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Lesson Plan 1 Production of Materials HSC CHEMISTRY HSC Chemistry GENERAL ADVICE There are a couple of things in the

e HSC chemistry course which need to be fully understood before a solid theory based examination technique can be developed: Verbs

This is perhaps the most essential yet most commonly ignored part of the syllabus. Many books will give you a generalised idea of what to do e.g. evaluate Make a judgement based on criteria. For a 7 mark question this really doesnt tell the student a lot on how to go about answering this question. Instead below is given a scaffold of how to go about answering the various verbs you may seeIdentify/Outline Often this requires nothing more than a one word or one line answer for 1 or 2 marks Explain Discuss Assess Evaluate Cause Identify Identify Identify Effect Describe Describe Describe Need Advantages Advantages Advantages to Disadvantages Disadvantages Disadvantages write Judgement Criteria about Judgement cause and effect and link them Throughout the course when encountered by such verbs, we will examine exact layouts Timing Describe An extended version of outline giving more information for 3/4 marks

The rule specifically states 1.8 minutes per mark. Follow this and it will make sure you use all of your time wisely and effectively. In fact I was so pedantic about this that I even had a stop watch in my exam and before doing every question I would multiply the value of the question (eg. 5 marks) by 1.8 to understand how long I could write for. There are too many students who finish chemistry exams 20-30 minutes early (or even more) and claim the exam was too short. The exam is not too short, they simply havent written enough! Equations

A true understanding of chemistry is seen through relevant balanced chemical equations to support what you have written. It is imperative that the equations given here be learnt and practised. Applying them in exam situations can differentiate a great answer from a good one.

Fossil fuels provide both energy and raw materials such as ethylene, for the production of other substances 1.1.2 Identify the industrial source of ethylene from the cracking of some of the fractions from the refining of petroleum Crude oil is a complex mixture of hydrocarbons which can be separated through a process called FRACTIONAL DISTILLATION. In this process the crude oil is heated which breaks the weak dispersion forces between hydrocarbon molecules. Light fractions with lower boiling points (weaker dispersion forces and so easily broken) rise higher in the fractionating column. Heavier fractions with higher boiling points (with stronger dispersion forces requiring more energy to break) are collected from lower in the column.

The larger and less useful products of the fractional distilling process can be broken into smaller and more useful molecules (smaller length chains) through a process referred to as CRACKING. There are two main types of cracking, THERMAL and CATALYTIC cracking.

Catalytic Cracking
Catalytic cracking is a process in which higher molecular weight (high boiling point) fractions from crude oil with low economic value are broken down into lower molecular weight (lower boiling point) hydrocarbons. This process usually occurs under high temperatures and pressures but the use

of catalysts known zeolites (fine porous, aluminosilicates) allow slightly lower temperatures (5000C) and pressures to be used. The process occurs in a cat cracker. This process uses less heat than THERMAL cracking, but it cannot decompose large molecules completely into ethylene, so it is insufficient in meeting the demands of the industry. E.g. cracking of pentane into ethylene and propane:

C5H12 (g) C2H4 (g) + C3H8 (g)

Thermal Cracking
Thermal (or steam) cracking is the main method of ethylene production in Australia. In this process ethane (C2H6), which is obtained from natural gas, is mixed with steam and passed through hot (700C to 1000C) metal coils. The steam removes carbon deposits from the metal coils. The heat from the coils breaks bonds to change the ethane or larger hydrocarbons to ethylene.

C2H6 (g) C2H4 (g) + H2 (g)


Use this space for making your own notes:

1.1.3 Identify that ethylene, because of the high reactivity of its double bond, is readily transformed into many useful products Ethylene contains a double bond in its structure.

The high reactivity of this double covalent bond allows ethylene to be chemically transformed into a wide variety of useful products. The double covalent bond provides increased electron density at this site. Electronegative elements such as halogens or compounds containing highly electronegative

elements (such as chlorine, bromine and oxygen) are attracted to the double bond and electrons are transferred as they react. The most characteristic reaction with ethylene is the addition reaction where one of the bonds in the double bond breaks open and an atom is added or bonded with each of the carbon atom. Some products formed from ethylene include o o o Polyethylene (CH2) used as a plastic Ethanol (C2H5OH) used as a disinfectant Ethanoic Acid (CH3COOH) used as a food preservative

Many of these are explored in subsequent syllabus dot points. Use this space for making your own notes:

1.1.4

Identify that ethylene serves as a monomer from which polymers are made

Polymerisation is the chemical reaction in which many identical small molecules (MONOMERS) combine to form one very large molecule (POLYMERS). Due to the presence of a very reactive double bond in ethylene, it can be readily involved in polymerisation. During the reaction the double bond of the monomer is broken in order to form the polymeric chain. It is the starting material for many important polymers CH2 = CH2 CH2 = CH2 CH2 = CH2 CH2 = CH2 CH2 = CH2

CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2- CH2 - CH2 - CH2 - CH21.1.5 Identify polyethylene as an addition polymer and explain the meaning of this term Polyethylene is an ADDITION POLYMER It forms by molecules adding together (monomers) adding together without the loss of any atoms to form large molecules (polymers). In an addition polymerisation reaction, no additional molecules (e.g. water) are produced there is no gain or loss of atoms, the double bond simply opens and

monomers attach. The monomers simply add to the growing polymer so that all the atoms present in the monomer are also present in the polymer

Double bond in ethylene opens up in addition polymerisation to allow monomers to join with each other

Where n is a very large number

NOTE: If using above equation in test situation it is imperative to write where n is a very large number. Personally I have lost marks for leaving this out. Use this space for making your own notes:

HSC Style Questions


Using an appropriate example define addition polymerisation? 2 Marks

Explain the process of collecting ethylene from crude oil? 3 Marks Explain the highly reactive nature of ethylene? 3 Marks