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Electro de ionization System

Presented by Muhammad Saqib Qadir Chemist

Whether the water source is groundwater (wells) or surface water (rivers, lakes, streams) sea water it contain many contaminants. or

Contaminants includes: - Ions - Organics - Particulates - Microorganisms - Gases.

Method involves in purification of Water

Pre-Treatment Desalination De-Ionization

Pre-Treatment of Water
The feed water may contain various concentrations of suspended solids and dissolved matter. Suspended solids may consist of inorganic particles, colloids and biological debris such as microorganisms and algae. The steps involved in removal of these Suspended solids are termed as PRETREATMENT

Desalination is a separation process used to reduce the dissolved salt content of saline water to a usable level.

A method of producing pure water by forcing saline or impure water through a semi permeable membrane across which salts or impurities cannot pass. Reverse osmosis is used for water filtration, for desalinization of seawater.

Electro de ionization
EDI is a continuous electro-chemical process of water purification where ion specific membranes, mixed bed resin, and a DC voltage across them, replace the standard acid-caustic chemical regeneration process.

Basic principle of electrodialysis

In the electrodialysis process, compartments are sandwiched between a series of anion- and cation selective membranes. Anions can pass through the anionic membranes, and are rejected by the cationic membranes. Similarly Cations can pass through the cationic membranes and are rejected by the anionic membranes. Thus, desalting (product) compartments and concentrate (reject) compartments are formed. At each end of this sandwich is a pair of electrodes, to which an electrical field is applied to attract ions. During the process, electrolysis of water produces hydroxide (OH-) and hydronium (H+) ions.

An EDI plant is used for production of low conductivity demineralized water. With correct pretreatment the conductivity can be reduced to as low as 0.06 S/cm

There are 5 steps involved in EDI process Basic System Brine Injection Concentrate recirculation Concentrate recovery RO/EDI combine

Basic System

Brine Injection

A dilute brine is used as the concentrate transport solvent for the removal of ions. The idea is that brine will assist in the removal of the weaker electrolytes, yielding a higher quality water.

Concentrate recirculation

Concentrate recirculation is similar to brine injection in that a higher TDS solution is used as the concentrate transport solvent to remove transported ions. Again, the idea is that the higher TDS will assist in the removal of the weaker electrolytes, yielding a higher quality water.

Concentrate recovery

Concentrate Recovery is used to reclaim the water used to carry away the ions removed by EDI. This concentrate water is frequently better water than what is being fed to RO. Concentrate Recovery allows EDI to be virtually waste free, with only Electrolyte stream going down the drain which is 1% or less of feed water

RO/EDI Combine

Removal of Ions:
Easy ions are removed first
The ions with the strongest charge, the smallest mass, and the highest adsorption These typically include: H+, OH-, Na+, Cl-, Ca+2, and SO4-2 (and similar ions). The pH approaches 7.0 in this section since the H+ and OH- ions become balanced.

Moderately ionized and polarizable ions are removed next (e.g., HCO3- + CO2)
CO2 is the next most common EDI feedwater constituent. CO2 + H2O = H2CO3 = H+ + HCO3- = 2H+ + CO3-2 The amount of CO2 plus HCO3- in the EDI feed strongly affects the final resistivity of the product water and the efficiency of silica and boron removal.

Weakly ionized species are removed last (e.g., dissolved silica and boron).
The residence time available in this third section of the module is important. The longer the residence time available in the module, the higher the removal efficiency. A long third-section residence time can be achieved by minimizing the conductivity of the RO product (the quantity of easy ions to be removed), ensuring a pH close to 7.0, and minimizing the quantity of HCO3- and CO2 in the RO product

Effects of Contaminants in EDI Feedwater:

Hardness can cause scaling in the EDI units. concentrate chambers at the high-pH surfaces of the anionic membrane. Pressure drop in the concentrate increases, and current efficiency is reduced. Organics (TOC) adsorb to the surfaces of the resins and membranes. This causes fouling of the active sites. Particulate matter (SDI), colloids, and suspended solids cause plugging and fouling of the membranes and the resin in the chambers. Plugging of resin interstices increases the pressure drop across the module.

Iron and other active metals (e.g., Mn) may catalyze resin oxidation, and may strongly and permanently adsorb to, and reduce the capacity of, the internal resins and membranes. Chlorine and Ozone attack ion-exchange resins and membrane and cause decrosslinking, which results in reduced capacity. Module lifetime will be lessened. The ideal concentration level for oxidants is zero. CO2, Carbon Dioxide has two effects. First, CO3= reacts with Ca+2 and Mg+2 to form carbonate scale. This scaling varies with the concentrations, temperature, and pH. Second, since CO2 varies in charge depending on its pH, and its removal by RO and EDI both depends on charge, its removal efficiency varies. Even low levels of CO2 (below 5 ppm) can affect the resistivity of the product water and the removal efficiency of silica and boron.

Simple and continuous operation Chemicals for regeneration completely eliminated Cost effective operation and maintenance Low power consumption Non pollution, safety and reliablility It requires very few automatic valves or complex control sequences that need supervision by an operator It produces high pure water in a constant flow It provides complete removal of dissolved inorganic particles It requires little space In combination with reverse osmosis pre-treatment, it removes more than 99.9% of ions from the water

Feed Water Requirements

Feed water Conductivity < 30 us/cm pH 5 9 Hardness < 1.0 ppm (as CaCO3) Silica (Reactive) < 1.0 ppm SDI (15 min) < 1 TOC < 0.5 ppm Total Chlorine < 0.05 ppm Fe, Mn, H2S <0.01 ppm

Operating Parameters
Outlet (Dilute) Product Quality > 16 MOhm-cm Outlet Product Silica Guarantee Down to < 5ppb Recovery: Up to 95% Temperature: 4.4 to 40 oC (40 to 104 oF) Feed Pressure: 4.7 to 6.9 bar (70 to 100 psi) Dilute Pressure Drop: 1.4 to 2.4 bar (20 to 35 psi) Input Voltage: 400 VAC/3/50Hz