You are on page 1of 69

C.

Laminated leaf springs

where:
b ... width of spring leaf [mm, in]
b' ... leaf width at end of spring [mm, in]
E ... modulus of elasticity in tension [MPa, psi]
F ... loading of spring [N, lb]
k ... spring constant [N/mm, lb/in]
L ... functional spring length [mm, in]
L' ... length of leaf with constant thickness [mm, in]
n ... total number of spring leaf [-]
n' ... number of extra full-length leaves [-]
s ... spring deflection [mm, in]
t ... thickness of spring leaf [mm, in]
t' ... leaf thickness at end of spring [mm, in]
ψ ... shape coefficient [-]
σ ... bending stress of the spring material [MPa, psi]
Extra leaves
Spring leaves of full length, rectangular shape with constant profile. These leaves are added to
the spring for two reasons:
• to increase the spring stiffness and load capacity

• they are often ended with hooks to fix the spring

Springs calculation.
The calculation is to be used for geometrical and strength design of metal springs of various
types and designs, subjected to static or cyclic loads. The program performs the following tasks:
1. Geometrical design and calculation of working cycle parameters for metal springs of the
following types and designs:
• Helical cylindrical compression springs of round wires and bars

• Helical cylindrical compression springs of rectangular wires and bars

• Helical conical compression springs of round wires and bars

• Helical conical compression springs of rectangular wires and bars

• Belleville springs

• Helical cylindrical tension springs of round wires and bars

• Helical cylindrical tension springs of rectangular wires and bars

• Spiral springs

• Helical cylindrical torsion springs made of round wires a bars

• Helical cylindrical torsion springs made of rectangular wires and bars

• Torsion bar springs with round section

• Torsion bar springs with rectangular section

• Leaf springs with constant profile

• Leaf springs with parabolic profile

• Laminated leaf springs

2. Automatic proposal (finding) of a spring with suitable dimensions.


3. Static and dynamic strength check.
4. The application includes a table of commonly used spring materials according to EN,
ASTM/SAE, DIN, BS, JIS, UNI, SIS, CSN and others.
The calculation is based on data, procedures, algorithms and data from specialized literature and
standards EN 13906, DIN 2088, DIN 2089, DIN 2090, DIN 2091, DIN 2092, DIN 2093, DIN 2095,
DIN 2096, DIN 2097.

Control, structure and syntax of calculations.


Information on the syntax and control of the calculation can be found in the document "Control,
structure and syntax of calculations".

Information on the project.


Information on the purpose, use and control of the paragraph "Information on the project" can be
found in the document "Information on the project".

Theory - Fundamentals.
Springs are constructional elements designed to retain and accumulate mechanical energy,
working on the principle of flexible deformation of material. Springs belong to the most loaded
machine components and are usually used as:
• energy absorbers for drives and reciprocating devices

• interceptors of static and dynamic forces

• elements to create force joints

• shock absorbers in anti-vibration protection

• devices for controlling and measuring of forces


Spring function is evaluated according to the course and extent of its deformation depending on
its load.

Based on the deformation pattern, springs can be divided into the following three types:
1. springs with linear characteristics

2. springs with degressive characteristics

3. springs with progressive characteristics

The W area under the spring characteristic curve represents the deformation work (energy) of a
spring performed by the spring during its loading. Deformation energy of springs subjected to
compression, tension or bending is specified by the formula:

for springs subjected to torsion:

The basic quantity specifying the spring functionality is its stiffness (spring constant). Spring
constant k specifies the intensity of load (force or torque) which causes unit deformation (shift or
turning) of the spring.

The spring with linear characteristics have invariable spring constant; other springs have
variable spring constant.

Springs are mounted with initial stress, i.e. in the state when the spring is subjected to the
minimum working load. In view of spring function, there are four basic states of springs:

State of
Description of states of a spring index
the spring
free the spring is not loaded 0
the spring is exposed to minimum operational
preloaded 1
loading
the spring is exposed to maximum operational
fully loaded 8
loading
the spring is exposed to the limit load – given by
the material strength or design limitations (e.g.
limiting 9
compression of the coil spring to bring all coils into
contact).
The above-mentioned indexes are used in the calculation to specify individual parameters of the
spring related to the given state of the spring.

The difference between the spring deformations in full load condition and initial stress condition
is called the spring working stroke H, α H .

As regards the strength check and the service life, there are the following two types of metal
spring loads:

1. Static loading.
Springs loaded statically or with lower variability, i.e. with cyclical changes of loading,
with the requirement of a service life lower than 105 working cycles.

2. Fatigue loading.
Springs exposed to oscillating (dynamic) loading, i.e. with cyclical changes of loading,
with the requirement of a service life from 105 working cycles up.

Metal springs can be divided into groups according to many aspects. Division according to load
type and structural design of a spring can be considered as basic. The most common spring
types are described in detail as follows:
• Springs for axial forces load (compression/tension)
- Helical (coil) springs
- Belleville springs and washer springs
- Ring (annular) springs
- Constant force springs

• Springs for transversal forces load (flexion)


- Leaf springs
- Curved springs

• Springs for torque load


- Torsion bar springs
- Spiral springs
- Helical (coil) springs

Helical cylindrical compression springs

Springs of cylindrical shape made of helically coiled wires, with constant clearance between the
active coils, able to absorb external counter-acting forces applied against each other in their
axis. Springs with wire diameter up to approx. 16 mm are usually cold wound. Hot forming shall
be used for the production of heavily loaded springs of greater sizes with a diameter of the over
10 mm. Compression springs are usually made of wires and rods of round section. Springs of
rectangular wire are most often used in applications where low constructional height of the
spring (springs with b>h) is required together with relatively high load.

Specific properties
• suitable for low and medium load forces

• linear working characteristics

• relatively low spring constant

• easy mounting and dismantling

• low production costs

Basic relations for spring calculation


Springs of round wire Springs of rectangular wire

where:
c ... spring index (c=D/d; c=D/b) [-]
b ... wire width [mm, in]
d ... wire diameter [mm, in]
D ... mean spring diameter [mm, in]
F ... loading of spring [N, lb]
G ... modulus of elasticity in shear [MPa, psi]
h ... wire height [mm, in]
k ... spring constant [N/mm, lb/in]
Ks ... curvature correction factor [-]
L0 ... free spring length [mm, in]
LS ... solid length [mm, in]
n ... number of active coils [-]
p ... pitch between coils [mm, in]
s ... spring deflection [mm, in]
ε , ψ ... shape coefficient [-] (e.g. DIN 2090)
τ ... torsional stress of the spring material [MPa, psi]

Curvature correction factor


The coil bending causes additional bending stresses in coil springs. Therefore the calculation
uses the correction coefficient to correct the tension.
For springs of round section wire, the correction coefficient is determined with the given spring
coiling ratio by several empirically defined formulas (Wahl, Bergsträsserr, Göhner, ...). This
calculation uses the following relation:

For springs of rectangular section wire, the correction coefficient is determined for the given
spring index and b/h ratio from appropriate nomograms. In this calculation the correction
coefficient is already included in the shape coefficient ψ .

Recommended spring dimensions


cold formed hot formed
spring index c 4 - 16 3 - 12
outer diameter
max. 350 mm max. 460 mm
De
number of active min. 2 min. 3
coils n
ratio b/h 1:5 - 5:1
free length L0 max. 1000 mm
slenderness ratio
1 - 10
L0/D
pitch p (0.3 - 0.6) D; min. 1.5 d

Design of spring ends


In case of compression springs, several various designs of spring ends are used. These differ in
numbers of ends and machined coils and designs of supporting surfaces of the springs.
o End coils are edge coils of the spring, co-axial with the active coils, whose angle pitch
does not change during functional deformation of the spring. End coils create a supporting
surface for the spring and with compression springs, one end coil is usually used at both
ends of the spring.

o Ground coils are edge coils of the spring, machined to a flat surface perpendicular to the
spring axis. Usually machined from three-fourths of half of the end coil up to its free end.
Machined coils are commonly used only with springs with diameters of wires d > 1 mm.

The most common types of spring end designs

A. Open ends not ground: the edge coil is not bent to the next one, the supporting surface is
unmachined

B. Open ends ground: the edge coil is not bent to the next one, the supporting surface is
machined to a flat end perpendicular to the spring axis

C. Closed ends not ground: the edge coil is bent to the next one (it usually adjoins its free
end), the supporting surface is unmachined

D. Closed ends ground: the edge coil is bent to the next one, the supporting surface of the
spring is machined

Check of buckling
In case of compression springs, it is always necessary to check its protection against side
deflection. The check is performed by comparison of the maximum working deformation of the
spring with the permitted deformation. The value of the permitted deformation is determined
empirically for the given slenderness ratio of the spring L0/D and the type of seating of the
spring. Generally, the risk of possible side deflection increases with an increasing value of the
slenderness ratio and increasing value of the working compression of the spring. The manner of
seating of the spring has a significant effect on its possible side deflection.
A. Fixed - free ends

B. Pinned - pinned ends

C. Clamped - clamped ends with lateral restraint

D. Clamped - pinned ends

E. Clamped - clamped ends without lateral restraint

A spring which cannot be designed as secured against side deflection is usually installed on a pin
or inside a sleeve. If there is a danger of damage of the spring due to friction, the spring can be
divided into several shorter springs arranged in series.
Curves of permitted deformation according to the type of seating of the spring

Helical conical compression springs


Springs of conical shape made of helically coiled wires, with constant clearance between the
active coils, able to absorb external counter-acting forces applied against each other in their
axis. Springs with wire diameter up to approx. 16 mm are usually cold wound. Hot forming shall
be used for the production of heavily loaded springs of greater sizes with a diameter of the over
10 mm. Conical springs are usually used if the spring constant is to rise together with its
progressing compression.

Specific properties
• suitable for low and medium load forces

• nonlinear (progressive) working characteristics

• relatively low spring constant

• easy mounting and dismantling

• low production costs

Basic relations for spring calculation


With increasing compression of the conical spring, its active coils are brought into contact with
adjacent coils gradually (first the coils with the largest diameter). These coils then do not
participate in further compression of the spring which results in gradual increase in the spring
constant. Working characteristics can therefore be divided into two areas:
I. Working area with linear characteristics (invariable spring constant) - F<FC

II. Working area with progressive characteristics – after the contact of the first (largest)
active coil - F>FC

The limit force FC depends on the pitch between the coils p, i.e. also on the selected size of free
spring length L0. The limit force FC increases together with increasing spring length and the
working area with linear spring constant rises.

Springs of round wire Springs of rectangular wire

I. Working area with linear characteristics F≤FC

II. Working area with progressive characteristics F>FC


where:
cmin ... min. spring index (cmin=Dmin/d; cmin=Dmin/b) [-]
cmax ... max. spring index (cmax=Dmax/d; cmax=Dmax/b) [-]
b ... wire width [mm, in]
d ... wire diameter [mm, in]
dx .. shift of coils [mm, in]
Dmin .. min. mean spring diameter [mm, in]
Dmax .. max. mean spring diameter [mm, in]
F ... loading of spring [N, lb]
G ... modulus of elasticity in shear [MPa, psi]
h ... wire height [mm, in]
k ... spring rate [N/mm, lb/in]
Ks ... curvature correction factor [-]
L0 ... free spring length [mm, in]
LS ... solid length [mm, in]
n ... number of active coils [-]
p ... pitch between coils [mm, in]
s ... spring deflection [mm, in]
ε , ψ ... shape coefficient [-] (e.g. DIN 2090)
τ ... torsional stress of the spring material [MPa, psi]

Curvature correction factor


The coil bending causes additional bending stresses in coil springs. Therefore the calculation
uses the correction coefficient to correct the tension.
For springs of round section wire, the correction coefficient is determined with the given spring
coiling ratio by several empirically defined formulas (Wahl, Bergsträsserr, Göhner, ...). This
calculation uses the following relation:

For springs of rectangular section wire, the correction coefficient is determined for the given
spring index and b/h ratio from appropriate nomograms. In this calculation the correction
coefficient is already included in the shape coefficient ψ .

Recommended spring dimensions


spring index cmin min. 3
spring index cmax max. 20
diameter Dmax max. 350 mm
ratio Dmax/Dmin min. 2
number of active
min. 2
coils n
ratio b/h 1:5 - 5:1
slenderness ratio
1-5
L0/D
pitch p (0.4 - 0.7) D; min. 1.5 d
Design of spring ends
In case of compression springs, several various designs of spring ends are used. These differ in
numbers of ends and machined coils and designs of supporting surfaces of the springs.
o End coils are edge coils of the spring, co-axial with the active coils, whose angle pitch
does not change during functional deformation of the spring. End coils create a supporting
surface for the spring and with compression springs, one end coil is usually used at both
ends of the spring.

o Ground coils are edge coils of the spring, machined to a flat surface perpendicular to the
spring axis. Usually machined from three-fourths of half of the end coil up to its free end.
Machined coils are commonly used only with springs with diameters of wires d > 1 mm.

The most common types of spring end designs

A. Open ends not ground: the edge coil is not bent to the next one, the supporting surface is
unmachined

B. Open ends ground: the edge coil is not bent to the next one, the supporting surface is
machined to a flat end perpendicular to the spring axis

C. Closed ends not ground: the edge coil is bent to the next one (it usually adjoins its free
end), the supporting surface is unmachined

D. Closed ends ground: the edge coil is bent to the next one, the supporting surface of the
spring is machined

Belleville springs

Annular rings of hollow truncated cone, able to absorb external axial forces counter-acting
against each other. The spring section is usually rectangular. Springs of larger sizes (t > 6 mm)
are sometimes made with machined contact flats.
Belleville springs are designed for higher loads with low deformations. They are used individually
or in sets. When using springs in a set it is necessary to take account of friction effects. Friction
in the set accounts for 3 – 5% of loading per each layer. Working load must then be increased by
this force.
Stress occurring in the Belleville spring is rather complex. Maximum stress (compressive)
develops in the inner top edge. Tensile stress occurs on the bottom outer edge. Maximum
compressive stress serves for strength check of springs subjected to static load. In the springs
subjected to cyclic (fatigue) load the pattern of tensile stresses is checked.
Note: This calculation is designed for the Belleville springs without machined contact surfaces.
In addition, the calculation does not take friction effects into consideration.

Specific properties
• suitable for large loading forces

• nonlinear (degressive) working characteristics

• high spring constant (stiffness)

• low space requirements

• easy mounting and dismantling

• low production costs

Working characteristics
The shape of the Belleville spring characteristic curve is strongly affected by the relative height
h0/t. For small values of the relative height the spring has nearly linear working characteristics;
with rising ratio the characteristics are sharply degressive.

Design of a set
In the case of the Belleville springs there are three kinds of springs arrangement in the set.
A. Parallel arrangement: the springs are set parallel to each other, the resulting spring
constant is higher than in a single spring

B. Serial arrangement: the springs are arranged against each other, the resulting constant
of the set is lower than in a single spring

C. Combined arrangement

Basic relations for spring calculation


Single spring
Springs set

where:
De .. outside diameter [mm, in]
Di .. inside diameter [mm, in]
E ... modulus of elasticity in tension [MPa, psi]
F ... spring force [N, lb]
FS ... force of fully compressed spring [mm, in]
FT ... total force of set [mm, in]
h ... disc height [mm, in]
h0 ... inside height of disc (h0=h-t) [mm, in]
i ... no. of sets (disc) in series in a stack [-]
k ... spring rate [N/mm, lb/in]
kT ... total stiffness of set [N/mm, lb/in]
K1, K2, K3 .. shape coefficient [-]
L0 ... free spring length [mm, in]
LS ... solid length [mm, in]
n ... no. of parallel discs in a set [-]
s ... spring deflection [mm, in]
sT ... total deflection o set [mm, in]
t ... material thickness [mm, in]
δ ... diameter ratio (δ =De/Di) [-]
µ ... Poisson's ratio [-]
σ OM , σ ,
I σ ,
II σ III , σ IV ... material stress in the given point of the spring [MPa, psi]

Recommended spring dimensions


diameter ratio De/Di 1.75 - 2.5
relative height h0/t 0.4 - 1.4
ratio De/t 16 - 40
no. of parallel discs n max. 3
no. of sets (disc) in
max. 20
series i
total number of disc
max. 30
n*i
slenderness ratio
max. 3
L0/De

Friction
Friction has a significant effect on the function of the Belleville spring. Loading of the spring
develops friction on the contact surface (edges) of the spring. In the case of parallel
arrangement of the springs there is also surface friction between the discs. The effects of friction
result in an increase of force during the loading and decrease of force during relieving of the
spring.
Effects of friction on the loading of the spring
single spring ± 2...3 %
2 parallel arranged
± 4...6 %
springs
3 parallel arranged
± 6...9 %
springs
4 parallel arranged
± 8...12 %
springs
5 parallel arranged
± 10...15 %
springs
The amount of friction depends on many factors (spring design, material, surface treatment,
number of springs in the set, lubricant type, etc.). Its impact on the spring loading cannot be
theoretically exactly determined. The following formula is used to determine the approximate
corrected force of the spring:

where:
µ M .. coefficient of surface friction [-]
µ R .. coefficient of edge friction[-]
- .... on loading
+ ... on unloading
Approximate values of friction coefficients
Spring type µ M µ R

0.003 - 0.02 -
standard
0.030 0.05
with machined contact 0.002 - 0.01 -
flats 0.015 0.03

Springs with machined contact flats

Springs of larger sizes (t > 6 mm) are sometimes made with machined contact flats. Formulas
for the calculation of these springs are slightly different and they can be found e.g. in DIN 2092.

Helical cylindrical tension springs


Springs of cylindrical shape made of helically coiled wires, with constant clearance between the
active coils, able to absorb external axial forces counter-acting from each other. Springs with
wire diameter up to approx. 16 mm are usually cold wound. Hot forming shall be used for the
production of heavily loaded springs of greater sizes with a diameter of the over 10 mm. Tension
springs are usually made of wires and rods of round section. Springs made of rectangular wire
are used very rarely.
With regards to the considerable effects of the shape and design of fixing eyes on reduction of
the spring's service life and impossibility of perfect shot peening of the spring, it is not advisable
to use tension springs exposed to fatigue loading. If it is necessary to use a tension spring with
fatigue loading, it is advisable to avoid use of fixing eyes and choose another type of fixing of the
spring.

Specific properties
• suitable for low and medium load forces

• less suitable for cyclic (fatigue) load

• linear working characteristics

• relatively low spring constant

• easy mounting and dismantling

• low production costs

Spring design
Tension springs are used in two basic designs:
A. Spring with prestressing.
Cold formed tension springs are preferably produced with prestressing, thus with close-
coiled active coils. The spring prestressing has considerable effects on increase in the
loading capacity of the spring. For deformation of the spring to the desired length, it is
necessary to use a higher loading than with springs without prestressing. Prestressing
appears in coils of the spring in the course of coiling of the spring wire, and its size
depends on the used material, spring index and the manner of coiling

B. Spring without inner prestressing.


If necessary due to technical reasons, it is possible to use loose-coiled tension springs
without prestressing, with gaps between the active coils. The coil pitch of a free spring is
usually in the range 0.2*D < p < 0.4*D.

Note: Hot formed springs and the springs of rectangular wire are always manufactured without
initial tension.

Basic relations for spring calculation


Springs of round wire Springs of rectangular wire

A. Spring with prestressing

B. Spring without inner prestressing


where:
c ... spring index (c=D/d; c=D/b) [-]
b ... wire width [mm, in]
d ... wire diameter [mm, in]
D ... mean spring diameter [mm, in]
F ... loading of spring [N, lb]
F0 ... initial tension [N, lb]
G ... modulus of elasticity in shear [MPa, psi]
h ... wire height [mm, in]
k ... spring constant [N/mm, lb/in]
Ks ... curvature correction factor [-]
L0 ... free spring length [mm, in]
LH ... height of spring hook [mm, in]
LK ... length of active spring section [mm, in]
n ... number of active coils [-]
p ... pitch between coils [mm, in]
s ... spring deflection [mm, in]
ε , ψ ... shape coefficient [-] (e.g. DIN 2090)
τ ... torsional stress of the spring material [MPa, psi]
τ 0 ... initial stress [MPa, psi]

Curvature correction factor


The coil bending causes additional bending stresses in coil springs. Therefore the calculation
uses the correction coefficient to correct the tension.
For springs of round section wire, the correction coefficient is determined with the given spring
coiling ratio by several empirically defined formulas (Wahl, Bergsträsserr, Göhner, ...). This
calculation uses the following relation:

For springs of rectangular section wire, the correction coefficient is determined for the given
spring index and b/h ratio from appropriate nomograms. In this calculation the correction
coefficient is already included in the shape coefficient ψ .
Spring initial stress
Initial stress arises in the spring coils during winding of the spring and its magnitude is
dependent on the spring material, spring index and the way of winding. The usual values of the
initial stress are within the range:

Higher values are technically difficult to achieve, the lower values are very difficult to measure
with sufficient accuracy. To determine the spring initial stress for springs wound on a winding
bench, the DIN 2089 standard specifies the following formula:

Initial tension is given by the formula:


Recommended spring dimensions
spring index c 4 - 16
outer diameter De max. 350 mm
number of active
min. 3
coils n
ratio b/h 1:5 - 5:1
free length L0 max. 1500 mm
slenderness ratio
1 - 15
L0/D
(0.2 - 0.4) D - for spring
pitch p
without prestressing

Design of spring ends


Tension springs are used in many different designs. The most common spring ends can be found
in the following picture. The type of design of the spring ends depends on the desired method of
fixing the spring, its dimensions and the amount of loading.
Design of spring ends

A ... Half loop


B ... Full loop
C ... Full loop on side

D ... Double twisted full loop


E ... Double twisted full loop on side
F ... Inside full loop
G ... Raised hook
H ... Raised hook on side
L ... Coned end with swivel eye

I ... Small eye


J ... Small eye on side
K ... Inclined full loop

M ... Coned end with swivel bolt


N ... Screwed
O ... Screwed in shackle
Tension springs are usually fixed using fixing eyes of several types (A .. J) with different heights
of the eyes and differing properties. Fixing eyes are the best solution in the technological aspect,
however, this brings certain problems in view of loading capacity of the spring. Loading of the
spring creates a concentration of stress on the fixing eyes and this may be substantially higher
than the calculated stress in the spring coils. In view of bending stress appearing in the fixing
eye, small eyes (type I, J) or double eyes (type D, E) are the best solution. In view of
concentration of stress in torsion at the point of transition of the coil into the loop, the full loops
on the side (type C,E,I) are the best solution. For individual designs of fixing eyes, the following
values of eye height are prescribed:

Design A B, C D, E F G, H I, J K
Eye {0.55..0. {0.8..1.1 {1.05..1. {0.35..0.9
~ Di > 1.2 Di < 0.6 Di
height 8} Di } Di 2} Di } Di

Hot formed springs, rectangular wire springs and cyclically loaded springs are usually used
without spring hooks (M..O. design). With designs without fixing eyes the spring is fixed using
end coils whose pitch does not change during functional deformation of the spring.
Check of spring hook stress
Loading of the spring creates a concentration of stress in the fixing eyes and this may be
substantially higher than the calculated stress in the spring coils. It is therefore recommended to
check such springs also in view of loading of the fixing eyes.
The amounts of possible concentrations depend on the type, design and dimensions of the eye
and it is very difficult to calculate them theoretically. Despite this, at least approximate
calculations are used to provide some orientation information on any possible exceeding of
strength limits of the chosen material of the spring. Two basic strength checks are performed
with regards to the design of the fixing eye:

Check of bending stress in spring hook


The amount of the bending stress which appears in the bend of the eye depends on the radius of
the spring hook rb. The amount of stress increases with an increasing radius and vice versa. The
following formula can be used to determine bending stress:

Check of stress in transition bend


In the case of tension springs, the highest stress concentrations appear in points of transitions of
coils to spring hook. The size of these stresses depends on the transition bend radius rs.
Generally speaking, the size of stress in the transition bend decreases with an increasing radius
of the bend and vice versa. The following formula can be used to determine peak stress:

Leaf springs
Springs based on the principle of long slander beams of rectangular section subjected to
bending. They are used as cantilever springs (fixed at one end), or as simple beams (fixed at
both ends). The leaf springs can be used either independently or in sets (laminated leaf springs).

Specific properties
Single springs
• suitable for low and medium load forces

• linear working characteristics

• relatively low spring constant

• considerable length requirements, otherwise minimum space needed

• low production costs

Laminated leaf springs


• suitable for higher loading forces

• theoretically linear working characteristics (friction between the leaves causes hysteretic
pattern of the working curve)

• relatively higher spring constant (stiffness)

• high space requirements

• demanding maintenance (lubrication and cleanness)

Spring design
Leaf springs are used in many different designs and shapes. They can be divided into three
groups for calculation purposes:
A. Single springs with constant profile: usually springs in rectangular, triangular or
trapezoidal shapes

B. Single springs with parabolic profile: usually of rectangular shape, sometimes springs
thicker in the middle and at the end of the leaf are used

C. Laminated leaf springs: manufactured in many designs. They use leaves with constant
and parabolic profile, in rectangular, triangular or trapezoidal shapes. Precise calculation
of the laminated springs is very complex. Taking simplified conditions into account, this
calculation deals with two basic types of laminated springs:
- springs with constant section leaves of triangular shape
- springs with constant section leaves of rectangular shape

Basic relations for spring calculation


A. Single springs with constant profile

B. Single springs with parabolic profile


C. Laminated leaf springs

where:
b ... width of spring leaf [mm, in]
b' ... leaf width at end of spring [mm, in]
E ... modulus of elasticity in tension [MPa, psi]
F ... loading of spring [N, lb]
k ... spring constant [N/mm, lb/in]
L ... functional spring length [mm, in]
L' ... length of leaf with constant thickness [mm, in]
n ... total number of spring leaf [-]
n' ... number of extra full-length leaves [-]
s ... spring deflection [mm, in]
t ... thickness of spring leaf [mm, in]
t' ... leaf thickness at end of spring [mm, in]
ψ ... shape coefficient [-]
σ ... bending stress of the spring material [MPa, psi]
Extra leaves
Spring leaves of full length, rectangular shape with constant profile. These leaves are added to
the spring for two reasons:
• to increase the spring stiffness and load capacity

• they are often ended with hooks to fix the spring


Torsion bar springs

Springs based on the principle of long slender bars of circular or rectangular section subjected to
torsion. The ends of bars with circular section are mostly fixed by means of grooving. Sometimes
one end is square-shaped in order to facilitate attachment. Torsion bar springs must be secured
against bending stress.

Specific properties
• suitable for higher loading torques

• linear working characteristics

• high spring constant

• considerable length requirements, otherwise minimum space needed

• low production costs

Basic relations for spring calculation


Bar with round section Bar with rectangular section
where:
b ... bar width [mm, in]
d ... bar diameter [mm, in]
M ... loading of spring [Nmm, lb in]
G ... modulus of elasticity in shear [MPa, psi]
k ... torque spring rate [Nmm/°, lb in/°]
L ... functional spring length [mm, in]
t ... bar thickness [mm, in]
α ... angular deflection [°]
β , γ ... shape coefficient [-]
τ ... torsional stress of the spring material [MPa, psi]
Shape coefficients
These coefficients take stress distribution in the bar section b/t into consideration. Their value
can be found in the table:

b/t 1 1.2 1.5 2 3 4 5 6 8 10 ∞


0.140 0.16 0.19 0.22 0.26 0.28 0.29 0.29 0.30 0.31
β 6 6 6 9 3 1 1 9 7 2
0.333

0.21 0.23 0.24 0.26 0.28 0.29 0.29 0.30 0.31


γ 0.208
9 1 6 7 2 1 9 7 2
0.333

Spiral springs

The spring made of a strip with rectangular section wound into the shape of Archimedes spiral,
with constant spacing between its active coils, loaded with torque in the direction of the winding.
Note: This calculation is designed for spiral springs with fixed ends of the spring.

Specific properties
• suitable for low loading torques

• linear working characteristics


• low spring constant

• low production costs

Basic relations for spring calculation

where:
a ... space between coils [mm, in]
b ... width of spring strip [mm, in]
M ... loading of spring [Nmm, lb in]
E ... modulus of elasticity in tension [MPa, psi]
k ... torque spring rate [Nmm/°, lb in/°]
Kb ... curvature correction factor [-]
L ... functional spring length [mm, in]
n ... number of active coils [-]
t ... thickness of spring strip [mm, in]
Re ... outer radius [mm, in]
Ri ... inner radius [mm, in]
α ... angular deflection [°]
δ 0 ... leg angle of free spring [°]
σ ... bending stress of the spring material [MPa, psi]
Curvature correction factor
Correction coefficient represents the spring additional stress resulting from its curvature. Its
value can be found in the graph:
Recommended spring dimensions
ratio Ri/t min. 3
ratio b/t 1 - 15
number of active coils n0 min. 2

Helical cylindrical torsion springs

Springs of cylindrical shape made of helically coiled wires, with constant spacing between the
active coils, able to absorb external forces applied in the planes perpendicular to the winding
axis through a torque in the direction of winding or unwinding. Springs with wire diameter up to
approx. 16 mm are usually cold wound. Hot forming shall be used for the production of heavily
loaded springs of greater sizes with a diameter of the over 10 mm.
Note: This calculation is designed for the torsion springs loaded in the direction of coil winding,
with fixed arms. The calculation does not take into account the effects of supporting
of the spring against the inner or outer guiding part, nor the effects of friction that
appears with it. The effects of possible friction between the coils of the spring are
also not considered.

Specific properties
• suitable for low and medium loading torques
• linear working characteristics

• relatively low spring constant

• low production costs

Spring design
Torsion springs are produced in two basic designs: tight-coiled and loose-coiled (with clearance
between the coils). If the springs are exposed to a static loading, the tight-coiled springs are
recommended. However, if friction appears between the coils of these springs while they are
working, this may cause the service life of the springs to decrease. In addition to this, the close
distance of the coils prevents perfect shot peening of the spring. Therefore loose-coiled springs
are suitable for use with fatigue loading. The pitch of the spring is usually in the range of 0.3*D <
p < 0.5*D.
Note: The length of close wound spring loaded in the direction of coil winding grows during its
loading. Hot formed springs shall be usually produced with a clearance between the
coils.

Basic relations for spring calculation


Springs of round wire Springs of rectangular wire

where:
c ... spring index (c=D/d; c=D/t) [-]
b ... wire width [mm, in]
d ... wire diameter [mm, in]
D ... mean spring diameter [mm, in]
M ... loading of spring [Nmm, lb in]
E ... modulus of elasticity in tension [MPa, psi]
k ... torque spring rate [Nmm/°, lb in/°]
Kb ... curvature correction factor [-]
LK ... Length of coiled section [mm, in]
n ... number of active coils [-]
p ... pitch between coils [mm, in]
t ... wire thickness [mm, in]
α ... angular deflection [°]
δ 0 ... leg angle of free spring [°]
σ ... bending stress of the spring material [MPa, psi]
Curvature correction factor
Correction coefficient represents the spring additional stress resulting from its curvature.
Functional dimensions of the spring
Functional deformation (shift of the arm) of the torsional spring leads to the change of its
dimensions. The diameter of springs loaded in the direction of coil winding decreases during its
loading:

In addition, the length of close wound spring grows:

Recommended spring dimensions


spring index c 4 - 16
outer diameter De max. 350 mm
number of active
min. 2
coils n
ratio b/t 1 - 10
length of coiled
max. 800 mm
section LK
slenderness ratio
1 - 10
LK/D

Design of spring ends


With regards to the possible occurrence of stress concentrations, the shape of the legs of the
torsion spring should be as simple as possible. The basic types of legs used with torsion springs
are given in the illustration. The option of the leg design depends on the desired method of
setting the spring, its dimensions and desired distance of the loading application point from the
spring axis, while the supporting and working legs of the spring may be different.
Basic types of legs

A. Straight tangential leg

B. Straight axial leg

C. Radial external leg

D. Radial internal leg

Method of fixing the leg


If both legs of the torsion spring are fixed, the working angle is given only by twisting the spring
coils. If the leg is supported freely (loaded) at one point, the leg only bends when the spring is
loaded. This causes an increase in the actual functional angular deflection of the leg. The amount
of bending in the leg increases with increased distance of the application point of the force from
the coils of the spring (length of the leg). Fixed mounting of the legs increases the accuracy of
the calculation and improves the functions of the spring.
Actual (adjusted) angular deflection of the spring with a free leaning arm will then be for:
- radial arms

- tangential arms

Check of the spring arm stress

The springs with bended arms are subjected to concentrations of tension at the bends which can
be much higher than the calculated stress in the spring coils. The amount of these
concentrations depends on the leg bending radius. The smaller the bending radius, the higher
the values of stress peaks in the spring legs. The following formula can be used to determine
approximate peak tension:

Process of calculation.
The way of design procedure used in this book allows defining dimensions of a spring with a
certain degree of looseness. Therefore, in the "Spring design" paragraph for each of the input
parameters, their exact values corresponding to the other parameters of the spring are
calculated in real time. These values are displayed in green fields situated to the right of the
input cells.
Typical calculation/design of the spring consists of the following steps:
1. Set up the desired calculation units (SI/Imperial). [1.3]

2. Select the corresponding standard [1.1] and the type of material [1.2].

3. Select the suitable material of the spring [1.6] according to the recommended areas of
use [1.7-1.10].

4. Define the operation and production parameters of the spring in paragraph [1.21].

5. Set the required safety level [1.27].

6. Select the relevant chapter with required spring type. The actual design of the spring
dimensions is provided in the "Spring design" paragraph.

7. Enter the required parameters of the working cycle (working load and spring stroke) into
the first three input fields.

8. Set preliminary dimensions of the spring in the other input fields, alternatively use one of
the design (optimization) functions of the calculation.

9. Based on the calculated recommended values (green cells) adjust the spring dimensions
so that the calculated working load and spring stroke best correspond to the required
values.

10. In the "Check data" paragraph of the designed spring check the calculated level of
safety (check for strength of spring subjected to static loading).

11. Check the other values of the spring in the paragraphs "Design values" and
"Parameters of working cycle".

12. Chapter [17] serves to check the spring subjected to cyclic (fatigue) loading.

13. Save the book with the suitable solution under a new name.

Selection of material, spring operational and production


parameters. [1]
The purpose of this paragraph is to select suitable material of the spring. It also defines the basic
operational and production values of the spring.
1.1 Material standard.
Select the required national standard from the list to determine the spring material.
Recommendation: Most European countries are currently substituting or have already
substituted the local standards (DIN, BS, UNI, UNE, ...) in the area of spring materials
with corresponding equivalents of standards EN. Therefore we recommend using
only the appropriate European norms EN.
1.2 Material type.
According to the spring design select from the list the corresponding material type (intermediate
product) from which the spring will be produced.
1.3 Calculation units.
Select the desired calculation units in the selection list. When switching over the units, all values
will be recalculated immediately.
1.4 Graph type.
In the list select the required graph type which you want to be displayed in the spring
calculation.
1.5 Spring material.
This paragraph can be used for selection of the spring material.
Choose the spring material from the list [1.6]. The first five rows of the list is reserved for
materials defined by the user. Information and settings of proper materials can be found in the
document "Workbook (calculation) modifications". Other rows of the list include a selection of
materials for the actually specified standard [1.1] and material type [1.2].
Rows [1.7 - 1.10] includes information on the recommended use of the chosen material. The
spring material should be designed with regards to the method of loading the spring and the
operational conditions. If you must use a material less suitable, this fact should be reflected in
the increased level of safety in the design of the spring (see paragraph [1.21]) . Properties of the
chosen material, described in rows [1.7, 1.9] are evaluated in five degrees (excellent, very good,
good, poor, insufficient), and the relative strength is described in row [1.8] in three degrees
(high, medium, low).
Note: In case the checkbox to the right of the selection list is enabled, the necessary
parameters for the chosen material are determined automatically. Otherwise, fill in
the material characteristics manually.
1.12, 1.14 Modulus of elasticity.
The value specified at the basic temperature of 20°C (68°F).
1.18 Ultimate tensile strength.
Enter the ultimate tensile strength of the selected material. When selecting the check box in line
[1.6] the minimum value of the ultimate strength defined for the selected material will be
automatically set here.
Warning: The ultimate tensile strength of the cold drawn spring wires of some materials is
considerably dependent on the wire diameter. Material strength increases with
decreasing diameter of the wire. In automatic setting of material values the
calculation uses minimum ultimate stress values of the selected material for wires of
the largest diameters (approx. 15 mm, 5/8 in). The spring that you have designed
will therefore most probably be oversized. That is why in the case of final
calculations we recommend you to set this value manually depending on the wire
diameter used for the spring being designed. Approximate values of the ultimate
strength depending on the wire diameter can be found in the graphs:
Ultimate tensile strength - ASTM
Ultimate tensile strength - EN

1.21 Operational parameters, safety.


This paragraph is designed to set the operational and production parameters of the spring and to
them related safety coefficients.
Set the corresponding operational conditions in the selection lists. The input field for entering the
appropriate safety coefficient is situated to the right of each list. This coefficient expresses the
influence of the given parameter on possible decrease in the load capacity of the spring.
Note: If the check box to the right of the input field is selected, the safety coefficient value will
be designed by the program. In this automatic design the calculation also
incorporates in the coefficient value the suitability of the selected material and the
effects (interactions), if any, of the other values of the spring.
1.22 Working temperature.
Temperature of the working environment affects the spring relaxation, i.e. decrease in the force
from the spring with its deformation to a constant length, depending on time. It is advisable to
take this fact into account when designing the spring, and increase the level of safety during
strength checks of the spring in case of temperatures over 80°C (180°F). It is necessary to
respect the working temperature also with selection of the spring material.
1.23 Method of loading.
As regards the strength check and the service life, there are the following two types of metal
spring loads:

A. Static loading.
Springs loaded statically or with lower variability, i.e. with cyclical changes of loading,
with the requirement of a service life lower than 105 working cycles.

B. Fatigue loading.
Springs exposed to oscillating (dynamic) loading, i.e. with cyclical changes of loading,
with the requirement of a service life from 105 working cycles up.

Note: Springs subjected to cyclic load must always be checked for potential fatigue damage –
see chapter [17]. If the spring is to satisfy the fatigue check, it is usually necessary
to oversize it considerably as compared to its static strength.
1.24 Operational mode of loading.
Choose the loading mode which best meets your entered data.

A. Light service.
Continuous loading without shocks, with a course according to a sinusoid, loading with
small deformations or low frequency, little or rarely loaded springs with a service life up
to 1000 cycles. For example, springs used in measuring instruments, safety and relief
devices, etc.

B. Medium duty service.


Continuous loading with lower or medium variations, loading with normal frequency of
deformations. Commonly used springs in machine tools, machine products or electrical
components.

C. Heavy duty service.


Springs with discontinuous course of loading, loading with strong shocks, loading with
high frequency of deformations or sudden deformations over longer or irregular time
periods. For example, springs used in pneumatic hammers, hydraulic machines, valves,
etc.

1.25 Working environment.


The service life of springs decreases significantly due to corrosion effects. Corrosion has very
powerful effects particularly on springs exposed to fatigue loading. It is advisable to take this
fact into account when designing the spring, and increase the level of safety during strength
checks of the spring in case of a corrosion-aggressive environment. It is also necessary to
consider corrosion effects with selection of the spring material.
1.26 Surface treatment of the spring.
Shot peening of the spring increases the fatigue limit by approx. 15 to 25%. In case of springs
with shot peening exposed to fatigue loading, this allows users to reduce the consumption of
material for production of the spring, reduce its dimensions and installation space, increase the
working stroke or increase protection of the spring against fatigue breaks. Therefore, it is
advisable to apply the technical requirement of shot peening to all springs exposed to oscillating
loading.
Springs with galvanic coating have significantly higher corrosion resistance. On the other hand
galvanic coating reduces the load capacity of the spring by about 10%.
Note 1: For technology reasons only springs with the wire diameter over 1 mm are shot peened
in the case of coil springs.
Note 2: In the case of springs subjected to static loads (apart from the Belleville springs) spring
shot peening does not have any significant effects on the strength calculation.
Note 3: In view of the compression stresses occurring in the Belleville springs shot peening of
these springs has a negative impact, i.e. decrease in their strength. Therefore it
should not be used for statically loaded springs.
1.27 Total level of safety.
It specifies the minimum permissible ratio between the limit permissible stress of the selected
spring material and the actual stress of the spring at the maximum working load.
The required level of safety is used in the check calculation of strength of the statically loaded
spring. The value specified here therefore actually eliminates any potential negative impact of
the operational conditions on the spring load capacity decrease. Apart from the above
mentioned facts the required value of safety should also incorporate some other factors (such as
accuracy and reliability of input information, significance of the equipment, production
quality, ...). Common springs are usually designed with the level of safety within the range of
<1...2>.
Warning: Springs subjected to cyclic load must always be checked for potential fatigue damage
– see chapter [17]. If the spring is to satisfy the fatigue check, it is usually necessary
to oversize it considerably as compared to its static strength. The level of safety
specified here should then by about twice as high as for the spring with static load.
Note: When selecting the check box the demanded safety will be determined automatically
based on the entered partial coefficients of safety [1.22 - 1.26].

Helical cylindrical compression springs of round wires and bars. [2]

Springs of cylindrical shape made of helically coiled wires, with constant clearance between the
active coils, able to absorb external counter-acting forces applied against each other in their
axis. Springs with wire diameter up to approx. 16 mm are usually cold wound. Hot forming shall
be used for the production of heavily loaded springs of greater sizes with a diameter of the over
10 mm.
Spring design procedure.
1. Enter the required parameters of the working cycle (working load and spring stroke). [2.2
- 2.4]

2. Set preliminary dimensions of the spring in the input fields [2.6 - 2.8], alternatively use
one of the design (optimization) functions of the calculation [2.9].

3. Based on the calculated recommended values (green cells) adjust the spring dimensions,
so that the calculated working load and spring stroke best correspond to the required
values.
4. Check the calculated value of safety [2.16] for the designed spring.

5. Select the required design of the spring ends in the list [2.18].

6. Set the corresponding length of the unloaded spring. [2.21]

7. Check the parameters of the spring working cycle. [2.27]

8. Chapter [17] serves to check the spring subjected to cyclic (fatigue) loading.

Warning: In case of compression springs, it is always necessary to check its protection against
side deflection.
Tip: Detailed information on the calculation of compression springs can be found in the
theoretical section of help.
2.1 Spring design.
The way of design procedure used in this book allows to define dimensions of a spring with a
certain degree of looseness. Therefore the exact value corresponding to the other parameters of
the spring is calculated in real time for each of the input parameters. These values are displayed
in green fields situated to the right of the input cells. Enter the calculated value in the input box
using the appropriate "<" button.
2.9 Spring optimization.
The controls located in this paragraph serve for starting the design (optimization) functions of
the calculation.
• The spring design for the given spring index D/d is started by moving the scroll bar.

• When pressing the appropriate button you will design the spring while keeping the values
of the selected spring dimensions in paragraph [2.1].

When designing the spring the calculation is trying to optimize the dimensions so that the wire
diameter is as small as possible while keeping the required safety [1.27].
Note: When designing a spring for the given spring index D/d the calculation will select the
nearest suitable wire diameter out of the preferred series.
2.10 Check data.
This paragraph specifies the results of the strength check of the designed spring. The check is
carried out by comparing the permissible stress of the material used [1.20] with the actual stress
of the fully loaded spring. The resulting level of safety [2.16] should not drop under the required
value [1.27].
Lines [2.14, 2.15] are used to calculate theoretical values of the maximum working load and
spring stroke where the required level of safety for the designed spring will still be met.
Warning: Spring subjected to cyclic load must also be checked for potential fatigue damage –
see chapter [17].
2.18 Design of spring ends.
Select the required design of the spring ends from the list.

Tip: Detailed information can be found in the theoretical section of the help.
2.21 Free spring length.
Set the corresponding length of the unloaded spring.
Note: If the check box to the right of the input field is selected, the spring free length will be set
automatically within the range of the recommended values.
2.27 Parameters of the working cycle.
This paragraph specifies the basic working parameters of the designed spring in the prestressed
(index 1), fully loaded (index 8) and limit condition (index 9).
Meaning of the parameters:
F loading (force) of spring
s spring deflection (compression)
L spring length
torsional stress of the spring
τ material

Helical cylindrical compression springs of rectangular wires and


bars. [3]

Springs of cylindrical shape made of helically coiled wires, with constant clearance between the
active coils, able to absorb external counter-acting forces applied against each other in their
axis. Springs made of rectangular wire are cold wound. Hot forming shall be used for the
production of heavily loaded springs of greater sizes with wire thickness of the over 10 mm.
Spring design procedure.
1. Enter the required parameters of the working cycle (working load and spring stroke). [3.2
- 3.4]

2. Set preliminary dimensions of the spring in the input fields [3.6 - 3.9], alternatively use
one of the design (optimization) functions of the calculation [3.10].

3. Based on the calculated recommended values (green cells) adjust the spring dimensions,
so that the calculated working load and spring stroke best correspond to the required
values.

4. Check the calculated value of safety [3.17] for the designed spring.

5. Select the required design of the spring ends in the list [3.19].

6. Set the corresponding length of the unloaded spring. [3.22]

7. Check the parameters of the spring working cycle. [3.28]

8. Chapter [17] serves to check the spring subjected to cyclic (fatigue) loading.

Warning: In case of compression springs, it is always necessary to check its protection against
side deflection.
Tip: Detailed information on the calculation of compression springs can be found in the
theoretical section of help.
3.1 Spring design.
The way of design procedure used in this book allows to define dimensions of a spring with a
certain degree of looseness. Therefore the exact value corresponding to the other parameters of
the spring is calculated in real time for each of the input parameters. These values are displayed
in green fields situated to the right of the input cells. Enter the calculated value in the input box
using the appropriate "<" button.
3.10 Spring optimization.
The controls located in this paragraph serve for starting the design (optimization) functions of
the calculation.
• Spring design for the given ratios D/b, b/h is started by moving one of the scroll bars.

• When pressing the appropriate button you will design the spring while keeping the values
of the selected spring dimensions in paragraph [3.1].

When designing the spring the calculation is trying to optimize the dimensions so that the wire
section is as small as possible while keeping the required safety [1.27].
3.11 Check data.
This paragraph specifies the results of the strength check of the designed spring. The check is
carried out by comparing the permissible stress of the material used [1.20] with the actual stress
of the fully loaded spring. The resulting level of safety [3.17] should not drop under the required
value [1.27].
Lines [3.15, 3.16] are used to calculate theoretical values of the maximum working load and
spring stroke where the required level of safety for the designed spring will still be met.
Warning: Spring subjected to cyclic load must also be checked for potential fatigue damage –
see chapter [17].
3.19 Design of spring ends.
Select the required design of the spring ends from the list.

Tip: Detailed information can be found in the theoretical section of the help.
3.22 Free spring length.
Set the corresponding length of the unloaded spring.
Note: If the check box to the right of the input field is selected, the spring free length will be set
automatically within the range of the recommended values.
3.28 Parameters of the working cycle.
This paragraph specifies the basic working parameters of the designed spring in the prestressed
(index 1), fully loaded (index 8) and limit condition (index 9).
Meaning of the parameters:
F loading (force) of spring
s spring deflection (compression)
L spring length
torsional stress of the spring
τ material

Helical conical compression springs of round wires and bars. [4]


Springs of conical shape made of helically coiled wires, with constant clearance between the
active coils, able to absorb external counter-acting forces applied against each other in their
axis. Springs with wire diameter up to approx. 16 mm are usually cold wound. Hot forming shall
be used for the production of heavily loaded springs of greater sizes with a diameter of the over
10 mm.
With increasing compression of the conical spring, its active coils are brought into contact with
adjacent coils gradually (first the coils with the largest diameter). These coils then do not
participate in further compression of the spring which results in gradual increase in the spring
constant. Working characteristics can therefore be divided into two areas:

I. Working area with linear characteristics (invariable spring constant) - F<FC

II. Working area with progressive characteristics – after the contact of the first (largest)
active coil - F>FC

The limit force FC depends on the selected size of free spring length L0. The limit force FC
increases together with increasing spring length and the working area with linear spring constant
rises.
Spring design procedure.
1. Enter the required parameters of the working cycle (working load and spring stroke). [4.2
- 4.4]

2. Set preliminary dimensions of the spring in the input fields [4.5 - 4.9], alternatively use
one of the design (optimization) functions of the calculation [4.11].

3. Based on the preliminary design values (green cells) adjust the spring dimensions, so
that the calculated working load and spring stroke correspond to the required values
best.

4. Select the required design of the spring ends in the list [4.24].

5. Set the corresponding length of the unloaded spring. [4.27]

6. By pressing the [4.10] button carry out the spring calculation.

7. Check the results in paragraph [4.10]. In the case of unsatisfactory design adjust the
spring dimensions [4.1, 4.27] and repeat the calculation.
8. Check the calculated value of safety [4.19] for the designed spring.

9. Check the parameters of the spring working cycle. [4.33]

10. Chapter [17] serves to check the spring subjected to cyclic (fatigue) loading.

Tip: Detailed information on the calculation of conical springs can be found in the theoretical
section of help.
4.1 Spring design.
The way of design procedure used in this book allows to define dimensions of a spring with a
certain degree of looseness. Therefore the approximate value corresponding to the other
parameters of the spring is calculated in real time for each of the input parameters. These values
are displayed in green fields situated to the right of the input cells. Enter the calculated value in
the input box using the appropriate "<" button.
Warning: The parameters of the "pre-design" are specified for the spring working in the area
with constant stiffness (spring constant) (F8<FC). In the case of spring exposed to
higher force the actual value of the working stroke will be lower than the value
specified here.

Tip: The value of the limit force FC is among others influenced by the length of unloaded spring
set in line [4.27].
4.10 Calculation.
Complexity of the conical spring design does not allow calculating all the spring parameters in
real time. Therefore, after each change of the input data, it is necessary to start the calculation
manually by pressing the "Calculate" button.
Note: If the spring has not been calculated, some of the input parameters will have approximate
values ("~" symbol) or no values have been specified.
4.11 Spring optimization.
The controls located in this paragraph serve for starting the design (optimization) functions of
the calculation. Spring design for the given ratios Dmax/Dmin, Dmin/d is started by moving one of
the scroll bars. When designing the spring the calculation is trying to optimize the dimensions so
that the wire diameter is as small as possible while keeping the required safety [1.27].
Note: The calculation will select the nearest suitable wire diameter out of the preferred series.
4.12 Check data.
This paragraph specifies the results of the strength check of the designed spring. The check is
carried out by comparing the permissible stress of the material used [1.20] with the actual stress
of the fully loaded spring. The resulting level of safety [4.19] should not drop under the required
value [1.27].
Lines [4.18] is used to calculate theoretical value of the maximum working load at which the
level of safety for the designed spring will still be met.
Warning: Spring subjected to cyclic load must also be checked for potential fatigue damage –
see chapter [17].
4.21 Maximum loading.
This value specifies the maximum load (limit force) at which the spring will still work with
constant stiffness (spring constant). The spring constant increases with growing load.

Tip: The value of the limit force FC is among others influenced by the length of unloaded spring,
set in line [4.27].
4.24 Design of spring ends.
Select the required design of the spring ends from the list.
Tip: Detailed information can be found in the theoretical section of the help.
4.27 Free spring length.
Set the corresponding length of the unloaded spring.
Free spring length considerably influences the maximum force value [4.21], and therefore also
the working characteristic of the spring. The limit force increases together with increasing spring
length, and the working area with the linear spring constant rises.
Note: If the check box to the right of the input field is selected, the spring free length will be set
automatically within the range of the recommended values.
4.33 Parameters of the working cycle.
This paragraph specifies the basic working parameters of the designed spring in the prestressed
(index 1), fully loaded (index 8) and limit condition (index 9).
Meaning of the parameters:
F loading (force) of spring
s spring deflection (compression)
L spring length
torsional stress of the spring
τ material
k spring rate
Note: Working cycle parameters will be displayed only after performing the spring calculation
(see [4.10]).

Helical conical compression springs of rectangular wires and bars.


[5]

Springs of conical shape made of helically coiled wires, with constant clearance between the
active coils, able to absorb external counter-acting forces applied against each other in their
axis. Springs made of rectangular wire are cold wound. Hot forming shall be used for the
production of heavily loaded springs of greater sizes with wire thickness of the over 10 mm.
With increasing compression of the conical spring, its active coils are brought into contact with
adjacent coils gradually (first the coils with the largest diameter). These coils then do not
participate in further compression of the spring which results in gradual increase in the spring
constant. Working characteristics can therefore be divided into two areas:
I. Working area with linear characteristics (invariable spring constant) - F<FC

II. Working area with progressive characteristics – after the contact of the first (largest)
active coil - F>FC

The limit force FC depends on the selected size of free spring length L0. The limit force FC
increases together with increasing spring length and the working area with linear spring constant
rises.
Spring design procedure.
1. Enter the required parameters of the working cycle (working load and spring stroke). [5.2
- 5.4]

2. Set preliminary dimensions of the spring in the input fields [5.5 - 5.10], alternatively use
one of the design (optimization) functions of the calculation [5.12].

3. Based on the preliminary design values (green cells) adjust the spring dimensions, so
that the calculated working load and spring stroke correspond to the required values
best.

4. Select the required design of the spring ends in the list [5.25].

5. Set the corresponding length of the unloaded spring. [5.28]

6. By pressing the [5.11] button carry out the spring calculation.

7. Check the results in paragraph [5.11]. In the case of unsatisfactory design adjust the
spring dimensions [5.1, 5.28] and repeat the calculation.

8. Check the calculated value of safety [5.20] for the designed spring.

9. Check the parameters of the spring working cycle. [5.34]

10. Chapter [17] serves to check the spring subjected to cyclic (fatigue) loading.

Tip: Detailed information on the calculation of conical springs can be found in the theoretical
section of help.
5.1 Spring design.
The way of design procedure used in this book allows to define dimensions of a spring with a
certain degree of looseness. Therefore the approximate value corresponding to the other
parameters of the spring is calculated in real time for each of the input parameters. These values
are displayed in green fields situated to the right of the input cells. Enter the calculated value in
the input box using the appropriate "<" button.
Warning: The parameters of the "pre-design" are specified for the spring working in the area
with constant stiffness (spring constant) (F8<FC). In the case of spring exposed to
higher force the actual value of the working stroke will be lower than the value
specified here.

Tip: The value of the limit force FC is among others influenced by the length of unloaded spring
set in line [5.28].
5.11 Calculation.
Complexity of the conical spring design does not allow calculating all the spring parameters in
real time. Therefore, after each change of the input data, it is necessary to start the calculation
manually by pressing the "Calculate" button.
Note: If the spring has not been calculated, some of the input parameters will have approximate
values ("~" symbol) or no values have been specified.
5.12 Spring optimization.
The controls located in this paragraph serve for starting the design (optimization) functions of
the calculation. Spring design for the given ratios Dmax/Dmin, Dmin/b, b/h is started by moving
one of the scroll bars. When designing the spring the calculation is trying to optimize the
dimensions so that the wire section is as small as possible while keeping the required safety
[1.27].
5.13 Check data.
This paragraph specifies the results of the strength check of the designed spring. The check is
carried out by comparing the permissible stress of the material used [1.20] with the actual stress
of the fully loaded spring. The resulting level of safety [5.20] should not drop under the required
value [1.27].
Lines [5.19] is used to calculate theoretical value of the maximum working load at which the
level of safety for the designed spring will still be met.
Warning: Spring subjected to cyclic load must also be checked for potential fatigue damage –
see chapter [17].
5.22 Maximum loading.
This value specifies the maximum load (limit force) at which the spring will still work with
constant stiffness (spring constant). The spring constant increases with growing load.

Tip: The value of the limit force FC is among others influenced by the length of unloaded spring,
set in line [5.28].
5.25 Design of spring ends.
Select the required design of the spring ends from the list.

Tip: Detailed information can be found in the theoretical section of the help.
5.28 Free spring length.
Set the corresponding length of the unloaded spring.
Free spring length considerably influences the maximum force value [5.22], and therefore also
the working characteristic of the spring. The limit force increases together with increasing spring
length, and the working area with the linear spring constant rises.
Note: If the check box to the right of the input field is selected, the spring free length will be set
automatically within the range of the recommended values.
5.34 Parameters of the working cycle.
This paragraph specifies the basic working parameters of the designed spring in the prestressed
(index 1), fully loaded (index 8) and limit condition (index 9).
Meaning of the parameters:
F loading (force) of spring
s spring deflection (compression)
L spring length
torsional stress of the spring
τ material
k spring rate
Note: Working cycle parameters will be displayed only after performing the spring calculation
(see [5.11]).

Belleville springs. [6]

Annular rings of hollow truncated cone, able to absorb external axial forces counter-acting
against each other. The spring section is usually rectangular. Springs of larger sizes (t > 6 mm)
are sometimes made with machined contact flats.
Belleville springs are designed for higher loads with low deformations. They are used individually
or in sets. When using springs in a set it is necessary to take account of friction effects. Friction
in the set accounts for 3 – 5% of loading per each layer. Working load must then be increased by
this force.
The shape of the Belleville spring characteristic curve is strongly affected by the relative height
h0/t. For small values of the relative height the spring has nearly linear working characteristics;
with rising ratio the characteristics are sharply degressive.

Spring design procedure.


1. Enter the required parameters of the working cycle (working load, spring stroke and
relative spring deflection). [6.2 - 6.5]

2. Enter spring dimensions in the input fields [6.8 - 6.12], alternatively select the spring
from the database [6.14] or use one of the find functions [6.15].
3. Based on the preliminary design values (green cells) select the numbers of discs in the
set [6.6, 6.7], so that the calculated working load and spring stroke best correspond to
the required values.

4. Set the permissible stress of the spring. [6.30]

5. By pressing the [6.13] button carry out the spring calculation.

6. Check the results in paragraph [6.13]. In the case of unsatisfactory design adjust the
spring dimensions and repeat the calculation.

7. Check the calculated value of safety [6.34] for the designed spring.

8. Check the parameters of the spring working cycle. [6.35]

9. Chapter [17] serves to check the spring subjected to cyclic (fatigue) loading.

Note: This calculation is designed for the Belleville springs without machined contact surfaces.
In addition, the calculation does not take friction effects into consideration.
Tip: Detailed information on the calculation of Belleville springs can be found in the theoretical
section of help.
6.1 Spring design.
The way of design procedure used in this book allows to define dimensions of a spring with a
certain degree of looseness. Therefore, to facilitate the design, the approximate values
corresponding to the other parameters of the spring are calculated in real time for some of the
input parameters. These values are displayed in green fields situated to the right of the input
cells. Enter the calculated value in the input box using the appropriate "<" button.
6.5 Max. permissible spring deflection.
Select the permissible proportionate spring deflection in the selection list.
In the case of statically loaded springs the operating deflection of the spring should not exceed
75 – 80% of the maximum (full) deflection [6.19]. In the springs with cyclic (fatigue) loading 50%
value is usually accepted.
6.6 Number of parallel discs in the set.
Discs arranged in the same direction.

Tip: Parallel arrangement of discs increases the total stiffness (spring rate) of the spring. At the
same time the load capacity of the spring grows.
6.7 Number of sets (disc) in series in a stack.
Discs or disc sets arranged against each other.

Tip: The serial arrangement of discs reduces the total stiffness (spring rate) of the spring.
6.13 Calculation.
Complexity of the Belleville spring design does not allow calculating all the spring parameters in
real time. Therefore, after each change of the input data, it is necessary to start the calculation
manually by pressing the "Calculate" button.
Note: If the spring has not been calculated, some of the input parameters will have approximate
values ("~" symbol) or no values have been specified.
6.14 Spring selection.
In the selection list you will find the database of the Belleville springs with commonly
manufactured dimensions. Spring dimensions in the list are specified as "De x Di x t x h".
Note: For the calculation in SI units the list specifies dimensions of the springs supplied by
Schnorr GmbH (springs designated with "*" symbol correspond to DIN 2093). The
calculation in the "Imperial" units uses springs made by the producers Key
Bellevilles, Inc and WCL company.
Warning: After selecting the spring from the list, the program will automatically design the
satisfactory values of disc numbers in a set [6.6, 6.7].
6.15 Searching for a spring.
This paragraph serves for automatic design (finding) of a Belleville spring of satisfactory
dimensions.
In the selection lists set the permissible deviation from the required working stroke of the spring
[6.4] and maximum permissible numbers of discs in a set. After pressing the "Find first" button
the program will find the first spring from the list [6.14], which meets all the specified
requirements while keeping the minimum safety. If the selected spring does not meet your
expectations, use the "Find next" button to find a spring of different dimensions.
6.22 Maximum permissible loading.
Theoretically determined value of the maximum working loading at which the maximum
compressive stress [6.31] of the designed spring does not exceed the permissible limit [6.30]
while satisfying the permissible spring deflection at the same time [6.5].
6.29 Strength check.
Stress occurring in the Belleville spring is rather complex. Maximum stress (compressive)
develops in the inner top edge. Tensile stress occurs on the bottom outer edge. Maximum
compressive stress serves for strength check of springs subjected to static loading. In the springs
subjected to cyclic (fatigue) loading the pattern of tensile stresses is checked.
This paragraph specifies the results of the strength check of a statically loaded spring. The check
is carried out by comparing the permissible stress of the material used [6.30] with the maximum
compressive stress of a fully loaded spring [6.31]. The resulting level of safety [6.34] should not
drop under the recommended value [6.33].
Warning: Spring subjected to cyclic load must also be checked for potential fatigue damage –
see chapter [17].
6.30 Permissible compressive stress.
Enter the permissible compressive stress of the spring material.
Note: If the check box to the right of the input field is selected, the permissible stress for the
selected material will be set automatically [1.6].
6.33 Recommended level of safety.
Recommended level of safety for the selected material [1.6] is estimated based on the
operational conditions defined in paragraph [1.21].
6.35 Parameters of the working cycle.
This paragraph specifies the basic working parameters of the designed spring in the prestressed
(index 1), fully loaded (index 8) and limit condition (index 9).
Meaning of the parameters:
F loading (force) of spring
s spring deflection (compression)
L spring length
σ max. compressive stress
P

k spring rate
Note: Working cycle parameters will be displayed only after performing the spring calculation
(see [6.13]).
Helical cylindrical tension springs of round wires and bars. [7]

Springs of cylindrical shape made of helically coiled wires, with constant clearance between the
active coils, able to absorb external axial forces counter-acting from each other. Springs with
wire diameter up to approx. 16 mm are usually cold wound. Hot forming shall be used for the
production of heavily loaded springs of greater sizes with a diameter of the over10 mm.
Spring design procedure.
1. Select the suitable spring design from the list. [7.1]

2. Enter the required parameters of the working cycle (working load and spring stroke). [7.4
- 7.6]

3. Set preliminary dimensions of the spring in the input fields [7.8 - 7.10], alternatively use
one of the design (optimization) functions of the calculation [7.11].

4. Based on the calculated recommended values (green cells) adjust the spring dimensions,
so that the calculated working load and spring stroke best correspond to the required
values.

5. Check the calculated value of safety [7.18] for the designed spring.

6. In list [7.20] select the required design of the spring hook, set its height in line [7.22].

7. In lines [7.24, 7.25] set the corresponding initial stress of the spring (for springs with
initial stress) or the length of unloaded spring (for the springs without initial stress).

8. Check and adjust, if needed, the spring design parameters in paragraph [7.2].

9. Check the parameters of the spring working cycle. [7.31]

10. Chapter [17] serves to check the spring subjected to cyclic (fatigue) loading.

Recommendation: With regards to the considerable effects of the shape and design of fixing
eyes on reduction of the spring's service life and impossibility of perfect shot
peening of the spring, it is not advisable to use tension springs exposed to fatigue
loading. If it is necessary to use a tension spring with fatigue loading, it is advisable
to avoid use of fixing eyes and choose another type of fixing of the spring.
Warning: Loading of the spring creates a concentration of stress in the fixing eyes and this may
be substantially higher than the calculated stress in the spring coils. It is therefore
recommended to check such springs also in view of loading of the fixing eyes.
Tip: Detailed information on the calculation of tension springs can be found in the theoretical
section of help.
7.1 Spring type.
Tension springs are used in two basic designs:
A. Spring with prestressing.
Cold formed tension springs are preferably produced with prestressing, thus with close-
coiled active coils. The spring prestressing has considerable effects on increase in the
loading capacity of the spring. For deformation of the spring to the desired length, it is
necessary to use a higher loading than with springs without prestressing. Prestressing
appears in coils of the spring in the course of coiling of the spring wire, and its size
depends on the used material, spring index and the manner of coiling.

B. Spring without inner prestressing.


If necessary due to technical reasons, it is possible to use loose-coiled tension springs
without prestressing, with gaps between the active coils. The coil pitch of a free spring is
usually in the range 0.2*D < p < 0.4*D.

Note: Hot formed springs always manufactured without initial tension.


7.2 Spring design.
The way of design procedure used in this book allows to define dimensions of a spring with a
certain degree of looseness. Therefore the exact value corresponding to the other parameters of
the spring is calculated in real time for each of the input parameters. These values are displayed
in green fields situated to the right of the input cells. Enter the calculated value in the input box
using the appropriate "<" button.
7.11 Spring optimization.
The controls located in this paragraph serve for starting the design (optimization) functions of
the calculation.
• The spring design for the given spring index D/d is started by moving the scroll bar.

• When pressing the appropriate button you will design the spring while keeping the values
of the selected spring dimensions in paragraph [7.2].

When designing the spring the calculation is trying to optimize the dimensions so that the wire
diameter is as small as possible while keeping the required safety [1.27].
Note: When designing a spring for the given spring index D/d the calculation will select the
nearest suitable wire diameter out of the preferred series.
7.12 Check data.
This paragraph specifies the results of the strength check of the designed spring. The check is
carried out by comparing the permissible stress of the material used [1.20] with the actual stress
of the fully loaded spring. The resulting level of safety [7.18] should not drop under the required
value [1.27].
Lines [7.16, 7.17] are used to calculate theoretical values of the maximum working load and
spring stroke where the required level of safety for the designed spring will still be met.
Note: The calculation used here performs a strength check of the spring only for stress in active
coils, and does not take into consideration any possible stress concentrations in the
fixing eye.
Warning: Spring subjected to cyclic load must also be checked for potential fatigue damage –
see chapter [17].
7.20 Design of spring ends.
Select the required design of the spring ends from the list.
Loading of the spring creates a concentration of stress in the fixing eyes and this may be
substantially higher than the calculated stress in the spring coils. This is why sometimes a
different way of spring attachment is used.
Note: Hot formed springs and cyclically loaded springs are usually used without spring hooks.
Tip: Detailed information can be found in the theoretical section of the help.
7.22 Height of spring hook.
The height of the spring hook depends on its type and for individual types, their recommended
limits are prescribed. In case of springs without fixing eyes, this term means the distance
between the end of active coils and the point of fixing of the spring (see the illustration).

Tip: Detailed information can be found in the theoretical section of the help.
7.24 Initial stress.
Initial stress appears in coils of the spring in the course of coiling of the spring wire, and its size
depends on the used material, spring index and the manner of coiling. The initial stress will be
zero for springs with spaces between its coils.
Note: If the check box to the right of the input field is selected, the spring initial stress will be
set automatically within the range of the recommended values.
Tip: Detailed information can be found in the theoretical section of the help.
7.25 Free spring length.
Enter the free spring length for a spring without initial stress.
Note: If the check box to the right of the input field is selected, the spring free length will be set
automatically within the range of the recommended values.
7.31 Parameters of the working cycle.
This paragraph specifies the basic working parameters of the designed spring in the prestressed
(index 1), fully loaded (index 8) and limit condition (index 9).
Meaning of the parameters:
F loading (force) of spring
s spring deflection (extension)
L spring length
torsional stress of the spring
τ material

Helical cylindrical tension springs of rectangular wires and bars.


[8]

Springs of cylindrical shape made of helically coiled wires, with constant clearance between the
active coils, able to absorb external axial forces counter-acting from each other. Springs made of
rectangular wire are cold wound. Hot forming shall be used for the production of heavily loaded
springs of greater sizes with wire thickness of the over 10 mm.
Spring design procedure.
1. Enter the required parameters of the working cycle (working load and spring stroke). [8.2
- 8.4]

2. Set preliminary dimensions of the spring in the input fields [8.6 - 8.9], alternatively use
one of the design (optimization) functions of the calculation [8.10].

3. Based on the calculated recommended values (green cells) adjust the spring dimensions,
so that the calculated working load and spring stroke best correspond to the required
values.

4. Check the calculated value of safety [8.17] for the designed spring.

5. In list [8.19] select the required design of the spring hook, set its height in line [8.21].

6. Set the corresponding length of the unloaded spring. [8.23]

7. Check the parameters of the spring working cycle. [8.29]

8. Chapter [17] serves to check the spring subjected to cyclic (fatigue) loading.

Recommendation: With regards to the considerable effects of the shape and design of fixing
eyes on reduction of the spring's service life and impossibility of perfect shot
peening of the spring, it is not advisable to use tension springs exposed to fatigue
loading. If it is necessary to use a tension spring with fatigue loading, it is advisable
to avoid use of fixing eyes and choose another type of fixing of the spring.
Warning: Loading of the spring creates a concentration of stress in the fixing eyes and this may
be substantially higher than the calculated stress in the spring coils. It is therefore
recommended to check such springs also in view of loading of the fixing eyes.
Tip: Detailed information on the calculation of tension springs can be found in the theoretical
section of help.
8.1 Spring design.
The way of design procedure used in this book allows to define dimensions of a spring with a
certain degree of looseness. Therefore the exact value corresponding to the other parameters of
the spring is calculated in real time for each of the input parameters. These values are displayed
in green fields situated to the right of the input cells. Enter the calculated value in the input box
using the appropriate "<" button.
8.10 Spring optimization.
The controls located in this paragraph serve for starting the design (optimization) functions of
the calculation.
• Spring design for the given ratios D/b, b/h is started by moving one of the scroll bars.

• When pressing the appropriate button you will design the spring while keeping the values
of the selected spring dimensions in paragraph [8.1].

When designing the spring the calculation is trying to optimize the dimensions so that the wire
section is as small as possible while keeping the required safety [1.27].
8.11 Check data.
This paragraph specifies the results of the strength check of the designed spring. The check is
carried out by comparing the permissible stress of the material used [1.20] with the actual stress
of the fully loaded spring. The resulting level of safety [8.17] should not drop under the required
value [1.27].
Lines [8.15, 8.16] are used to calculate theoretical values of the maximum working load and
spring stroke where the required level of safety for the designed spring will still be met.
Note: The calculation used here performs a strength check of the spring only for stress in active
coils, and does not take into consideration any possible stress concentrations in the
fixing eye.
Warning: Spring subjected to cyclic load must also be checked for potential fatigue damage –
see chapter [17].
8.19 Design of spring ends.
Due to high concentrations of stress occurring in the hook, the springs made of rectangular wire
usually use different way of spring fixing.

Tip: Detailed information can be found in the theoretical section of the help.
8.21 Height of spring hook.
The height of the spring hook depends on its type and for individual types, their recommended
limits are prescribed. In case of springs without fixing eyes, this term means the distance
between the end of active coils and the point of fixing of the spring (see the illustration).
Tip: Detailed information can be found in the theoretical section of the help.
8.23 Free spring length.
Set the corresponding length of the unloaded spring.
Note: If the check box to the right of the input field is selected, the spring free length will be set
automatically within the range of the recommended values.
8.29 Parameters of the working cycle.
This paragraph specifies the basic working parameters of the designed spring in the prestressed
(index 1), fully loaded (index 8) and limit condition (index 9).
Meaning of the parameters:
F loading (force) of spring
s spring deflection (extension)
L spring length
torsional stress of the spring
τ material

Spiral springs. [9]

The spring made of a strip with rectangular section wound into the shape of Archimedes spiral,
with constant spacing between its active coils, loaded with torque in the direction of the winding.
Spring design procedure.
1. Enter the required parameters of the working cycle (working load and spring stroke). [9.2
- 9.4]

2. Set preliminary dimensions of the spring in the input fields [9.6 - 9.10], alternatively use
one of the design (optimization) functions of the calculation [9.11].

3. Based on the calculated recommended values (green cells) adjust the spring dimensions,
so that the calculated working load and spring stroke best correspond to the required
values.

4. Check the calculated value of safety [9.18] for the designed spring.

5. Check the parameters of the spring working cycle. [9.26]

6. Chapter [17] serves to check the spring subjected to cyclic (fatigue) loading.

Note: This calculation is designed for spiral springs with fixed ends of the spring.
Tip: Detailed information on the calculation of spiral springs can be found in the theoretical
section of help.
9.1 Spring design.
The way of design procedure used in this book allows to define dimensions of a spring with a
certain degree of looseness. Therefore the exact value corresponding to the other parameters of
the spring is calculated in real time for each of the input parameters. These values are displayed
in green fields situated to the right of the input cells. Enter the calculated value in the input box
using the appropriate "<" button.
9.11 Spring optimization.
The controls located in this paragraph serve for starting the design (optimization) functions of
the calculation. Spring design for the given ratios Ri/t, b/t, a0/t is started by moving one of the
scroll bars. When designing the spring the calculation is trying to optimize the dimensions so
that the strip thickness is as small as possible while keeping the required safety [1.27].
Note: The calculation will select the nearest suitable strip thickness out of the preferred series.
9.12 Check data.
This paragraph specifies the results of the strength check of the designed spring. The check is
carried out by comparing the permissible stress of the material used [1.20] with the actual stress
of the fully loaded spring. The resulting level of safety [9.18] should not drop under the required
value [1.27].
Lines [9.16, 9.17] are used to calculate theoretical values of the maximum working load and
spring stroke where the required level of safety for the designed spring will still be met.
Warning: Spring subjected to cyclic load must also be checked for potential fatigue damage –
see chapter [17].
9.26 Parameters of the working cycle.
This paragraph specifies the basic working parameters of the designed spring in the prestressed
(index 1), fully loaded (index 8) and limit condition (index 9).
Meaning of the parameters:
M loading (torque) of spring
n number of active coils
angular deflection (twisting) of
α spring
δ leg angle

σ bending stress of the spring material

Helical cylindrical torsion springs made of round wires a bars. [10]


Springs of cylindrical shape made of helically coiled wires, with constant spacing between the
active coils, able to absorb external forces applied in the planes perpendicular to the winding
axis through a torque in the direction of winding or unwinding. Springs with wire diameter up to
approx. 16 mm are usually cold wound. Hot forming shall be used for the production of heavily
loaded springs of greater sizes with a diameter of the over 10 mm.
Torsion springs are produced in two basic designs: tight-coiled and loose-coiled (with clearance
between the coils). If the springs are exposed to a static loading, the tight-coiled springs are
recommended. Loose-coiled springs are suitable for use with fatigue loading.
Spring design procedure.
1. Enter the required parameters of the working cycle (working load and spring stroke).
[10.2 - 10.4]

2. Set preliminary dimensions of the spring in the input fields [10.6 - 10.8], alternatively use
one of the design (optimization) functions of the calculation [10.9].

3. Based on the calculated recommended values (green cells) adjust the spring dimensions,
so that the calculated working load and spring stroke best correspond to the required
values.

4. Check the calculated value of safety [10.16] for the designed spring.

5. Select the required design of the spring arms in the list [10.18]

6. Set the corresponding length of the coil part of the spring. [10.21]

7. Check the parameters of the spring working cycle. [10.27]

8. Chapter [17] serves to check the spring subjected to cyclic (fatigue) loading.

Note: This calculation is designed for the torsion springs loaded in the direction of coil winding,
with fixed arms. The calculation does not take into account the effects of supporting
of the spring against the inner or outer guiding part, nor the effects of friction that
appears with it. The effects of possible friction between the coils of the spring are
also not considered.
Warning: The springs with bended arms are subjected to concentrations of tension at the bends
which can be much higher than the calculated stress in the spring coils. It is
therefore recommended to check such springs also in view of loading of the arms.
Tip: Detailed information on the calculation of torsion springs can be found in the theoretical
section of help.
10.1 Spring design.
The way of design procedure used in this book allows to define dimensions of a spring with a
certain degree of looseness. Therefore the exact value corresponding to the other parameters of
the spring is calculated in real time for each of the input parameters. These values are displayed
in green fields situated to the right of the input cells. Enter the calculated value in the input box
using the appropriate "<" button.
10.9 Spring optimization.
The controls located in this paragraph serve for starting the design (optimization) functions of
the calculation.
• The spring design for the given spring index D/d is started by moving the scroll bar.

• When pressing the button you will design a spring for the specified spring diameter
[10.6].

When designing the spring the calculation is trying to optimize the dimensions so that the wire
diameter is as small as possible while keeping the required safety [1.27].
Note: When designing a spring for the given spring index D/d the calculation will select the
nearest suitable wire diameter out of the preferred series.
10.10 Check data.
This paragraph specifies the results of the strength check of the designed spring. The check is
carried out by comparing the permissible stress of the material used [1.20] with the actual stress
of the fully loaded spring. The resulting level of safety [10.16] should not drop under the
required value [1.27].
Lines [10.14, 10.15] are used to calculate theoretical values of the maximum working load and
spring stroke where the required level of safety for the designed spring will still be met.
Note: The calculation used here performs a strength check of the spring only for stress in active
coils, and does not take into consideration any possible stress concentrations in the
spring arms.
Warning: Spring subjected to cyclic load must also be checked for potential fatigue damage –
see chapter [17].
10.18 Design of spring ends.
Select the required design of the spring ends from the list.

Tip: Detailed information can be found in the theoretical section of the help.
10.21 Length of coiled section.
Set the corresponding length of coiled section.
Note: If the check box to the right of the input field is selected, the spring length will be set
automatically within the range of the recommended values.
10.25 Dimensions of fully loaded spring.
Functional deformation (shift of the arm) of the torsional spring leads to the change of its
dimensions. The diameter of springs loaded in the direction of coil winding decreases during its
loading. In addition, the length of close wound spring grows.
10.27 Parameters of the working cycle.
This paragraph specifies the basic working parameters of the designed spring in the prestressed
(index 1), fully loaded (index 8) and limit condition (index 9).
Meaning of the parameters:
M loading (torque) of spring
angular deflection (twisting) of
α spring
δ leg angle

σ bending stress of the spring material

Helical cylindrical torsion springs made of rectangular wires and


bars. [11]
Springs of cylindrical shape made of helically coiled wires, with constant spacing between the
active coils, able to absorb external forces applied in the planes perpendicular to the winding
axis through a torque in the direction of winding or unwinding. Springs made of rectangular wire
are cold wound. Hot forming shall be used for the production of heavily loaded springs of greater
sizes with wire thickness of the over 10 mm.
Torsion springs are produced in two basic designs: tight-coiled and loose-coiled (with clearance
between the coils). If the springs are exposed to a static loading, the tight-coiled springs are
recommended. Loose-coiled springs are suitable for use with fatigue loading.
Spring design procedure.
1. Enter the required parameters of the working cycle (working load and spring stroke).
[11.2 - 11.4]

2. Set preliminary dimensions of the spring in the input fields [11.6 - 11.8], alternatively use
one of the design (optimization) functions of the calculation [11.10].

3. Based on the calculated recommended values (green cells) adjust the spring dimensions,
so that the calculated working load and spring stroke best correspond to the required
values.

4. Check the calculated value of safety [11.17] for the designed spring.

5. Select the required design of the spring arms in the list [11.19]

6. Set the corresponding length of the coil part of the spring. [11.22]

7. Check the parameters of the spring working cycle. [11.28]

8. Chapter [17] serves to check the spring subjected to cyclic (fatigue) loading.

Note: This calculation is designed for the torsion springs loaded in the direction of coil winding,
with fixed arms. The calculation does not take into account the effects of supporting
of the spring against the inner or outer guiding part, nor the effects of friction that
appears with it. The effects of possible friction between the coils of the spring are
also not considered.
Warning: The springs with bended arms are subjected to concentrations of tension at the bends
which can be much higher than the calculated stress in the spring coils. It is
therefore recommended to check such springs also in view of loading of the arms.
Tip: Detailed information on the calculation of torsion springs can be found in the theoretical
section of help.
11.1 Spring design.
The way of design procedure used in this book allows to define dimensions of a spring with a
certain degree of looseness. Therefore the exact value corresponding to the other parameters of
the spring is calculated in real time for each of the input parameters. These values are displayed
in green fields situated to the right of the input cells. Enter the calculated value in the input box
using the appropriate "<" button.
11.10 Spring optimization.
The controls located in this paragraph serve for starting the design (optimization) functions of
the calculation.
• Spring design for the given ratios D/t, b/t is started by moving one of the scroll bars.

• When pressing the button you will design a spring for the specified spring diameter
[11.6].

When designing the spring the calculation is trying to optimize the dimensions so that the wire
thickness is as small as possible while keeping the required safety [1.27].
Note: When designing a spring for the given spring index D/t the calculation will select the
nearest suitable wire thickness out of the preferred series.
11.11 Check data.
This paragraph specifies the results of the strength check of the designed spring. The check is
carried out by comparing the permissible stress of the material used [1.20] with the actual stress
of the fully loaded spring. The resulting level of safety [11.17] should not drop under the
required value [1.27].
Lines [11.15, 11.16] are used to calculate theoretical values of the maximum working load and
spring stroke where the required level of safety for the designed spring will still be met.
Note: The calculation used here performs a strength check of the spring only for stress in active
coils, and does not take into consideration any possible stress concentrations in the
spring arms.
Warning: Spring subjected to cyclic load must also be checked for potential fatigue damage –
see chapter [17].
11.19 Design of spring ends.
Select the required design of the spring ends from the list.

Tip: Detailed information can be found in the theoretical section of the help.
11.22 Length of coiled section.
Set the corresponding length of coiled section.
Note: If the check box to the right of the input field is selected, the spring length will be set
automatically within the range of the recommended values.
11.26 Dimensions of fully loaded spring.
Functional deformation (shift of the arm) of the torsional spring leads to the change of its
dimensions. The diameter of springs loaded in the direction of coil winding decreases during its
loading. In addition, the length of close wound spring grows.
11.28 Parameters of the working cycle.
This paragraph specifies the basic working parameters of the designed spring in the prestressed
(index 1), fully loaded (index 8) and limit condition (index 9).
Meaning of the parameters:
M loading (torque) of spring
angular deflection (twisting) of
α spring
δ leg angle

σ bending stress of the spring material

Torsion bar springs with round section. [12]


Springs based on the principle of long slender bars of circular section subjected to torsion. The
ends of bars are mostly fixed by means of grooving. Sometimes one end is square-shaped in
order to facilitate attachment.
Spring design procedure.
1. Enter the required parameters of the working cycle (working load and spring stroke).
[12.2 - 12.4]

2. Set preliminary dimensions of the spring in the input fields [12.6, 12.7], alternatively use
one of the design (optimization) functions of the calculation [12.8].

3. Based on the calculated recommended values (green cells) adjust the spring dimensions,
so that the calculated working load and spring stroke best correspond to the required
values.

4. Check the calculated value of safety [12.15] for the designed spring.

5. Check the parameters of the spring working cycle. [12.16]

6. Chapter [17] serves to check the spring subjected to cyclic (fatigue) loading.

Note: Torsion bar springs must be secured against bending stress.


Tip: Detailed information on the calculation of torsion bar springs can be found in the theoretical
section of help.
12.1 Spring design.
The way of design procedure used in this book allows to define dimensions of a spring with a
certain degree of looseness. Therefore the exact value corresponding to the other parameters of
the spring is calculated in real time for each of the input parameters. These values are displayed
in green fields situated to the right of the input cells. Enter the calculated value in the input box
using the appropriate "<" button.
12.8 Spring optimization.
When pressing the button you will design a spring of satisfactory dimensions. When designing
the spring the calculation is trying to optimize the dimensions so that the bar diameter is as
small as possible while keeping the required safety [1.27].
Note: The calculation will select the nearest suitable bar diameter out of the preferred series.
12.9 Check data.
This paragraph specifies the results of the strength check of the designed spring. The check is
carried out by comparing the permissible stress of the material used [1.20] with the actual stress
of the fully loaded spring. The resulting level of safety [12.15] should not drop under the
required value [1.27].
Lines [12.13, 12.14] are used to calculate theoretical values of the maximum working load and
spring stroke where the required level of safety for the designed spring will still be met.
Warning: Spring subjected to cyclic load must also be checked for potential fatigue damage –
see chapter [17].
12.16 Parameters of the working cycle.
This paragraph specifies the basic working parameters of the designed spring in the prestressed
(index 1), fully loaded (index 8) and limit condition (index 9).
Meaning of the parameters:
M loading (torque) of spring
angular deflection (twisting) of
α spring
torsional stress of the spring
τ material

Torsion bar springs with rectangular section. [13]

Springs based on the principle of long slender bars of rectangular section subjected to torsion.
Spring design procedure.
1. Enter the required parameters of the working cycle (working load and spring stroke).
[13.2 - 13.4]

2. Set preliminary dimensions of the spring in the input fields [13.6 - 13.8], alternatively use
one of the design (optimization) functions of the calculation [13.9].

3. Based on the calculated recommended values (green cells) adjust the spring dimensions,
so that the calculated working load and spring stroke best correspond to the required
values.

4. Check the calculated value of safety [13.16] for the designed spring.

5. Check the parameters of the spring working cycle. [13.17]

6. Chapter [17] serves to check the spring subjected to cyclic (fatigue) loading.

Note: Torsion bar springs must be secured against bending stress.


Tip: Detailed information on the calculation of torsion bar springs can be found in the theoretical
section of help.
13.1 Spring design.
The way of design procedure used in this book allows to define dimensions of a spring with a
certain degree of looseness. Therefore the exact value corresponding to the other parameters of
the spring is calculated in real time for each of the input parameters. These values are displayed
in green fields situated to the right of the input cells. Enter the calculated value in the input box
using the appropriate "<" button.
13.9 Spring optimization.
The controls located in this paragraph serve for starting the design (optimization) functions of
the calculation.
• The spring design for the given ratio b/t is started by moving the scroll bar.

• When pressing the appropriate button you will design the spring while keeping the values
of the selected spring dimensions in paragraph [13.1].

When designing the spring the calculation is trying to optimize the dimensions so that the bar
thickness is as small as possible while keeping the required safety [1.27].
Note: When designing a spring for the given ratio b/t the calculation will select the nearest
suitable bar thickness out of the preferred series.
13.10 Check data.
This paragraph specifies the results of the strength check of the designed spring. The check is
carried out by comparing the permissible stress of the material used [1.20] with the actual stress
of the fully loaded spring. The resulting level of safety [13.16] should not drop under the
required value [1.27].
Lines [13.14, 13.15] are used to calculate theoretical values of the maximum working load and
spring stroke where the required level of safety for the designed spring will still be met.
Warning: Spring subjected to cyclic load must also be checked for potential fatigue damage –
see chapter [17].
13.17 Parameters of the working cycle.
This paragraph specifies the basic working parameters of the designed spring in the prestressed
(index 1), fully loaded (index 8) and limit condition (index 9).
Meaning of the parameters:
M loading (torque) of spring
angular deflection (twisting) of
α spring
torsional stress of the spring
τ material

Leaf springs with constant profile. [14]

Springs based on the principle of long slander beams of rectangular section subjected to
bending. They are used as cantilever springs (fixed at one end), or as simple beams (fixed at
both ends). Springs of rectangular, triangular or trapezoidal shape are used.
Spring design procedure.
1. Select the corresponding design and shape of the spring in lists [14.1, 14.2].

2. Enter the required parameters of the working cycle (working load and spring stroke).
[14.4 - 14.6]

3. Set preliminary dimensions of the spring in the input fields [14.8 - 14.11], alternatively
use one of the design (optimization) functions of the calculation [14.12].

4. Based on the calculated recommended values (green cells) adjust the spring dimensions,
so that the calculated working load and spring stroke best correspond to the required
values.

5. Check the calculated value of safety [14.19] for the designed spring.

6. Check the parameters of the spring working cycle. [14.20]

7. Chapter [17] serves to check the spring subjected to cyclic (fatigue) loading.
Recommendation: The spring deflection should not exceed about 30% of the spring functional
length. In the case of springs with high deflection, the actual deflection values may
considerably differ from the theoretically determined values.
Tip: Detailed information on the calculation of leaf springs can be found in the theoretical
section of help.
14.3 Spring design.
The way of design procedure used in this book allows to define dimensions of a spring with a
certain degree of looseness. Therefore the exact value corresponding to the other parameters of
the spring is calculated in real time for each of the input parameters. These values are displayed
in green fields situated to the right of the input cells. Enter the calculated value in the input box
using the appropriate "<" button.
14.12 Spring optimization.
The controls located in this paragraph serve for starting the design (optimization) functions of
the calculation.
• The spring design for the given ratio L/b is started by moving one of the scroll bars.

• When pressing the appropriate button you will design the spring while keeping the values
of the selected spring dimensions in paragraph [14.3].

When designing the spring the calculation is trying to optimize the dimensions so that the leaf
thickness is as small as possible while keeping the required safety [1.27].
Note: When designing a spring for the given ratio L/b the calculation will select the nearest
suitable leaf thickness out of the preferred series.
14.13 Check data.
This paragraph specifies the results of the strength check of the designed spring. The check is
carried out by comparing the permissible stress of the material used [1.20] with the actual stress
of the fully loaded spring. The resulting level of safety [14.19] should not drop under the
required value [1.27].
Lines [14.17, 14.18] are used to calculate theoretical values of the maximum working load and
spring stroke where the required level of safety for the designed spring will still be met.
Warning: Spring subjected to cyclic load must also be checked for potential fatigue damage –
see chapter [17].
14.20 Parameters of the working cycle.
This paragraph specifies the basic working parameters of the designed spring in the prestressed
(index 1), fully loaded (index 8) and limit condition (index 9).
Meaning of the parameters:
F loading (force) of spring
s spring deflection
σ bending stress of the spring material

Leaf springs with parabolic profile. [15]


Springs based on the principle of long slander beams of rectangular section subjected to
bending. They are used as cantilever springs (fixed at one end), or as simple beams (fixed at
both ends). Usually of rectangular shape, sometimes springs thicker in the middle and at the end
of the leaf are used
Spring design procedure.
1. Set the corresponding design and shape of the spring. [15.1]

2. Enter the required parameters of the working cycle (working load and spring stroke).
[15.3 - 15.5]

3. Set preliminary dimensions of the spring in the input fields [15.7 - 15.11], alternatively
use one of the design (optimization) functions of the calculation [15.12].

4. Based on the calculated recommended values (green cells) adjust the spring dimensions,
so that the calculated working load and spring stroke best correspond to the required
values.

5. Check the calculated value of safety [15.19] for the designed spring.

6. Check the parameters of the spring working cycle. [15.20]

7. Chapter [17] serves to check the spring subjected to cyclic (fatigue) loading.

Recommendation: The spring deflection should not exceed about 30% of the spring functional
length. In the case of springs with high deflection, the actual deflection values may
considerably differ from the theoretically determined values.
Tip: Detailed information on the calculation of leaf springs can be found in the theoretical
section of help.
15.2 Spring design.
The way of design procedure used in this book allows to define dimensions of a spring with a
certain degree of looseness. Therefore the exact value corresponding to the other parameters of
the spring is calculated in real time for each of the input parameters. These values are displayed
in green fields situated to the right of the input cells. Enter the calculated value in the input box
using the appropriate "<" button.
15.12 Spring optimization.
The controls located in this paragraph serve for starting the design (optimization) functions of
the calculation.
• The spring design for the given ratio L/b is started by moving the scroll bar.

• When pressing the appropriate button you will design the spring while keeping the values
of the selected spring dimensions in paragraph [15.2].

When designing the spring the calculation is trying to optimize the dimensions so that the leaf
thickness is as small as possible while keeping the required safety [1.27].
Note: When designing a spring for the given ratio L/b the calculation will select the nearest
suitable leaf thickness out of the preferred series.
15.13 Check data.
This paragraph specifies the results of the strength check of the designed spring. The check is
carried out by comparing the permissible stress of the material used [1.20] with the actual stress
of the fully loaded spring. The resulting level of safety [15.19] should not drop under the
required value [1.27].
Lines [15.17, 15.18] are used to calculate theoretical values of the maximum working load and
spring stroke where the required level of safety for the designed spring will still be met.
Warning: Spring subjected to cyclic load must also be checked for potential fatigue damage –
see chapter [17].
15.20 Parameters of the working cycle.
This paragraph specifies the basic working parameters of the designed spring in the prestressed
(index 1), fully loaded (index 8) and limit condition (index 9).
Meaning of the parameters:
F loading (force) of spring
s spring deflection
σ bending stress of the spring material

Laminated leaf springs. [16]

Springs based on the principle of a bunch of long slander beams of rectangular section subjected
to bending.
Spring design procedure.
1. Select the corresponding shape of the spring leaves in list [16.1].

2. Enter the required parameters of the working cycle (working load and spring stroke).
[16.3 - 16.5]

3. Set preliminary dimensions of the spring in the input fields [16.7 - 16.11], alternatively
use one of the design (optimization) functions of the calculation [16.12].

4. Based on the calculated recommended values (green cells) adjust the spring dimensions,
so that the calculated working load and spring stroke best correspond to the required
values.

5. Check the calculated value of safety [16.19] for the designed spring.

6. Check the parameters of the spring working cycle. [16.20]

7. Chapter [17] serves to check the spring subjected to cyclic (fatigue) loading.

Recommendation: The spring deflection should not exceed about 15% of the spring functional
length. In the case of springs with high deflection, the actual deflection values may
considerably differ from the theoretically determined values.
Note: This calculation does not take into consideration the influence of friction between the
spring leaves.
Tip: Detailed information on the calculation of leaf springs can be found in the theoretical
section of help.
16.2 Spring design.
The way of design procedure used in this book allows to define dimensions of a spring with a
certain degree of looseness. Therefore the exact value corresponding to the other parameters of
the spring is calculated in real time for each of the input parameters. These values are displayed
in green fields situated to the right of the input cells. Enter the calculated value in the input box
using the appropriate "<" button.
16.7 Number of extra full-length leaves.
Spring leaves of full length, rectangular shape with constant profile. These leaves are added to
the spring for two reasons:
• to increase the spring stiffness and load capacity
• they are often ended with hooks to fix the spring

16.12 Spring optimization.


The controls located in this paragraph serve for starting the design (optimization) functions of
the calculation.
• The spring design for the given number of spring leaves and ratio L/b is started by
moving one of the scroll bars.

• When pressing the appropriate button you will design the spring while keeping the values
of the selected spring dimensions in paragraph [16.2].

When designing the spring the calculation is trying to optimize the dimensions so that the leaf
thickness is as small as possible while keeping the required safety [1.27].
Note: When designing a spring for the given ratio L/b the calculation will select the nearest
suitable leaf thickness out of the preferred series.
16.13 Check data.
This paragraph specifies the results of the strength check of the designed spring. The check is
carried out by comparing the permissible stress of the material used [1.20] with the actual stress
of the fully loaded spring. The resulting level of safety [16.19] should not drop under the
required value [1.27].
Lines [16.17, 16.18] are used to calculate theoretical values of the maximum working load and
spring stroke where the required level of safety for the designed spring will still be met.
Warning: Spring subjected to cyclic load must also be checked for potential fatigue damage –
see chapter [17].
16.20 Parameters of the working cycle.
This paragraph specifies the basic working parameters of the designed spring in the prestressed
(index 1), fully loaded (index 8) and limit condition (index 9).
Meaning of the parameters:
F loading (force) of spring
s spring deflection
σ bending stress of the spring material

Check of loading capacity of a spring exposed to fatigue loading.


[17]
This paragraph is designed to carry out the strength check of springs subjected to cyclic (fatigue)
loading, i.e. the springs with the service life requirement higher than 105 of working cycles. The
check is carried out by comparing the permissible stress of the material used [17.8] with the
actual stress of a fully loaded spring [17.4].
Check procedure
1. Select the appropriate type of the spring in list [17.1].

2. Choose the desired spring service life [17.2]

3. Set the ultimate fatigue strength of the spring material [17.6]

4. Check the level of safety of the designed spring against the fatigue damage [17.10]

If the spring does not satisfy the endurance check, repeat its design while adhering to the
following recommendations:
• use a material with the highest possible strength, suitable for dynamic loading (see [1.7])

• design the spring with higher (overdesigned) level of static safety [1.27]

• design the spring with as small a difference between the maximum and minimum loading
as possible

17.2 Desired service life of the spring.


Two fields of fatigue loading of springs can be distinguished with springs exposed to fatigue
loading. In the first field, with limited service life of springs (lower than approx. 107 working
cycles, the fatigue strength of the spring decreases with an increasing number of working cycles.
In the field of unlimited service life (the desired service life of the spring is higher than 107
working cycles), the fatigue limit of the material and thus the strength of the spring remains
approximately constant.
17.6 Ultimate fatigue strength.
Set the maximum permissible stress of the spring material for infinite life and zero-to-maximum
stress fluctuation. If the check box to the right of the input field is selected, the minimum value
of fatigue strength specified for the selected material will be set automatically here [1.6] as well
as the selected surface treatment of the spring [1.26].
Warning: Fatigue strength is usually dependent not only on the material properties but also on
the size of the part subjected to stress. Fatigue strength grows with decreasing
dimensions of the part. This is why in the case of final calculations we recommend
specifying the material strength taking account of the spring dimensions according
to the bill of material or the manufacturer’s specifications.
17.8 Fatigue strength of the spring for the given loading.
Determination of the maximum fatigue strength of the spring is based on the ultimate fatigue
strength of the chosen material and the given course of loading of the spring using a Goodman's
fatigue diagram.
17.9 Recommended minimum level of safety.
Recommended level of safety for the selected material [1.6] is estimated based on the
operational conditions defined in paragraph [1.21].
Note: The value specified here does not incorporate some other factors such as accuracy and
reliability of the input information, significance of the equipment, production quality,
etc.

Setting calculations, change the language.


Information on setting of calculation parameters and setting of the language can be found in the
document "Setting calculations, change the language".

Workbook modifications (calculation).


General information on how to modify and extend calculation workbooks is mentioned in the
document "Workbook (calculation) modifications".

http://hindicomics.com/2009/01/kaliyug/#more-49
http://lyrics.mywebdunia.com/2008/04/24/1209013989910.html?

http://www.scribd.com/doc/5131949/Hindi-Story-Amrita