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, Rio De Janeiro, Brazil
Experimental Evaluation of Vortex Induced Vibration Response of Straked Pipes in Tandem Arrangements
Matthew Blumberg 2H Offshore Engineering Perth, WA, Australia Elizabeth Tellier 2H Offshore Engineering Perth, WA, Australia
Dhyanjyoti Deka 2H Offshore Inc Houston, TX, USA
Tongming Zhou The University of Western Australia Perth, WA, Australia
ABSTRACT Vortex induced vibration (VIV) due to steady current flow can be a significant driver in the design of offshore riser systems, affecting riser global configuration, component details and overall subsea architecture. Helical strakes are known to reduce VIV but the degree of effectiveness can vary considerably depending on strake pitch, fin height and more importantly, current flow regime. In addition, the amplitude of VIV and the effectiveness of VIV suppression strakes depends on the inclination of flow to the riser (incidence angle) and presence of wake effects from adjacent risers. Test and field data regarding suppression of riser VIV by strakes is not extensively available in the public domain. This is primarily due to the proprietary nature of the tests conducted in industry. In this paper, a program of testing is devised to better understand strake effectiveness as a function of current incidence angle and the presence of adjacent risers. Experiments have been conducted on single and tandem pipe arrangements in air in order to evaluate strake suppression efficiency. Aluminium cylinders are tested in a wind tunnel in the structures laboratory of The University of Western Australia (UWA). Two sets of experiments are conducted: the first to evaluate cylinder VIV response at angles of incidence ranging from 30 to 90 degrees and the second to evaluate VIV response of the downstream pipe in a dual pipe arrangement with varying spacing between the pipes. In both cases the bare cylinders are first tested at varying flow speeds. Helical strakes are then added to the single cylinder, and downstream cylinder
in the tandem pipe test, and the vibration response is recorded at varying flow speeds. From the experimentation, it can be seen that downstream cylinder motions are amplified by wake induced instability. This phenomenon is of particular concern for tightly spaced top-tensioned risers (TTR) in wellbays of tension leg platforms (TLP) and deep draft floaters. The VIV motion of the downstream, bare, wake-affected pipe, is magnified to approximately 1.3-2 times the motion of a single bare pipe. When strakes are added to the downstream cylinder, the magnification factor of the downstream cylinder response is largely increased due to the wake of the upstream bare cylinder. However, the actual VIV motions of the downstream cylinder are largely reduced when strakes are incorporated. The present work demonstrates that helical strakes provide an effective means of suppressing vortex induced vibrations of risers in riser arrays, though the degree of effectiveness is reduced in a downstream tubular compared to suppression levels for single pipes. INTRODUCTION Vortex shedding occurs when fluid flow passes over a bluff body. This occurs at the vortex shedding frequency, and can lead to potentially severe riser fatigue from repeated cyclic loads at the riser natural frequency. A common method of suppressing vortices is the installation of helical strakes. Strakes act by disrupting the correlation of the fluid forces
Copyright © 2012 by ASME
width of 0. The experimental results provided in this paper evaluate strake effectiveness in various incident angles of flow and also in the wake of an upstream tubular. This magnification is potentially caused by wake effects. The single pipe experiments are performed in order to confirm the efficiency of the helical strakes. significant amounts of data are not available in the public domain. The wind tunnel flow is anticlockwise. However. 60 and 75 degrees to the flow Bare cylinder downstream of another fixed bare cylinder (both perpendicular to the flow) Straked cylinder downstream of a fixed bare cylinder (both perpendicular to the flow) Table 1 –Testing Matrix EXPERIMENTAL METHODOLOGY Wind Tunnel The VIV research is undertaken in a wind tunnel located in the structures laboratory of the Civil and Mechanical Engineering Building at the University of Western Australia. Figure 1 – Plan View of Wind Tunnel Pipe Material and Dimensions The bare cylinder in the experiment is made of polished aluminium. Both the downstream strake efficiency and the downstream vibration amplification are measured. both perpendicular to the flow and at differing angles to the flow. The tandem pipe experiments aim to look at how the presence of an upstream pipe affects the vibration of a downstream pipe at varying separation distances. This is particularly true if one wants to obtain information on specialized experiments such as VIV suppression efficiency in tandem pipe arrangements. The VIV suppressing device is made using 3mm thick polyvinyl chloride (PVC).12D. The paper explains the need to reduce VIV to cope with lower tensions. PVC is used because it is very easy to mould around the pipe.495kg (strake total weight is 0. The experiment has 4 distinct parts.  found that the amplitude of vibration of the downstream riser is magnified by a factor of 210 when compared with the upstream riser. identical to the one described above. While undertaking an experiment involving a straked multi pipe system. Allen et al. Similarly.along the length of the structure and hence reducing the strength and frequency of the vortices . The three start strakes are rectangular in shape. NOMENCLATURE VIV – Vortex Induced Vibration UWA – The University of Western Australia PVC– Polyvinyl Chloride LVDT – Linear Variable Differential Transformer GoM – Gulf of Mexico TTR – Top Tensioned Riser TLP – Tension Leg Platform WIO – Wake Induced Oscillations FFT – Fast Fourier Transformation OBJECTIVE OF UWA EXPERIMENTATION The objectives of the experiments are to provide an understanding of the suppression mechanism of helical strakes for varying flow conditions and for pipes in a tandem arrangement.035kg. Test No. The strakes are installed on the bare cylinder. 45. which are summarized in the test matrix in Table 1. has sufficient stiffness. and all experimentation is done in the low speed section. This aspect is of particular importance to inclined offshore riser systems as current direction is continuously changing with time. The geometry of the straked cylinder is shown below in Figure 2. The mass of the bare cylinder is 3. and strong durability. 2 Copyright © 2012 by ASME . The weight of the straked pipe is 3. with a diameter of 80mm. It is 1600mm in length. Extensive research regarding VIV suppression has been carried out in both academia and the offshore oil and gas industry. Tightly spaced top tensioned risers are common in the offshore industry. 1 2 3 4 Test Set Up Single bare and straked cylinders (perpendicular to the flow) Single bare and straked cylinders at different angles of 30. A plan view of the wind tunnel is shown below in Figure 1. there is limited test data to prove the effectiveness of strakes at varying angles of flow incidence. with a height of 0. due to the proprietary nature of these tests.04D and a pitch length of 10D. which makes wake induced motion amplification an important interference and fatigue concern. and other issues such as clashing between multiple risers.46kg).
the A-frames need to be repositioned. the bare or straked pipes are mounted onto two identical A-frames with four identical springs. 2D. as shown in Figure 3. Figure 4 shows the straked cylinder at an incidence angle of 60 degrees to incoming flow.Straked Pipe at an Incidence Angle of 90-α 3 Copyright © 2012 by ASME . When subjected to a transverse air flow. In order to model the systems. 3D and 4D away from a fixed upstream bare cylinder. In the figure α=30 degrees. First. and allows it to vibrate in the crossflow direction. In order to install cylinders working in tandem. a downstream bare cylinder is tested at distances of 1. Following this. while the upstream cylinder is fixed to two metal poles at varied distances away from the frames. Figure 5 shows the straked and bare cylinder in a tandem arrangement. the cylinder mounted to the A-frame vibrates vertically as the high spring stiffness effectively fixes the cylinder horizontally. with a gap between them of S=2D.Figure 2 – Pipe Fitted with Helical Strakes Experimental Setup Two different experiments are set up in order to evaluate strake efficiency. This involves dismantling the horizontal part of the frame. and then reassembling it onto the top of the A-frame as shown in Figure 4. the downstream cylinder is flexibly mounted onto the A-frame. hence by fixing the cylinder in 1 degree of freedom.5D. at similar separation distances. Figure 3 – Base Case Straked Pipe Perpendicular to the Flow Figure 4. a downstream straked cylinder is tested in tandem with the fixed upstream bare cylinder. the results will act as an indication of behaviour more than as a definitive response mechanism. The A-frame is positioned to account for angles of incidence ranging from 30 degrees to 90 degrees. The base case test is set up for an incidence angle of 90 degrees. Risers have 2 degrees of freedom. For the inclined pipe experiments.
Performing a fast fourier transformation (FFT) of the displacements shown in Figure 7. VIV suppression response at right angles to the flow is in line with previous work . using a range of reduced velocities.4Hz.Limitations of Experiment The tests are done in air in the wind tunnel. VIV suppression of 99% found in this study. . The straked cylinder results.  found that when the flow is perpendicular to the pipe. Hatsuo et al. The wind speed measured is all normal to the pipe and is used in all inclined and tandem experiments presented.5D to 4D.1D. The structural damping factor is calculated to be 0. Vibrations of approximately 10mm in amplitude are observed. The experimentation considers a single degree of freedom. Measurement Equipment and Data Acquisition The displacement of the various pipes on the A-frame is recorded using linear variable differential transformers (LVDT) to record displacement. Figure 6 – LVDTs Taped to the A-Frame 4 Copyright © 2012 by ASME . The LVDTs are located 140mm above and below the top of the cylinder.5mm. divided by its diameter. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS Figure 5 – Tandem Pipe Arrangement with Gap of S (Note: Straked Cylinder is Downstream) Single Pipes – Perpendicular to Flow The response of the bare cylinder in a perpendicular flow of 3m/s is recorded using LVDTs. Once the vibrations stabilize. the dominating response frequency is found to be 6. which is limited as risers respond in multiple degrees of freedom. The experiments in air aim to be a comparison of suppression level. which is installed on the cylinder. picks up the distance away from the LVDTs. A flow of 3 m/s corresponds to a Reynold’s number of approximately 15. The displacement of the straked cylinder.  tested strakes with a pitch height of 0. are not as readily available as the bare cylinder results. It is observed that the vibrations require 55s to stabilize. under the same flow velocity and also perpendicular to the flow. Using a pitot-static tube the wind speed in the low speed section of the wind tunnel is measured. is shown in Figure 9.2D and a pitch length of 10D. and found VIV suppression to be 97%. The wind speed is directly proportional to the frequency of the fan controller of the wind tunnel. hence the experimental results are more indicative than definitive estimates of behaviour. A comparison between the straked pipe response and the bare pipe response. VIV is reduced by approximately 96% by the strakes with a pitch height of 0. The figure shows that the amplitude of vibration is 0. when the flow is at a right angle to the cylinder. a 20 second test is performed to illustrate a constant level of vibration. A cardboard datum. Reduced velocity is the wind velocity normalized by the diameter of the pipe and its natural frequency. The transient section of the vibration plot is not shown here. and a pitch length of 5D.000813. which are necessary to compare VIV suppression. The vertical axis shows normalised vibration amplitude. Data from the LVDTs is recorded using software called DigiDAQ. is in line with previously reported results. which is the vibration amplitude of the pipe. The support equipment will block the flow but this should be relatively insignificant. is shown in Figure 8. The spacings considered in the tandem pipe arrangements range from 1. Hence. Korkischko et al. which will lead to a smaller lock-in region due to added mass effects. Strake efficiency is calculated to be approximately 99%. whereas typical spacing between risers in an array of TTRs can vary from 6D to 12D depending on the wellbay layout. This is shown in Figure 7. The LVDTs are shown below in Figure 6.000 which is in the sub-critical zone.
the oscillations have almost been completely suppressed. as the incidence angle (angle between the flow direction and cylinder) reduces. The data which is obtained for this experiment is in line with data from the aforementioned work by Korkischko et al.4%. which explains differences in reduced velocity.36 0. Bare pipe risers are known to experience reduced velocities in the range of 4 to 6. 60 and 75 degrees are considered. However.8 30 degrees 0.Varying Angles of Incidence Due to the variability of flow direction in the field. The experimentation is done in air and with 1 degree of freedom.  further support the present experimental results. Incidence angles of 30.52 0.52 0. Other literature by Brankovic and Bearman  and Trim et al. it is important to test the effectiveness of helical strakes with varying incidence angles.Figure 7 – 20 Second Stability Test for Bare Cylinder at U=3m/s summarized in Table 2.8%. The corresponding results are 5 Copyright © 2012 by ASME . the lock-in region becomes more defined for the straked cylinder responses. Max Max Normalised Normalised VIV Incidence Displacement Displacement Reduction of Bare Angle of Straked (%) Cylinder Cylinder (A/D) (A/D) 90 degrees 0. 45. and presented in Figure 10 to Figure 13.006 98. For the higher incidence angles.07 85. It is noted that the reduced velocity throughout the single pipe experiments is between 6 and 7.4 60 degrees 0.52. using similar strake dimensions. The results show that the strakes are effective at suppressing vibrations at different angles. At an incidence angle of 60 degrees the results veer slightly away from the trend as the maximum normalized displacement amplitude of the bare cylinder increases up to 0.11 71. while at a 90 degree incidence angle VIV suppression is 98.8 75 degrees 0.4 Table 2 – VIV Reduction at Various Incidence Angles Figure 8 – Vibration Amplitude for Straked Cylinder at U=3m/s Figure 9 – Comparison of Straked and Bare Cylinder VIV Amplitude with Cylinders Perpendicular to the Flow Single Pipes . As the incidence angle decreases and the flow is more slanted with respect to the pipe. possibly due to interference in the laboratory.8 45 degrees 0.11 69.11 78. . All straked cylinders tested at different incidence angles demonstrate a response that starts with a similar reduced velocity to the equivalent bare cylinders but then only starts vibrating at a higher reduced velocity. At a 30 degree incidence angle VIV suppression is 69. the level of VIV suppression reduces.39 0.48 0.
Comparison of Bare and Straked Cylinder Vibration Amplitude with an Incidence Angle of 60 degrees Figure 12 .52. A widely seen example of a tandem pipe arrangement is the production TTR and drilling riser wellbay arrangements in TLPs and spars. the strake efficiency is lower than the single pipe case (99%). and its vibrations are measured. as the distance between the two cylinders is increased.5% for 1. The second phase of the experiments examines the effectiveness of strakes on the downstream riser when two cylinders are in a tandem arrangement.Figure 10 – Comparison of Bare and Straked Cylinder Vibration Amplitude with an Incidence Angle of 75 degrees Figure 13 .5D spacing. and the downstream cylinder vibrations are measured. 2D. the tandem straked pipe VIV amplitudes are compared with the perpendicular single bare pipe VIV 6 Copyright © 2012 by ASME . the downstream cylinder displacement is 85% higher than the single bare pipe case.Comparison of Bare and Straked Cylinder Vibration Amplitude with an Incidence Angle of 45 degrees Tandem Pipes In the offshore industry. Other examples are closely spaced hybrid riser towers and catenary risers. the downstream tubular displacement increases. The downstream bare cylinder normalized displacement in the single pipe case is 0. In addition. The placement of strakes on the downstream cylinder reduces VIV by 88. closely spaced multi pipe or riser arrangements are common. The vibration amplitude measurements are given in Table 3 and shown in Figure 14 to Figure 17 for the same reduced velocities as the single pipe experiments. When the separation distance is 4D. It is observed that the normalized displacements of the downstream bare cylinder in the tandem pipe arrangement case are higher than the single pipe case. Then strakes are installed on the downstream cylinder.5D.5D.Comparison of Bare and Straked Cylinder Vibration Amplitude with an Incidence Angle of 30 degrees Figure 11 . two bare cylinders are tested. Initially. 3D and 4D. The cylinders are placed at spacings of 1. Strake effectiveness decreases with increasing spacing. Also. An important learning from these experiments is that design of riser arrays should consider bare as well as straked riser VIV response amplification with an increase in separation distance. The maximum downstream bare cylinder displacement is 35% higher than the single bare pipe case when the separation distance is 1. In order to correlate the tandem pipe experiment to the bare pipe results. The downstream straked pipe also vibrates with a higher amplitude when compared to the single straked pipe case.
the magnification factor of the bare downstream cylinder compared to the bare single cylinder is given in Table 5.19 63.5D Spacing 7 Copyright © 2012 by ASME . The suppression decreases as the gap between the cylinders is increased. The increasing magnification factor of the downstream bare pipe is shown in Figure 18.08 88. The present study demonstrates the efficiency of strakes. with the vibration amplitude of a single bare cylinder. VIV of the single bare cylinder is suppressed by 63.7 1. Max Max Normalised Normalised Displacement Displacement Distance of Bare of Straked VIV Between Downstream Downstream Reduction Cylinders Cylinder in a Cylinder in a (%) Tandem Tandem Arrangement Arrangement (A/D) (A/D) 1.91 0.16 69.96 1.6%.4 2D 0. The reason for the amplified motion of the downstream tubular is wake and proximity effects from the upstream cylinder.91 1. The VIV suppression of the downstream straked cylinder is lower when you compare its vibration amplitude.8 0.6 2D 0. and found that the downstream cylinder has multiple equilibrium positions causing stability issues. and highlighted that VIV is the primary design concern for TTRs.5D 0. The VIV suppression of a single straked cylinder.08 84. there are no equilibrium positions.8 4D 0. is approximately 99%. Once the modeled flow exceeds a critical reduced velocity of the system. at different spacings. When the flow is at a right angle to the system.7 0.11 85. which indicated that clashing between the cylinders is likely.5 2D 0.52 3D 0.2 Table 3 – VIV Reduction for Straked Downstream Cylinder at Different Spacings Max Normalised Max Displacement Normalised Distance of Straked VIV Displacement Between Downstream Reduction of a Single Cylinders Cylinder in a (%) Bare Cylinder Tandem (A/D) Arrangement (A/D) 1.5D downstream. Separation distances above 4D are beyond the scope of the present paper.11 78.9 3D 0.amplitudes in Table 4.4 4D 0. the vibrations of the single bare cylinder are suppressed by 84. For a gap of 4D. as the downstream cylinder is more affected by the wake of the upstream cylinder.5D 0.78 1. and the benefit of employing strakes to mitigate interference in addition to VIV fatigue. When a straked cylinder in a dual cylinder arrangement is 1. However.2 4D 0. there is an expectation that the displacement of the downstream cylinder will decrease after a critical separation distance.  described similar findings.9 Table 5 –Magnification Factor of Downstream Cylinders Vibration Compared with a Single Bare Cylinder Vibration (Perpendicular to the Flow) Figure 14 – Comparison of VIV amplitude of Tandem Straked Cylinder Arrangement to Tandem Bare Cylinder Arrangement at 1.19 80.16 82.5% for the straked cylinder in a tandem arrangement. Wu et al.5 0. when compared with a single bare cylinder.78 0.52 3D 0.5D 0. These authors used cylinders to model the risers.96 0.5 Table 4 – VIV Reduction for Straked Downstream Cylinder Compared to a Single Bare Cylinder at Different Spacings Max Normalised Max Displacement Normalised Distance of the Displacement Magnification Between Downstream of a Single Factor Cylinders Bare Cylinder Bare Cylinder in a Tandem (A/D) Arrangement (A/D) 1.
Allen et al. the vortices shed off the upstream cylinder would be weaker and less frequent. the frequency response of the cases having different separation distances is relatively consistent while the amplitude of vibration increases with increasing separation distance. while the study by Allen et al. A further possible reason for the disparity is the present study is performed in a wind tunnel.Comparison of VIV amplitude of Tandem Straked Cylinder Arrangement to Tandem Bare Cylinder Arrangement at 4D Spacing 8 Copyright © 2012 by ASME . response of the downstream pipe is larger than the upstream pipe response. In real world applications.Comparison of VIV amplitude of Tandem Straked Cylinder Arrangement to Tandem Bare Cylinder Arrangement at 2D Spacing Magnification Factor 0. by looking at the magnification factor of the downstream cylinder compared with the upstream cylinder in a tandem pipe arrangement.Comparison of VIV amplitude of Tandem Straked Cylinder Arrangement to Tandem Bare Cylinder Arrangement at 3D Spacing Figure 17 . the present experiment is Figure 16 .8 1.5D 2D 3D 4D Tandem Pipe Spacing Figure 18 – Magnification Factor of Downstream Bare Pipe Compared to Single Bare Pipe In tandem pipe arrangements.  made another significant observation. which are comparable. The present study also finds magnification factors. If both cylinders were straked.  study has lower vibration amplitudes due to the strakes. with a straked-straked formation.  is performed in water.2 1. in a tandem arrangement.4 1. the tandem pipe tests show that the downstream straked cylinder oscillates significantly more than the single straked cylinder. The present study considers a barebare tandem pipe arrangement. However. Hence. . which is the lock-in region for the experiment in air and would be different in water. which are lower than the results found by Allen et al.6 1. which could cause differences in the comparison. at times by up to a factor of 5. both cylinders would either be bare or straked. the strakes could also act to make the structure unstable and buffet the downstream cylinder.2 0 1. It was found that for all spacings. with a low Reynold’s number and lower separation distances. meaning the downstream cylinder would also vibrate less. The present study considers a bare cylinder upstream of a straked cylinder.2 1 0. shown in Figure 18. the Allen et al.8 0. However. Contrary to the single cylinder cases. The two studies both look at a proportional increase in downstream cylinder vibrations.6 0.4 Figure 15 . The lock-in region is found to be around 6<VR<8.
CONCLUSIONS Single degree of freedom experiments on bare and straked pipes have been conducted in the University of Western Australia wind tunnel. Riser design for moderate to high current environments such as in the Gulf of Mexico or Brazil often utilise helical strakes. An important factor is the presence of marine growth on riser strakes that can have a significant debilitating effect on strake effectiveness. With spacings of 1. the use of helical strakes can reduce VIV. in a single pipe or a tandem pipe arrangement. vol. ‘Measurements of transverse forces on circular cylinders undergoing vortex-induced vibration’. Journal of fluids and structures. In the case of tightly spaced pipes. If comparisons are made between the downstream cylinder with a single bare cylinder. Furthermore. 829-836. The lock-in range will be larger for corresponding experiments done in water. With a decrease in incidence angle from 90 degrees to 30 degrees. N 2002.22. W.  Trim. A/D of the bare pipe decreases from 0. vol.3. In another set of experiments. strakes remain effective.  Wu. ‘Experimental investigation of vortex-induced vibration of long marine risers’ Journal of fluids and structures. pg. 21-29. ‘A comparative study of three aerodynamic devices for suppressing vortex-induced oscillation’ Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics. 26. I & Meneghini. Strake efficiency reduces from 99% in the single pipe case to 89% for the downstream cylinder with 1. vol. The following conclusions are drawn: The efficiency of the 10D pitch and 0. vol. when comparing a straked and bare cylinder. pp. strakes are quite effective at suppressing VIV in perpendicular and inclined flows. S & Barltrop. 611-625.5D and to 63% for a gap of 4D.36 when the incident angle decreases from 90 degrees to 30 degrees.4. VIV suppression ranges from 63% to 85%. vol. This study reinforces the oil industry’s understanding of strake effectiveness and provides information for riser behavior when the flow is not perpendicular. 1984. The experiments have deficiencies which need to be considered. 21. where there are two or more pipes in tandem. ‘Multiple Stable/Unstable Equilibria of a Cylinder in the Wake of an Upstream Cylinder’ Applied Ocean Research. The amplitude of vibration of the downstream pipe in the tandem pipe arrangement is magnified to a large extent. from 89% to 80%. A 1982. 287-297. Bare pipes and straked pipes are subjected to perpendicular as well as inclined flow and the pipe VIV amplitude is measured. Separation distances greater than 4D are out of scope for this experiment but are recommended for future experiments. Lock-in usually occurs in the reduced velocity range of 4 to 6 for the experiments in air. pp. pp. ‘The efficiency of helical strakes for the suppression of vortex-excited oscillation of steel stacks’ Engineering structures. Downstream pipe amplitude of vibration increases with separation distance up to 4D. 10.1. no. Huang. This is due to wake and proximity affects from the upstream pipe. ‘Performance comparison of helical strakes for VIV suppression of risers and tendons’. pp. Although this adds another cost parameter in field design. where vibrations can be compounded by riser wake effects. The experiments are conducted in air in low Reynolds number conditions and the behavior of strakes may be different in turbulent flows. tandem pipes are subjected to perpendicular flow and the response of the downstream pipe is assessed. M & Bearman. Offshore Technical Conference 16186. strake efficiency decreases from 99% to 69%.’ Journal of Fluids and Structures. 6.  Allen. Suppression is in the range of 69% to 99%.  Brankovic. vol. 2005. no. The vibration magnification of the downstream cylinder is expected to drop after a certain separation distance. 6. I et al. no. VIV suppression ranges from 80% to 89%. Strakes mitigate downstream pipe VIV to a large extent but strake efficiency decreases with separation distance up to 4D. 2004. DW et al. REFERENCES  Wong. the tandem pipe arrangements demonstrate wake induced magnification of the downstream pipe motions. 335-361.12D height PVC strakes used in this study is 99% in perpendicular flow. HY & Kokkalis. PW 2006.  Hatsuo. Comparing the downstream straked cylinder vibrations with a single bare cylinder shows lower suppression reductions. AD et al. ‘Experimental investigation of flow-induced vibration on isolated and tandem circular cylinders fitted with strakes. 1.52 to 0. Another tandem pipe arrangement that 9 Copyright © 2012 by ASME . 334-351. 24.  Korkischko. needs to be considered is a straked-straked case as this is more common than a bare-straked scenario. Strake efficiency reduces to 85% for a tandem arrangement with a gap of 1.potentially conservative in having an upstream. Hence.5D separation and to 80% for the downstream cylinder with 4D separation. no. The present paper does not take marine growth into account. fixed bare cylinder. JR 2010.5D to 4D. pp. no.
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