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Chapter- 5 Oil Refining

sulfur or acid products which are very corrosive for metals That is why the crude oils must be purified and transformed into products having an almost constant composition. well adapted to their use.Refining Crude Oil Why do we need to refine the crude oil? Why can’t we build engines that run on crude oil? We need to refine the crude oil because • Crude oil is an unstable mixture of several hydrocarbons in varying quantities according to the density of the products • There is not one type of crude oil but a multitude of different crudes • Different crudes contain dissolved gases. These transformations are carried out in refineries. Let’s learn more about the refining and refineries… .

Introduction to Petroleum Refinery A refinery is a factory. Fuel oil. plastics and other polymers which are used in the manufacturing of fabrics such as silk. A typical refinery costs billions of dollars to build and millions more to maintain A refinery runs twenty-four hours a day. Gasoline. Typical refinery products are LPG. a refinery takes crude oil and turns it into gasoline and hundreds of other useful products. Paraffin wax. Workers ride bicycles to move from place to place inside the complex. Lubricating oil. 365 days a year and requires a large number of employees to run. Just as a paper mill turns lumber into paper. . A refinery can occupy as much land as several hundred football fields. Asphalt and Tar Petroleum is also the raw material for products such as fertilizers. pesticides. Diesel. Kerosene.

b) Conversion (Cracking) and c) Reforming d) Blending & Treatment Crude oil contains many components which differ in boiling points. Moreover crude oil can be categorized under •Light •Heavy (Asphaltic) •Sweet (Non-sulfurous-less than 1% of sulfur) •Sour (Sulfurous-more than 1% of sulfur)) Crude oil processing consists of two parts Primary Processing.Output is commercial products which are used by us Crude Oil Primary Processing Raw Products Secondary Processing Commercial Products Separation Conversion . All refineries perform four basic steps: a) Separation (Distillation). relative solubility.Output is raw (primary) products Secondary Processing. which then are selectively reconfigured into new products. refining breaks crude oil down into its various components.What does refining actually do? Essentially.

The lightest fractions.http://www. a) Atmospheric distillation b) Vacuum Distillation Source.doe.html .eia. including gasoline and liquid petroleum gas (LPG). separate lower down.) Distillation is done using two methods. the liquids and vapors separate into components or fractions according to weight and boiling point.Primary Processing-Separation Primary processing involves distillation at atmospheric pressure or under vacuum. while the heaviest fractions with the highest boiling points settle at the bottom. vaporize and rise to the top of the tower. where they condense back to liquids. including kerosene and diesel oil distillates. Inside the towers. Medium weight liquids. stay in the middle. Distillation causes separation of breaking up of crude oil into various petrochemicals. (Heavier called gas oils.

into high-octane gasoline components. This transformation takes place during conversion stage. The most widely used conversion method is called cracking because it uses heat and pressure to "crack" heavy hydrocarbon molecules into lighter ones.eia. heat exchangers and other vessels. The process. skinny towers that loom above other refinery structures. Reforming uses heat. A cracking unit consists of one or more tall. We’ll learn more about these processes Source. instead of splitting molecules. horizontal vessels and tall. Alkylation’s. a light. relatively low-value fraction. makes gasoline components by combining some of the gaseous byproducts of cracking. which essentially is cracking in reverse.Secondary Processing-Conversion Primary products require further adjustment of chemical composition in order to become suitable for sale or petrochemical processing. Other refinery Conversion is directed towards maximum gasoline production Cracking unit Cracking is not the only form of conversion.html . rearrange them to add value.doe. for example. takes place in a series of large. thick-walled. bullet-shaped reactors and a network of furnaces. moderate pressure and catalysts to turn naphtha.http://www.

oil is cracked in the presence of a finely divided catalyst which is maintained in an aerated or fluidized state by the oil vapors.Secondary Processing-Conversion Some of the conversion processes are shown below VISBREAKING A mild form of thermal cracking. The heated charge (typically residuum from atmospheric distillation towers) is transferred to large coke drums which provide the long residence time needed to allow the cracking reactions to proceed to completion. significantly lowers the viscosity of heavy crude-oil residue without affecting the boiling point range. FLUID CATALYTIC CRACKING HYDROCRACKING Hydrocracking is a two-stage process combining catalytic cracking and hydrogenation. wherein heavier feedstocks are cracked in the presence of hydrogen to produce more desirable products. DELAYED COKING .

Reforming Reforming is another process designed to increase the volume of gasoline that can be produced from a barrel of crude oil. such as whether the gasoline will be used at high altitudes. but their structure is generally more complex. To make gasoline. For example. Among the variables that determine the blend are octane level.Secondary Processing. Impurities like Sulfur are also removed to make Gasoline as clean as possible . Hydrocarbons in the Naptha (another petroleum byproduct) stream have roughly the same number of carbon atoms as those in gasoline. refinery technicians carefully combine a variety of streams from the processing units. vapor pressure ratings and special considerations. Reforming rearranges Naptha hydrocarbons into Gasoline molecules Blending & Treatment The finishing touches occur during the final treatment.

Source. However that would also mean something else will be produced less. For example.Some More About Refinery To Summarize every barrel of crude holds remarkable potential. It provides the building blocks for countless products we depend on every day. it gets bigger after it is popped.http://www.html#How%20used . If you are still wondering how much of what is produced here is a general breakup of the quantity of petroleum products produced in a refinery. This gain from processing the crude oil is similar to what happens to popcorn.eia. the same barrel can be processed to yield more heating oil in winter. Bottled Gas Petrol Chemical Works Heavy Fuel Oil Jet Fuel Jet Fuel Diesel Fuel & Heating Oil Gasoline Diesel Fuel Lubricating Oil Wax Fuel Oil Power Station Tar (bitumen ) for roads Other Products Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) Don’t be surprised to know that a barrel of crude oil after refining will provide slightly more than 1 barrel of petroleum products. You can see below that petroleum in its more refined form contribute heavily to the modern However the product mix can be changed as needed.

South Korea . 660.000 bpd •Mumbai Refinery (HPCL).000 bpd •Guwahati Refinery (IOC). 156.000 bpd •Numaligarh Refinery (NRL).940.000 bpd In all there are 19 refineries in India BPD. Singapore .000 bpd •Bongaigaon Refinery(BRPL). 190. Singapore . 107.000 bpd •Reliance II. South Korea .580.Barrel Per Day . 150. 58.000 bpd •Vizag Refinery (HPCL). India (proposed) .000 bpd •Barauni Refinery (IOC). 240.000 bpd •Panipat Refinery (IOC).000 bpd World's Largest Refineries •Paraguana Refining.000 bpd •GS Caltex. 146.Some facts About Refinery Types of refinery •Topping – CDU •Hydroskimming – CDU + Reformer •Cracking – CDU + Cracker •Coking – CDU + Cracker + Coker Some of the refineries we may not have heard of In India •Haldia Refinery (IOC) 116.000 bpd •S-Oil. Baytown.000 bpd •Jamnagar Refinery (RIL). Virgin Islands . USA .817.000 bpd •Mathura Refinery (IOC).000 bpd •Gujrat Refinery(IOC). 48.661.000 bpd •Manali Refinery (CPCL). 135. 116.493. South Korea . USA . 68.520.000 bpd •Hovensa LLC. Baton Rouge.000 bpd •Kochi Refinery.557.000 bpd •Reliance I.000 bpd •Exxon Mobil. Venezuela .500 bpd •Shell Eastern.495.000 bpd •Mumbai Refinery (BPCL).000 bpd •Mangalore Refinery (MRPL).000 bpd •Digboi Refinery(IOC).605.458. 20.000 bpd •Exxon Mobil. India .000 bpd •Exxon Mobil.650. 13.000 bpd •SK Corporation. 185.

Some more About Refinery •India’s first oil refinery is Digboi Refinery. •World’s first oil refinery was set up in Poland •Kerosene is also called as Paraffin Oil •Fuel used in a space shuttle is Liquid Oxygen •LPG is called as both Liquid Petroleum Gas Or Liquefied Petroleum Gas •Fuel used in an aircraft is Kerosene .

Exercise Find the best match of terms in column A & B A Jamnagar LPG & Naptha Answer Biggest refinery in India B First refinery in India Petroleum byproducts Impurity Hydrocracking Digboi Refinery Conversion Process Commercial Products First refinery in India Biggest refinery in India Sulfur Secondary Processing Impurity Commercial Products Petroleum byproducts Conversion Process .