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Optional Topic INDUSTRIAL CHEMISTRY

1. Industrial chemistry processes have enabled scientists to develop replacements for natural products
DISCUSS THE ISSUES ASSOCIATED WITH SHRINKING WORLD RESOURCES WITH REGARD TO ONE INDENTIFIED NATURAL PRODUCT THAT IS NOT A FOSSIL FUEL: - IDENTIFY THE REPLACEMENT MATERIAL AND/OR, - CURRENT RESEARCH IN PLACE TO FIND REPLACEMENT MATERIAL IDENTIFY DATA, GATHER AND PROCESS INFORMATION TO IDENTIFY AND DISCUSS THE ISSUES ASSOCIATED WITH THE INCREASED NEED FOR NATURAL RESOURCE THAT IS NOT A FOSSIL FUELL AND EVALUATE THE PROGRESS CURRENTLY BEING MADE TO SOLVE THE PROBLEMS IDENTIFIED Heading Natural resource Uses of the resource and properties that make it useful Information Gastropod molluscs and Murex gastropods (snail) of the Mediterranean contain dye, which is observed as Tyrian Purple dye Shellfish and Snails were used to produce Tyrian Purple (= dibromoindigo) dye. It took 8500 organisms to produce 1 gram of this coloured dye PROPERTIES: colour fast to fabric wouldnt fade from fabric

Changes in its uses over time

Sources

Problems associated with its use

What is being done about problems

Initially dye was used to paint and draw, however its strong adhesion to fabric was soon noticed and thus became used in dying fabrics various rulers used dye to colour fabrics of the royal families Gastropod molluscs shell and deposits Murex gastropods shell sea slugs extracted from head non renewable source difficulty obtaining rare species seabed the fact that 8500 organisms had to be used to obtain 1 gram of the tyrian purple dye humans have a history of increasing obsession with colour from painting, dying, makeup to newspapers, picture books and textbooks supply and demand as people populated the globe, there was demand for dyestuff and thus some natural resources became scare or extinct At the time governments and/or rulers began to ban and forbade the extraction of dyes by the slaughter of several living organisms alternate method was introduced milking snails by poking

or threatening them, however this was later seen as animal cruelty 1856 William Perkins was trying to synthesise quinine, which was a treatment drug extracted from the bark of South American tea trees used to prevent malaria. attempt to make quinine from chemical tar chemicals reacted aniline sulphate with the powerful oxidising agent potassium dichromate dark murky black goo, he then added alcohol and was left with a beautiful purple solution st became worlds 1 aniline dye called mauve o became superior to other dyes as it produced a uniform shade with fabric such as, silk began to produce other colours, established the aniline dye industry Modern problem is whether or not these dyes are linked to cancer, allergies and hyperactivity. Attention is mainly given to fat soluble dyes and toy dyes development of new synthetic dyes, which dont use aniline finding other sources produce more environmentally friendly dyes

Research occurring

Progress currently being made to solve problems Studies of different types and colours of dyes show links to certain diseases, table below illustrates the results of studies: Dye Comments Amaranth Natural red plant dye, has possible links to allergy, hyperactivity, asthma, eczema and birth defects BANNED in many countries (eg. USA) Cochineal Natural red dye from insects still under going epidemiological tests Curcumin Orange yellow colour from root of turmeric plant, used in cheese, margarine and fish fingers Yellow 7G Causes allergies and is hence banned in Australia Sunset Yellow Side effects include; hives, runny nose, allergies, tumours in animals Erythrosine Red colour used in cherries and canned fruit causes light sensitivity, hyperthyroidism, thyroid cancer Red 2G BANNED IN AUSTRALIA Indigotine Synthetic coal tar chemical often used to colour tablets, blue sweets and ice cream causes breathing difficulties, allergies and blood pressure Green S Synthetic coal tar chemical, which is banned in Sweden, USA and Norway Vegetable carbon Charcoal pigment is allowed in Australia but not in USA Chocolate Brown HT Used in chocolate cake mixes causes allergic reactions Carotene Orange yellow colour found in yellow or orange coloured fruits and vegetables Scientists are developing dyes from other renewable sources and in Australia agencies like the National Health and Medical Research Council regulate the use of dyes in food.

2. Many industrial processes involve manipulation of equilibrium reactions


EXPLAIN THE EFFECT OF CHANGING THE FOLLOWING FACTORS ON IDENTIFIED EQUILIBIRUM REACTIONS - PRESSURE - VOLUME - CONCENTRATION - TEMPERATURE

REMEMBER: Equilibrium Reactions refer to chemical reactions, whereby, both the reactants and the products obtain a constant concentration at equilibria, reaction occurs in a closed environment, there are macroscopic changes, which can be measured and/or observed, and that the rate of the forward and reverse reaction are the same. [refer to Acidic Environment Point 2.4 2.5] Le Chateliers Principle: If a system of equilibrium is disturbed, the system reacts (/adjust itself) to counteract or minimise the disturbance Pressure if pressure is increased then the system reacts by shifting towards the side with the least amount of gaseous molecules in an attempt to reduce the pressure if the pressure is decreased then the system reacts by shifting towards the side with the most amount of gaseous molecules in an attempt to increase the pressure Volume in a gaseous system, volume effects the total gas pressure of the system, thus disturbing equilibrium [diagram on right illustrates relationship] in a non gaseous system, such as an aqueous solution, if the volume of the solvent (usually water) is altered then the system will react accordingly o if volume of water is increased the system shifts to the side with the most particles as there is an immediate decrease in the concentrations of all species involved o if volume is decreased the system shifts to the side with the least amount of particles in order to decrease the amount of particles in the solvent ie. water eg. NaCl (s) Na
+ (aq)

+ Cl (aq)

Concentration if concentration of a certain species is increased then the system shifts in the direction not favouring the increased species, in order to use up the excess if concentration of a certain species is decreased then the system shifts in the direction favouring the decreased species, in order to produce more [this is evident in the Haber Process] Temperature if system is endothermic (heat is being absorbed, heat must be supplied) o temperature increased means system will shift right to consume excess heat, thus producing a higher product yield o temperature decreased means the system will shift left in order to produce more heat, thus reducing the reactant yield if system is exothermic (heat is released or produced by the reaction) o temperature increased means system will shift left to use up the excess heat, thus reducing the reactant yield o temperature decreased means system will shift right in order to produce more heat, thus increasing the product yield INTERPRET THE EQUILIBRIUM CONSTANT EXPRESSION (NO UNITS REQUIRED) FROM THE CHEMICAL EQUATION OF EQUILIBRIUM REACTIONS

IDENTIFY THAT TEMPERATURE IS THE ONLY FACTOR THAT CHANGES THE VALUE OF THE EQUILIBRIUM CONSTANT (K) FOR A GIVEN EQUATION Given that w[Reactant A] + x[Reactant B] y[Product A] + z[Product B], the equilibrium expression is written as follows:

K=

[Product A]y [Product B]z [Reactant A]w [Reactant B]x

If ACTUAL K is Z (for instance), then: when TRIAL K is greater than (>) ACTUAL K, this means that the reaction isnt in equilibrium and reaction favours the products when TRIAL K is less than (<) ACTUAL K, this means that the reaction isnt in equilibrium and reaction favours the reactants Interpreting the value of K when K > 1000, [PRODUCTS] are much higher than that of reactants thus the equilibrium is said to lie to the right when K < 0.001, [REACTANTS] are much higher than that of products thus the equilibrium is said to lie to the left when 0.001 < K < 1000, [REACTANTS] and [PRODUCTS] are almost equal thus the equilibrium is said to lie in the middle NOTE: [ ] = concentration of whatever is in the brackets Calculating K of the reverse reaction: use the reciprocal of the forward reaction value (ie. 1/K reverse ) The value of K (equilibrium constant) for a certain chemical reaction is a unique constant only at a particular temperature. In other words, the equilibrium constant of a reaction at 150 K is 35, while the same reaction at a temperature of 295 K has an equilibrium constant of 78. In an exothermic reaction (ie. reactants products + heat), K decreases as the temperature increases In an endothermic reaction (ie. reactants + heat products), K increases as the temperature increases IDENTIFY DATA, PLAN AND PERFORM A FIRST HAND INVESTIGATION TO MODEL AN EQUILIBRIUM REACTION [COMPUTER MODEL]

Equilibrium has been reached here

CHOOSE EQUIPMENT AND PERFORM A FIRST HAND INVESTIGATION TO GATHER INFORMATION AND QUALITATIVELY ANAYLSE AN EQUILIBRIUM REACTION ??? PROCESS AND PRESENT INFORMATION FROM SECONDARY SOURCES TO CALCULATE K FROM THE EQUILIBRIUM CONDITIONS
Question 1 -3 At 800 K the equilibrium constant for the reaction COCl 2 (g) CO (g) + Cl 2 (g) is 5.0 x 10 . At this temperature what is the value of the equilibrium constant for 2CO (g) + 2Cl 2 (g) 2COCl 2 (g) ?

Question 2 Phosgene gas, COCl 2 , decomposes to carbon monoxide and chlorine at elevated temperatures. 0.050 mole of phosgene was placed in a 1.0 flask and heated to 400 C. at equilibrium it was found that the concentration of chlorine was 0.0060 mol/L. Calculate the equilibrium constant.

Question 3 At room temperature gaseous dinitrogen pentoxide decomposes to nitrogen dioxide and oxygen. In a particular experiment 0.10 mole of dinitrogen pentoxide was placed in a 1.00 flask and the concentration of nitrogen dioxide was measured as a function of time. The results are shown in the graph;

Use the information above to calculate the equilibrium constant for the reaction: 2N 2 O 5 (g) 4NO 2 (g) + O 2 (g)

Question 4 In the Contact Process for the production of sulphuric acid a key step is the reaction of SO 2 with O 2 according to the equilibrium 2SO 2 (g) + O 2 (g) 2SO 3 (g) . In a laboratory test of this equilibrium 6.00 mole SO 2 and 2.50 mole of O 2 are added to 2.00 L reaction vessel and allowed to come to equilibrium at 700 C. If 4.00 mole of SO 3 is present at equilibrium, what is the value of the equilibrium constant?

3. Sulfuric Acid is one of the most important industrial chemicals


OUTLINE THREE USES OF SULFURIC ACID IN INDUSTRY Sulfuric acid is one of the most important acids in our industry as it can be used to produce; superphosphate and ammonium sulfate fertilisers, produce Titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ), which is used in paints and cosmetics, clean steel and act as a catalyst in mining and petroleum refining. superphosphate fertiliser treating rock phosphate with H 2 SO 4 ammonium sulfate fertiliser reacting NH 3 with H 2 SO 4 H 2 SO 4 + 2NH 3 (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 sulphuric acid is used to make titanium dioxide from its ore since concentrated sulphuric acid has a high affinity (attraction) to water, it is thus a dehydrating agent used to remove water from ethanol to produce water and ethane DESCRIBE THE PROCESSES USED TO EXTRACT SULFUR FROM MINERAL DEPOSITS, IDENTIFYING THE PROPERTIES OF SULFUR WHICH ALLOW ITS EXTRACTION AND ANALYSING POTENTIAL ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES THAT MAY BE ASSOCIATED WITH THE EXTRACTION The Frasch Process uses a triple pipe, which is inserted into the identified sulfur deposit region. The properties and steps which make this process possible are shown below:

1. Superheated water (160 C) is pumped down outer tube into sulfur deposit. Sulfur melts and turns into a molten state as it has a low melting point of 120 C
2. Compressed air is then pumped down the inner tube, since sulfur has a low density it is easily forced upwards through the middle tube

3. Once sulfur is at the surface it is easily separated from the water as sulfur is insoluble.

Environmental issues associated with the extraction of sulphur through the Frasch Process sulfur is readily reduced (gain of electrons) to hydrogen sulphide or readily oxidised (loss of electrons) to sulfur dioxide, both are serious air pollutants in small concentrations water used during the extraction may contain dissolved impurities (like arsenic) and if the water was discharged back into natural waters it could become poisonous and dangerous to both humans and our environment thermo pollution the production of large caverns after sulfur has been extracted causes destabilisation of the ground. These caverns arent easily back filled as these deposit areas are usually several metres or kilometres below ground Sulfur deposits are usually found around volcanic vents and hot springs. In Australia, the Frasch method is no longer used as Australia is one of the worlds largest exporters of fossil fuel and uranium. Therefore the sulfur ore waste of mining is used to to obtain elemental sulfur. OUTLINE THE STEPS AND CONDITIONS NECESSARY FOR THE INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTION OF H 2 SO 4 FROM ITS RAW MATERIALS DESCRIBE THE REACTION CONDITIONS NECESSARY FOR THE PRODUCTION OF SO 2 AND SO 3 APPLY THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN RATES OF REACTION AND EQUILIBRIUM CONDITIONS TO THE PRODUCTION OF SO 2 AND SO 3

GATHER, PROCESS AND PRESENT INFORMATION FROM SECONDARY SOURCES TO DESCRIBE THE STEPS AND CHEMISTRY INVOLVED IN THE INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTION OF H 2 SO 4 AND USE AVALIABLE EVIDENCE TO ANALYSE THE PROCESS TO PREDICT WAYS IN WHICH THE OUTPUT OF SULFURIC ACID CAN BE MAXIMISED The Contact Process for the manufacture of sulphuric acid from elemental sulfur involves the following steps: 1. The production and/or purification of sulfur dioxide 2. The oxidation of sulfur dioxide to sulfur trioxide conversion stage 3. The conversion of sulfur trioxide to oleum, which then reacts with water to produce sulfuric acid 1. Production and/or Purification of SO 2 In Australia, SO 2 is obtained from the mining industry and petroleum industry as SO 2 is a biproduct or waste product of both. Thus there is no need for Australia to use the Frasch Process to obtain elemental sulfur. Other countries who obtain elemental sulfur, then need to react the liquid sulfur with oxygen gas to produce SO 2 ; S (l) + O 2 (g) SO 2 (g) Steps of purification and production from elemental sulfur: I. air is cleaned, dried and warmed, then compressed and passed into the burner II. molten sulfur and compressed air are mixed in a burner III. sulfur burns forming sulfur dioxide gas IV. as it is exothermic the gaseous mixture goes into a heat exchanger before proceeding. The heat is used to produce steam that in turn generates electricity Steps of purification of SO 2 from the metal extraction industry: I. cleaned via the use of electrostatic precipitators, which are used to remove ash from SO 2 gas II. then gas in dried and heated to the correct temperature before moving into the CONVERSION STAGE For example; 2CuFeS 2 (s) + 5O 2 (g) 2Cu (l) + 2FeO (s) + 4SO 2 (g) 2. The Oxidation of SO 2 to SO 3 I. SO 2 gas is passed into the catalytic converter, which consists of three or four catalytic beds of vanadium pentoxide (V 2 O 5 ) II. the first converter always results in a higher temperature than the remaining ones because the exothermic nature of the reaction produces more heat. This in turn creates a more efficient and rapid rate of reaction III. from the first convertor bed, there is 70% conversion, mixture is left to cool to about 400 425 C before being sent into the next bed reaction rate is slower, but conversion percentage increases to about 97% IV. once mixture now, dominately SO 3 (g) , has passed through all convertor beds, it is transferred to the absorption tower 2SO 2 (g) + O 2 (g) 2SO 3 (g) This reaction reaches equilibrium, but by calculating the equilibrium constant we know that the reaction favours the products, thus the following conditions are necessary to produce an effective and efficient yield production: Compromise Gas Pressure (btwn 100 200 kPa) increases the frequency of collisions between particles, this low pressure is used to avoid the high costs of high-pressure apparatus and to control the amount of heat produced system will shift right side with least amount if gaseous molecules Excess oxygen concentration will shift system right to reduce the concentration of oxygen Vanadium pentoxide catalyst this catalyst is impregnated onto porous silica pellets, thus increasing the SA for reactions to occur and as well as increasing the rate of reaction by lowering the activation energy Compromise Temperature between 400 550 C. Why? o if temp is too high, system will shift left to absorb excess heat o if temp is too low, the rate of reaction decreases to an inefficient rate Constant removal of SO 3 before the mixture enters the last convertor, some SO 3 gas is removed into the first of two absorption towers. This creates a decrease in [SO 3 ], thus causing system to shift right 3. Absorption of SO 3 and Dilution of H 2 S 2 O 7 (oleum) Sulfur trioxide is collected from the final convertor and enters the second absorption tower through the bottom, while sulfuric acid is sprayed from above. Inside the tower there are several vertical plates, which increase the likelihood of

the acid and solid reacting to produce oleum (an oily liquid). Oleum then moves into a diluter, where it is slowly poured into water to produce 98% sulfuric acid (18 mol/L). 1. SO 3 (g) + H 2 SO 4 (l) H 2 S 2 O 7 (l) 2. H 2 S 2 O 7 (l) + H 2 O (l) 2H 2 SO 4 (l) NOTE: it is possible to add SO 3 directly into water, but since the reaction is exothermic a mist of sulfuric acid forms, which cannot be easily coalesce

DESCRIBE, USING EXAMPLES, THE REACTIONS OF SULFURIC ACID ACTING AS: - AN OXIDISING AGENT - A DEHYDRATING AGENT PERFORM FIRST-HAND INVESTIGATIONS TO OBSERVE THE REACTIONS OF SULFURIC ACID ACTING AS: - AN OXIDISING AGENT - A DEHYDRATING AGENT Sulfuric acid can act as an oxidising agent in two ways: in a dilute acid solution the hydrogen in the acid oxidises other substances o PRAC: place a small piece of granulated zinc into a dilute sulfuric acid solution this produces an acid + 2+ metal reaction (Zn (s) + H 2 SO 4 (aq) ZnSO 4 (s) + H 2 (g) net ionic: Zn + 2H Zn + H 2 ) when acid is concentrated, the sulfuate ions (SO 4 ) will react to oxidise other substances o PRAC: put some zinc into a test tube and cover it with concentrated sulfuric acid (carefully pour) this produces Sulfuric acid can act as a dehydrating agent as well due to its high affinity to water: this property is used industrially to dry gases, carry out some organic reactions (production of ethene from ethanol) and to carry out some reactions involved in the production of dyes, polymers and explosives PRAC: add copper (II) sulfate and a few drops of concentrated sulfuric acid the blue copper (II) sulfate should turn from blue to white as sulfuric acid removes water from it DESCRIBE AND EXPLAIN THE EXOTHERMIC NATURE OF SULFURIC IONISATION Sulfuric acid is said to be a strong acid, as it ionises to completion in the first step. But the second step reaches an equilibrium meaning that hydrogensulfate ions are weak acids. + H 2 SO 4 (aq) + H 2 O (l) HSO 4 (aq) + H 3 O (aq) 2+ HSO 4 (aq) + H 2 O (l) SO 4 (aq) + H 3 O (aq)

The dissolving and ionisation of sulfuric acid in water is extremely exothermic: H 2 SO 4 + H 2 O HSO 4 + H 3 O + heat. This occurs as the covalent sulfuric acid molecules ionise, resulting in the hydration of the ions produced, which liberates heat. IDENTIFY AND DESCRIBE SAFETY PRECAUTIONS THAT MUST BE TAKEN WHEN USING AND DILUTING CONCENTRATED SULFURIC ACID USE AVALIABLE EVIDENCE TO RELATE THE PROPERTIES OF SULFURIC ACID TO SAFETY PRECAUTIONS NECESSARY FOR IT TRANSPORT AND STORAGE Transportation of concentrated sulfuric acid since this substance is mostly molecular and solid, it isnt corrosive as it lacks ions, especially the hydronium ions therefore it can be stored in a steel container steel container must be air tight because sulfuric acid can rapidly become corrosive if it is exposed and removes water from the air to produce hydronium ions Transportation of dilute sulfuric acid as there are ions present, this substance should be transported in a glass or plastic container If there is an spillage, a wet cloth or using NaOH to neutralise it should be used to remove it, when using sulfuric acid, experiment should occur within a fume cupboard as SO 2 gas could be produced. Sulfur dioxide gas is dangerous at low concentrations. In a classroom, the teacher always distributes any concentrated sulfuric acid used.

4. The industrial production of sodium hydroxide requires the use of electrolysis


EXPLAIN THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN GALVANIC CELLS AND ELECTROLYTIC CELLS IN TERMS OF ENERGY REQUIREMENTS Galvanic cells [refer to Production of Materials sec 4] are the basis of batteries and convert chemical energy to electrical energy. exothermic reactions are involved reaction is spontaneous sum of the Standard Half Cell Potential (E) is positive anode (oxidation) equation cathode (reduction) = + ve E Electrolysis cells are cells, which have the ability to decompose molecules and convert electrical energy to chemical energy. not a spontaneous reaction and cannot produce electricity endothermic reaction as electron must be supplied through an electrical source sum of Standard Half Cell Potential (E) is negative cathode (reduction) anode (oxidation) = - ve E

OUTLINE THE STEPS IN THE INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTION OF SODIUM HYDROXIDE FROM SODIUM CHLORIDE SOLUTION AND DESCRIBE THE REACTION IN TERMS OF NET IONIC AND FULL FORMULAE EQUATIONS ANAYLSE INFORMATION FROM SECONDARY SOURCES TO PREDICT AND EXPLAIN THE DIFFERENT PRODUCTS OF THE ELECTROLYSIS OF AQUEOUS AND MOLTEN SODIUM CHLORIDE Sodium hydroxide (common name: Caustic soda)
Cl2 gas is produced at the anode Molten sodium metal forms at the cathode

Uses of NaOH: o production of sodium hypochlorite for bleaches and disinfectants o production of soap from oils and fats o conversion of bauxite (clay-like mineral and is the main source of Al) to alumina in aluminium refining
Pure molten sodium chloride electrolyte this must be molten to allow ions to migrate from cathode to anode

Electrolysis of pure, molten NaCl both anode and cathode are INERT at anode (oxidation) o 2Cl (aq) Cl 2 (g) + 2e at cathode (reduction) + o 2Na (aq) + 2e 2Na (l) OVERALL REACTION: + o 2Na (aq) + 2Cl (aq) 2Na (l) + Cl 2 (g) o 2NaCl (l) 2Na (l) + Cl 2 (g) It is easy to predict what will be the products. Why? ONLY TWO SPECIES involved in the reaction Electrolysis of sodium chloride solution


Anode Cathode

Problems reactions now involves water molecules and there are three species involved as water can react if conditions favour its predominance
Dilute salt solution + 2H 2 O (l) O 2 (g) + 4H (aq) + 4e 2Cl (aq) Cl 2 (g) + 2e + 2H 2 O (l) O 2 (g) + 4H (aq) + 4e [E = -1.36V] [E = -1.23V] Concentrated salt solution 2H 2 O (l) + 2e H 2 (g) + 2OH (aq) 2H 2 O (l) + 2e H 2 (g) + 2OH (aq) + 2Na (aq) + 2e 2Na (s) Water decomposition has a lower voltage requirement than chloride oxidisation, thus it predominates and any sodium produced will immediately react with the surrounding water. + Therefore Na are considered spectator ions.

Since E of both reactions are close, a predominance cant be established. But in high salt concentrated solutions, the chloride reaction is favoured. Sodium ions are spectators

Confirmation Tests: + -presence of H litmus paper turns pink or red -presence of O 2 (g) re-ignition of a glowing ember -presence of Cl 2 (g) bleaches the colour of litmus and Cl smell is noticeable NOTE: before production can begin the brine must be purified by adding other chemicals, which will precipitate impurities, calcium and magnesium out of solution. Calcium and magnesium have the potential to cause problems in both the Diaphragm and Membrane process as the pores of the membranes can be blocked. Process must be able to carry out these reactions in a way that the products are separated so that they dont react with each other to produce unwanted/undesired products. DISTINGUISH BETWEEN THE THREE ELECTROLYSIS METHODS USED TO EXTRACT SODIUM HYDORXIDE: -MERCURY PROCESS -DIAPHRAGM PROCESS -MEMBRANE PROCESS BY DESCRIBING EACH PROCESS AND ANALYSING THE TECHNICAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL DIFFICULTIES INVOLVED IN EACH PROCESS
Cathode (-ve) Reduction Half-Equation Anode Oxidation Half-Equation Other reactions or spectators Mercury Process Mercury (flowing in a long steel trough) + Na + e Na Titanium 2Cl Cl 2 (g) + 2e 2Na + 2H 2 O (l) 2NaOH (aq) + H 2 (g) Diaphragm Process Steel mesh 2H 2 O (l) + 2e H 2 (g) + 2OH (aq) Titanium (or titanium-steel) 2Cl Cl 2 (g) + 2e + Na are spectators (gathers on steel cathode and is washed off by the steam with OH )
-

Membrane Process Stainless Steel mesh (or nickel)


-

Overall Cell Reaction Electrolyte Partition elements

Technical difficulties

Advantages

2H 2 O (l) + 2e H 2 (g) + 2OH (aq) Titanium (or titanium-steel) 2Cl Cl 2 (g) + 2e + Na are spectators, but the selective membrane only allows these ions to pass through into the catholyte; pure water solution + 2Na (aq) + 2Cl (aq) + 2H 2 O (l) 2NaOH (aq) + H 2 (g) + Cl 2 (g) Saturated brine Purified saturated brine Anolyte: saturated brine Catholyte: pure water (or 32% NaOH) None Early history of product: Perfluorosofonic acid asbestos multilayer polymer with Currently: PTFE polymer metal anionic surface (prevents anions [-ve] from passing oxide diaphragm through into catholyte) -mercury contamination -use of asbestos water can enter food sys via -NaOH isnt 100% pure seafood air as vapour -waste brine may contain ClO (chlorate ions) -Cl 2 (g) is poisonous -H 2 (g) is explosive -no asbestos -inexpensive -no asbestos -NaOH is very pure -produces large quantities -no ClO -economical mercury can -reasonable purity -no mercury be recycled and doesnt need -no technical difficulties

Disadvantages

to be purchased again -voltage requirement is great = increased cost -mercury contamination

-same as the first 3 technical difficulty points

-very pure NaOH -titanium is expensive

IDENTIFY DATA, PLAN AND PERFORM A FIRST-HAND INVESTIGATION TO IDENTIFY THE PRODUCTS OF THE ELECTROLYSIS OF SODIUM CHLORIDE Aim: To determine and confirm the products of the electrolysis of sodium chloride Equipment: Hofmann voltameter (three tubes) Universal indicator DC or AC power source (power pack) Red and blue litmus paper (optional) Electrical leads and alligator clips Dilute sodium chloride solution Safety: Wear safety glasses throughout the experiment Sodium hydroxide is caustic, therefore causes skin and eye damage Since chlorine gas is poisonous and hydrogen gas is explosive a fume cupboard should be used and ignition sources (eg. oxidising agents) should be avoided Method: 1. Set up experiment as shown on the right in a fume cupboard, but dont turn on the DC power pack yet 2. Make sure that both taps are closed and that the colour of the universal indicator is green 3.

5. Saponification is an important organic industrial process


DESCRIBE SAPONIFICATION AS THE CONVERSION IN BASIC SOLUTION OF FATS AND OILS TO GLYCEROL AND SALTS OF FATTY ACIDS

DESCRIBE THE CONDITIONS UNDER WHICH SAPONIFICATION CAN BE PERFORMED IN THE SCHOOL LABORATORY AND COMPARE THESE WITH INDUSTRIAL PREPARATION OF SOAP ACCOUNT FOR THE CLEANING ACTION OF SOAP BY DESCRIBING ITS STRUCTURE

EXPLAIN THAT SOAP, WATER AND OIL TOGETHER FORM AN EMULSION WITH THE SOAP ACTING AS AN EMULSIIFIER DISTINGUISH BETWEEN SOAPS AND SYNTHETIC DETERGENTS IN TERMS OF: -THE STRUCTURE OF THE MOLECULE -CHEMICAL COMPOSITION -EFFECT OF HARD WATER DISTINGUSH BETWEEN ANIONIC, CATIONIC AND NON-IONIC SYNTHETIC DETERGENTS IN TERMS OF: -CHEMICAL COMPOSITION -USES PERFORM A FIRST-HAND INVESTIGATION TO CARRY OUT SAPONIFICATION AND TEST THE PORDUCT GATHER. PROCESS AND PRESENT INFORMATION FROM SECONDARY SOURCES TO IDENTIFY A RANGE OF FATS AND OILS USED FOR SOAP-MAKING PERFORM A FIRST-HAND INVESTIGATION TO GATHER INFORMATION AND DESCRIBE THE PROPERTIES OF A NAMED EMULSION AND RELATE THESE PROPERTIES TO ITS USES PERFORM A FIRST-HAND INVESTIGATION TO DEMONSTRATE THE EFFECT OF SOAP AS AN EMULSIFIER SOLVE PROBLEMS AND USE AVAILABLE EVIDENCE TO DISCUSS, USING EXAMPLES, THE ENVIROMENTAL IMPACTS OF THE USE OF SOAPS AND DETERGENTS

6. The Solvay process has been in use since the 1860s


IDENTIFY THE RAW MATERIALS USED IN THE SOLVAY PROCESS AND NAME THE PRODUCTS DESCRIBE THE USES OF SODIUM CARBONATE IDENTIFY, GIVEN A FLOW CHARTS, THE SEQUENCE OF STEPS USED IN THE SOLVAY PROCESS AND DESCRIBE THE CHEMISTRY INVOLVED IN: -BRINE PURIFICATION -HYDROGEN CARBONATE FORMATION -FORMATION OF SODIUM CARBONATE -AMMONIA RECOVERY DISCUSS ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES ASSOSCIATED WITH THE SOLVEAY PROCESS AND EXPLAIN HOW THESE ISSUES ARE ADDRESSED PERFORM A FIRST-HAND INVESTIGATION TO ACCESS THE RISK FACTORS AND THEN CARRY OUT A CHEMICAL STEP INVOLVED IN THE SOLVAY PROCESS, IDENTIFYING ANY DIFFICULTIES ASSOSCIATED WITH THE LABORATORY MODELLING OF THE STEP

PROCESS INFORMATION TO SOLVE PROBLEMS AND QUANTITATIVELY ANALYSE THE RELATIVE QUANTITIES OF REACTANTS AND PRODUCTS IN EACH STEP OF THE PROCESS USE AVALIABLE EVIDENCE TO DETERMINE THE CRITERIA USED TO LOCATE A CHEMICAL INDUSTRY USING THE SOLVAY PROCESS AS AN EXAMPLE