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Real-time Adaptive networked control of rescue robots (RABOT) Project No. 318902

International Research Staff Exchange Scheme


P1: Bournemouth University (BU, UK) P2: The Romanian Academy, Institute of Solid Mechanics (RA_IMSAR, Romania) P3: Staffordshire University (SU, UK)

P4: Shanghai Jiao Tong University (SJTU, China) P5: The Institute of Automation, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS, China) P6: Yanshan University (YU, China)

Project Objective.
The real-time adaptive networked control of rescue robots (RABOT) project aims to foster new partnerships, in particular with the research institutes in China, which has a unique knowledge on and infrastructure to parallel walking robots (an example is shown in Figure 1) and to reinforce the existing collaborations in the field of robotics developed between the research institutes through the exchange of both experienced and early-stage researchers (ERs and ESRs). RABOT has two aims - S&T aim and international knowledge transfer aim to strength research partnerships among 3 EU research institutes (Institute of Solid Mechanics of The Romanian Academy, Bournemouth University, and Staffordshire University) and 3 Chinese research institutes (The Institute of Automation of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, and Yanshan University) in rescue robot research through researchers exchanges and networking activities. The RABOT S&T aim is to investigate the challenges in the rescue and recovery operations and design/develop a novel autonomous hybrid legged-wheeled robot with a high payload, large force and ability to adapt to uncertain environments. High payload and large force have been one of the most typical options/features for modern mechanical systems. A large number of huge robotic machines emerged in various applications, such as nuclear plant maintenance and rescue, heavy-duty transportation platform, mining, oil field production, space exploration, ocean exploitation and extreme manufacturing. The RABOT S&T Objectives are: 1). To investigate the needs of rescue and recovery operations, such as the Japanese nuclear disaster in March 2011[2] and utilisation of autonomous robots and to identify requirements for development of real-time adaptive networked control of rescue robots 2). To propose a novel adaptive autonomous hybrid legged-wheeled mobile robot based on 1) and 2) above using the parallel mechanism innovated by SJTU&YU shown in Figure 1 3). To investigate and select the sensors, actuators, and communication facilities 4). To develop an intelligent interface portable robot platform for modelling robot and environment, and the interaction model between robots and environment 5). To propose an adaptive robust control system and study the human machine interaction of the developed hybrid mobile robot The RABOT knowledge transfer aim is to create a long term, sustainable and strategic partnership (a centre of excellence) so as to reinforce theoretical, technical and practical skills of researchers from both EU and China in robotics on an ongoing basis. This partnership will collaborate in joint research into robotics, advanced mechatronics, modelling and control, data representation and analysis, human and robot interaction and their applications.

Achieving this aim involves the following knowledge transfer objectives: 1) To achieve scientific transfer between EU and China where a series of mobilities will be undertaken, to improve the scientific and technical capability of host research institutions 2) To transfer knowledge to improve understanding of practical needs, requirements and applications of current technology used in robotics community 3) To increase mutual understanding of the different cultural setting of both Chinese and EU researches in robotics 4) To train the next generation of researchers (ESRs) to undertaking collaborative training in generic research skills (e.g. research methods, project management, IPR issues, etc) 5) To enhance the research and technological capacity of participating research institutions in robotics 6) To disseminate project outcomes and real world challenges in the broader robotics research community

Fig. 1 Legged robot recently developed at SJTU

IMSAR's Work Packages

The RABOT platform will not only benefit to the individual researchers who are directly involved in this project, but will also benefit the other researchers through the planned public workshops and seminars. The RABOT partners can use this platform to share culture, new research ideas and methodologies, and facilities and infrastructure. It also plans to make joint publications and new grant applications based on the past experiences and collaboration. The EU partners who are good at computational intelligence, modelling, control, 3D virtual simulation, and software development will learn experimental skills in the world-class robotics research labs in China, while the Chinese partners who are good at hardware developments and mechatronics design will learn research methodologies and cultures at the EU partners labs. Therefore this provides solid foundations to create long term research collaboration. RA_IMSAR plays an important role in this project to create a virtual center of excellence (VCOE) in robotics and a long term, sustainable and strategic partnership. This partnership will collaborate in joint research into the advanced mechatronics and parallel robots, adaptive networked control, actuator and sensor technology, data processing and classification, human adaptive mechatronics, and emerging wireless technologies that would benefit the robotics research community and manufacturers in general, and the rescue and recovery operations in particular.

RA_IMSAR Coordinator of WPs:

Coordonater of WP3: Intelligent interfaces for modelling, identification and simulation study using Dynamic Hybrid Force Position Sensing (DHFPS) metho Task 3.1: developing of a hybrid mobile robot (HMR) model- a 3D virtual representation of the HMR with high graphic processing power and advanced programming languages, through mechanical structure modelling will be developed. Task 3.3: investigating and establishing an interaction model between human and a robot Robot characteristics will be studied and analysed using Petri Nets and Fuzzy Logic. Task 3.5: development of intelligent interfaces using Dynamic Hybrid Force Position Sensing (DHFPS) methods: Landing position interface, Damping interface, the ZMP compensation

interface, modelling the platform balance amplitude, Interface of tilt over prevents the fall of the walking robot Coordonater of WP5: A real time remote control system and a human-machine interaction system Task 5.1: reviewing of the current states of the art on robust adaptive control approaches on both position and force feedbacks, on hybrid force-position control and dynamic control based on inertial and torque sensors. Task 5.2: proposing and implementing an adaptive control method, a hybrid force-position control and a dynamic control based on inertial and torque sensors Task 5.4: establishing an adaptive control, a hybrid force-position control and a dynamic control mechanism for human interaction - A DHFPC (Dynamic Hybrid Force Position Control) intelligent control interfaces will be established, by implementing the method for the dynamic control of the walking robot, EPO patent of the RA-IMSAR. List and schedule of milestones for RA_IMSAR (Romanian partner): 1. Partner organization: WP3 - A representation of human behavior, WP3 - An interaction model between human and a robot, WP3 -An intelligent interface, WP5 - A robust adaptive control approach 2. Key partner: WP3 - A model of the hybrid legged-wheeled mobile robot

Research quality of the partners

RABOT proposes a challenging research programme which requires multidisciplinary knowledge, such as fields of mechanical design, electronics, mechatronics, sensor technologies, hardware development, vision systems and imaging, wireless communications, digital signal processing, microprocessors, software and algorithm design etc. Although individual institutions will have some of the required expertise, there is a strong need for international excellence to advance the proposed research field and create a centre of excellence in rescue robotics. The sharing of expertise, facilities and best practice among the RABOT partners will maximise this opportunity. RABOT addresses the problem of expertise shortage in individual institutions in proposed research area. The RABOT partners have been selected to add value and crosscomplementarities in the fields covered by the proposed project.

Bournemouth University (BU, UK) has undertaken collaborative research projects with partners in almost every EU member state as part of the commitment to building on and extending European research partnerships. BU has been Coordinator for a number of EU funded projects; Framework Programme 7, Erasmus Mundus, Leonardo, European Social Fund and European Regional Development Fund. Examples are EU FP7 People Programme, Marie Curie Industry Academia Partnerships and Pathways Project title: "Computational Intelligence Platform for Evolving and Robust Predictive Systems", Joint proposal involving 23 researchers from BU, Evonik Industries (Germany) and REC (Poland) (2010 - 2014); Project title "GRASP Groups, Relationships and Activities of Suspected Persons", in collaboration with REC and Telnet, funded by Polish Ministry of Science and Higher Education (2009-2011). BU has the strengths in data mining, classification and pattern recognition using the soft computing techniques, such as neural networks, genetic algorithms, etc. The massive real-time data collected (measured) from sensors and the requirement data from the users will be effectively integrated and processed by the BU team. The classified data can be used for the system analysis and control purposes. The Romanian Academy, Institute of Solid Mechanics (RA) is an organization for advanced fundamental and applicative research in the field of solid mechanics and has a substantial and multilateral participation in EU Framework Programs and multinational projects. RA has participated in re-establishing symmetry in mobility and reciprocity in academic exchanges, and in the suitable promoting of the institute research and excellence teams in Europe. RA has its origin in the Institute of Applied Mechanics Traian Vuia established in 1949 under the aegis of The Romanian Academy and brings together a core of high level Romanian and foreign researchers for an active affirmation through national and international projects. RA has main expertise in robotic and mechatronic field, dynamic systems control, mechanics of deformable media, artificial intelligence control strategies, tribology and ultrasonics. RA has engaged in basic and applied researches in the field of Mechanics under a unique multidisciplinary research of five laboratories: Robotics & Mechatronics, Dynamical Systems and Control of Vibrations, Continuum Media and Biomechanics, Tribology & Lubrication and Ultrasonic. RA is the author of the first Romanian industrial painting robot, RIV-SFINX, developed in collaboration with Automatica Bucharest. It worked in production for more than 10 years at the EMAILAT Suceava Factory. It leads the way to developing other industrial command systems robots, of which: RIV1, RF 80, RHP 25 robots. Staffordshire University (SU) has undertaken collaborative research projects with partners in almost every EU member state as part of the commitment to building on and extending European research partnerships. SU has been Coordinator for a number of EU funded projects; Framework Programme 5, TEMPUS, Asia Link, EDULINK, Erasmus Mundus, Leonardo, European Social Fund and European Regional Development Fund. Examples are The eLINK project (5.5 million Euro, and the Sustainable E-Tourism project (2.5 million Euro, funded by the Erasmus Mundus Action 2 European programme. SU has recently completed an EPSRC funded project on Human Adaptive Mechatronics (HAM, with 7 UK research institutions, 7 Japanese research institutions in robotics, control, mechatronics, etc. the HAM project is directly relevant to the current applications. SU has the strengths in 1) Mobile robots and human adaptive mechatronics: which is to investigate human interaction, dynamics and control of practical robots with specific applications such as medical diagnose and surgery, and disaster rescue; and 2) Intelligent mobile and wireless sensor technology: which focuses on solutions and adoptions of sensor technologies and their integration with embedded systems. School of Mechanical Engineering (SME) at Shanghai Jiao Tong University (SJTU, China) has been paying great attention to the development of scientific research work. The outstanding research findings as well as establishment and enhancement of relationship among firms and institutions are achieved through international research cooperation. SJTU owns several national-supported research units - such as the State Key Laboratory of Mechanical Systems and Vibration, the Key Laboratory for Power Machinery and Engineering of State Education Ministry, the Engineering Research Center of Solar Power and Refrigeration of State Education Ministry, the state 863/CIMS network lab and Robot network lab, etc. In the past six years, SJTU has obtained many prizes including 7 National Prizes for Progress in Science and Technology and 63 provincial and ministerial levels prizes. 61 monographs and textbooks, 708 international SCI papers are published. Amount of patents ranks first among all schools in SJTU. In 2010, the total scientific research fund was 318 million RMB (around 40 million EURO). The robotics and robotics related research are one of the fundamental activities carried out with an international and interdisciplinary support. SJTU established good relationships with many foreign partners through international cooperation. The Institute of Automation, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) was founded in 1956, which was the earliest governmental research organization in the field of automation and pattern recognition. Presently, CAS has 317 staff members, including one academician, and 120 professors, associate professors and senior engineers. Besides, CAS has 328 PhD candidates, 186 master students, and 31 post-doctors. After its 50- years exploration and development, CAS has shaped into an institute that focuses on three major R/D directions: complex information processing, complex systems control, and integrated systems, which are all of importance to the area of intelligence technology. CAS has also evolved structurally into an institute that encompasses basic research, application research, and high-tech development, which support and complement each other. Presently, CAS has five R/D departments, including the National Laboratory for Pattern Recognition, National Laboratory for Management and Control of

Complex Systems, the National Engineering Center for ASIC Design, etc. An Institute with two national laboratories makes it unique within high-tech categories of CAS; it has strong expertise in robotics and intelligent control, bio-medical engineering and pattern recognition, human and machine interaction systems, etc. In addition, CAS has created more than ten spin-off high-tech enterprises such as the Beijing Zhongzi Group, the Beijing HanWang Technology, and so on. College of Mechanical Engineering at Yanshan University (YU, China) YU has been engaged in the study of the parallel mechanism. A comprehensive and systematic theory in Kinematics analysis and synthesis has been developed. Therefore, YU has led the trend and generated great impacts in the international exchange. Besides, the combination of practice and theory has also been emphasized. The parallel mechanism has been applied to major equipments, large load force sensors, medical devices and so on. Recently, YU has received the funds from the National Natural Science Foundation of China to develop a quadruped/biped reconfigurable walking robot with parallel leg mechanism and has received the Scientific and Technological Foundation for the Returned Overseas Chinese Scholars to research the outdoor roadcleaning robot. Moreover, YU has recently developed a wheelchair with walking legs that can go up and down the stairs. YU has the strong research ability and theory basis at developing a novel hybrid legged/wheeled robot. Since 2005, YU has over 160 research projects funded by the research councils, such as the national 863 projects funded program, projects of National Natural Science Foundation, projects of doctoral program of higher education fund, projects of the natural science foundation of Hebei Province and other projects at provincial and ministerial level and above, as well as more than 600 technological research projects of enterprise. The college has established a long-term collaborative relationship with University of Illinois in America, the University of Hull in the UK, University of Dresden in Germany, Tokyo University, Nagasaki University, Sophia University, Nagoya University in Japan, Ryerson University in Canada.

The patents which will be implemented, experimentally and technologically developed in the project:
1. Real Time Control Method and Device for Robots in Virtual Projection EPO-09464001.8, EP 2105263/ 28.08.2009, OSIM - A 2008 00232/27.03.2008 The invention allows the design, the testing and the experiments of control methods on a robot real control system in the absence of the mechanical structure, with the possibility of improving the performance through virtual projection and movement analysis, allowing an extra development of new control methods such as the hybrid force-position control, line tracing functions, the tripod walk of a stepping robot, compliant control, centre weight control, orientation through image adaptation and other functions, without needing to modify the hardware structure of the classic mechatronic control system.

APPLICATIONS. The patent is based on numerous inter-disciplinary studies with contributions in fundamental research and technology capabilities in various fields: nuclear industry for the transportation of nuclear materials, medical assistance for the handicapped, agriculture and forest care, inspections in hazardous areas, nano-micro technologies, etc. The invention refers to a real time control method and device with robots open architecture, meant to improve control performance, with applications in the developing of control systems for nano/micro/macro walking/industrial robots. ADVANTAGES. The invention allows the development of new control systems of nano/micro/macro handlers and robots with higher performance, at a low cost and design period, a significantly reduced achievement. International Awards:

Golg medal and international Prize of the 37th International Exhibition of Inventions of Geneva 2009; International Award and Diploma of Ministry of Industry and Trade of Russian Federation, The Radio Electronics Industry Department, to the 37th International Exhibition of Inventions of Geneva 2009

Gold Medal and International Prize of The Belgian International Trade Fair for Technological Innovation, EUREKA, Brussels nov. 2009 International Award and Diploma of International Warshaw Inventions Show IWIS, Association of Polish Inventors and Rationalizers, in the Belgian International Trade Fair for Technological Innovation, EUREKA, Brussels nov. 2009

EPO Patents

2. Method for the Dynamic Control of a Walking Robot, EPO-10464006 din 19.07.2010 , OSIM RO125970, A00052/21.01.2010 The patent refers to a open architecture systems for HFPC walking robot dynamic control, for hybrid control, in real time, of motion trajectory position of the robot leg end-effector and joints, reaction forces and walking dynamics for the walking robots in order to increase movement stability of walking robots on flat terrain, with obstacles or uneven ground, at constant or variable walking speed and variable load.
QpTIi Qpi

inertial transducers incremental transducer


Walking Pattern Control

Rotation/ Advance Control Balance Amplitude Control


Predictable Motion Control

Tilt Over Control Landing Position Control

Xc=A1A2A3 (4x4)






Setting Gait Parameters

Pattern Gait Selection

Pattern Walking Generator

XD fref






MUX Digital Control

Analog Output

fvf DQf DXn



Landing OrientationControl
Analog Input

ZMP Control


Real Time Balance Control





ZMP Compensator

Digital Input


Mi Joint Torque

Damping Control

Gait Timing Control


Detection Step



The invention method has 14 control sequences allowing the determination of force-position hybrid control strategies and dynamic control strategies of walking robots, together with the presentation of control system architecture. The device is made of a multitude of modules which aim to generate, in real time, an error signal on robot axis, on each degree of freedom of walking robots, for actuators control, which take into account

the control strategies of the position, force and dynamic control components, in order to increase stability and mobility of walking robots. The invention is based on numerous multidisciplinary researches with contributions of fundamental research and technological capabilities in a multitude of fields: nuclear material transport, agricultural activities, planting, military applications in mine detection, lunar experiments and in general, applications on irregular, difficult to access terrain. The problem the invention solves is that it ensures a complex control for the dynamic walking robots, hybrid control, in real time, for the position and motion path of the robots leg end-effector and joints, the forces of reaction and movement dynamic control of walking robots to increase stability and mobility. The main advantages of the invention consists in realtime robot balance control, gait control and predictable motion control providing increased mobility and stability in order to achieve higher performance, in relation to the walking robots movement possibilities, an also the development of new technological capabilities of the control systems.

International Awards: Golg medal and international Prize of the 38th International Exhibition of Inventions of Geneva 2010; International Award and Diploma of International Warshaw Inventions Show IWIS, Association of Polish Inventors and Rational, in the 38th International Exhibition of Inventions of Geneva 2010 Gold medal and international Prize of The X Moscow International Salon Of Innovations and Investments, Sept. 2010, Moscow, Russia Special Award of Islamic AZAD University of The X Moscow International Salon Of Innovations and Investments, Sept. 2010, Moscow, Russia

3. The Method and Device for the Rotation Speed Measurement in High Disturbance Environment Brevet OSIM: RO122380 / 2009 The invention refers to a method and device for the rotation speed measurement in high disturbance environments, mainly adequate to measuring the rotation speed in complex automation processes.
The method and device consist of speed transducers which determine each value of the system velocity measured by comparing the signal generated by the hysteresis former with the real time generator, ensuring synchronism through a pulse generator and a decoder.


DA2 DAk iDA1 iDA2 iDAk NVk NV2 MPk MP2 SP SD k SV


k k




Kv k - d
iDV1 iDV2 iDVk iDV1 iDA1 iDV2 iDA2 . . NVA

Sk DV2





d i DVi OR i DAi
i 1

The count generated signal, after being decomposed into amplitude and velocity, is applied to the proportional mediation blocks in which the proportional coefficients are determined off-line from the measured systems transfer function after its been excited with a Dirac impulse or from a proport ion function determined through the mathematical model of the measured system. The rotation velocity results from summing the values of the proportional mediation blocks, with regard to the number of valid values.

International Awards: Golg medal and international Prize of the 36th International Exhibition of Inventions of Geneva 2008; International Award PRIX DE LAGEPI and Diploma to the 36th International Exhibition of Inventions of Geneva 2008; International Award Merites de lInnovation EUREKA of Maison Communale de St.Joase , Brussels, Belgia, 25 Noiembrie 2007 International Award Labor Improdus Omnia Vincit of Maison Communale de St.Joase , Brussels, Belgia, 25 Noiembrie 2007

Golg medal and international Prize of EUREKA 2007 of 56th International Exhibition of Inventions of EUREKA- Bruxelles, 22-25 Nov. 2007, Bruxelles, BELGIA Medalie de aur la a XI-a ediie a Salonului Internaional de Invenii, Cercetare tiinific i Tehnologii Noi INVENTIKA-2007, Bucuresti

National and international prizes awarded for the patents which will be implemented
(Real Time Control Method and Device for Robots in Virtual Projection)
Gold Medal and International Prize of the Belgian International Trade Fair for Technological Innovation, EUREKA, Bruxelles, November 2009 for EPO-09464001/2009: Real time control method and device for robot in virtual projection.