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Summary Article 1 : obesity; cause, risk factors and prevention .

Obesity Obesity, in simple term is having a high proportion of body fat. Fat is important for storing g energy and insulating your body. Obesity puts you at greater risk of developing high blood pressure, diabetes and many other serious health problems. Weight loss is usually possible through dietary changes, increased physical activity and behavior modification. -

For people who don't respond to these lifestyle changes, other more involved obesity treatments

These include prescription medications and weight-loss surgery

Cause
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The following factors usually working in combination can contribute to weight gain and obesity.

Diet - Regular consumption of high-calorie foods, such as fast foods, or increasing their portion sizes contributes to weight gain - Loading up on soft drinks, candy and desserts also promotes weight gain - eating away from home also increases calorie intake.

Inactivity - Sedentary people are more likely to gain weight because they don't burn calories through physical activities.

Quitting smoking - Smokers tend to gain weight after quitting - When smokers stop, they burn fewer calories - Smoking also affects taste; quitting smoking makes food taste and smell better.

Pregnancy - some women find this weight difficult to lose after the baby is born This weight gain may contribute to the development of obesity in women.

Certain medications - Corticosteroids and tricyclic antidepressants, in particular, can lead to weight gain

Medical problems - obesity can be traced to a medical cause, such as low thyroid function or excess production of hormones by the adrenal glands (Cushing's syndrome) - A low metabolic rate is unlikely to cause obesity - In addition, it's unclear whether polycystic ovarian syndrome contributes to obesity.

Risk Factor Factors that increase your risk of obesity include


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Genetics - Genetics may also play a role in how efficiently your body converts food into energy and how your body burns calories during exercise

Family history - If one or both of your parents are obese, your chances of being obese are greater

Age - As you get older, you tend to be less active - lower muscle mass leads to a decrease in metabolism - If you don't decrease your caloric intake as you age, you'll likely gain weight.

Sex - Women are more likely to be obese than are men - Women have less muscle mass and tend to burn fewer calories at rest than men do.

When to seek medical advices

A threefold approach can help determine whether you need to lose weight for medical reasons;
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Body mass index (BMI). The BMI is a formula that uses weight and height to estimate body fat and health risks - If your BMI is between 18.5 and 24.9, you're considered in a healthy weight range for your height - If your BMI is between 25 and 29.9, you're considered overweight. And, if the figure is 30 or greater

Waist measurement - If you carry most of your fat around waist or upper body, you may be referred to as apple shaped - If you carry most of your fat around your hips and thighs or lower body, you may be referred to as pear shaped - a potbelly or spare tire - you carry more fat in and around your abdominal organs Women's waist circumference measurements should be less than 35 inches Men's should be less than 40 inches

Medical history - You may benefit from weight loss if you have other health conditions, such as high blood pressure or diabetes - , if you have a family history of obesity, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, high blood pressure or sleep apnea, you may be at increased risk of developing weight-related complications

If your BMI is 30 or more, you're considered obese - If your BMI is between 25 and 29.9 or your waist measurement exceeds the healthy guidelines - Losing weight will improve your health and reduce your risk of weight-related illnesses Talk to your doctor about starting a weight-loss plan.

Prevention The steps to prevent weight gain are the same as the steps to lose weight Exercise regularly - Studies suggest that it takes 30 to 60 minutes of moderately intense physical activity daily to keep the pounds off - Moderately intense physical activities include fast walking and swimming. Enjoy healthy meals and snacks - Keep saturated fat low and limit sweets and alcohol. Remember that no one food offers all the nutrients you need - Choose a variety of foods throughout the day - enjoy small amounts of high-fat, high-calorie foods on occasion - choose foods that promote a healthy weight and good health more often than you choose foods that don't. Know and avoid the food traps that cause you to eat - The best way to identify food traps and emotionally triggered eating is to keep a journal - write down what you eat, how much you eat, when you eat, how you're feeling and how hungry you are - This will help you understand and stay in control of your eating behaviors Monitor your weight regularly - Monitoring your weight can tell you whether your efforts are working and can help you detect small weight gains before they become larger Be consistent - Sticking to your healthy-weight plan. If you really want to prevent weight gain, the best approach is to focus on lifestyle changes and develop an eating plan that's enjoyable, yet healthy and low in calories

Article 2 Children care : Obesity Baby fat overweight children are often teased and left out activities they suffer low self-esteem, which makes fighting the problem even more difficult fat children run a high risk of becoming fat adult, putting them at long term risk such medical complications a high blood pressure, diabetes and heart disease. Formal definition pg childhood obesity a child is considered obese of their weight is more than 20 percent above the average for children the same age, sex and height.

What causes of childhood obesity? Weight problems run in families, by one formulation, a child with one obese parent stands of 40 percent chance of becoming obese a child with two parents stands an 80 percent chance poor eating habits and distorted attitude towards food also may increase the tendency to become over weight - lack of physical activity excessive television time and computer game are bad because they lead of exercise and frequent snacking stress in the home trigger overeating harsh discipline, sibling rivalry and strife between parents can lead to feeling of insecurity that some children assuage with excess food.

When should I suspect that my child is becoming obese? By comparing the child to peers and checking the childs growth record if weight is consistently in a much higher percentile than height, the child may be

developing a problem be careful not to mistake the normal roundness of infancy developing weight problem. If you have concerns, share them with your pediatrician.

Tips for slowing weight gain Switching to skim milk (check with your doctor first if the child is under two) Avoiding fried food Limiting the use of butter and margarine Avoiding processed bakes good such as cookies, cakes and doughnuts. Avoiding snack food, such as chips Limiting consumption of fruit juice to three or four ounces per day. Serving fresh fruit instead of juice, apple sauce and dried fruit Presenting healthful foods in fun and attractive ways Using less than a tablespoon of peanut butter per sandwich Increasing the childs level of physical activity, particularly between hours of three and six p.m. when most overeating takes places Avoiding use of food as a reward or withholding of food as punishment.

Article 3: First Comes Love, Then Comes Obesity? New research show that within a few short years of getting hitched, married individual are twice as likely to become obese as are people who are merely dating. Research tracked changes over a handful of years in the weight and relationship status of 6,949 individuals, and their finding dont bode well for commitment not only are married people more likely to become obese those are who just dating, but young people who move in with a boyfriend or girlfriend tend to pack on the pounds too. Unmarried women who have been living eighth their sweeties or five years or less run 63% increased risk of obesity. What about unmarried men? On average, they have no increased risk during cohabitation. The longer she lived with romantic partner, the more likely she was to keep putting on weight the risk of obesity among guys married an unmarried spike only between the first and second years of living together. Mealtime may become more important than it was when the people were living alone. Scientist has known for a while that having a close relationship with an obese person, whether a friend or a spouse makes you more likely to become obese. Published a study last year that showed if one spouse participants in a weightloss program, the unrolled spouse tends to lose about 5 lb. Couples dont have live chubby ever after - studies show that marriage convey some health benefits, like living longer and being more likely to quit smoking.

Article 4: Weight-Loss Surgery Can Break Obesity Cycle: Study Mothers who have weight-loss surgery before pregnancy, may have thinner children Weight-loss surgery can break the "obesity cycle," in which obese mothers will have children who are likely to be obese Researchers found that women who had weight-loss surgery before becoming pregnant had children who were less likely to be heavy when compared with siblings who were born before the weight-loss surgery The study focused on women who underwent a weight-loss procedure called biliopancreatic diversion before becoming pregnant. The study authors found that children who were born after their mother's weightloss surgery had lower birth weight and waist circumference and were three times less likely to become severely obese than their older siblings. The younger siblings also had improved cardiovascular markers, including reduced insulin resistance and lower cholesterol the research found. Previous studies of obese pregnant women have shown that obesity and its related health problems can be passed on to children, which indicates that the intrauterine environment may determine whether a child is destined for obesity. intrauterine environment may be more important than genes and the postnatal environment when it comes to the association between maternal obesity and childhood obesity Any medical or surgical treatment to reduce obesity and existing metabolic disorders before pregnancy can be an investment in the life of future offspring.