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γ := 1.333

... Ratio of specific heat

J

Cp := 1147 ... Specific heat of air standard at constant

kg⋅ K pressure

kJ := 1000J

R := 287 ⋅

kg⋅ K

r := 18.5

ASSUMPTIONS

1 rcγ − 1

η := 1 − ⋅ = 0.569

r

γ− 1 γ⋅ ( rc − 1 )

STAGE 1:

P1 = 0.16 MPa

T1 = 300 K

kJ

u1 := 214.07

kg

υr1 := 621.2

3

R ⋅ T1 m

υ1 := = 0.538

P1 kg

1 kg

ρ1 := = 1.858

υ1 3

m

STAGE 2:

υr1

υr2 := = 33.578

r

υr2 − 34.31

T2 := 900K + ⋅ ( 920 − 900 ) ⋅ K = 906.87 K

32.18 − 34.31

kJ υr2 − 34.31 kJ kJ

h2 := 932.93⋅ + ⋅ ( 955.38 − 932.93) ⋅ = 940.641

kg 32.18 − 34.31 kg kg

T2

P2 := P1⋅ ⋅ r = 8.948 MPa

T1

3

R ⋅ T2 m

υ2 := = 0.029

P2 kg

1 kg

ρ2 := = 34.379

υ2 3

m

STAGE 3:

T3 := rc⋅ T2 = 1813.739373 K

From table T-9

kJ T3 − 1800K kJ kJ

h3 := 2003.3⋅ + ⋅ ( 2065.3 − 2003.3) ⋅ = 2020.336823

kg ( 1850 − 1800) ⋅ K kg kg

T3 − 1800K

υr3 := 3.944 + ⋅ ( 3.601 − 3.944) = 3.849748

( 1850 − 1800) ⋅ K

P3 := P2 = 8.948 MPa

3

R ⋅ T3 m

υ3 := = 0.058

P3 kg

1 kg

ρ3 := = 17.189

υ3 3

m

STAGE 4:

r

υr4 := ⋅ υr3 = 35.61

rc

34.31 − 36.61

kJ υr4 − 36.61 kJ kJ

u4 := 657.95⋅ + ⋅ ( 674.58 − 657.95) ⋅ = 665.179

kg 34.31 − 36.61 kg kg

T4

P4 := P1⋅ = 0.474 MPa

T1

3

R ⋅ T4 m

υ4 := = 0.538

P4 kg

1 kg

ρ4 := = 1.858

υ4 3

m

Overall performance:

u4 − u1

η_diesel := 1 − = 0.582

h3 − h2

η = 0.569

CENTRIFUGAL COMPRESSOR - TURBOCHARGER

D := 92mm

Stroke := 93.8mm

N := 4

... Number of cylinders

2

D 3

V1_2 := π⋅ ⋅ Stroke⋅ N = 2494.183293 cm

4

V1_2 3

V2 := = 142.525 cm

r−1

3 3

V1 := V2⋅ r = 2636.708052 cm 2494cm = 2.494 L

3

V1 − V2 = 2494.183293 cm

RPM := 3000rpm

RPM kg

m_exhaust := ρ4⋅ ( V1 − V2) ⋅ = 0.728

2 s

kg

mf := m_exhaust = 0.728 ... The mass flow rate

s

P1

PR13 := = 1.579 ... Pressure ratio of compresor

1atm

diffuser)

rdt := 55mm

... The diffuser throat radius

rperR := 0.5 ... (r/R) The ratio of hub to shroud diameter at the

eye

ηt := 0.82 ... Overall efficiency

ψ := 1.04 ... Power input factor

limitedness:

m

W3max := 90 ... Maximum outlet velocities

s

αa3max := 11° ... The maximum included angle of the vaned

diffuser passage

m

Umax := 460 ... Maksimum tip speed

s

M1Wmax := 0.8 ... Suggested maximum Mach number at inlet

impeller - W1 direction

Tmax := 400K ... Maximum static temperature

1. CENTRIFUGAL COMPRESSOR calculaon using MATHCAD

1.1.

1.a. The optimum speed of rotation for the maximum mass flow rate condition if

the mass flow is 0.728 kg/s and

Using Eq (4-22) the appropriate known data are subtituted, nothing that all conditions apply at

the eye tip or shroud.

2

k := 1 − rperR k = 0.75

i := 0 .. 11 ... index

0

0 10

( ) ( )

3 2

M1Wmax ⋅ sin β1 ° ⋅ cos β1 °

1 20 i i

RHS :=

2 30 i 1 3

+

3 40 ( γ−1) 2

( γ − 1 ) ⋅ M1Wmax2⋅ cos β1 ° 2

4 50 ( i)

1 +

5 55 2

6 59

RHS =

6 59

RHS =

0.2 i

7 60

8 61 0.009764

0.15

9 65 0.03754

RHSi 0.1 0.078411

10 70

11 80 0.123322

0.05

0.159069

0 0.168735

0 20 40 60 80

β1i 0.170895

0.170563

0.169864

0.163267

0.14624

0.08499

7

β1 := β1 ° β1 = 60⋅ °

7

π⋅ k⋅ γ⋅ Po1⋅ γ⋅ R⋅ To1

ω := ⋅ RHSmax ω = 47510.874429⋅ rpm

mf

2

RPM ⋅ mf

RHSmax := RHSmax = 0.17

π⋅ k⋅ γ⋅ Po1⋅ γ⋅ R ⋅ To1

Po1 kg

ρo1 := ρo1 = 1.225

R⋅ To1 3

m

To1

T1 := T1 = 280.673 K

2

( γ − 1) ⋅ M1

1+

2

m

C1 := M1⋅ γ⋅ R⋅ T1 C1 = 131.074

s

Ca1 := C1

1

γ− 1

⋅

Po1 T1 kg

ρ1 := ρ1 = 1.132

R⋅ To1 To1 3

m

γ

γ−1

P1 := Po1⋅

T1

P1 = 91.203⋅ kPa

To1

mf

R1t := R1t = 45.630499 ⋅ mm

π⋅ ρ1⋅ k⋅ Ca1

RPM m

U1t := π⋅ D1t ⋅ U1t = 226.974699

rev s

β1t := atan

Ca1

β1t = 30.006⋅ °

U1t

RPM m

U1r := π⋅ D1r⋅ U1r = 113.48735

rev s

β1r := atan

Ca1

β1r = 49.113096 ⋅ °

U1r

From Eq (4-11) the stagnation temperature difference is

γ− 1

To1 γ

To3 := To1 + ⋅ PR13 − 1 To3 = 330.632 K

ηt

From Eq (4-9)

( To3 − To1) ⋅ Cp m

U2 := U2 = 236.877

ψ⋅ σ s

U2⋅ rev

D2 := D2 = 95.242⋅ mm

π⋅ RPM

RPM m

U2 := D2⋅ π⋅ U2 = 236.877

rev s

2

U2 ⋅ ψ⋅ σ

To3 := + To1 To3 = 330.632 K

Cp

γ− 1

γ

To1⋅ PR13 − 1

ηt := ηt = 0.82

To3 − To1

D2

r2 := r2 = 47.621175 ⋅ mm

2

mf

ϕ2 := ϕ2 = 0.352109

2

ρo1⋅ π⋅ r2 ⋅ U2

0.63⋅ π

Z := Z = 11.642

1 − .83

Z := 12

0.63⋅ π

σ := 1 − σ = 0.835 ... Will be used re-calculate

Z

1.c. Velocity at exit and the the losses in the impeller and diffuser are the same, The

axial depth of the impeller is:

First guess M2 = 0.8 and iteration. The overall loss is proportional to (1 - ηc) = (1 - 0.82). Half of

the overall loss is therefore 0.5(1 - 0.82) = 0.09 and therefore the effective efficiency of the

impeller in compressing from Po1 to Po2 is (1 - 0.09) ...

M2 := 1

ηc := 1 − 0.5⋅ ( 1 − ηt ) ηc = 0.91

To2

T2 := T2 = 283.373 K

2

M2 ⋅ γ⋅ R

1+

2 ⋅ Cp

γ

γ− 1

( To2 − To1)

PR12 := 1 + ηc ⋅ PR12 = 1.655

To1

γ

γ− 1

T2

P2 := Po1⋅ ⋅ PR12 P2 = 90.456⋅ kPa

To2

P2

ρ2 := kg

R⋅ T2 ρ2 = 1.112

3

m

P2

Po2 := Po2 = 94.009⋅ kPa

γ−1

γ

T2

To2

And TOTAL enthalphy rise (Hrev) at exit of impeller

2

m

H_adiabatic := Cp⋅ ( To2s − To1) H_adiabatic = 44341.039968

2

s

H_adiabatic

μ :=

2 μ = 0.79

U2

ϕ2

ns := 1.773 ns = 1.255

3

4

μ

m

Cax2 := U2⋅ σ Cax2 = 197.808

s

m

C2 := M2⋅ γ⋅ R⋅ T2 C2 = 329.257

s

2 2 m

Cr2 := ( C2) − ( Cax2) Cr2 = 263.216

s

mf −3 2

A2 := A2 = 2.487 × 10 m

ρ2⋅ Cr2

A2

b2 := b2 = 8.311479 ⋅ mm

π⋅ D2

D_shroud = 91.261⋅ mm

β1t = 30.00568⋅ °

D_hub = 45.63⋅ mm

β1r = 49.113096 ⋅ °

D2 = 95.242⋅ mm

b2 = 8.311479 ⋅ mm

U2 − Cax2

β2 := atan β2 = 8.443⋅ °

Cr2

Cr2 m

W2 := W2 = 266.099

cos( β2) s

m

C2 = 329.257

s

m

Cax2 = 197.808

s

m

Cr2 = 263.216

s

α2 := acos

Cr2

α2 = 36.925⋅ °

C2

Z = 12

ϕ2 = 0.352

σ = 0.835

2. DIFFUSER

In the vaneless space between the impeller outlet and diffuser vanes the flow is that of a free

vortex which at any radius requires that Cx.r = constant.

At the diffuser vane leading edge the radius is (r2 + 10)mm = (47.62 + 10) mm = 57.62 mm

D2

r2 := r2 = 47.621⋅ mm

2

r2v := r2 + Svaneless r2v = 52.621175 ⋅ mm

C2⋅ r2 m

Cx3i := Cx3i = 297.972

r2v s

To find the radial velocity Cr at the diffuser vane entry start by assuming the value at the impeller

exit, i.e. 263.216 m/s. Then

m

Cr3i := Cr2 Cr3i = 263.216

s

m

Cx3i = 297.972

s

2 2 m

C3i := Cr3i + Cx3i C3i = 397.58

s

If we assume that no losses across he vaneless space, the other half of the total losses takes

place in the diffuser itself. The P0,2 at the impeller tip equals the stagnation pressure at the

diffuser vane inlet P0. Therefore ...

PR12 = 1.655

2

C3i

T3i := To2 − T3i = 261.726 K

2 ⋅ Cp

γ

γ−1

P3i := Po1⋅

T3i

⋅ PR12 P3i = 65.809⋅ kPa

To2

P3i kg

ρ3i := ρ3i = 0.876

R⋅ T3i 3

m

With reference to Figure, the area of flow in the radial directioon at radius r2v = 52.621 mm (inlet

diffuser) is

2

Ar3i := 2 ⋅ π⋅ r2v⋅ b2 Ar3i = 0.002748 m

mf m

Cr3i := Cr3i = 302.407

ρ3i⋅ Ar3i s

by ITERATION ...

m

Cr3i := 302.407 ... change this value for iteration

s

2 2 m

C3i := Cr3i + Cx3i C3i = 424.543

s

2

C3i

T3i := To2 − T3i = 252.063 K

2 ⋅ Cp

γ

γ−1

P3i := Po1⋅

T3i

⋅ PR12 P3i = 56.608⋅ kPa

To2

P3i kg

ρ3i := ρ3i = 0.783

R⋅ T3i 3

m

2

Ar3i := 2 ⋅ π⋅ r2v⋅ b2 Ar3i = 0.002748 m

mf m

Cr3i := Cr3i = 338.5755428

ρ3i⋅ Ar3i s

No further iterations are necessary. Thus at the inlet to the vanes Cr,3,i = 246.2013186 m/s.

α3i := atan

Cx3i

α3i = 41.350188 ⋅ °

Cr3i

Moving to the radius at the diffuser throat, at the throat radius, 343 mm

C2⋅ r2 m

Cx3t := Cx3t = 285.084

rdt s

m

Cr3t := Cr3i ( Cr3t) = 338.576

s

m

Cr3t := 1308.0100793 ... change this value for iteration

s

2 2 3m

C3t := Cx3t + Cr3t C3t = 1.339 × 10

s

2

C3t

T3t := To2 − T3t = −450.608 K

2 ⋅ Cp

γ

γ−1

P3t := Po1⋅

T3t

⋅ PR12 P3t = ( 579.136 + 5.464i) ⋅ kPa

To2

P3t kg

ρ3t := ρ3t = ( −4.478 − 0.042i)

R⋅ T3t 3

m

2

Ar3t := 2 ⋅ π⋅ rdt ⋅ b2 Ar3t = 0.002872 m

mf m

Cr3t := Cr3t = ( −56.5986266 + 0.5339793i)

ρ3t⋅ Ar3t s

It may be seen that there is no change in the new values so the radial velocity at the diffuser

throat = 184.0268017 m/s

α3t := atan

Cx3t

α3t = ( −78.770868 − 0.103249i ) ⋅ °

Cr3t

Ar3t⋅ Cr3t 2

A3t := A3t = ( −0.000121 + 0.000001i ) m

C3t

A3t

Throat_width := Throat_width = ( −0.974021 + 0.009189i ) ⋅ mm

Ndif ⋅ b2

2 ⋅ r2v = 105.242 ⋅ mm

rdt ⋅ 2 = 110 ⋅ mm

Svaneless = 5 ⋅ mm

Moving to the radius at the diffuser outler, at the outlet radius, 550 mm

C2⋅ r2 m

Cx3 := Cx3 = 241.225

rdo s

m

Cr3o := Cr3t Cr3o = ( −56.599 + 0.534i)

s

m

Cr3o := 87.84762 ... change this value for iteration

s

2 2 m

C3o := Cx3 + Cr3o C3o = 256.723

s

2

C3o

T3o := To2 − T3o = 301.902 K

2 ⋅ Cp

γ

γ− 1

P3o := Po1⋅

T3o

⋅ PR12 P3o = 116.559 ⋅ kPa

To2

P3o kg

ρ3o := ρ3o = 1.345

R⋅ T3o 3

m

2

Ar3o := 2 ⋅ π⋅ rdo⋅ b2 Ar3o = 0.003394 m

mf m

Cr3o := Cr3o = 159.4398561

ρ3o⋅ Ar3o s

It may be seen that there is no change in the new values so the radial velocity at the diffuser

throat = 87.84762 m/s

α3o := atan

Cx3

α3o = 56.536926 ⋅ °

Cr3o

Ar3o⋅ Cr3o 2

A3o := A3o = 0.002108 m

C3o

A3o

Throat_width_outlet := Throat_width_outlet = 16.909629 ⋅ mm

Ndif ⋅ b2

At inlet:

r2v = 52.621⋅ mm

α3i = 41.350188 ⋅ °

At throat:

rdt = 55⋅ mm

α3t = ( −78.770868 − 0.103249i ) ⋅ °

At outlet:

rdo = 65⋅ mm

α3o = 56.536926 ⋅ °

Throat_width_outlet = 16.909629 ⋅ mm

Ndif = 15

TURBINE - TURBOCHARGER

P4 = 0.474 MPa

T4 = 888.694 K

kg

m_flow := m_exhaust = 0.728 ... The mass flow of exhaust gas available to the turbine

s

Assumptions :

P2 := .725⋅ Po1 = 0.344 MPa ... Static pressure at exit from nozzles

P3 := 0.5⋅ Po1 = 0.237 MPa ... Static pressure at exit from rotor

RPM = 47500 rpm ... Rotational speed

Analysis:

1− To3

ηt_ts :=

To1 = 0.849

γ−1

γ

1− P3

Po1

Cx3 := 0 Cx2 = U2

m

U2 := Cp⋅ ( To1 − To3) = 370.99

s

U2⋅ rev

D2 := = 149.166 ⋅ mm

RPM ⋅ π

c). The enthalphy loss coefficient for the nozzles and rotor rows

γ− 1

γ

T2s := To1⋅

P2

= 820.093 K

Po1

T2 − T2s

ζN := = 0.064736

To1 − T2

m

U3 := U2⋅ r3av_r2 = 185.495

s

2

m 2 m

C3 := 2 ⋅ Cp⋅ ( To3 − T3 ) = 59.328 C3 = 3519.754213

s 2

s

2

2 2 m 2 m

W3 := C3 + U3 = 194.752 W3 = 37928.205778

s 2

s

( γ−1)

γ

2

h3_h3s := Cp⋅ T3 −

P3 m

⋅ T2 = 18314.248869

P2 s

2

h3_h3s

ζR := = 0.966

2

r3av_r2⋅ W3

d). The blade outlet angle at the mean diameter β 3,av, and

β3av := acot

C3

= 72.264⋅ °

U3

1

ηt_t := = 0.858558

1 1 2

− ⋅ ( r3av_r2⋅ cot( β3av) )

ηt_ts 2

P3

Po3 := = 238.888 ⋅ kPa

γ

γ−1

T3

To3

γ−1

Po3 γ kJ

ho1_ho3ss := Cp⋅ To1⋅ 1 − = 160.353 ⋅

Po1 kg

P3 kg

ρ3 := = 1.076

R⋅ T3 3

m

3

m_flow m

Q3 := = 0.676

ρ3 s

( 2

Q3 = π⋅ r3t − r3h ⋅ C3

2

)

Q3 = 2 ⋅ π⋅ r3av⋅ h ⋅ C3

h = r3t − r3h

r3t + r3h

r3av =

2

m

C3 = 59.328

s

D2

r2 := = 0.075 m

2

D2

r3av := r3av_r2⋅ = 0.037292 m

2

Q3

h := = 0.049 m

2 ⋅ π⋅ r3av⋅ C3

Hub diameter:

h

r3h := r3av − = 0.013 m

2

Tip diameter:

h

r3t := r3av + = 0.062 m

2

2

Wturb := m_flow⋅ U2 = 100.205185⋅ kW

i). The rotor exit blade angles at the hub and tip

At tip

r3t m

U3t := U2⋅ = 306.516

r2 s

β3t := atan

U3t

= 79.046⋅ °

C3

β3av = 72.264⋅ °

At hub

r3h m

U3h := U3⋅ = 32.237

r2 s

β3h := atan

U3h

= 28.519⋅ °

C3

m

C2 := 2 ⋅ Cp⋅ ( To1 − T2 ) = 384.452

s

α2 := asin

U2

= 74.793176 ⋅ °

C2

k). The ratio of rotor width at inlet to its inlet tip diameter

b2 m_flow

=

D2 2

π⋅ ρ2⋅ D2 ⋅ W2

m

U2 = 370.99

s

α2 = 74.793⋅ °

m

W2 := U2⋅ cot( α2) = 100.843

s

P2 kg

ρ2 := = 1.453

R⋅ T2 3

m

m_flow

b2_D2 := = 0.071103

2

π⋅ ρ2⋅ D2 ⋅ W2

b2 := b2_D2 ⋅ D2 = 10.606131 ⋅ mm

- END of CALCULATION -

v = 52.621 mm (inlet

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