J. Olayiwola, T. Udabor, N. Mohd Said, R. Lazar, M.Shahabudin, M.

Abou-Rayyah

Report 1: Model & Assumptions

6 UNIT 4 : CO2 SOLVENT RECOVERY COLUMN (LAZAR, ROUVIN) -- DATA PAGE
Unit Description The purpose of this absorption unit is to strip the CO2 from MDEA so as to recover the methyl diethanolamine (MDEA) solvent used in the previous absorption column (Unit 3) in order to recycle it back into that column. This essentially prevents wastage and reduces costs as well as ensures the CO2 removed in the previous column meets the required specification. Steam has been chosen as a suitable stripping solvent (Stewart and Lanning, 1994) to remove the MDEA via absorption. The amount of steam used in the inlet stream (Stream 9), as shown in Table 4.2, was determined by utilizing the Steam Rate Rule of 0.12 kg of Steam for every 1 litre of MDEA (Kohl and Nielsen, 1997). Due to the corrosive nature of MDEA, this column will utilize Ceramic Raschig Rings as packing. Operating Data

External Column Diameter (m) 1.37 Column Height (m) 2.70 Design pressure (bar) 1.10 Operating pressure (bar) 1.00 Position Top Bottom Design temperature (°C) 108.1 111.83 Operating temperature 98.3 101.66 (°C) Internal Number of Trays 3 Tray spacing (m) 0.5 Feed stages Stage 1 (counted from top) (Stream 8) Stage 3 (Stream 9) Packing type Ceramic Raschig Rings Packing diameter (mm) 50 Figure 6.1: Unit 4 Schematic Stream No. 8 9 10 37875 10588 Mass Flowrate (kg/hr) 351042 o 47.8 150.0 98.3 Temperature ( C) 1 4 1 Pressure (bar) 0 1 1 Vapor Fraction -4041000 -501090 -129490 Enthalpy (MJ/h) Component Weight Fractions 0.007 0.000 0.234 CO2 0.000 0.000 0.002 Ethylene 0.636 1.000 0.763 Water 0.357 0.000 0.001 MDEA Table 6.2: Stream Data 21 378330 101.7 1 0 -4412600 0.000 0.000 0.669 0.331 Table 6.1: Unit 4 Op. Data

Required Specification for Stream 10 Achieved Specification for Stream 10

99.5% of CO2 Removed from Stream 22 99.9% of CO3 Removed

Table 6.3: Unit 4 Specification

M.Fouling. .Faulty pump maintaining the flowrate of steam into the column. it fails to open).J.MDEA solvent storage tank malfunction. . reducing the amount of CO2 as well.Flooding occurs in column. in turn leading to an MDEA leak.Explosion of column.Faulty pump maintaining the flowrate of this stream from the storage tank.Overflow of liquid due to increased liquid level.e. Mohd Said. it fails to open).4: Main Disturbances for Unit 4 Disturbance Inlet Liquid (CO2+MDEA/ Stream 8)Flowrate Cause .Stream 9 Valve malfunction (i. which will eventually lead to the rupturing of the column. R.A pressure buildup will occur. M. T.More MDEA would cause corrosion. which decreases flow area inside pipe. leading to a decreased amount of MDEA in the stream. Malfunction in Unit 3 Required specification of CO2 product is not met due to change in the amount of MDEA coming into the column. . . Decreased flowrate .e. Udabor. . Inlet Liquid (Stream 24) Flow  Liquid Level Control  Bursting Disc .Abou-Rayyah Report 1: Model & Assumptions Main Disturbances Table 6. . which decreases flow area inside pipe. Decreased flowrate -Weeping Composition of CO2 (Stream 8) Malfunction in Unit 3. .Weeping . .Shahabudin.Fouling.Valve malfunction (i. MDEA Solvent Tank The storage tank overflows. N. Lazar. .Malfunction in Unit 3. Olayiwola.Flooding and thus release of corrosive MDEA Action  Ratio Control  Liquid Level Control  Maintenance (prevents fouling and valve failure)  High/ low level switch (HLS)/ (LLS) connected to a High/Low Level Alarm (HLA)/ (LLA)  High pressure switch (HPS) and alarm (HPA)  Pressure Safety Valve (PSV)  Bursting disc  Maintenance (prevents fouling and valve failure)  Pressure Control  Emergency fail close shutdown valve (ESDV) on feed line  Ratio Control  Bursting Disc Inlet Gas (Steam/Stream 9) Flowrate Increased flowrate . Hazard Absorption Column Increased flowrate . . releasing MDEA.

Udabor. Bursting Disc High/ Low Level Switch (HLS)/ (LLS). Type 4 Alarms (HLA)/(LLA) . R. M.Alarm (HPA) and ESDV.Abou-Rayyah Report 1: Model & Assumptions Configuration 1 Figure 6. Mohd Said. M. PSV.5: Control Configuration 1 Description High Pressure Switch (HPS). Olayiwola.Shahabudin. Lazar. T. N.J.2: Configuration 1 Loop Disturbance Controlled Measured Variable Location Basic Process Control System Manipulated Variable Controller Type/Scheme 2 Inlet Liquid and Gas Flowrates (Streams 8 and 9) Inlet Gas Flowrate (Stream 9) Inlet Liquid Flowrate (Stream 8) 3 4 Absorption Column Ratio between Stream 8/9 Inlet Gas Flowrate Steam and (MDEA/Steam) (Stream 9) MDEA Column Pressure Tray 1 Inlet Gas Flowrate (Stream 9) Column Liquid Level Tray 3 Outlet Liquid Stream Flowrate (Stream 21) PI/ Ratio Control/ Override Control P/Feedback 1 Inlet Liquid (Stream 24) Flowrate Recycled Solvent Tank Tank Liquid Top 30% of Level Tank Safety Control Tray 1 Tray 3 Inlet Liquid Flowrate (Stream 24) P/ Feedback S1 Inlet Gas Flowrate (Stream Column Pressure 8) S2 Inlet Liquid Flowrate Column Liquid (Stream 9) Level Table 6.

T. PSV.Shahabudin. Bursting Disc High/ Low Level Switch (HLS)/ (LLS).Alarm (HPA) and ESDV.3: Configuration 2 Loop Disturbance Controlled Measured Variable Location Basic Process Control System Manipulated Variable Controller Type/Scheme 2 Inlet Liquid and Gas Flowrates (Streams 8 and 9) Inlet Gas Flowrate (Stream 9) Inlet Liquid Flowrate (Stream 8) 3 Absorption Column Ratio between Stream 8/9 Inlet Gas Flowrate Steam and (MDEA/Steam) (Stream 9) MDEA Column Pressure Tray 1 Outlet Gas Stream Flowrate (Stream 10) Column Liquid Level Tray 3 Outlet Liquid Stream Flowrate (Stream 21) PI/ Ratio Control PI/Feedback 4 P/Feedback 1 Inlet Liquid (Stream 24) Flowrate Recycled Solvent Tank Tank Liquid Top 30% of Level Tank Safety Control Tray 1 Tray 3 Inlet Liquid Flowrate (Stream 24) P/ Feedback S1 Inlet Gas Flowrate (Stream Column Pressure 8) S2 Inlet Liquid Flowrate Column Liquid (Streams 9) Level Table 6. M. R. N.Abou-Rayyah Report 1: Model & Assumptions Configuration 2 Figure 6. Lazar. Type 4 Alarms (HLA)/(LLA) . Udabor.J. Mohd Said. M.6: Control Configuration 2 Description High Pressure Switch (HPS). Olayiwola.

Mohd Said. M. Bursting Disc High/ Low Level Switch (HLS)/ (LLS).Shahabudin.Abou-Rayyah Report 1: Model & Assumptions Configuration 3 Figure 6. PSV.Alarm (HPA) and ESDV. T. Lazar. M. Udabor.7: Control Configuration 3 Description .J. N. Olayiwola. R.4: Configuration 3 Loop Disturbance Controlled Measured Variable Location Basic Process Control System Absorption Column Ratio between Stream 8/9 Steam and (MDEA/Steam) MDEA Column Pressure Stream 9 (Steam) Column Pressure Tray 1 Manipulated Variable Controller Type/Scheme 2 Inlet Liquid and Gas Flowrates (Streams 8 and 9) Inlet Gas Flowrate (Stream 9) Inlet Gas Flowrate (Stream 9) Inlet Liquid Flowrate (Stream 8) Inlet Liquid (Stream 24) Flowrate Inlet Gas Flowrate (Stream 8) Inlet Liquid Flowrate (Stream 9) Inlet Gas Flowrate (Stream 9) Outlet Gas Stream Flowrate (Stream 10) Outlet Gas Stream Flowrate (Stream 10) Outlet Liquid Flowrate Inlet Liquid Flowrate (Stream 24) PI/ Ratio Control Feedforward 3 4 PI/Feedback 5 1 Column Liquid Tray 3 Level Recycled Solvent Tank Tank Liquid Top 30% of Level Tank Safety Control Column Pressure Column Liquid Level Tray 1 Tray 3 P/Feedback P/ Feedback S1 S2 High Pressure Switch (HPS). Type 4 Alarms (HLA)/(LLA) Table 6.

Prone to coupling between loops 1. Additionally. these are the primary control objectives.e. Potential instability due to one tuning used for both valves on gas streams. the column would be adequately controlled. easy to implement in process modeling) as well ensures all the disturbances would be rejected.e.Abou-Rayyah Report 1: Model & Assumptions Discussion First of all. - - 3 - Faster disturbance rejection because of feedforward. 2.e. Udabor. Configuration 1 comprises feedback. Potential instability due to one tuning used for both valves on gas streams. and 3. is extraneous.J. Configuration 2 simplifies the former by removing the override control (for pressure control). Disadvantages Feedback loops respond to the disturbance only after it has been detected by the system. . Mohd Said. The change in composition of the MDEA inlet stream is also a concern. 2. M. PI controllers have been utilized for most loops since they remove offsets and maintain a suitable response speed. utilizing Control Configuration 2 would be the most sensible option as it is the simplest (i.e. as this would affect the amount of steam required in the inlet stream. Thus. the column pressure effectively overrides ratio control when it operates at a different pressure. to which the signal from the ratio control is also fed) is used to control column pressure by manipulating the inlet steam flowrate. Since all the control loops have a fast response. N. in this case a High Selector Switch. Lazar. The advantages and disadvantages of the proposed control structures can be seen in the following table: Table 6. Also. Added complexity due to the addition of feedforward. such as Configuration 1. Olayiwola. flooding or rupturing in the column. Feedback loops respond to the disturbance only after it has been detected by the system. Prone to coupling between loops 1. the operating conditions of this process aren’t particularly dangerous. M. T. Configuration 3 expands upon the former by implementing a feedforward-feedback in order to control the column pressure.8: Advantages and Disadvantages of Proposed Control Configurations Control Config. the pressure is now controlled using a feedback control to manipulate the outlet gas flowrate. while feedback controls are utilized to control the level of liquid in the column and storage tank. - Recommendation: Considering the proposed configurations.Shahabudin.5% removal of CO2. A P (proportional) controller is used to control liquid levels as the liquid level can be kept in a safe range (i. Thus. The ratio control is used to manipulate the amount of steam (i. since the absorption process in the column is relatively quick. barring any chemical reactions between CO2 and MDEA).e. 1 Advantages 2 Better safety and operability: the HSS is an added safety measure Relatively simple to implement Control implementation is relatively straightforward and simple compared to the others. the wild stream) needed in order to compensate should there be a disturbance in the liquid inlet (CO2 and MDEA). it does not exceed a specified value). Quality Control: Composition of CO2 product stream would be controlled. All disturbances would be adequately rejected. Of the disturbances identified. and 3. R. ratio and an override controls. Thus. the use of feedback controls is acceptable. it is slow to respond. since the column needs to meet its specification of 99. it should be noted that temperature was not identified as a disturbance as it would not be considered a hazard since there is not heat input or heat output in the column (i. so a safer alternative. the inlet gas and liquid flowrates are the most hazardous as they could respectively cause weeping. it is slow to respond. The override control (i.

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