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Electrical Circuits Course File

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ELECTRICAL CIRCUITS

Objective: The overall objective of teaching this semester course on Electrical Circuits is to given the Under Graduate Engineer a through grounding of the fundamentals of electric circuits for second year first semester EEE Students. At the end of the second year first semester the student would develo an in de th !nowledge of circuit elements "active and assive#$ their characteristics and their functioning when networ!ed .E%ui ed with this !nowledge the student would be able to analy&e many engineering roblems by tracing the various elements in the set rocesses in terms of the electrical e%uivalents. The subject of Electrical Circuits would constitute a basic building bloc! for electrical engineers $ in the understanding of electric ower and its steady state characteristics. Such understanding would also hel the engineer to design his system after analy&ing the circuit under all conditions. Before commencement of the subject the student should have a knowledge of : 'ector calculus Com le( arithmetic 'arious functions li!e trigonometric and e( onential etc. )nowledge about solution of *ifferential e%uations in time domain and +a lace transform methods. *ifferentiation and ,ntegration of different functions.

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------Electrical Circuits

Objective: The objective of this unit is to ma!e the students familiar with the basic fundamentals of electrical circuits and introduce him1her in the following to ics2 *ifferent circuit elements".$+ and C# and their characteristics. Source Transformation of Electrical Circuit. 'oltage 3 Current relationshi for assive elements "for different in ut signalss%uare$ ram $ saw tooth$ triangular# Important points and definitions: There are two ty es of networ! elements 0# Active elements 4# 5assive elements ,nter connection of two or more circuit elements is called a networ! ,f a networ! consists of a closed ath in which current can flow it is called a circuit Active elements are those which su ly energy.

5assive elements are those which consume energy. ,n active elements there are two different ty es 0# 5ractical inde endent sources 4# *e endant sources. There are three different assive elements. o 0# .esistors Objective t pe !"estions: 0. 4. 6. 8. 9. :. ;. <. Give different ty es of active elements. 7ame different ty es of assive elements. Give the difference between ideal voltage source and ractical voltage source. e Give the difference between ideal current source and ractical current source. Give voltage current relationshi for .esistor. Give voltage current relationshi for ,nductor. Give voltage current relationshi for Ca acitor. =hat are energy storage elements> 4 4# ,nductor 6# Ca acitor

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------Electrical Circuits ?. 0@. 00. 04. 06. 08. 09. 0:. Give the relations for energy stored in an inductor and ca acitor. An ,deal current source in arallel with a resistor is re resented in terms of voltage source as AAAA ,f n e%ual resistors are connected in series then e%uivalent resistance is AAAAAAAAAAAAA ,f n e%ual resistors are connected in arallel then e%uivalent resistance is AAAAAAAAAAAAA ,f n e%ual ca acitors are connected in series then e%uivalent ca acitance is AAAAAAAAAAAAA ,f n e%ual ca acitors are connected in arallel then e%uivalent ca acitance is AAAAAAAAAAAAA ,f n e%ual inductors are connected in series then e%uivalent inductance is AAAAAAAAAAAAA ,f n e%ual inductors are connected in arallel then e%uivalent inductance is AAAAAAAAAAAAA Essa T pe !"estions: 0. E( lain about different Active and 5assive elements with their voltage current relationshi s. #rob$ems : 0. .educe the networ! shown below to a single voltage source in series with a resistor between terminals A B -.

R1 6A 1k

V2 10V

I s 1 1 0 0 m A

R1 4 1k

+

9'

R1 1k

V2 10 V

0@'

R1 1k

V2 4A 10V

Is1 100mA

04'

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------Electrical Circuits

4.

/ind the e%uivalent resistance between the terminals A B - in the following networ!.

R1 1k 6

9

R1 1k R01 1k R1 1k

6

R1 1k R1 1k R1 1k

8 6

R1 1k

The students are further advised to solve different roblems in the Te(t -oo!s mentioned. #revio"s E%amination &"estions : 0. *etermine Currents and 'oltages of the resistances in the following networ! using source transformation.

4.

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------Electrical Circuits 6. 8. 9. E( lain the inde endent and de endent sources> *escribe the source transformation techni%ue> The current waveform for the ure inductance of 6m C is shown in below figure 0. *raw the voltage and ower wave forms.

:. ;.

*istinguish between ideal and ractical sources and draw their characteristics. Calculate the value of D.E in the circuit shown in below figure 0$ if the ower su lied by both the sources is e%ual.

<. ?.

Com are active and assive elements and give e(am les for each. E( lain the source transformation techni%ue. Characteristics of all networ! elements. Source transformations. 7etwor! reduction techni%ues ,m ortant to ics that student have to ut more stress 2 "in end e(amination oint of view# Source transformation roblems

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------Electrical Circuits 'oltage 3 Current relationshi for assive elements Te%t boo's for Unit ( : 0. 4. 6. 8. 7etwor! Theory by Sudha!ar B Schaum mohan Engineering Circuit. Analysis by Caith B )ymberly "/undamentals# Electrical Technology "'ol-0# 3 -.+. Theraja "Fagnetic C!ts.# 7etwor! Theory 3 Goga 7arasimham "Source transformation#

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------Electrical Circuits

Objective: The objective of this unit is to ma!e the students familiar with networ! reduction Techni%ues of electrical circuits and introduce him1her in the following to ics2 )irchoffEs laws a lied to electrical c!ts. 7etwor! reduction techni%ues 2 Series$ 5arallel$ Series 5arallel$ Star *elta transformation Star-delta Transformation 7odal Analysis Fesh Analysis Important points and definitions : There are two different laws that first e( ressed by )irchhoff used in networ! analysis 0# )irchhoffEs current law 4# )irchhoffEs voltage law Current law states that Hthe algebraic sum of currents meeting at a junction or a oint is &eroI. "it is based on law of conservation of charge#. 'oltage law states that Hthe algebraic sum of otential raises and otential dro s around a closed loo is &eroI Two elements are said to be connected in series if the current assing through them is same and voltage across each element is different "both are not same elements#. Two elements are said to be connected in arallel if voltage across both the elements are same and current assing through them is different "both are not same elements#. Start to *elta and *elta to Star transformations are very im ortant techni%ues used in networ! reduction techni%ues. ,f three resistors .0$ .4$ .6 are connected in Star then e%uivalent delta networ! is given by

. 04 = . 0 + . 4 + .0 . 4 .6

.06

.0 =

R1 1k R. 1 0 1k

.6

R1 1k

R1 1k R1 1k

. 04 . 60 . 04 + . 46 + . 60

.04

R1 1k

.64

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------Electrical Circuits

. 46 = . 4 + . 6 + . 60 = . 6 + . 0 + .4 .6 .0 . 6 .0 .4 .4 = .6 = . 04 . 46 . 04 + . 46 + . 60 . 46 . 60 . 04 + . 46 + . 60

Fesh and 7odal analysis are two basic techni%ues used in finding solution of electrical networ!s. )'+ is used to form mesh e%uations in mesh analysis. )C+ is used to form nodal e%uations in nodal analysis.

Essa T pe !"estions and prob$ems: 0. E( lain about different Active and 5assive elements with their voltage current relationshi s. 4. State and e( lain )irchhoff laws. 6. State and e( lain star-delta Transformation 8. E( lain about 7odal Analysis 9. E( lain about Fesh Analysis #revio"s E%amination &"estions: 0. Use nodal analysis to find the ower dissi ated in the : ohm resistor in the following circuit.

<

4.

/ind the voltage to be a lied across DA--E in order to drive a current of 0@ A into the circuit as shown in below figure 0 using star-delta transformation>

6. 8.

Jbtain the e( ressions for star-delta e%uivalence of resistive networ!> Calculate the current in the 9K resistor using !irchoffEs laws for the networ! shown in below figure 4.

9. *etermine the current in the 9K resistor for the circuit shown in below figure 4.

9. :.

State and e( lain !irchoffEs laws> *etermine the resistance between the terminals DA--E in the networ! shown in below figure 0.

After completion of this unit the student should be able to know )irchhoff laws 7etwor! reduction techni%ues Series and 5arallel connection Star-*elta Transformation. 7odal analysis Fesh Analysis Te%t )oo's for Unit + : 0. 4. 6. 8. 9. 7etwor! Theory by Sudha!ar B Schaum mohan Engg. C!t. Analysis by Caith B )ymberly Electrical Technology "'ol-0# 3 -.+. Theraja 7etwor! Theory 3 Goga 7arasimham Electrical Circuits 3 Schuam series 0@

Objective: ,ntroduce the student to alternating voltages and currents. ,n this unit the student come across various definitions$ calculations with alternating %uantities. ,n this unit the student is introduced with the following to ics. /undamental conce ts of alternating %uantities "sinusoidal waveforms# Analysis of .$ +$ C arameters a lied with ac sinusoidal voltage "individually and in combinations# Important points and definitions : An alternating %uantity is one the circuit direction of the which reverses at regularly recurring intervals. Usually an alternating voltage or current is a waveform of sinusoidal function re resented by e%uations

v = 'm Sint

i = , m Sin "t #

where v L 'm L

L

instantenous value ma(imum value 5hase difference between voltage and current

L angular fre%uency

Jne com lete set of ositive and negative values of alternating %uantity is !nown as cycle. Time eriod 2 The time ta!en by an alternating %uantity to com lete one cycle is called its time eriod "T#. The no. of cycles er second is called fre%uency "f#. -y hase of an alternating %uantity is meant the fraction of time eriod of that alternating current which has ela sed since the current last assed through the &ero osition of reference.

00

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------Electrical Circuits A leading alternating %untity is one which reaches its ma(imum value earier as com ared to the other %uantity. A lagging alternating %uantity is one which reaches its ma(imum value later than the other %uantity. The r.m.s value of an alternating current is given by that steady "dc# current which when flowing through a given circuit for a given time roduces the same heat as roduced by the alternating current . =hen flowing through the same circuit of the same time. Average value of an alternating current is e( ressed by that steady current which transfers across any circuit the same charge as it transferred by that alternating current during the same time. The r.m.s. value of a eriodic wave of time eriod T is given by

'rms 0 T = v 4 dt T @

01 4

Vavg = 0 T14

T14

@

,f ac voltage is a lied to an ure resistor voltage across it and current assing through it are in hase with each other. ,f an ac voltage is a lied to a ure inductor current assing through it lags by ?@@ with res ect to voltage across it . ,f an ac voltage is a lied to a ure ca acitor the current assing through it leads the voltage across it by ?@@. ,f an ac voltage is a lied to an .-+ circuit$ current assing through the circuit will lag the a lied voltage by some angle greater than &ero and less than ?@@ de ending on the values of . and +. ,f an ac voltage is a lied to an .-C circuit$ current assing through the circuit leads the a lied voltage by some angle. ,n case of .-+-C circuit current either lags or leads de ending on the effect of inductance and ca acitance.

04

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------Electrical Circuits ,f inductive effect is more then current lags otherwise if ca acitive effect is more current leads. Three ty es of owers are there in case of ac circuits. 0. A arent ower 4. Active ower 6. .eactive ower. The roduct of voltage and current in the circuit gives a arent ower "',# The roduct of voltage and in hase com onent of current gives active ower "', Cos # The roduct of voltage and %uadrature com onent of current gives reactive ower "', Sin # Com le( ower is given by S L ',M To re resent ac %uantities we use j notation.

S/ort Ans0er !"estions: 0. 4. 6. 8. 9. :. ;. <. ?. 0@. 00. 04. 06. *efine .FS value. *efine average value. Give the .FS and average values$ form factor and ea! factor of sinusoidal ac voltage$ half wave and full wave sinusoidal waves. *efine ower factor. =hat is com le( ower> =hat is a arent ower> =hat is reactive ower> =hat is true ower> Give the difference between im edance and resistance. The ratio '$ , give AAAAAAAAA in case of ac circuits. =hat are ,nductive and Ca acitive reactances> *efine admittance. *efine susce tance.

06

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------Electrical Circuits 0. 4. 6. An alternating current of fre%uency :@C& has a ma(imum value of 04@A. =rite down the e%uation for instantaneous value. E( lain about hase and hase difference. /ind .FS and Average values of the following waveform.

8.

9.

A current of 9A flows through a non inductive resistance in series with cho!ing coil when su lied at 49@'$ 9@C&. ,f the voltage across the resistance ower is 049' and across the coil 4@@'$ calculate a# im edance b# the absorbed by the coil and the total ower.

:.

,n the following fig. ,f voltage meter reads :@'$ find reading of ammeter.

08

#revio"s E%amination &"estions : 0. /ind form factor and ma(imum value 'm. 4. A series .+C circuit with .L0@@ $ + L @.9C$ CL8@(0@-:/ has an a lied

@ with variable fre%uency. Calculate the resonance voltage of 0@@

fre%uency$ current at resonance voltage across .+C. Also calculate the Nfactor$ u 6. er and lower cutoff fre%uencies.

*etermine the branch and total active and reactive owers in the arallel circuit shown.

8. 9.

E( lain the significance of j-o erator. =hat are the different forms of e( ressing the sinusoidal %uantity in com le( form> Com ute the .FS and average values of s%uare wave form shown in below figure 4.

09

:. ;.

*efine the .FS value and obtain an e( ression for the .FS value of sinusoidal current> *etermine the circuit current and .f for the following networ! shown in figure 6.

<. *efine the following terms2 i# ,m edance ii# .eactance iii# 5hase deference <. iv# 5ower factor ly of 46@'$ 9@C& is a lied to the ends of ii# 5otential difference across each A circuit consists of a resistance of 09K$ a ca acitance of 4@@ O/ and inductor of @.@9C all in series. ,f su coil ?. circuit. Calculate i# Current in the coil *efine the following terms2 i# .FS value below figure 4. ii# Average value iii# /orm factor iv# 5ea! factor

0@. *etermine the average and effective values of saw-tooth waveform as shown in

0:

After completion of this unit the student should be able to know: Conce t of alternating voltages. .FS values$ Average values$ /orm factor$ 5ea! factor

Te%t )oo's for Unit + : :. ;. <. ?. 0@. 7etwor! Theory by Sudha!ar B Schaum mohan Engg. C!t. Analysis by Caith B )ymberly Electrical Technology "'ol-0# 3 -.+. Theraja 7etwor! Theory 3 Goga 7arasimham Electrical Circuits 3 Schuam series

Objective: ,ntroduce the student to .esonance and +ocus *iagrams . ,n this unit the student come across various definitions$ calculations with alternating %uantities. ,n this unit the student is introduced with the following to ics. A very im ortant condition of AC circuit 2 .esonance Current locus diagrams for various AC circuits. Important points and definitions:

0;

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------Electrical Circuits +ocus diagram2 ,t is the curve in the com le( lane traced by a oint as one of the arameter of the circuit is varied. There are different ty es of locus diagrams2 0. ,m edance locus diagram 4. Admittance locus diagram 6. Current locus diagrams. .esonance2 the unity ower factor condition of com le( im edance circuit is called resonance. There are two ty es of resonance in electrical circuits2 0. Series resonance 4. 5arallel resonance ,n series resonance the im edance of the circuit is minimum and is e%ual to .. The current in the circuit is ma(imum under series resonance conditions. The fre%uency of resonance is given by 2

f@ = 0 4 +C

-and width2 -and width of any system is the range of fre%uencies for which the current or o1 voltage is ;@.;P of its value at resonant fre%uency. -and width of .+C series circuit is given by

-= = . 4+

f r = f 4 f0

the ratio of voltage develo ed across + or C to the a lied voltage is !nown as N-factor. N= , QC , Q+ "or# ' '

N= fr f 4 - f0

0<

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------Electrical Circuits 6. 8. 9. :. ;. <. ?. 0@. Give the relation between resonant fre%uency and lower and u fre%uencies. Give the relation between N-factor$ resonant fre%uency and bandwidth. =hat is meant by magnification factor. ,n a series .+C circuit o erating below the resonant fre%uency the current AAAAAAAAAAA =hat is the hase angle of series .+C circuit at resonance. =hat is the total reactance of a series .+C circuit at resonance. A certain series resonant circuit has a bandwidth of 0@@@C&. ,f the e(isting coil is re laced by a coil with a lower N$ =hat ha ens to the bandwidth> ,n a arallel resonant circuit$ why does the current lag behind the source voltage at fre%uencies below resonance> er cut off

Essa T pe !"estions and prob$ems: 0. 4. 6. *erive the relationshi fre%uency. *erive the relationshi between resonance fre%uency$ lower cutoff fre%uency and u er cutoff fre%uency. Show that the dynamic im edance of a arallel resonance c!t. is +1C.. between N-factor$ bandwidth and resonance

#revio"s E%amination &"estions : 0. A series .+C circuit with .L0@@ $ + L @.9C$ CL8@(0@-:/ has an a lied

@ with variable fre%uency. Calculate the resonance voltage of 0@@

fre%uency$ current at resonance voltage across .+C. Also calculate the Nfactor$ u 4. er and lower cutoff fre%uencies. rove the bandwidth is inversely

=ith res ect to series resonant circuit$ ro ortional to the N-factor at resonance.

0?

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------Electrical Circuits 6. E( lain the rocedure to draw the locus diagram of .-+ series circuit when + is varying> 8. A series .+C circuit has to be designed so that it has a band width of 64@ C& and inductance of the coil is @.4C. ,t is has to resonate at 69@C&$ determine the resistance of coil and ca acitance of condenser. ,f the a lied voltage is 09@'$ determine the voltage across ca acitor and coil> 9. :. *erive the e( ression for band width of .+C series circuit> A series circuit consisting of . L 9@@K$ + L @.9 C and C L 09 O/ is connected to a variable fre%uency su ly of 04@'. ,f the fre%uency is varied through 8@ to <@ C&$ draw the locus diagram of current. *etermine the current and .f at 8@ and <@ C& fre%uency. ;. E( lain the rocedure to draw the locus diagram of .-C series circuit when DCE is varying. <. An im edance coil having . L 4@K and a 9@C& inductive reactance of 44 is connected to 00@'$ :@C& source. A series circuit consisting of resistor$ . L 0@ K and variable ca acitor is then connected in arallel with coil i# /or what value of DCE will the circuit be in resonance> ii# Calculate two line currents at resonance. ?. E( lain the rocedure to draw the lows diagram of .-+-C series circuit when varying Q+ and QC. 0@. A series resonant circuit has the following arameters2 .esonance fre%uency L 6R0@: C&$ -and width L 0@9C& and . L 8K. Calculate + and C of the networ!$ half ower fre%uency and ower %uality.

4@

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------Electrical Circuits Series and arallel resonance +ocus diagrams for various series and arallel circuits. Te%t )oo's for Unit + : 00. 04. 06. 08. 09. 7etwor! Theory by Sudha!ar B Schaum mohan Engg. C!t. Analysis by Caith B )ymberly Electrical Technology "'ol-0# 3 -.+. Theraja 7etwor! Theory 3 Goga 7arasimham Electrical Circuits 3 Schuam series

Objective : The objective of this unit is to ma!e the students familiar with magnetic circuits $/aradayEs laws and introduce him1her in the following to ics 2 /aradayEs +a ws of Electro magnetic ,nduction Self and Futual ,nductances Fagnetic circuit analysis "series and arallel# Important points and definitions : Fagnetic circuit is defined as the ath which is followed by Fagnetic flu(. The different terms we come across in magnetic circuits are 2 .eluctance$ FF/$ 5ermeance$ /lu( density$ Fagnetic field intensity$ Self inductance$ Futual inductance$ dot convention$ coefficient of cou ling. .elation between magnetism and electricity "electromagnetic induction#. /aradays laws of electromagnetic induction.

40

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------Electrical Circuits /irst law states that whenever the magnetic flu( lin!ed with a circuit changes an emf is always induced in it. Second law states that the magnitude of induced emf is e%ual to the rate of change of flu( lin!ages. Objective t pe !"estions : 0. 4. 6. 8. *efine dot convention. *efine mutual inductance. *efine Coefficient of cou ling. Give the relationshi between FF/$ /lu( and .eluctance.

Essa T pe !"estions : 0. 4. 6. State and e( lain /aradayEs +aws E( lain about dot convention. *erive a relation for coefficient of cou ling in terms of self and mutual inductances. #rob$ems: 0. A ring has a mean diameter of 40cm and cross sectional area of 0@cm 4. The ring is made u of semi circular sections of cast iron and cast steel with each joint having a reluctance e%ual to an air ga of @.4mm. find the am ere turns re%uired to roduce a flu( of <(0@-8wb. The relative ermeabilities of cast steel and cast iron are <@@ B 0:: res ectively. 7eglect fringing and lea!age effects. 4. 6. 8. Two identical cou led coils have an e%uivalent inductance of <@mC when connected series aiding and 69mC in series o cou ling. A mild steel ring has a mean circumference of :@@mm and a uniform crosssectional area of 69@ mm4. Calculate the FF/ re%uired roducing a flu( of osing. /ind +0$ +4$ F and ). *erive the relation between self inductance$ mutual inductance and coefficient of

44

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------Electrical Circuits :@@O=b when an air ga of 0mm length is now cut in ring. Also determine the flu( roduced if FF/ remains constant. Given relative ermeability of mild steel is 04@@. 9. :. E( lain the im ortance of dot convention in cou led circuits. A mild steel ring has a mean circumference of 0@@@ mm and a uniform area of cross-section of :@@ mm4. Calculate the FF/ re%uired roducing a flu( of 9@@ n=b$ assuming ermeability of mild steel as 04@@. An air ga of 4 mm in length is now cut in the ring. *etermine the flu( roduced$ if the FF/ remains constant. ;. <. State and e( lain /aradayEs laws of electromagnetic induction. Self-inductance of two cou led coils are +0 L 0@R0@-6 C and +4 L 4@R0@-6C. The coefficient of cou ling ")# being @.;9 in the air$ find voltage in the second coil$ and the flu( of first coil$ rovided the second coil has 9@@ turns and the circuit current is ,0 L 4 sin 608t A. ?. 0@. Com are and contrast electric and magnetic circuit. Two coils having 9@@ and 0@@@ turns$ res ectively$ are wound side by side on a closed iron circuit of area of cross-section 0@@ cm4 and mean length <@@ cm. Calculate the coefficients of self induction of the two coils and the mutual induction between the two. 7eglect lea!age. Ta!e rO as 4@@@. ,f a current steadily grows from @ to 0 A in @.0 sec$ in the first coil$ find emf induced in the other coil. The students are further advised to solve different roblems in the Te(t -oo!s mentioned. #revio"s E%amination &"estions : 0. *istinguish between self and mutual inductances. A coil of inductance value 6@@mC is connected in series with another coil. The total inductance is <@@mC. =hen one of the coil is reversed the total inductance is 8@@mC. /ind the coefficient of Cou ling between the coils.

46

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------Electrical Circuits 4. An iron ring has a mean length of 9@cm has an air ga of 0mm and a winding of 4@@ turns. ,f .elative ermeability is 8@@ when a current of 0A flows in the winding determine the flu( density. 7eglect lea!age and fringing. 6. A cast steel electromagnet has an air ga of length 4mm and an iron ath of length 6@cm /ind the FF/ needed to roduce a flu( density of @.<T in the ga . The .elative 5ermeability of steel is 0@@@. 8. =rite the voltage e%uation for following circuit.

After completion of this unit the student should be able to know Electromagnetic induction and /aradays laws Futual inductance Series and 5arallel Fagnetic circuits. ,m ortant to ics that student have to ut more stress 2 "in end e(amination oint of view# /aradayEs +aws of Electro magnetic ,nduction -.'...,.T. Course /ile ----------------------------------------------------------------------48

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------Electrical Circuits Futual inductance roblems Fagnetic circuits roblems Te%t boo's for Unit ( : 0. 4. 6. 8. 7etwor! Theory by Sudha!ar B Schaum mohan Engg. C!t. Analysis by Caith B )ymberly "/undamentals# Electrical Technology "'ol-0# 3 -.+. Theraja "Fagnetic C!ts.# 7etwor! Theory 3 Goga 7arasimham "Source transformation#

Objective : The objective of this unit is to ma!e the student familiar with gra h theory$ various networ! analysis techni%ues and duality of electrical networ!s. This unit introduces the student with the following to ics 2 ,ntroduction to networ! to ology a techni%ue used for analy&ing and solving large electrical networ!s. +oo analysis and nodal analysis methods. *uality and dual networ!s. Important points and definitions: 7etwor! to ology or gra h theory deals with gra h of networ! and rovides information that hel s in the formation of networ! e%uations. .e resentation of networ! with each element re laced by line segment with all the nodes are in the networ! is called a gra h. A tree is a connected sub gra h of networ! which consists of all the nodes of original gra h with no closed ath. The branches of a tree are called twigs.

49

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------Electrical Circuits The removed branches from the gra h to form a tree is called cotree. The branches of co-tree are lin!s. An incidence matri( is one which gives the information about the interconnection of various branches. /or a given tree of a gra h$ addition of each lin! between any two nodes forms a loo called the fundamental loo or tie set. A cut set is a minimum set of branches of a connected gra h such that the removal of these branches causes the gra h to be cut into e(actly two arts. A fundamental cut set is one which consists of only one tree branch and remaining lin!s. Fesh and 7odal analysis are two basic techni%ues used in finding solution of electrical networ!s. )'+ is used to form mesh e%uations in mesh analysis. )C+ is used to form nodal e%uations in nodal analysis. A networ! is said to be dual to other networ! if mesh e%uations of first networ! are same as the nodal e%uations of the other networ!. S/ort Ans0er !"estions: 0. 4. 6. 8. 9. :. ;. <. ?. A tree has AAAAAAAAAAAA The no. of branches in a tree is AAAAAAAAAA the no. of branches in a gra h. The tie set schedule gives the relation between AAAAAAAAAAAAAAA Fesh analysis is based on AAAAAAAAAAAAAA 7odal analysis is based on AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA =hat is the dual element for ca acitor> =hat is the dual element for current source> =hat is the dual element for inductor> =hat is the dual element of resistor>

4:

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------Electrical Circuits 0. /or the electrical networ! shown obtain incidence matri( and tie set matri( by selecting tree.

;.

/or the networ! gra h shown obtain cut set matri($ by selecting a tree

<.

Using mesh analysis determine the voltage 's which gives a voltage of 9@' across the 0@ ohms resistor.

4;

?.

Use nodal analysis to find the ower dissi ated in the : ohm resistor in the following circuit.

0@.

R1 6A 1k

V2 10V

I s 1 1 0 0 m A

R1 4 1k

+

9'

R1 1k

V2 10 V

0@'

R1 1k

V2 4A 10V

Is1 100mA

04'

4<

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------Electrical Circuits #revio"s e%amination !"estions: 0. /or the networ! gra h shown obtain cut set matri($ by selecting a tree

4. 6.

/ind the currents in all the branches of the networ! by using nodal analysis. E( lain the following terms with res ect to gra h theory i# 7ode ii# tree iii# lin! iv# sub-gra h

8. /ind the branch currents as shown in following figure 6 by using the conce t of tie-set matri(.

8. 9.

,llustrate the su er mode analysis with an e(am le. /or the networ! shown in figure 6 determine all branch currents and the voltage across the :S resistor by loo current analysis.

4?

:. ;.

E( lain the su er mesh Analysis with an e(am le. /or the resistive networ! as shown in below figure 8$ write a cut set schedule and e%uilibrium e%uations on voltage basis. Cence obtain value of branch voltage and branch currents.

<. ?.

*escribe the rocedure to construct the dual of a networ! with an e(am le. /ind the current and voltages across the registers of the networ! shown in below figure 6.

6@

Te%t )oo's : 0. 4. 6. 8. Electrical Circuits 3 Schaum series Electrical Technology 3 -.+. Teraja 7etwor! Theory 3 Sudha!ar and Schaum Fohan Engg. C!t. Analysis 3 Cayth and )ymberly

60

Objective : The main objective of this unit is to introduce the student with some useful networ! theorems for *.C Circuits . Some of the theorems some of the theorems are used to solve and analy&e various networ!s. ,n this unit the student is introduced with the following to ics2 Tellegens theorem Thevinin and 7ortonEs theorems Su er osition theorem .eci rocity theorem Fa(imum ower transfer theorem Filliman and com ensation theorem. Important points and definitions : Tellegens theorem 2 ,t states that in an arbitrary lum ed networ!$ the algebraic sum of the owers in all branches at any instant is &ero. All branch currents and voltages in that networ! must satisfy !irchoffEs laws. "or# ,n a given networ!$ the algebraic sum of the owers delivered by all sources is e%ual to the algebraic sum of the owers absorbed by all elements. Tellegens theorem is valid for any lum ed networ! which may be linear or non linear$ assive or active$ time varying or time in variant. Thevinin theorem is very useful when if we want to find out current in a articular branch or voltage across a articular branch of a given networ!. Thevinin theorem states that any linear active networ! with out ut terminals Acan be re laced by a single voltage source 'E in series with a single .esistance D.E. =here D'E is the o en circuit voltage measured at the terminals A-. The e%uivalent resistance D.E is the driving oint im edance of the networ! at the terminals A- when all internal sources are set e%ual to &ero.

64

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------Electrical Circuits 7ortonEs theorem 2 ,t states that any linear active networ! with out ut terminals A- can be re laced by a single current sources ,E in arallel with a single .esistance D .E. =here e%uivalent current source ,E is the current through a short circuit a lied to the terminals of active networ!. The shunt .esistance D.E is the driving oint im edance of the networ! at the terminals A-. Given a linear active networ! the .esistances D.E of the ThevininEs and 7orton e%uivalent circuits are identical. Su er osition theorem 2 ,t states that the res onse in any element of a linear bilateral networ! containing two or more sources is the sum of the res onses obtained by each source acting se arately and with all the other sources set e%ual to &ero. Su er osition theorem is not valid for ower calculations. .eci rocity theorem2 ,t states that in a linear bilateral$ single source networ! the ratio of e(citation to res onse is constant when osition of e(citation and res onse are interchanged. Com ensation Theorem2 A networ! .esistance . which contains a current , has a voltage dro given by ,.. Then according to the com ensation theorem this .esistance may be re lace by a com ensation emf e%ual to ,.. Similarly$ if the voltage across an element or branch of a networ! containing an .esistance . is '$ the element or branch may be re laced by a current source , L '1.. Currents and voltages in all other arts of the networ! remain unchanged after the substitution of the com ensation source. Fa(imum 5ower Transfer theorem 2 ,t states that if a source with internal im edance .g delivers ma(imum ower to the load connected across its terminals when .+ L .g if .g is .esistance. The efficiency under ma(imum ower transfer conditions is 9@P. Fillmans theorem 2 ,t states that in any networ!$ if the voltage soruces '0$ '4 . . . 'n in series with internal resistances .0$ .4 . . . .n res ectively are in arallel$ then these sources may be re resented by a single voltage source 'E in series with .E.

66

'0G 0 + '4 G 4 + . . . 'n G n G0 + G 4 + . . . G n

.T = 0 G0 + G 4 + . . . G n

A similar theorem can be stated for n current sources having internal conductances which can be re laced by a single current source ,E in arallel with an e%uivalent conductance. =here ,T =

,0 . 0 + , 4 . 4 + . . . , n . n .0 + . 4 + ... . n

GT = 0 .0 + . 4 + ... . n

S/ort Ans0er &"estions : 0. 4. 6. 8. 9. :. ;. <. ?. 0@. 0. 4. 6. 8. Su er osition theorem is valid only for AAAAAAAAAAA Su er osition theorem is not valid for AAAAAAAAAAAAAA Thevinin e%uivalent source consists of AAAAAAAAAAAAA 7orton e%uivalent source consists of AAAAAAAAAAAAA .eci rocity theorem is a licable to AAAAAAAAAAAAAAA Com ensation theorem is a licable to AAAAAAAAAAAAAA Fa(imum ower is transferred when load im edance is AAAAAAAAAAAAGive 7orton e%uivalent circuit for a thevinin e%uivalent circuit consisting of voltage source of 0@' and im edance of 9 ohms. Give thevinin e%uivalent circuit for a 7orton e%uivalent circuit consists of 0@A current source in arallel with 9 ohms resistor. Su er osition theorem is a lied for ower calculation "T1/#. State and e( lain su er osition theorem. State and e( lain Fa(imum ower transfer theorem. State .eci rocity and com ensation theorems. /ind 7orton e%uivalent circuit for the following networ!. Essa t pe !"estions and prob$ems :

68

9.

,n the following circuit find the current in 4 ohm resistor by a lying su er osition theorem..

:.

,n the networ! shown below re lace the arallel combination of j0@ and 6Uj8 im edances with a com ensation source

69

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------Electrical Circuits #revio"s e%amination !"estions: 0. 4. State and e( lain su er osition theorem. /ind the current in the ;- S resistor across A- of the networ! shown in figure 8 using su er osition theorem

6.

Use TheveninEs theorem to find the current through the 9-K resistor in figure 9.

8.

/ind theveninEs e%uivalent circuit for the circuit shown in below /igure 8.

6:

9.

*etermine the load resistance to receive ma(imum ower from the source$ also find the ma(imum ower delivered to the load in the circuit shown in below figure 8.

Te%t boo's : 0. 4. 6. 8. Electrical Circuits 3 Schaum series 7etwor! Theory 3 Sudha!ar and Schaum mohan Electrical Technology 3 -+ Teraja Engg. C!t. Analysis 3 Cayth B )ymberly

Objective: The main objective of this unit is to introduce the student with some useful networ! theorems for A.C circuits. Some of the theorems some of the theorems are used to solve and analy&e various networ!s. ,n this unit the student is introduced with the following to ics2 TellegenEs theorem ThevininEs and 7ortonEs theorems Su er osition theorem

6;

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------Electrical Circuits .eci rocity theorem Fa(imum ower transfer theorem FillimanEs and com ensation theorem. Important points and definitions : Tellegens theorem 2 ,t states that in an arbitrary lum ed networ!$ the algebraic sum of the owers in all branches at any instant is &ero. All branch currents and voltages in that networ! must satisfy !irchoffEs laws. "or# ,n a given networ!$ the algebraic sum of the owers delivered by all sources is e%ual to the algebraic sum of the owers absorbed by all elements. Tellegens theorem is valid for any lum ed networ! which may be linear or non linear$ assive or active$ time varying or time in variant. Thevinin theorem is very useful when if we want to find out current in a articular branch or voltage across a articular branch of a given networ!. Thevinin theorem states that any linear active networ! with out ut terminals Acan be re laced by a single voltage source 'E in series with a single im edance VE. =here 'D is the o en circuit voltage measured at the terminals A-. The e%uivalent im edance VE is the driving oint im edance of the networ! at the terminals A- when all internal sources are set e%ual to &ero. 7ortons theorem 2 ,t states that any linear active networ! with out ut terminals A- can be re laced by a single current sources ,E in arallel with a single im edance VE. =here e%uivalent current source ,E is the current through a short circuit a lied to the terminals of active networ!.. The shunt im edance VE is the driving oint im edance of the networ! at the terminals A-. Given a linear active networ! the im edances VE of the Thevinin and 7orton e%uivalent circuits are identical. Su er osition theorem 2 ,t states that the res onse in any element of a linear bilateral networ! containing two or more sources is the sum of the res onses

6<

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------Electrical Circuits obtained by each source acting se arately and with all the other sources set e%ual to &ero. Su er osition theorem is not valid for ower calculations. .eci rocity theorem 2 ,t states that in a linear bilateral$ single source networ! the ratio of e(citation to res onse is constant when osition of e(citation and res onse are interchanged. Com ensation Theorem 2 A networ! im edance V which contains a current , has a voltage dro given by ,V. Then according to the com ensation theorem this im edance may be re lace by a com ensation emf where magnitude and hase of this source are e%ual to ,V. Similarly$ if the voltage across an element or branch of a networ! containing an im edance V is '$ the element or branch may be re laced by a current source , L '1V. Currents and voltages in all other arts of the networ! remain unchanged after the substitution of the com ensation source. Fa(imum 5ower Transfer theorem 2 ,t states that if a source with internal im edance Vg delivers ma(imum ower to the load connected across its terminals when V+ L VgM if Vg is com le( im edance. ,f load is a ure resistance then

. + = Vg

The efficiency under ma(imum ower transfer conditions is 9@P. Fillmans theorem 2 ,t states that in any networ!$ if the voltage soruces '0$ '4 . . . 'n in series with internal resistances .0$ .4 . . . .n res ectively are in arallel$ then these sources may be re resented by a single voltage source 'E in series with .E. =here V T =

'0 G0 + '4 G4 + . . . 'n Gn G0 + Y4 + . . . Gn

ZT = 0 G0 + G4 + . . . Gn

A similar theorem can be stated for n current sources having internal conductances which can be re laced by a single current source ,E in arallel with an e%uivalent conductance. =here I T =

,0 Z 0 + , 4 V 4 + . . . , n V n V0 + V 4 + . . . V n

YT = 0 V0 + V 4 + . . . V n

6?

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------Electrical Circuits 0. 4. 0@. 00. 04. 06. 08. 09. 0:. Su er osition theorem is valid only for AAAAAAAAAAA Su er osition theorem is not valid for AAAAAAAAAAAAAA ThevininEs e%uivalent source consists of AAAAAAAAAAAAA 7orton e%uivalent source consists of AAAAAAAAAAAAA .eci rocity theorem is a licable to AAAAAAAAAAAAAAA Com ensation theorem is a licable to AAAAAAAAAAAAAA Fa(imum ower is transferred when load im edance is AAAAAAAAAAAAGive 7orton e%uivalent circuit for a thevinin e%uivalent circuit consisting of voltage source of 0@' and im edance of 9 ohms. Su er osition theorem is a lied for ower calculation "T1/#.

Essa t pe !"estions and prob$ems : 0. State and e( lain su er osition theorem. 4. State and e( lain Fa(imum ower transfer theorem. 6. State .eci rocity and com ensation theorems. 8. /ind thevinin e%uivalent circuit for the following networ! between terminals A-.

9. ,n the networ! shown below re lace the arallel combination of j0@ and 6Uj8 im edances with a com ensation source

8@

:. ,n the following networ! the load connected across terminals A- consists of a variable resistance .+ and a variable ca acitive reactance QC. *etermine the values of .+ and QC which results the ma(imum ower transfer. Also find ma(. ower.

80

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------Electrical Circuits 0. /ind the thevinin e%uivalent circuit at terminals A- for the networ! shown below.

4. A

6. State and e( lain su er osition theorem. 8. /ind the current through the ca acitor and voltage across 8-K resistance of the AC networ! shown in figure 9 by using su er osition theorem.

84

9. State and e( lain the ma(imum ower transfer theorem. :. *etermine the current , in the branch A- of circuit shown in figure 9 by using 7ortonEs theorem.

;. /or the networ! shown in figure 9$ re lace the circuit to the left of terminals DA-E with a Thevenin e%uivalent. The determine current in the "4 3 j4# S im edance connected to the e%uivalent circuit.

86

<. Te%t boo's : 6. Electrical Circuits 3 Schaum series 8. 7etwor! Theory 3 Sudha!ar and Schaum mohan 9. Electrical Technology 3 -+ Teraja :. Engg. C!t. Analysis 3 Cayth B )ymberly MMMMMM

88

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