0reek terms" )lso, the Mumran documents .1ead ea crolls/, dated only a few decades before the alleged second4century writing of 1aniel, show grammatical differences that indicate they were written centuries, not decades, after 1aniel" Further, the scrolls of 1aniel found at Mumran are copies, indicating that the original was written before the -accabean era"I7

Title of the #oo$"

The book is named after its author" The $ebrew word for 1aniel is 1aniyyeUl or 1aniUel, which means either 30od is Judge5 or 30od is my Judge"5 The 0reek form Daniel in the eptuagint is the basis for the Latin and +nglish titles"

Theme an Purpose"
The theme of 1aniel is 0od's sovereign power as the one true 0od, who *udges and destroys the rebellious world powers and will faithfully deliver $is covenant people according to their steadfast faith in $im" 1aniel was written to encourage the eCiled Jews through revealing 0od's sovereign plan for #srael during and after the period of domination by the 0entile world powers" This is the time of the 0entiles which began with the %abylonian captivity but will end with the establishment of -essiah's kingdom as the stone, one cut out without hands, became a great mountain and filled the whole earth .=;@>4@6H see also I;?@4?>/"

%e& 'or "

Though the words 3king5 and 3kingdom5 occur over and over again, the key idea is the plan of 0od for #srael which will end in the establishment of 0od's -essiah !ing as ruler on the earth"

%e& (erses"
,",+(,," 1aniel answered and said, 3Let the name of 0od be blessed forever and ever, For wisdom and power belong to $im" 3)nd it is $e who changes the times and the epochsH $e removes kings and establishes kingsH $e gives wisdom to wise men, )nd knowledge to men of understanding" 3#t is $e who reveals the profound and hidden thingsH $e knows what is in the darkness, )nd the light dwells with $im" ,"$$% )nd in the days of those kings the 0od of heaven will set up a kingdom which will never be destroyed, and that kingdom will not be left for another peopleH it will crush and put an end to all these kingdoms, but it will itself endure forever" !"#$% 3)nd to $im was given dominion, 0lory and a kingdom, That all the peoples, nations, and men of every language -ight serve $im" $is dominion is an everlasting dominion 9hich will not pass awayH )nd $is kingdom is one 9hich will not be destroyed"

%e& Chapters"
One of the greatest prophetic chapters in the %ible is 1aniel <, the prophecy of the &seventy weeks' determined for #srael .<;=>4=I/" These verses give us the chronological frame for the nation of #srael and her -essiah from the time 1aniel to the establishment of -essiah's kingdom on earth"

%e& People"
The key people are 1aniel who was taken to %abylon as a youth, served in government and became 0od's special mouthpiece to 0entile and Jewish nationsH hadrach, -eshach, and )bed4 nego, three more youths who were chosen for special training along with 1aniel .their former and Jewish names were $ananiah, -ishael, and ),ariah/" Other important persons are

(ebuchadne,,ar, !ing of %abylon in A76 %"8", 1arius who succeeded %elsha,,ar as king, 8yrus, the Persian monarch, and -ichael, the archangel who ministered to 1aniel in chapter ?7"

Christ as seen in Daniel"

One of the key portraits of 8hrist in 1aniel is that of the coming -essiah who will be cut off .a reference to the cross/ .<;=64=A/" $owever, 8hrist is also portrayed as the great stone who will crush the kingdoms of this world .=;@>, >6/, the son of man .I;?@/, and the )ncient of days .I;==/" The vision in ?7;64</ is most likely a 8hristophany, an appearance of 8hrist .cf" Kev" ?;?=4 ?A/"

#" The Personal $istory of 1aniel .?;?4=?/ )" $is 1eportation to %abylon .?;?4I/ %" $is Faithfulness in %abylon .?;B4?A/ 8" $is Keputation in %abylon .?;?I4=?/ ##" The Prophetic Plan for the 0entile (ations .=;?4I;=B/ )" (ebuchadne,,ar's 1ream of the 0reat #mage .=;?4></ %" The Fiery Furnace; ) Lesson in Faith .@;?4@7/ 8" (ebuchadne,,ar's Gision of the 0reat Tree .>;?4@I/ 1" %elsha,,ar's Feast and the $andwriting on the 9all .6;?4@?/ +" 1arius' Foolish 1ecree or 1aniel in the Lion's 1en .A;?4=B/ F" 1aniel's Gision of the Four %easts .I;?4=B/ ###" The Prophetic Plan for #srael .B;?4?=;?@/ )" 1aniel's Gision of the Kam, the 0oat, and the mall $orn .B;?4=I/ %" 1aniel's Prophecy of the eventy 9eeks of Oear .<;?4=I/ 8" 1aniel's Prophetic Panorama of #srael's Future .?7;?4?=;?@/


)rcher, +lectronic -edia" :nger, pp" @7A4@7I"



K" Laird $arris, L" )rcher, Jr" %ruce !" 9altke, Theological Word -oo! o" the &ld Testament, Gol" =, p" 6>>" 8arl Laney, %ibliotheca acra, Oct"41ec" ?<B?, p" @?64@?A"


The following chart comparing the four ma*or prophets is taken from The .yrie Study -ible, /%panded /dition, -oody Press, ?<<6, p0 ??6?" Thouh not Fuoted verbatum, the focus here was taken from (orman L" 0eisler's, A Popular Sur ey o" the &ld Testament, %aker, 0rand Kapids, ?<II, pp" ==I4==B"
6A 66


0eisler, p" ==B" )rcher, +lectronic -edia" Kyrie, pp"?7>>4?7>6" 9ilkenson and %oa, p" ?<?" )rcher, +lectronic -edia" )rcher, +lectronic -edia" 1'2 Study -ible, 0eneral +ditor, !enneth %arker, Jondervan, ?<B6, p" ???6" 1'2 Study -ible, p" ???A" 9ilkenson and %oa, p" =77" 9ilkenson and %oa, p" =7B" )dapted from 9ilkenson and %oa, p" =7<" )rcher, +lectronic -edia" Kyrie, pp" ?=A?" )rcher, +lectronic -edia" Kyrie, p" ?@>="