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# Fluid properties - Assume constant properties:

γ := 1.333
... Ratio of specific heat
J
Cp := 1147 ... Specific heat of air standard at constant
kg⋅ K pressure
kJ := 1000J

R := 287 ⋅
kg⋅ K

r := 18.5

ASSUMPTIONS

## T1 := 300K = 26.85⋅ °C ... Temperature inlet of cylinder

1  rcγ − 1 
η := 1 − ⋅  = 0.569
r
γ− 1  γ⋅ ( rc − 1 )
STAGE 1:

P1 = 0.16 MPa

T1 = 300 K

kJ
u1 := 214.07
kg

υr1 := 621.2

3
R ⋅ T1 m
υ1 := = 0.538
P1 kg

1 kg
ρ1 := = 1.858
υ1 3
m

STAGE 2:

υr1
υr2 := = 33.578
r

## From table T-9

υr2 − 34.31
T2 := 900K + ⋅ ( 920 − 900 ) ⋅ K = 906.87 K
32.18 − 34.31

kJ υr2 − 34.31 kJ kJ
h2 := 932.93⋅ + ⋅ ( 955.38 − 932.93) ⋅ = 940.641
kg 32.18 − 34.31 kg kg

T2
P2 := P1⋅ ⋅ r = 8.948 MPa
T1

3
R ⋅ T2 m
υ2 := = 0.029
P2 kg

1 kg
ρ2 := = 34.379
υ2 3
m

STAGE 3:

T3 := rc⋅ T2 = 1813.739373 K
From table T-9

kJ T3 − 1800K kJ kJ
h3 := 2003.3⋅ + ⋅ ( 2065.3 − 2003.3) ⋅ = 2020.336823
kg ( 1850 − 1800) ⋅ K kg kg

T3 − 1800K
υr3 := 3.944 + ⋅ ( 3.601 − 3.944) = 3.849748
( 1850 − 1800) ⋅ K

P3 := P2 = 8.948 MPa

3
R ⋅ T3 m
υ3 := = 0.058
P3 kg

1 kg
ρ3 := = 17.189
υ3 3
m

STAGE 4:

r
υr4 := ⋅ υr3 = 35.61
rc

## T4 := 880K +  υr4 − 36.61  ⋅ ( 900 − 880 ) ⋅ K = 888.694 K

 
 34.31 − 36.61 

kJ υr4 − 36.61 kJ kJ
u4 := 657.95⋅ + ⋅ ( 674.58 − 657.95) ⋅ = 665.179
kg 34.31 − 36.61 kg kg

T4
P4 := P1⋅ = 0.474 MPa
T1
3
R ⋅ T4 m
υ4 := = 0.538
P4 kg

1 kg
ρ4 := = 1.858
υ4 3
m

Overall performance:

u4 − u1
η_diesel := 1 − = 0.582
h3 − h2

η = 0.569
CENTRIFUGAL COMPRESSOR - TURBOCHARGER

D := 92mm

Stroke := 93.8mm

N := 4
... Number of cylinders

2
D 3
V1_2 := π⋅ ⋅ Stroke⋅ N = 2494.183293 cm
4

V1_2 3
V2 := = 142.525 cm
r−1

3 3
V1 := V2⋅ r = 2636.708052 cm 2494cm = 2.494 L

3
V1 − V2 = 2494.183293 cm

RPM := 3000rpm

RPM kg
m_exhaust := ρ4⋅ ( V1 − V2) ⋅ = 0.728
2 s

## Given (request) data:

kg
mf := m_exhaust = 0.728 ... The mass flow rate
s
P1
PR13 := = 1.579 ... Pressure ratio of compresor
1atm

diffuser)

rdt := 55mm

## Guess & suggestion data:

rperR := 0.5 ... (r/R) The ratio of hub to shroud diameter at the
eye
ηt := 0.82 ... Overall efficiency

## μ := 0.525 ... Head coefficient, from Aungier Fig. 1-9

ψ := 1.04 ... Power input factor

## ηm := 0.95 ... Mechanical efficiency of compressor

limitedness:

m
W3max := 90 ... Maximum outlet velocities
s
αa3max := 11° ... The maximum included angle of the vaned
diffuser passage
m
Umax := 460 ... Maksimum tip speed
s
M1Wmax := 0.8 ... Suggested maximum Mach number at inlet
impeller - W1 direction
Tmax := 400K ... Maximum static temperature
1. CENTRIFUGAL COMPRESSOR calculaon using MATHCAD

## 1.1 IMPELLER DESIGN

1.1.

1.a. The optimum speed of rotation for the maximum mass flow rate condition if
the mass flow is 0.728 kg/s and

Using Eq (4-22) the appropriate known data are subtituted, nothing that all conditions apply at
the eye tip or shroud.

2
k := 1 − rperR k = 0.75

i := 0 .. 11 ... index

## β1 := ... Blade angle with respect to tangent

0
0 10
( ) ( )
3 2
M1Wmax ⋅ sin β1 ° ⋅ cos β1 °
1 20 i i
RHS :=
2 30 i 1 3
+
3 40 ( γ−1) 2
 ( γ − 1 ) ⋅ M1Wmax2⋅ cos β1 ° 2
4 50 ( i)
1 + 
5 55  2 
6 59
RHS =
6 59
RHS =
0.2 i
7 60
8 61 0.009764
0.15
9 65 0.03754
RHSi 0.1 0.078411
10 70
11 80 0.123322
0.05
0.159069
0 0.168735
0 20 40 60 80
β1i 0.170895
0.170563
0.169864
0.163267
0.14624
0.08499

## RHSmax := RHS RHSmax = 0.170563

7

β1 := β1 ° β1 = 60⋅ °
7

## To1 := 15 °C ... Ambient temperature

π⋅ k⋅ γ⋅ Po1⋅ γ⋅ R⋅ To1
ω := ⋅ RHSmax ω = 47510.874429⋅ rpm
mf

## New ratio of hub and shroud at inlet become ...

2
RPM ⋅ mf
RHSmax := RHSmax = 0.17
π⋅ k⋅ γ⋅ Po1⋅ γ⋅ R ⋅ To1

## 1.b. The eye tip diameter at inlet

Po1 kg
ρo1 := ρo1 = 1.225
R⋅ To1 3
m

## M1 := M1Wmax⋅ cos( β1) M1 = 0.4

To1
T1 := T1 = 280.673 K
2
( γ − 1) ⋅ M1
1+
2
m
C1 := M1⋅ γ⋅ R⋅ T1 C1 = 131.074
s

Ca1 := C1

## From the isentropic relationship at a point

1
γ− 1
⋅  
Po1 T1 kg
ρ1 :=  ρ1 = 1.132
R⋅ To1  To1  3
m
γ
γ−1
P1 := Po1⋅  
T1
 P1 = 91.203⋅ kPa
 To1 

## Therefore the eye tip diameter at inlet is:

mf
R1t := R1t = 45.630499 ⋅ mm
π⋅ ρ1⋅ k⋅ Ca1

## Peripheral speed at the impeller eye tip (shroud) & β1t:

RPM m
U1t := π⋅ D1t ⋅ U1t = 226.974699
rev s

β1t := atan
Ca1 
 β1t = 30.006⋅ °
 U1t 

## Peripheral speed at the impeller eye root (hub) & β1r:

RPM m
U1r := π⋅ D1r⋅ U1r = 113.48735
rev s

β1r := atan
Ca1 
 β1r = 49.113096 ⋅ °
 U1r 

## 1.b. The impeller outlet diameter

From Eq (4-11) the stagnation temperature difference is

 γ− 1 
To1  γ 
To3 := To1 + ⋅  PR13 − 1 To3 = 330.632 K
ηt

## To3 − To1 = 42.482 K

From Eq (4-9)

( To3 − To1) ⋅ Cp m
U2 := U2 = 236.877
ψ⋅ σ s

## And Tip flow coefficient (ϕ2) at exit of impeller

U2⋅ rev
D2 := D2 = 95.242⋅ mm
π⋅ RPM

## The new value of To3 & ηt,

RPM m
U2 := D2⋅ π⋅ U2 = 236.877
rev s

2
U2 ⋅ ψ⋅ σ
To3 := + To1 To3 = 330.632 K
Cp

 γ− 1 
 γ 
To1⋅  PR13 − 1
ηt := ηt = 0.82
To3 − To1

## Therefore the tip flow coefficient is:

D2
r2 := r2 = 47.621175 ⋅ mm
2

mf
ϕ2 := ϕ2 = 0.352109
2
ρo1⋅ π⋅ r2 ⋅ U2

0.63⋅ π
Z := Z = 11.642
1 − .83

Z := 12

0.63⋅ π
σ := 1 − σ = 0.835 ... Will be used re-calculate
Z
1.c. Velocity at exit and the the losses in the impeller and diffuser are the same, The
axial depth of the impeller is:

First guess M2 = 0.8 and iteration. The overall loss is proportional to (1 - ηc) = (1 - 0.82). Half of
the overall loss is therefore 0.5(1 - 0.82) = 0.09 and therefore the effective efficiency of the
impeller in compressing from Po1 to Po2 is (1 - 0.09) ...

M2 := 1

ηc := 1 − 0.5⋅ ( 1 − ηt ) ηc = 0.91

## To2 := To3 To2 = 330.632 K

To2
T2 := T2 = 283.373 K
2
M2 ⋅ γ⋅ R
1+
2 ⋅ Cp

γ
γ− 1
( To2 − To1) 
PR12 := 1 + ηc ⋅  PR12 = 1.655
 To1 
 γ 
γ− 1
 T2  
P2 := Po1⋅   ⋅ PR12 P2 = 90.456⋅ kPa
 To2  

P2
ρ2 := kg
R⋅ T2 ρ2 = 1.112
3
m

P2
Po2 := Po2 = 94.009⋅ kPa
γ−1
γ
 T2 
 
 To2 
And TOTAL enthalphy rise (Hrev) at exit of impeller

2
m
2
s

μ :=
2 μ = 0.79
U2

## The specific speed (ns) :

ϕ2
ns := 1.773 ns = 1.255
3
4
μ

## From the velocity triangles:

m
Cax2 := U2⋅ σ Cax2 = 197.808
s

m
C2 := M2⋅ γ⋅ R⋅ T2 C2 = 329.257
s

2 2 m
Cr2 := ( C2) − ( Cax2) Cr2 = 263.216
s

## From the continuity equation of area:

mf −3 2
A2 := A2 = 2.487 × 10 m
ρ2⋅ Cr2

## The depth of impeller at exit of impeller:

A2
b2 := b2 = 8.311479 ⋅ mm
π⋅ D2

## At inlet section (1):

D_shroud = 91.261⋅ mm

β1t = 30.00568⋅ °

D_hub = 45.63⋅ mm
β1r = 49.113096 ⋅ °

## At outlet section (2):

D2 = 95.242⋅ mm

b2 = 8.311479 ⋅ mm

U2 − Cax2 
β2 := atan  β2 = 8.443⋅ °
 Cr2 

Cr2 m
W2 := W2 = 266.099
cos( β2) s

m
C2 = 329.257
s

m
Cax2 = 197.808
s

m
Cr2 = 263.216
s

α2 := acos
Cr2 
 α2 = 36.925⋅ °
 C2 

Z = 12

## RPM = 47500 ⋅ rpm

ϕ2 = 0.352

σ = 0.835

2. DIFFUSER

In the vaneless space between the impeller outlet and diffuser vanes the flow is that of a free
vortex which at any radius requires that Cx.r = constant.
At the diffuser vane leading edge the radius is (r2 + 10)mm = (47.62 + 10) mm = 57.62 mm

D2
r2 := r2 = 47.621⋅ mm
2
r2v := r2 + Svaneless r2v = 52.621175 ⋅ mm
C2⋅ r2 m
Cx3i := Cx3i = 297.972
r2v s

To find the radial velocity Cr at the diffuser vane entry start by assuming the value at the impeller
exit, i.e. 263.216 m/s. Then

m
Cr3i := Cr2 Cr3i = 263.216
s
m
Cx3i = 297.972
s

2 2 m
C3i := Cr3i + Cx3i C3i = 397.58
s

If we assume that no losses across he vaneless space, the other half of the total losses takes
place in the diffuser itself. The P0,2 at the impeller tip equals the stagnation pressure at the
diffuser vane inlet P0. Therefore ...

PR12 = 1.655

## Po3i := PR12⋅ Po1 Po3i = 167.718 ⋅ kPa

2
C3i
T3i := To2 − T3i = 261.726 K
2 ⋅ Cp

γ
γ−1
P3i := Po1⋅ 
T3i 
 ⋅ PR12 P3i = 65.809⋅ kPa
 To2 

P3i kg
ρ3i := ρ3i = 0.876
R⋅ T3i 3
m

With reference to Figure, the area of flow in the radial directioon at radius r2v = 52.621 mm (inlet
diffuser) is
2
Ar3i := 2 ⋅ π⋅ r2v⋅ b2 Ar3i = 0.002748 m

mf m
Cr3i := Cr3i = 302.407
ρ3i⋅ Ar3i s

by ITERATION ...

m
Cr3i := 302.407 ... change this value for iteration
s

2 2 m
C3i := Cr3i + Cx3i C3i = 424.543
s
2
C3i
T3i := To2 − T3i = 252.063 K
2 ⋅ Cp
γ
γ−1
P3i := Po1⋅ 
T3i 
 ⋅ PR12 P3i = 56.608⋅ kPa
 To2 
P3i kg
ρ3i := ρ3i = 0.783
R⋅ T3i 3
m
2
Ar3i := 2 ⋅ π⋅ r2v⋅ b2 Ar3i = 0.002748 m

mf m
Cr3i := Cr3i = 338.5755428
ρ3i⋅ Ar3i s

No further iterations are necessary. Thus at the inlet to the vanes Cr,3,i = 246.2013186 m/s.

α3i := atan
Cx3i 
 α3i = 41.350188 ⋅ °
 Cr3i 
Moving to the radius at the diffuser throat, at the throat radius, 343 mm

C2⋅ r2 m
Cx3t := Cx3t = 285.084
rdt s

## by ITERATION again to find propertes at diffuser throat section ...

m
Cr3t := Cr3i ( Cr3t) = 338.576
s

m
Cr3t := 1308.0100793 ... change this value for iteration
s

2 2 3m
C3t := Cx3t + Cr3t C3t = 1.339 × 10
s
2
C3t
T3t := To2 − T3t = −450.608 K
2 ⋅ Cp
γ
γ−1
P3t := Po1⋅ 
T3t 
 ⋅ PR12 P3t = ( 579.136 + 5.464i) ⋅ kPa
 To2 
P3t kg
ρ3t := ρ3t = ( −4.478 − 0.042i)
R⋅ T3t 3
m
2
Ar3t := 2 ⋅ π⋅ rdt ⋅ b2 Ar3t = 0.002872 m
mf m
Cr3t := Cr3t = ( −56.5986266 + 0.5339793i)
ρ3t⋅ Ar3t s

It may be seen that there is no change in the new values so the radial velocity at the diffuser
throat = 184.0268017 m/s

α3t := atan
Cx3t 
 α3t = ( −78.770868 − 0.103249i ) ⋅ °
 Cr3t 
Ar3t⋅ Cr3t 2
A3t := A3t = ( −0.000121 + 0.000001i ) m
C3t

## As we have 15 diffuser vanes, the width of each throat is:

A3t
Throat_width := Throat_width = ( −0.974021 + 0.009189i ) ⋅ mm
Ndif ⋅ b2

2 ⋅ r2v = 105.242 ⋅ mm

rdt ⋅ 2 = 110 ⋅ mm

Svaneless = 5 ⋅ mm

Moving to the radius at the diffuser outler, at the outlet radius, 550 mm

C2⋅ r2 m
Cx3 := Cx3 = 241.225
rdo s

## by ITERATION again to find propertes at diffuser outlet section ...

m
Cr3o := Cr3t Cr3o = ( −56.599 + 0.534i)
s

m
Cr3o := 87.84762 ... change this value for iteration
s
2 2 m
C3o := Cx3 + Cr3o C3o = 256.723
s

2
C3o
T3o := To2 − T3o = 301.902 K
2 ⋅ Cp
γ
γ− 1
P3o := Po1⋅ 
T3o 
 ⋅ PR12 P3o = 116.559 ⋅ kPa
 To2 
P3o kg
ρ3o := ρ3o = 1.345
R⋅ T3o 3
m

2
Ar3o := 2 ⋅ π⋅ rdo⋅ b2 Ar3o = 0.003394 m

mf m
Cr3o := Cr3o = 159.4398561
ρ3o⋅ Ar3o s

It may be seen that there is no change in the new values so the radial velocity at the diffuser
throat = 87.84762 m/s

α3o := atan  
Cx3
 α3o = 56.536926 ⋅ °
 Cr3o 
Ar3o⋅ Cr3o 2
A3o := A3o = 0.002108 m
C3o

## As we have 15 diffuser vanes, the width of each throat is:

A3o
Throat_width_outlet := Throat_width_outlet = 16.909629 ⋅ mm
Ndif ⋅ b2

## Overall dimension of DIFFUSER:

At inlet:

r2v = 52.621⋅ mm

α3i = 41.350188 ⋅ °

At throat:

rdt = 55⋅ mm
α3t = ( −78.770868 − 0.103249i ) ⋅ °

## Throat_width = ( −0.974021 + 0.009189i ) ⋅ mm

At outlet:

rdo = 65⋅ mm

α3o = 56.536926 ⋅ °

Throat_width_outlet = 16.909629 ⋅ mm

Ndif = 15

TURBINE - TURBOCHARGER

P4 = 0.474 MPa

T4 = 888.694 K

## To1 := T4 = 888.694 K ... Stagnation temperature at inlet to nozzles

kg
m_flow := m_exhaust = 0.728 ... The mass flow of exhaust gas available to the turbine
s

Assumptions :

P2 := .725⋅ Po1 = 0.344 MPa ... Static pressure at exit from nozzles

## T2 := 0.9275⋅ To1 = 824.264 K ... Static temperature at exit from nozzles

P3 := 0.5⋅ Po1 = 0.237 MPa ... Static pressure at exit from rotor

## r3av_r2 := 0.5 ... Ratio r,ave / r1

RPM = 47500 rpm ... Rotational speed

Analysis:

1−  To3 
 
ηt_ts :=
 To1  = 0.849
γ−1
γ
1−  P3 
 
 Po1 

## b). The outer diameter of rotor, inlet diameter

Cx3 := 0 Cx2 = U2

m
U2 := Cp⋅ ( To1 − To3) = 370.99
s

U2⋅ rev
D2 := = 149.166 ⋅ mm
RPM ⋅ π

c). The enthalphy loss coefficient for the nozzles and rotor rows

γ− 1
γ
T2s := To1⋅  
P2
 = 820.093 K
 Po1 
T2 − T2s
ζN := = 0.064736
To1 − T2

## Rotor loss coefficient:

m
U3 := U2⋅ r3av_r2 = 185.495
s
2
m 2 m
C3 := 2 ⋅ Cp⋅ ( To3 − T3 ) = 59.328 C3 = 3519.754213
s 2
s

2
2 2 m 2 m
W3 := C3 + U3 = 194.752 W3 = 37928.205778
s 2
s

 ( γ−1)

 γ
 2
h3_h3s := Cp⋅ T3 −  
P3 m
⋅ T2 = 18314.248869
  P2   s
2
h3_h3s
ζR := = 0.966
2
r3av_r2⋅ W3

d). The blade outlet angle at the mean diameter β 3,av, and

β3av := acot
C3 
 = 72.264⋅ °
 U3 

## e). The total-to-total efficiency of the turbine

1
ηt_t := = 0.858558
1 1 2
− ⋅ ( r3av_r2⋅ cot( β3av) )
ηt_ts 2

## f). The volume flow rate at rotor exit

P3
Po3 := = 238.888 ⋅ kPa
γ
γ−1
 T3 
 
 To3 

 γ−1

  Po3  γ  kJ
ho1_ho3ss := Cp⋅ To1⋅ 1 −    = 160.353 ⋅
  Po1   kg

P3 kg
ρ3 := = 1.076
R⋅ T3 3
m

3
m_flow m
Q3 := = 0.676
ρ3 s

## g). The hub and tip diameters of the rotor at exit

( 2
Q3 = π⋅ r3t − r3h ⋅ C3
2
)
Q3 = 2 ⋅ π⋅ r3av⋅ h ⋅ C3
h = r3t − r3h

r3t + r3h
r3av =
2
m
C3 = 59.328
s

D2
r2 := = 0.075 m
2

D2
r3av := r3av_r2⋅ = 0.037292 m
2

Q3
h := = 0.049 m
2 ⋅ π⋅ r3av⋅ C3

Hub diameter:

h
r3h := r3av − = 0.013 m
2

## D3h := 2⋅ r3h = 0.026 m

Tip diameter:

h
r3t := r3av + = 0.062 m
2

## h). The power developed by the turbine

2
Wturb := m_flow⋅ U2 = 100.205185⋅ kW

i). The rotor exit blade angles at the hub and tip

At tip

r3t m
U3t := U2⋅ = 306.516
r2 s

β3t := atan
U3t 
 = 79.046⋅ °
 C3 

## At mean - from previous calculation

β3av = 72.264⋅ °

At hub

r3h m
U3h := U3⋅ = 32.237
r2 s

β3h := atan 
U3h 
 = 28.519⋅ °
 C3 

## j). The nozzle exit angle

m
C2 := 2 ⋅ Cp⋅ ( To1 − T2 ) = 384.452
s

α2 := asin
U2 
 = 74.793176 ⋅ °
 C2 

k). The ratio of rotor width at inlet to its inlet tip diameter

## m_flow = ρ2⋅ A2⋅ Cr2 = ρ2⋅ π⋅ D2⋅ W2⋅ b2

b2 m_flow
=
D2 2
π⋅ ρ2⋅ D2 ⋅ W2

m
U2 = 370.99
s

α2 = 74.793⋅ °

m
W2 := U2⋅ cot( α2) = 100.843
s

P2 kg
ρ2 := = 1.453
R⋅ T2 3
m

m_flow
b2_D2 := = 0.071103
2
π⋅ ρ2⋅ D2 ⋅ W2

b2 := b2_D2 ⋅ D2 = 10.606131 ⋅ mm
- END of CALCULATION -
v = 52.621 mm (inlet