# 6.

3 State Space and the Transfer Function
The basic state equations are
( )
0
( ), 0 , t · · & x Ax +Bf x x
(6.3.1 a)
( ) ( ) t t · + y Cx Df
. (6.3.1 b)
We have since established the solution:
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
1 1
0 s s s s
− −

· − + − X I A x I A BF . (6.3.2)
To establish a transfer function, we disreard initial conditions, so !q. (6.3.2) beco"es
( ) ( ) ( )
1
s s s

· − X I A BF .
We also have deter"ined the transition "atri# in the \$a%lace do"ain
( ) ( )
1
s s

Φ · − I A , (6.3.3)
so
( ) ( ) ( ) s s s · Φ X BF
&ow ' ta(e !q. (6.3.1 b) into the \$a%lace do"ain
( ) ( ) ( ) s s s · + Y CX DF
,
which ' can write as
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) s s s s s s · Φ + · Φ + 1
¸ ]
Y C BF DF C B D F
.
)o we conclude that the transfer function is
( ) ( ) s s · Φ + C B D
. (6.3.*)
+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
!xa"p#e 6.3.\$
,ind the transfer function usin state s%ace "ethods of the 2
nd
order s-ste" that we
loo(ed at %reviousl-:
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
2
2
3 2
d y t dy t
y t f t
dt dt
+ + · .
)olution
We found that .
( )
0
( ), 0 , t · · · & x Ax +Bf x x y Cx
[ ] [ ]
0 1 0
, , 1 0 , 0
2 3 1
1 1
· · · ·
1 1
− −
¸ ] ¸ ]
A B C D
[ ]
( ) ( )
1
3 1
1
2 1 2
s
s
s s s

+ 1
·
1
− + +
¸ ]
I % A
.
)o
6.3 Transfer ,unction 3./.201* 1
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
[ ]
( ) ( )
[ ]
( ) ( )
3 1 0
1
1 0
2 1 1 2
1
1 1
1 0 ,
1 2 1 2
s s
s
s s s
s s s s s
· Φ +
+ 1 1
·
1 1
− + +
¸ ] ¸ ]
1
· ·
1
+ + + +
¸ ]
C B D
which we could have easil- seen fro" the differential equation itself.
+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
!xa"p#e 6.3.&
,ind the transfer function of the circuit with two in%uts in the e#a"%le of %ae 0
assu"in that onl-
inA
V
as the in%ut to the s-ste" and
0
inB
V ·
)olution.
1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2
2
3 2
2 2 2 2 3 2
1 1 1 1 1
0
, ,
1
1 1 1
0
inA
inB
RC v V C R R R C
v V
R C
R C C R R C
1 ¸ _ − 1
+
1 ÷
1
1 1
¸ ,
1
1
· · · ·
1 1
1
1

¸ ] ¸ ]
+ 1
1
1 ¸ ]
¸ ]
in
' A B '
[ ] [ ]
1
2
2
0 1 0 1
inA
out inB
inB
v v
v v v
v v
1 1
· − · + −
1 1
¸ ] ¸ ]
[ ] [ ] 0 1 , 0 1 · · − C D
and we want
( ) ( ) s s · Φ + C B D
.
' will rewrite "atri# 1 as
11 12
21 22
a a
a a
1
·
1
¸ ]
A
( )
( ) ( )
1
11 12 22 12
21 22 21 11 11 21 12
1
s a a s a a
s
a s a a s a s a s a a a

− − − 1 1
Φ · ·
1 1
− − − − − −
¸ ] ¸ ]
\$oo( onl- at the %roduct
( )
( ) ( )
[ ]
21 11
11 21 12
1
s a s a
s a s a a a
Φ · −
− − −
C B
)ince we are onl- interested in the in%ut
inA
V
, we can set the ter"s %ertainin to
inB
V
to be
2ero and write
6.3 Transfer ,unction 3./.201* 2
( )
( ) ( )
[ ]
( ) ( )
1 1 21 11
11 21 12
21
11 21 12 1 1
1
0
1
0 0
1
0
RC s a s a
s a s a a a
a
s a s a a a RC
1
1
Φ · −
1
− − −
1
¸ ]
1
·
1
− − −
¸ ]
C B
&ow our transfer functionis
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
[ ]
21
11 21 12 1 1
1
0 0 1
a
s s
s a s a a a RC
1
· Φ + · + −
1
− − −
¸ ]
C B D
.
)ince we are onl- interested in the in%ut due to
inA
V
,
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
21
1 1 11 21 12
1 a
s s
RC s a s a a a
· Φ + ·
− − −
C B D
+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
!xercises
6.3.1 !#%lain how -ou would esti"ate a transfer function for the s-ste" of %roble"
6.2.1.
6.3.2 3onsider a linear continuous+ti"e s-ste" with described b-
( ) ( )
( )
( )
( )
2
2
6 0 2
d y t dy t df t
y t f t
dt dt dt
+ + · +
(a) !#%ress this is state s%ace usin the %hase variable canonical for".
(b) ,ind the \$a%lace do"ain transition "atri#.
(c) ,ind the s-ste" transfer function usin the state s%ace for"ula. 4oes it aree with
what -ou would et b- ta(in the oriinal equation into the \$a%lace do"ain5
6.3 Transfer ,unction 3./.201* 3