These rules are primarily intended for games between two players each controlling a complete army against its historical opponents using a minimum number of figures on a small table. They can also be used for larger or multi-player games featuring big armies split into wings or combinations of allied armies or both. There will also be more detailed companion sets, initially "Tricorne & Musket" covering 1 !11 "!, "#hako and $ayonet" for 1 "1-1%&!, and "'epi & (ifle" for 1%&1-1"1). The series* inspirations are+ that no current rules can cope with more than one corps per player, that few of the many wars of the period e-cept the .apoleonic and /merican 0ivil 1ars are covered by e-isting rule sets, the greater interest being shown in smaller model scales for which casualty removal is impractical, and the realisation that the methods of our 2uick play ancient set "3e $ellis /nti2uitatis" can be e-tended further than originally supposed. My intent here is to provide the simplest possible set of wargames rules that retain the full feel and generalship re2uirements of 1%th and 1"th century battle at army level. Those wishing for more specific period te-ture with more detailed troop classification and attention paid to lower level formation and tactics will find these in the companion sets. 456*s simplicity makes it especially suitable as an introduction to wargaming the era for beginners and the young. /t first sight, you may doubt the simplicity, which is more real than apparent but bear in mind that while many troop types are catered for, no individual army will employ more than a few of them. The e-tended historical scope may cause raised eyebrows but while many wars were between like systems, many others were not. Traditional musket lines fought 5rench columns and skirmishers. (ussian musket columns fought $ritish and 5rench Minie rifles in the 0rimea. 7russian 3reyse needle guns fought /ustrian Minie in 1%88 but were outranged by 5rench 0hassepot and machine guns in 1% !. #moothbore and rifled artillery were partnered in more than one war, while, at sea, ironclads fought un-armoured steamers and wooden sail. .evertheless, 456 is not intended for competition play unless with very rigid restrictions on period and priority pairing of historical opponents. 9t is also unsuitable for battles involving limited numbers of troops, such as most of those of the /merican 1ar of 9ndependence, nor for siege warfare. :ou should not assume that the differences between my perception of the realities of warfare during the era and received opinion are due to ignorance. #ome formerly respected secondary sources have recently been discredited by modern research. "The /natomy of ;ictory" and "$attle Tactics of .apoleon and his <nemies", both by $rent .osworthy and "5orward into $attle" and "(ally =nce /gain" by 7addy 6riffith provide good analysis, and many useful books by 1%th and 1"th century soldiers or theoreticians e-ist.
0opyright >c? 7hil $arker 1""1, 1"" , @!!1, @!!@, @!!A, @!!), @!!&.

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These rules are based on detailed analysis of a number of key battles for which a good se2uence of events is available. This shows that, e-cept for approach marches while out of contact, events are discrete initiatives and responses. This version is the result of testing against participantsF accounts of very many more battles 9n 456, troops are assumed to attempt at all times to be in their preferred formation for their current situation. 1hether they achieved this is sometimes shown by their combat results. 5or e-ample, if infantry are destroyed by cavalry, they have probably failed to form s2uare in time or flinched from the charge. The other rule sets in the series include a variety of formations and formation changing. #kirmishers integral to units are assumed to be present even if not represented by figures. 9nfantry elements represent the main body but the range at which they fire may assume that the fire is actually coming from skirmishers posted in front. The forward edge of an element base does not represent the position of the front rank. 9nstead, the combined base depth between figures of opposing elements in base contact represents point blank range. #hooting ranges are those at which substantial casualties could be e-pected. #hooting is assumed to also occur at up to double that range but to only put a brake on enemy movement by forbidding march moves in non-tactical formations such as column of route. /rtillery ranges are those considered practical by contemporaries and were often limited by considerations of visibility and long range shot dispersion. 0ombat results are matched to the range or those recorded during confrontations between troops of those types in similar situations in real battles. 0ombat factors have been set to produce historical effects in conGunction with the combat outcome table and should not be Gudged in isolation. =ne innovation is a H#pentI result for cavalry that used up their mountsF strength and the ridersF dash and cohesion but mostly survive, so that they are removed but do not count as lost. This encourages use rather than hoarding. /t the other e-treme, another innovation for the first time provides an ade2uate reason to reserve elite troops for the decisive moment of the battle. 0onventional rule sets give the player far too much information. / real general does not know that a unit has Gust lost a certain number of men, or even its total losses until ne-t day, if then. 4owever, he will usually be in a position to see if a body is moving forward cheering, edging back looking over its collective shoulders, or has disintegrated. 1e provide players with that information and that only. =ur command and movement system is arbitrary but its results are very similar to those from elaborate systems incorporating written orders, transmission by a limited number of messengers or signals, and then testing interpretation by the recipient. 9n any case, as 0lausewitJ points out, confusion is the normal state in battle, good staff work merely reducing it to a barely acceptable level. The function of the command system in a wargame differs from that in a real battle in that it is not used to enable the general to manoeuvre his troops at all but to prevent him doing so too freelyK This we achieve.

#ome features of related rule sets are not applicable in this era and others were less or more important. 5or e-ample, night marches were plentiful but night attacks were rare and usually restricted to localised assaults on strong points, which is surprising considering the need towards the end of the era to overcome the defensive power of longer ranged firearms. #uccessful attacks taking advantage of morning mist were less rare but invariably due to coincidence rather than planning. 9ndeed, on one occasion, the attacker actually waited for an hour in the hope that the mist that was to give him victory would clearK The effects of attacks also differ in this era, brigades attacked in both front and flank being more often repulsed or routed than destroyed. .aval co-operation was more common than previously, especially in /merica on coasts, great lakes and large rivers, though the feats of the 3anish ironclad (olf 'rake against the 7russians also deserve a mention. =ff-table flank marches and decentralisation into semi-independent 0orps were increasingly important from the .apoleonic 1ars on. 1hile treachery resulting in allies changing side in mid-battle did not occur, misunderstanding and lack of co-operation between allies was rife.


CHOICE OF FIGURE AND MODEL SCALE These rules are primarily intended for 1&mm or smaller figures. @&mm can also be used if the ground scale is increased by &!L and its easier visibility may be helpful in public demonstration games.

TROOP REPRESENTATION AND ARMY SIZE 5igures are combined into elements, each of which consists of several figures or figure blocks fi-ed to a rectangular base of card or some similar material. /ll bases used by both sides must have the same frontage. <ach element type has a cost in /rmy 7oints >/7? ranging from 1 to &!, intended to render opposed armies appro-imately e2ual in ability and encourage realistic proportions of elite troops, cavalry and artillery. =pposing sides must be historical contemporaries, or if fictional, of the same putative year. <ach side consists of elements of an agreed total of /7 and each army >a side may have more than 1 army? must include 1 or more staff elements and up to 1 logistics element. =ne staff element represents the sideFs 0ommander-in-0hief >0-in-0?, any others represent his subordinate or allied army, wing or corps commanders. / defending player can also use /7 to add garrisoned strong points, provide field defences or conceal troops.

• • • • • •

#taff elements represent a senior general together with his staff and escorts. 0avalry elements represent a brigade of 8-1! s2uadrons >usually 1,!!!-1,&!! men?, or a commando >or about &!! men? of Mounted (ifles. 5oot elements represent a regiment or small brigade of @ very strong or A-) average battalions >usually 1,&!!-@,&!! men?, reducing to a single battalion >about 1,!!! men? if (ifles >1%"%M? or Marksmen. /rtillery elements represent 1%-@) guns, twice as many machine guns, or 1!! Gingal or rocket men. #trong point garrisons represent several companies of foot together with any subse2uent reinforcements. .aval elements represent 1-@ ironclads, a single submersible or semi-submersible or @-A other vessels.

The units represented by an element are assumed to always attempt to be in the appropriate formation. This will normally be single or multiple columns while moving out of contact, and lines, columns or s2uares, sometimes with advanced skirmisher screens, when in combat.

PLAYING AREA AND GROUND SCALE / playing area 8 miles wide by A miles deep is ample for normal siJed battles of up to )!!/7. 9ncreasing the width to " miles permits the largest historical battles to be represented, such as $orodino, 6ettysburg or 'oniggratJ. 9ncreasing depth to 8 miles allows paired battles such as Duatre $rasNCigny, 1aterlooN1avre or 6ravelot-#t.7rivat. These improve elbowroom in multi-player games and scope for manoeuvre but slow play. /ll distances are given in paces >p? of !. & metres or A! inches. /n element*s frontage represents )!! paces in real life, which sets the standard ground scale at 1!mm O 1!!p, 1 inch O @&!p, and @!!mmN% inches O 1 mile. Measure distances on the table with a card strip or similar marked at @!!p intervals up to %!!p, then at )!!p pace intervals. <lement base dimensions are significant multiples of 1!!p and this will often make use of a measure unnecessary. / pair of )!!p - @!!p bases with handles instead of figures can be very useful for measuring gaps. 7lay is smoother and pleasanter if players do not try to position elements "Gust outside" a critical distance and specify intended separation distance on completing moves.

TIME SCALE 7lay is in alternate bounds. These do not represent fi-ed arbitrary divisions of time but initiatives and responses by the two sides. 4owever, dividing known battle durations by the number of discrete phases that can be identified produces consistent enough results to define a bound as e2uivalent to an average of 1! minutes in real life. <-cept for march movement out of contact, which is assumed to be continuous and to have been during the previous enemy bound as well as your current bound, move distances are not a function of time available and theoretical speeds but are based on typical moves in real battles.

DICE =ne differently coloured ordinary 1 to 8 dice is re2uired for each staff element used.

Troops are defined by battlefield behaviour as well as by their weapons. 1e distinguish only between those troops thought by contemporaries to differ sufficiently from each other to need different handling by their commanders or the enemy. <ach type is identified by a name descriptive of its armament and fighting methods. 4owever, be warned that these necessarily arbitrary names may contradict regimental titles, which were often deceptive andNor obsolete. 5or e-ample, not all regiments with dragoon titles still practised dismounted fighting and many light infantry regiments came to differ from line regiments only in dress distinctions. 1here a date range is specified >PQQQQ? O only before HQQQQI, >MQQQQ? O only before and including HQQQQI and >QQQQM? O only after HQQQQI.

TROOP CLASS #taff Mounted 5oot /rtillery .aval Train elements can be elements can be elements can be elements can be elements can be elements can be Carge /rmy 4D, small 0ommand 7arty or .ative 7otentate. 7istols, 0uirassiers, 4eavy 0avalry, 3ragoons, Cight 0avalry, (epeaters, Mounted (ifles, (ifle 0avalry, Cight 4orse or #ipahis. 5irelocks, Muskets, $ayonets, Cight 9nfantry, #toic 5oot, Minie, $C, (ifles, Marksmen, #pearmen, or a #trong 7oint >#7? garrison. #moothbore, Mi-ed, (ifled, or 7ortable. 5lotilla, #ail, #teamer, 9ronclad or #ubmarine. =ne naval element can be an admiralFs 5lagship. 7ontooneers, a #upply $ase, a Caager, or /eronauts.

/ few elements can be additionally graded as+

• • •

$(9CC9/.T or 9.<(T if #taff, <C9T< if Mounted or 5oot, 4=(#< or 4</;: if /rtillery.

/ny number of Mounted, 5oot or .aval can be graded as 9.5<(9=(.

TROOP TYPE /(M: 4</3DB/(T<(# >4D? 7erson, advisers, aides, staff, gallopers, escort, and sometimes table and chair, tent, travelling carriage or even kibitJing royalty, of an army commander who prefers to change position infre2uently and relies on ample messengers to e-ert authority, such as .apoleon at 1aterloo, #chwartJenburg at CeipJig, Mc0lellan in 1%8@ or Moltke in 1% !, or more rarely, the similar entourage of an ally general. 7erson and small entourage of an army commander who prefers seeing for himself and personal communication to total reliance on messengers, such as Marlborough,

0=MM/.3 7/(T:

>07? ./T9;< 7=T<.T/T< >.7? 79#T=C#

1ellington or (aglan, or of a subordinate general or ally general >/6? commanding a wing of the army or a corps. (uler, viJier or other sole commander of an /frican or /siatic native army, often mounted on an elephant, horse or camel or sitting on a portable throne or litter, together with his advisors, lackeys, fan bearers and bodyguard. <arly 1%th century cavalry who moved deliberately in close formation and often received enemy cavalry charges at the halt with a fire of pistols andNor carbines rather than counter-charging, such as the 5rench >M1 A!? and the /ustrians >M1 &1?. This tactic was the best against Turkish sipahis but less effective against <uropean cavalry charging sword in hand. 0avalry in steel plate armour corselet or half-corselet on big horses who charged sword in hand in close formation, such as $ritish cavalry under Marlborough, 7russian cuirassiers of the #even :ears 1ar, 5rench .apoleonic cuirassiers or later 7russian cuirassiers even if brigaded with uhlans. 1"th century e-perts disagreed as to whether the protection offered by a cuirass Gustified its e-tra weight and fatigue, though most agreed it made the wearer braver, especially when attacking foot. =ther cavalry mounted on big horses intended almost e-clusively for the mounted charge and inefficient at other duties, such as 1"th century $ritish dragoon guards and heavy dragoons, 5rench carabineers and horse grenadiers, or cuirassier regiments that had abandoned armour. 7lainer, cheaper andNor worse mounted cavalry who could not only charge or carry out outpost duties mounted but retained some ability to fight on foot, such as early 1%th century and some later dragoons and early /merican 0ivil 1ar cavalry. .ot all troops with a dragoon title 2ualify. (egular cavalry with theoretically smaller men mounted on light fast horses trained to charge in line but also e-pected to perform the bulk of the army*s mounted outpost, escort, scouting, screening and skirmishing duties, such as dashing romantic regiments of hussars, light dragoons, chasseurs or lancers, sometimes supported by duller and less fashionable dragoons. The first troops in this category were the 7russian hussars after their reorganisation by von 1interfeldt. 0avalry mostly armed with repeating magaJine carbines as well as with sabre and revolver, and at least as likely to fight with most troopers dismounted as to fight entirely mounted, such as later Bnion cavalry of the /merican 0ivil 1ar. #harpshooters or infantry with modern rifles riding ponies, mules or camels, such as $oers or regular camel corps, or cavalry whose carbines have been replaced by rifles to fight mostly on foot in a single firing line. They were very wary of cavalry who had swords. (iders with modern rifles but keeping >or if /ustralians after 1"1 scrounging? swords and combining dismounted fire with decisive mounted charges.


4</;: 0/;/C(:


C964T 0/;/C(: >1 ) M?

(<7</T<(# >1%8A-1"!&? M=B.T<3 (95C<# >1%%!M? (95C< 0/;/C(: >1"!&M?

C964T 4=(#<

Those undisciplined irregular skirmishing horsemen or camel men who dominated the war of outposts, sought to engulf unwary enemy cavalry but more often hovered in swarms around formed enemy than charged desperately to disaster, such as 1%th century /ustrian hussars, (ussian 0ossacks, Tartars, Maratha pindaris or marauding $edouin. /lso used for Cight 0avalry present in small number for scouting but not numerous enough to be formed into brigades, such as $ritish, Coyalist and (ebel cavalry during the /merican 1ar of 9ndependence, and partisan rangers of the /merican 0ivil 1ar. 5iercer native cavalry charging wildly in loose swarms and superior to <uropeans in a confused melee, such as Mamluks, Turkish #ipahis, 9ndian silhadars or Tuareg. <uropean infantry >1 !1-1 )"? still using the 5rench system of the late 1 th century, though now often all armed with flintlock smoothbore musket and bayonet. They still formed )-8 ranks deep with large intervals between ranks that had to be closed up to deploy, change direction or fire. They defended with rank fire, each rank stooping after it fired so that the ne-t could fire over its heads but were supposed to attack with sword or bayonet without firing. /lso those non-<uropean infantry with matchlock or flintlock muskets who fired a volley or two, then charged with swords, such as Turkish Ranissaries. 9nfantry also armed with muJJle-loaded smoothbore musket and bayonet but using the new 3utch drill and firings, such as the 3utch themselves >M1 ")?, $ritish >P1 &?, 5rench >1 &)-1 "1?, 7russians >M1%! ?, and /ustrians >1 )1-1%! ?. They usually formed in A ranks with small intervals and marched in step and drilled in cadence, these greatly improving their ability to change formation or direction. 1hether in attack or defence, they fought erect in rigid shoulder-to-shoulder lines, the ranks "locked on" by moving half a man width sideways so that all could fire simultaneously. 0ombat started with platoon fire, with each platoon volleying in its succession but tended to degenerate into independent fire. /t short range, their fire was often more deadly than the skirmishing fire or single volley and charge of the following type, though less decisive than the latter. Their bayonets were chiefly valuable for defence against charging cavalry, against whom there was only time for a single close range volley. 9nfantry armed and drilled like those we class as 5irelocks or Muskets or >1%&!M? like those we class as Minie but chiefly relying on the moral effect of a bayonet or sabre charge in line after a single volley amid ringing cheers or rebel yell or of a rapid advance in column, such as brigaded grenadiers, #wedish >M1 1%?, $ritish >1 &-1%&!?, 5rench >1 "@-1%8 ?, 7russian >1%!%-1%8)?, /ustrian >1%!%-1%&! and 1%8)-1%88? and /merican 0ivil 1ar 0onfederates. Those like Muskets >1 "1M? preferred to form battalion s2uares when attacked by cavalry and relied for distant or more continuous fire against infantry on skirmishers thrown out in front, which are assumed to be present, though not depicted. #uccessful bayonet charges killed and wounded few enemy compared with more continuous shooting but were more decisive, since they left fleeing opponents in no doubt that they had lost. 9infantry brigades similar to those classed above as $ayonets but entirely of men trained to move e-ceptionally fast and act independently, such as those of the /nglo7ortuguese Cight 3ivision of the 7eninsular 1ar and 5rench Souaves and Turcos

#97/49# 59(<C=0'#

MB#'<T# >1 !1-1%8!?

$/:=.<T# >1 !11%%&?

C964T 9.5/.T(: >1 !!-1%8 ?

before 1%8 . 9t does not include 7russian fusiliers and 5rench 0hasseurs a 7ied of 1%&", since these were brigaded with normal infantry rather than together. #T=90 5==T >1 !!-1"1&? 9nfantry with muJJle-loaded smoothbore musket and bayonet and drilled as any of the types above, or >1%& M? with rifles but still relying on dense formations and volley fire, more remarkable for endurance than for marksmanship but fond of the bayonet and whom "it is 8 times easier to kill than to defeat", such as regulars of the #ikh khalsa until 1%)" and (ussian line infantry. 9nfantry armed with muJJle-loaded e-panding bullet rifles such as the Minie, <nfield, #pringfield, CorenJ or 7odewil, the theoretical range of which was not however achieved in war due to the unfamiliar problem of range estimation, a short beaten Jone and a lack of practise facilities. They fought erect or kneeling in a looser two-deep line using available cover and mostly relying on its own fire rather than on that of detached skirmishers. <-amples include $ritish 0rimean 1ar infantry and Bnion infantry of the /merican 0ivil 1ar. 9nfantry armed with low velocity breech-loaded rifles, such as the 3reyse needle gun, #nider or (emington. /s well as firing faster, these they could load and fire prone with reduced e-posure to enemy fire, so fought in a thick swarm instead of in line or column. 9nfantry armed with higher velocity breech-loaded or >1%%8M? magaJine rifles, such as the 0hassepot, Martini, $erdan or Cee-Metford, and usually fighting as a prone firing line with supports and reserve. / flatter traGectory and adGustable sights permitted long range volleying, and the increased firing rate of magaJine rifles and aid by machine guns later allowed even more open formations. (epresenting the occasional specialist Gager battalion employed by <uropean armies during the early part of the period and the larger numbers of irregulars such as /ustrian pandours, 9ndian naGibs or GeJailachis, wily 7athans and /fghan irregulars, but not the skirmishers of 1"th century regular units or specialist Gager or rifle battalions integral to line brigades, such as /ustrian Gager in 1%&" and 1%88. Bndrilled foot mainly relying on a charge with spear andNor sword, such as 9rish rebel pikemen, (ussian =polchenie militia, 3ervish, Sulus, or in the related rule sets, 4ighland #cots Racobite rebels. <ntirely smoothbore artillery batteries allocated to a corps or its constituent divisions, or to a grouping of e2uivalent power centralised under the 0-in-0*s personal control as an artillery reserve for use in mass at a decisive point. 9t does not include light guns accompanying individual infantry battalions or regiments, which are instead assumed to be included in these. <ach artillery element may include a minority of horse or heavy as well as field batteries but some armies can also have a few elements entirely of horse artillery, or have their reserve artillery entirely or predominantly of heavy guns. 3ivisional and corps or reserve artillery with a mi-ture of often larger calibre but light smoothbore batteries and longer-ranged but less lethal rifled batteries >1%& 1% 1?, such as /merican 0ivil 1ar artillery, or of rifled and mitralleuse batteries

M9.9< >1%&1-1%8 ?

$C >1%)%-1% !?

(95C<# >1%8 M?



#M==T4$=(< /(T9CC<(: >1 !!-1%8%?

M9E<3 /(T9CC<(: >1%& -1% "?

>1% !?, such as the 5rench artillery of 1% !. (95C<3 /(T9CC<(: >1%88M? 7=(T/$C< /(T9CC<(: 7=.T==.<<(# 3ivisional and corps or reserve artillery entirely of rifled steel or shorter ranged brass batteries firing efficient point detonation e-plosive or shrapnel shells. Man or pony-carried 0hinese Gingals, camel-mounted Jamburaks andNor swarms of 9ndian rocketeers launching rockets by hand and their pack camels. Troops able to move to a river and construct a temporary bridge. #B77C: $/#<, representing the army*s supplies, hospitals, stores and transport depots, and positioned contiguous to a built-up area >$B/? or battlefield edge and also on a waterway, navigable river, road or railway. 9t cannot be moved during a battle and is only feebly defended by its own personnel. 9ts function is to increase endurance, re2uire protection and offer a target for raids. 0ircled supply wagons such as those of a $oer army. 9t differs from a #upply $ase in being heavily defended and able to move freely, if slowly. =bservation balloons tethered at 1,!!! feet and able to see ) T miles, plus detachment and wagon, or >1"1!M? one or more grounded aeroplanes able to see the whole battlefield when aloft, a canvas hangar, vehicles and ground crew. 9t can be moved but can only operate if stationary for the whole of this bound and that preceding, in good going, in good weather, in daylight and within the 0-in-0Fs easy command distance. 9t can be attacked but cannot fight back. #mall craft effective only in close combat including both groups of boarding craft such as galleys, cutting-out e-peditions in shipsF boats, canoe fleets or war Gunks and also unarmoured rams, fire ships and >1%8!M? spar- or >1% 8M? other torpedo boats. #ubstantial wooden broadside warships dependent entirely upon sail and unable to move closer than )& degrees to directly upwind. #imilar wooden warships additionally provided with a steam engine driving paddle wheels or screw propeller, or unarmoured vessels powered only by steam. $roadside or turret steam warships with sufficient iron or steel armour to provide substantial protection against artillery for armament, engines and flotation. / single practical fully submersible boat or partly submersible H3avidI.

C//6<( /<(=./BT# >1 ")M?


#/9C >M1%8"? #T</M<( >1%@)M? 9(=.0C/3 >1%&&M? #B$M/(9.< >1%81M?

TROOP GRADE <C9T< 9ncludes guard cavalry, full brigades of guard infantry or grenadiers, regular marksmen entirely armed with good rifles and fanatic spearmen. <lite cavalry were used for decisive attacks, foot guards and grenadiers to press difficult assaults on villages or as a final reserve to tip a battle hanging in the balance. .ot only is the cost increased but also each element counts as @ element e2uivalents.


9ncludes all those cavalry or foot significantly deficient in some of the battle skills e-pected of their type, such as recently recruited volunteers, militia, landwehr, badlytrained reservists, badly-officered and neglected regulars, cavalry dispersed into regiments, s2uadrons or companies instead of formed into brigades or on bad or halfstarved horses. This grading does not reflect on the menFs individual courage or mean that they will not fight well on occasion or be good value. .aval elements similarly graded are those too weakly armed or unseaworthy to lie in line of battle in open sea, such as sailing frigates, corvettes or brigs, steam frigates unless armed with large shell guns, river steamers, coastal, riverine or obsolete 9ronclads and all submarines >P1"!!?. 4eavy 1@pdr or larger smoothbores or if 1&pdr or larger rifled guns. <ither smoothbores up to 8pdr or rifled guns up to 1!pdr with gun crews carried on the limbers or riding the teamFs off-side horses, or smoothbores up to light 1@pdr or rifled guns up to 1Apdr with crew riding separate mounts. 3ragoons, (epeaters, Mounted (ifles and (ifle 0avalry can fight either mounted or dismounted and so are HdismountableI. 3ismountable elements need not be duplicated in mounted and foot forms but if not should have a mi-ture of mounted figures, dismounted figures and led horses. / dismountable element is always mounted if it has moved more than 8!! paces this bound, and if not, always dismounted if shooting, entrenched, manning an obstacle or in difficult going. =therwise, 3ragoons are always mounted, whereas Mounted (ifles are always dismounted. (epeaters and (ifle 0avalry are mounted or dismounted, as declared by their player before combat dicing.

4</;: >/rtillery? 4=(#< >/rtillery? 39#M=B.T/$C < >Troops?


ELEMENT BASING /n element consists of several figures fi-ed to a thin rectangular base of card or similar material. The siJe of this base and even the scale of the figures are not critical provided that all land elements have the same frontage. 4owever, some standardisation is needed if you are to play against other peopleFs armies, and the conventions specified below are the best that can be done to represent the true space occupied. #tandard basing mounts @&mm figures on 8!mm wide bases and smaller figures on )!mm wide bases. 9f figures were previously on A!mm wide bases, fi- these to the centre of a )!mm base. The standard basing for @&mm and 1&mm figures is the same as in the other sets of the series. 5igures smaller than @&mm can be mounted on %!mm bases, if desired. This allows formations to be depicted more realistically and 1(6 18%&-1%)& elements to be combined into an 456 element. 9f so, use the 1!mm number of figures per base for 1&mm figures and double the number in each rank for all smaller scale elements e-cept staff. If figure sca e is! 5rontage of all element bases De*+, -f e e'e.+ /ase if! /rmy 4D, 7ontooneers, #upply $ase, Caager and /eronauts. .ative 7otentate, 3ismounted and /rtillery. Mounted, $C, (ifles and #pearmen. 0ommand 7arty. =ther foot. "#$%&'' 8!mm 1@!mm 8!mm )!mm )!mm A!mm (&$)'' )!mm %!mm )!mm A!mm A!mm @!mm (&$%'' %!mm 18!mm %!mm 8!mm A!mm )!mm

RECOMMENDED NUMBER OF FIGURES OR MODELS PER BASE 6 O 6eneral, ( O (ider on horse, 4 O Ced horse, / O /rtillery piece and crew, #k O in #kirmisher block, CO in Coose order block, >Q d? is the number of ranks a figure block is cast in if greater than one. S*aci.g c-0es are! 5ront to rear+ o O .o gap between ranks, U O #mall >1N@ figure depth? gap between ranks, UU O largest possible gap between ranks. V O #ingly, between and beside columns front ranks. #ide to side+ .o code O shoulder-to-shoulder in centre of base, s O spaced e2ually across base, r O spaced randomly, sNr O s if soldiers and r if irregulars, Q- O in that number of separate groups. Figures *er e e'e.+ %&'' 1 (&'' (#'' )'' %''

if! 4D 0ommand 7arty .ative 7otentate Cight 4orse #ipahis 7istols =thers if mounted 3ragoons if not (epeaters Mounted (ifles (ifle 0avalry 5irelocks Muskets #toic 5oot Marksmen $ayonets >linear? $ayonets >columns? Cight 9nfantry Minie $C (ifles #pearmen 7ortable artillery =ther artillery

6U1-@U1-A( 61( 6@( @(sNr A(sNr A-)( A AUUA4 @UU@41( AsNrUUA4 @sUU@41( ) ) ) @s ) ) ) ) As As A-)ro@-)r @/s 1/

6U@U@-A( 61-@( 6@( A(sNr )(sNr &( &( )UU)41( AUUA4@( &sNrUU&4 As@(UUA4 8sU8s % 8o8 )r @sUU% AsV@-@o@ )sUU8 1sUU%r 8sUU@-@ 8sUU) A-)ro)-8roA-&r A/s 1/

6U@-A U@-A( 6O@( 6o)-8( A(sNr &(sNr )(o)( 8( &U1(U84 )UU)4@( 8sNrUU84 AsA(UUA4 8sU8sU8s %o% %o%o% )r @sUU%o% AsV@-AoAoA )sUU8o8 1sUU%ro%r 8sUUA-@o@ 8sUU8 A- ro -%ro&-8r )/s @/

6M 6@( Q 1!(s Q %(o%( 1@-18(UU!-8( 18>@d?U@(UU184 &#kUU8(84 1!#kUU1@4 &#k8(UU84 )!>)d? )%>Ad? )%>8d? 1!#k &#kUU@8>@d? 1!#k UU@-18>)d? 1!#kUU@!>@d? )!-)%>@d? @!CUU@-18>)d? @!CUU@8>@d? Q Q A/

/ strong point garrison is represented by a single un-based figure or block to fit in among model buildings. Most foot figures should be positioned at the rear of their base so that muJJles do not protrude beyond its front edge. Those with an HoI spacing code can be locked, i.e. covering the intervals of the front rank with muJJles between the front rank heads. 5igures further forward represent skirmishers or 1%c grenade throwers. 4D can be embellished with tents, tables, led horses or travelling coach as desired. #upply bases can be represented by tents, field bakeries, transport animals, or anything else your artistic mind desires. 6round scale considerations make it inconvenient to represent draft teams under these rule unless using 8mm or @mm, so they are otherwise assumed to have been withdrawn out of sight into dead ground. 9t is not necessary to duplicate dismountable elements as mounted and dismounted bases unless you wish to. 9f you do not, dismounted bases are usually preferable. #pearmen can alternately use dismounted base depth to permit substitution of 1-@ 3$( or 3$M elements of similar figures. The increased depth of (epeaters, Mounted (ifles, (ifle 0avalry, $C and (ifle elements is to suit the use of prone firing figures and also the increased tactical depth due to horse holders in rear and later 1"c infantry organisation into separated firing line, supports and reserves.

/lthough 8mm and @mm blocks are intended for use without bases, our e-perience shows bases /(< needed and that using the same base siJes as 1&mm figures is most realistic. @mm blocks are in a variety of widths that can be selected or combined. @mm cavalry are cast in blocks of 8 light or % heavy. My basing allows a single line of heavy or @ lines of light, or even a mi-ed brigade of cuirassiers and uhlans. 4orse artillery are best represented by 8 horse teams with guns hooked up, field artillery by guns in action with ) horse teams behind, and heavy artillery by guns in action with 8 horse teams behind. 9rregular Miniatures cast 8mm $ritish .apoleonic infantry blocks as loose order, so substitute their 0rimean blocks. 1hen 8mm manufacturers do not distinguish heavy guns, try substituting (enaissance sakers but with contemporary horse teams and crew. Those 8mm cavalry or infantry blocks cast with slight gaps between figures can be easily cut and combined to fit base frontages. .aval and /eronaut elements are represented by smaller models than other land elements, this being rationalised as the element being viewed from a greater distance. There are e-cellent ranges of 1N1@!! ships for the /merican 0ivil 1ar and of 1N@)!!, 1NA!!! and 1N8!!! ships for other wars of our era.

• • •

1N1@!! naval elements have a frontage of A!mm and depth of 1&!mm. 1N@)!! or 1NA!!! naval elements have a frontage of @!mm and depth of 1!!mm. 1N8!!! naval elements have a frontage of @!mm and depth of &!mm.

Models based for the e-perimental 3$#/ naval rules also on my web page can also be used 1%"!M.

ELEMENT COLOUR CODING 1hile uniform colours provide opponents with all the identification clues they are entitled to, the player controlling them, especially with the smallest figure scales, may need some aid. 1e recommend painting the rear edge of each base with a single colour indicating the nationality and differing from those of as many as possible of its historical opponents and battlefield allies.

• • • • • • • • • • •

(oyal $lue O 5rench or 0hilean, $lack O 7russian, $runswick, Montenegro or #udanese, Cight 6rey O /ustrian or 0onfederate, 3ark 6reen O (ussia, 7iedmontN#ardinia or 'ingdom of 9taly, Cight 6reen O Turkish, <gyptian, 4anoverian, 9rish (ebel or /fghan, (ed O $ritish, $ulgarian, 7eruvian or 4ungarian revolutionaries, =range O .etherlands, .assau or $oer (epublics, Cight $lue O $avarian, 3anish, 6reek, /rgentine, Te-as (epublic or Bnited #tates, :ellow O #wedish, #a-on, (omanian, Me-ican, $olivian, #ikh or 9mperial 0hinese, 1hite O #panish, 4essian, #erbian or Rapanese, Mid-$rown O 7ortuguese or $elgian,

7urple O .eapolitan or 9ndian 7rincely.

1here @ nations have the same colour, their dress will usually distinguish them. Troop grade can then be indicated by central dots of a contrasting colour 6old O <lite, #ilver O Cight 0avalry, Cight 9nfantry or 4orse /rtillery, Mud O 9nferior.

ARMY SIZE Bnless the battle is a campaign or scenario game, each side consists of troop elements up to an agreed total of army points >/7?, normally between 1!! and 1,!!! /7. 9n all games each side is controlled by 1 or more staff elements, which must include a 0ommander-in-0hief >0-in-0?. =ther staff elements can be subordinate or allied generals, sometimes grouped under an intermediate army commander. <ach subordinate or allied staff element controls a command of at least 8 elements including it self. <ach element must be part of one of these commands and, unless in a 0-in-0Fs or other army commanderFs command, cannot be transferred to another. Cogistic elements must be part of a 0in-0Fs or other army commanderFs own command. NA2AL CONTINGENTS .aval forces in the army lists reflect the relative strength and ship types of opposed nations but not usually overall numbers, since only small portions of fleets were likely to be involved in supporting land forces. /ny naval element other than a 5lotilla or #ubmarine can be nominated as a flagship e2uivalent to an allied general controlling all naval elements, otherwise all naval elements are controlled by the 0-in-0

ELEMENT COST /7 cost if+ 7istols 0uirassiers 4eavy 0avalry 3ragoons Cight 0avalry (epeaters Mounted (ifles (ifle 0avalry Cight 4orse #ipahis 5irelocks Muskets $ayonets Cight 9nfantry #toic 5oot $asic & 8 & ) & 8 % 1! @ A @ A ) & A <lite % & 8 1! A & ) & & 8 & 9nferior A ) A @ A ) & 1 @ 1 @ A ) @ /7 cost if+ /rmy 4D 0ommand 7arty .ative 7otentate /dmiral in 5lagship /7 cost if+ 7ontooneers #upply $ase Caager /eronauts 5lotilla #ail #teamer #ubmarine 9ronclad $asic @! 1& 1! 1! $asic & % ) @& A 8 % ! @! $rilliant )! A! @! @! <lite 9nert 1! 1! & & 9nferior ) 8 1! 1&

Minie $C (ifles Marksmen #pearmen /7 cost if+ #moothbore /rty Mi-ed /rtillery (ifled /rtillery 7ortable /rtillery

) 8 @ 1 $asic % 1! 1@ &

& % A A 4eavy 1@ 1& 1% -

A ) & 1 4orse 18 @! @) -

.ote+ 5lagships add the admiralFs cost



1. @. A. ). &. 8.

3ecide which army is the attacker and which is the defender. 0hoose and place battlefield terrain. 3ecide battlefield base edges. (ecord command structure and deployment plans. 3efender deploys all undelayed unconcealed troops and unconcealed battlefield preparations. /ttacker deploys all undelayed troops.

DECIDING ATTAC3ER AND DEFENDER The army commanders each dice and add their armyFs aggression factor >which is based on its historical preference for tactical attack or defence and not on which nation is invading the other?, plus or minus 1 for a $rilliant 0-in-0. The high scorer is the attacker and the low scorer the defender. <2ual scorers dice again.

BATTLEFIELD TERRAIN 7layers must be able to provide a battlefield in case they become the defender. /s generalship is definable as the skill with which generals adapt their troopsF movements to those of the enemy and to the battlefield, varied and realistic terrain is essential for interesting battles. #ince the playing area is so small, we hope players will spend time and ingenuity on making their terrain as visually attractive as their troops. The battlefield is normally produced by placing separate terrain features of a type appropriate to the theatre of war on a flat board or cloth representing flat or slightly rolling good going. The types of terrain that are significant at army scale during this era often differ from those familiar from other scales and eras. Those selected appear on published maps of maGor historical battles. 5eatures can be Cinear or /rea. Cinear features can be 1aterways, #treams or 6ullies, (ivers, (oads or >from 1%&"? (ailways. /rea features can be $B/ >$uilt Bp /rea?, 4ills, 1oods, Marsh or #low 6oing. /ll e-cept $B/ must have curved edges. /n element in more than 1 type of terrain is treated as though it is in that terrain which+

• •

hinders visibility least, for the purposes of determining visibility and its vulnerability as a shooting target, reduces mounted movement the most, for the purposes of determining movement, its own shooting effectiveness and close combat outcomes.

The features chosen may be restricted by army lists, otherwise must include a minimum of A (oads and @ $B/, and ma-ima of 1 each of 1aterway, (iver and (ailway and 8 of any single type of feature. 5or every " s2uare miles of total battlefield area, there must be &-% features, at

least @ of which must be area features other than $B/ >only 1 of which can be more than 1,!!!p across in any direction?, and at least 1 a stream, river or gully. /ll features that cannot be placed where positioning dice re2uire are discarded. <ach short edges of the battlefield and the four halves of the long edges are numbered clockwise from 1 to 8 by the defender. 5eatures are now diced for and placed in the order they are listed in below. The attacker can provide and place up to @ features if he chooses. The remainder to make up the minima and ma-ima are provided and placed by the defender. 9f both defender and attacker wish to place features of the same type, the defender dices and places first. 9f there is a gap between area features, it must be at least )!!p wide. 1/T<(1/:# (epresent the sea or a large un-fordable and navigable river such as the Mississippi, lower 3anube or :iangtseN4wangshi. / 1aterway re2uires 1 positioning dice and e-tends 8!!p-@,!!!p inward from a side edge running to, from or along the edge section corresponding to its score (epresent minor rivers, streams, creeks or brooks, which, although easily fordable, are a significant obstacle due to steep or muddy banks or rocky bed. They are depicted as W of an element base width across and flowing in >often reversing? gentle curves. / #tream re2uires @ positioning dice and runs from one of the indicated edge sections to the other unless it meets a previously placed 1aterway, #tream or (iver, which it Goins instead. 9ts length cannot e-ceed 1 T times the straight-line distance between its ends. (epresent a single wider and mostly unfordable river, created by optionally upgrading 1 #tream that runs between @ long battlefield edges by increasing its width to up to 1 element base width across. / (iver at least T an element base width wide is navigable but only by 5lotilla elements. (epresent a sunken dry or almost dry sunken streambed, gully, wadi, Ghil, khor or nullah. 9n dry climates, such as in 9ndia during the fighting season or the 0rimea in summer, they are substituted for all #treams not already replaced with a (iver. They have the same effect as #treams, e-cept that they can conceal foot within them and cannot run through or contact a Marsh. 0an be up to A,!!!p long but no more than &!!p wide. / Marsh re2uires 1 positioning dice and must be placed both nearer to the indicated edge section than to any other and also either at the edge of a 1aterway or under a #tream so that it protrudes on both sides of this. Marshes are impassable to /rmy 4D, artillery unless 7ortable and Caager, difficult going to all other troops. Must be between &!!p and ),!!!p across in every direction. / 4ill re2uires 1 positioning dice and must be placed nearer to the indicated edge section than to any other. 9t can be 3ifficult or 6entle. 3ifficult 4ills are steep and rocky or heavily vegetated and are difficult going. 6entle 4ills are smooth bare or lightly treed or brushed good going. /ll 3ifficult 4ills and 6entle 4ills whose minimum width is less than 1,!!!p slope






up to a central crest line. =ther 6entle 4ills slope up to a flat plateau starting &!!p in, the edge of which counts as a crest. /ll hills give a close combat advantage if all of an elementFs front edge started the bound higher than all of its opponent, even if the hillFs crest then separated them or the element that was initially higher moved down or off the hill to contact its opponentFs nearest edge but not if it contacted any other edge. /n element with such an advantage is said to be HuphillI. Troops within )!! paces of the far side of the crest of a 6entle 4ill can be fired on by artillery, though at much reduced effect, being reached only by ricochets, rolling round shot and shell, as were the $ritish s2uares in nominally dead ground at 1aterloo. 5oot can shoot over a 6entle 4illFs crest if the crest is within @!! paces to their front and they are classed as $ayonets >1 "!M?, Cight 9nfantry or Minie, being assumed to send skirmishers forward to that crest. (=/3# These are the most important terrain features. They must form a connected net. #ome roads were now metalled, so a single turnpike or similar maintained good road can be depicted as a roughly 1!-@&mm wide strip coloured as paving, cobbles, gravel, pale brown packed dry earth or even >1%@!M? tarmac. =thers are bad roads and should instead be depicted as earth with deep ruts, potholes andNor stretches of dark wet mud. (oads can be superimposed on any area feature. <lements on a road are treated for combat as in the terrain it is passing through. <ach road re2uires @ positioning dice and must run from one indicated edge section towards the other, e-cept that if both scores are the same, it runs to the orthagonally opposite edge section. 9f the terminal edge is a waterway the road must end at a $B/ touching that waterway. / good road that reaches a bad road continues across it. / bad road that reaches another road can either end there or continue on the far side. / road that intersects a river, stream or gully is assumed to cross it at a ford if no bridge is provided. / permanent bridge can be destroyed by an element which declares that intention and remains in contact with it for @ entire friendly bounds even if in combat.

/ permanent or temporary bridge can be destroyed with difficulty by artillery or naval shooting or in close combat by naval, foot or dismounted. (/9C1/:# >1%&"M? (epresent a single track of @ iron rails laid on wooden sleepers bedded in gravel. This cannot cross a hill but it can cross a marsh, pass through a wood or cross a river, stream or gully by a bridge, or cross a road. 9t re2uires 1 positioning dice and runs from the indicated edge section to that directly opposite. 9t is assumed to allow 1 train each way per double bound. Must be )!!p-8!!p s2uare. They are usually small villages or hamlets but can occasionally be sections of a larger village or town separated by roads. They re2uire 1 positioning dice. They must be closer to the indicated edge section than to any other. They must be astride a road or road Gunction. March movement completely through a $B/ is in good going. =ther movement out from a $B/ other than into an adGacent $B/ section is at slow going rate even if by road. / $B/ can be garrisoned and defended by a single foot or dismounted element. This does not prevent other friendly elements passing through it to end on the far side. 3efenders have a substantial advantage over attackers until these succeed in entering but >e-cept for specialist skirmishers, who tended to get cut-off inside buildings? are then bundled out 2uickly in disorder. #ome $B/ derive their defensive strength from stone or brick perimeter walls, substantial stone buildings or mud brick houses with flat roofs and blind walls but most from gardens, fences, enclosures, winding alleys, general irregularity and especially from orchards. /lthough distant shooting from more than one source can be combined against a $B/, only one element can assault each edge. 0lose combats against assaults are separate and consecutive, the garrison facing each in turn until one succeeds. /n enemy element that defeats a garrison pursues into the interior. 9t then needs a tactical move to garrison the $B/ for defence. / $B/ set afire by artillery has smoke and flame markers placed. 9t is not untenable but is difficult going and its defensive value reduced.

$B9CT-B7-/(</# >$B/?


(epresent areas thickly covered with mature trees. They must be between &!!p and A,!!!p across in every direction and are difficult going. They re2uire 1 positioning dice and must be placed nearer to the indicated edge section than to any other. They give a substantial combat advantage to foot and dismounted defending them against enemy outside. 5oot and dismounted getting the worst of a combat while within them can be driven back only slowly. #hooting in distant combat at or by troops in a 1ood is possible only if they are within 1!!p inside its edge and their opponents are outside it.

#C=1 6=9.6

9s a catch-all term for terrain cover that offers concealment and hinders movement but not shooting, such as bush or Gungle of low brush with occasional trees, sand hills or boulders, elephant grass, haJel or Guniper shrub, gorse, vineyards, hop gardens, olive groves, orchards, tall kaoliang millet or areas divided into small fields by substantial hedges, walls, sunken lanes, irrigation channels or paddy bunds. /n area of slow going must be between &!!p and A,!!!p across in every direction. 9t re2uires 1 positioning dice and must be closer to the indicated edge section than to any other. Troops that end an off-road move in a stream or gully and any troops crossing an entrenchment e-cept for foot are in slow going until moved clear.

5C/T 6==3 6=9.6

9s the remainder of the playing area surface still e-posed after all terrain features have been placed. 9t should be depicted as a reasonably uniform appro-imation of flat or slightly rolling pasture, large cultivated fields or desert but is still assumed to provide some cover for skirmishing foot.

EFFECT OF TERRAIN ON 2ISIBILITY 1e distinguish the terms '.=1. >to all elements of a command? and ;9#9$C< >to a specific element?. <lements ;9#9$C< to any element are '.=1. to all elements of its command. 5eatures and elements ;9#9$C< to /eronauts in good weather are '.=1. to all commands with the same entry edge e-cept allied commands but not until the 0-in-0 has had an unadGusted 797 score in any previous bound of at least ). Terrain features beyond the crest of any intervening hill are ;9#9$C< only to /eronauts.

Troops beyond an intervening $B/ or wood are ;9#9$C< only from the upper half of a hill or to /eronauts. Troops beyond the crest of a difficult hill or more than )!!p beyond that of a gentle hill, are ;9#9$C< only to /eronauts. Troops more than 1!!p inside a wood edge or in the interior of a $B/ are not ;9#9$C< from outside and cannot see out or see other such troops until they contact these. /fter the introduction of smokeless powder in 1%"@, foot or dismounted who shoot out from a 0oncealed 7osition >see ne-t page? and do not move are not ;9#9$C< to enemy over )!!p away who have not already shot at them.

CHOICE OF BATTLEFIELD EDGE /fter all terrain has been positioned, the players commanding each side dice for choice of battlefield edge, the attacking side adding @ to its score. The side with the higher total chooses which long side will be its base edge. The other side takes the opposite long edge as its base edge.

ARMY COMMAND STRUCTURE Troops must now be allocated to commands. 9t will obviously save playing time if this has been done in advance and this will normally be the case if the army is permanently organised in 0orps. 4owever, some adGustment of resource allocation once the terrain has been seen and a plan formulated is reasonable but do appreciate that the time available for victory can easily be frittered away by micro-management. 1e allow generals to be graded according to their historical performance. $rilliant generals are capable of a sudden stroke throwing the opposing army off balance. 4owever, only good players will have the necessary situational awareness and sense of timing to benefit and even then opponents may deny them opportunities. 9nert generals may handicap their troops by lethargy, indecision, timidity, over-confident neglect of elementary precautions, failure to take firm control of subordinates, innate incapacity, dementia, Gealousy, e-treme pig-headedness, reluctance to beat the enemy badly or even wanting to lose but at least they are cheap. / small army will usually be commanded in its entirety directly by the /rmy 0ommander. The e-tra 797s provided by additional generals will rarely Gustify those generalsF cost. / larger army that intends to manoeuvre is best divided into commands for e-tra 797s, though large native armies, which rely on sheer numbers of troops or on field defences, can make do without them and indeed may not be permitted them. 9f the /rmy 0ommander is using an 4D element, he will usually only retain a reserve of elite troops or artillery under his personal command and dole these out to the other commands when needful. 9f he is using a 07 element, he may sometimes command a large proportion of the army directly but this may hinder him moving to crucial points using his e-tra mobility.

DEPLOYMENT PLANNING The defender writes down the order of his initially present commands from left to right and front to rear, the position of his e-treme element on each flank, the type and position of his battlefield preparations, the position of any bridges pre-constructed by $ridging Trains and the arrival roads or railway lines of commands not initially present. 4e cannot initially have any elements forward of the centreline, nor any within 1,@!!p of a side edge unless either naval or in a $B/ or #7. The attacker writes down the order of his initially present commands from left to right and the arrival roads or railways of commands arriving later or from flank edges. 4e cannot initially have any elements further forward than 1,@!!p from his base edge or less than )!!p from a side edge.

BATTLEFIELD PREPARATION The defender can use /7 that he has allocated for the purpose to prepare the battlefield as permitted by his army list, by garrisoning strong points, constructing fieldworks, mining waterways or concealing troops. The attacker can use /7 only for concealment, all /7 allocated to other preparations being wasted. Types of preparation are+ #T(=.6 7=9.T >#7? Bp to @&!p s2uare, consisting of a strong stone building, such as a seminary, walled farm, chateau or other large house, or in 9ndia a walled gardenNorchard such as a bagh or mango tope but not earthworks. 9ts garrison, initially of several companies or a battalion detached from one or more of the armyFs elements but assumed to be kept up to strength by reinforcements, is represented by a single foot figure. 9ts walls aid defence but prevent escape. 0apture destroys it. 0ost 1! /7. Bp to A can be used, placed anywhere in the defenderFs deployment Jone e-cept within 1,@!!p of a previously placed #7 or redoubt. (epresenting open-backed earthwork redoubtNs protecting an artillery or foot element from enemy not directly to their rear. 9t cannot be enfiladed or overlapped but can be contacted in flank. 7revents occupants turning, or moving other than directly to its rear. 0ost & /7. Bp to A can be used, placed anywhere in the defenderFs deployment Jone e-cept within @!!p of a previously placed redoubt or within 1,@!!p of a previously placed #7. <ach model redoubt represents 1 large real life redoubt or up to ) smaller. (epresenting %!!p of siege trench or 1,@!!p of field entrenchments such as a shallow trench, breastwork or rough line of fleches or sangars to protect foot or dismounted from enemy not enfilading them or in front edge contact with their flank or rear. =ccupiers cannot turn but can slide a base width sideways. 0osts 1& /7. Bp to 8 can be used, placed in good going in the defenderFs deployment Jone. Bp to 1,@!!p long, such as a railway embankment or cutting or a hedge-banked or sunken road, or a high riverbank on the enemy side of the river. 9f it is a riverbank,



<E7C=9T/$C< C9.</(

5</TB(< ><C5?

the river is fordable along the <C5Fs length but can be crossed only to retire to the other side or by the enemy. /n <C5 provides the same protection as an entrenchment. 0ost !. .eed not be specified in army list but only 1 can be used and then only if diced for at deployment and & or 8 scored and along an e-isting railway, road or river in the defenderFs deployment Jone. 0annot be used if the 0-in-0 is inert. Bp to )!!p long, such as improvised barricades of wagons or furniture, abatis of felled trees, thorn bush Jariba or barbed wire. 7laced as if an entrenchment but protects troops manning it only in close combat. 9f undefended, counts as difficult going. (emoved when crossed by either side. 0ost @/7 (epresenting a hidden position in a $B/, wood, gully or slow going, on a difficult hill, or behind a $B/, wood or hill for 1 element or a group of up to 1! elements. The troopsF position and direction is recorded, and they are deployed only when they first move, shoot, or become known to enemy. 9t also hides entrenchments, a redoubt or an <C5 occupied by the concealed troops. 0ost 1! /7. =nly A concealed positions can be used by the defender, placed in any such position within his deployment Jone. The attacker must convert any concealed position paid for into a #urprise. )!!p s2uare, representing an area of a 1aterway that has been sown with commandor contact-detonated e-plosive mineNtorpedoesNinfernal devices or other deadly obstructions. This cannot be entered by friendly naval. <ach enemy naval element entering it must dice and is destroyed if it scores 1. 0ost @! /7. =nly 1 can be used, placed anywhere in a 1aterway within the sideFs deployment Jone.


0=.0</C<3 7=#9T9=.

./;/C M9.<59<C3

INITIAL DEPLOYMENT The defender deploys all initially present elements and battlefield preparations that are not concealed. The attacker then deploys all initially present elements. DELAYED DEPLOYMENTS The /rmy 0ommanderFs own command must always arrive from the sideFs base edge. /n /llied 6eneralFs command or >1 "&M? a #ubordinate 6eneralFs command can either be deployed then or be retained for later arrival along a road, or >1%&"M? a railway, specified in deployment planning. #uch a command arrives in their own sideFs ne-t bound in which the commandFs unadGusted 797 score is ), & or 8 if from its sideFs base edge, & or 8 if from a side edge. /ll elements to arrive in that bound must do so by railway or in column on a road entering the battlefield either on their own sideFs base edge, or on a side edge but nearer to their sideFs base edge than the enemyFs. They measure their move from where that road crosses the edge. /ny enemy element blocking arrival by a road is repulsed )!!p. .o more than ) elements can arrive by any one road each bound. / command that cannot arrive

completely in its initial bound continues to arrive in subse2uent bounds without needing a further arrival score. Troops arriving by railway can deploy up to ) foot or 1 other land element at a single place on that railway each bound. They cannot do so if any enemy could shoot at them between entry edge and detraining point.

DILATORY ALLIES 9f an /llied 6eneralFs command has a lower aggression factor than that of the /rmy 0ommander, it throws no 797 dice until the number of friendly bounds completed e-ceeds the difference.

SURPRISE /n attacker that has a $rilliant 0-in-0 or that has used /7 for 0oncealed 7ositions throws 1 dice after his 1st bound. /dd 1 to the score if its 0-in-0 is $rilliant and 1 for each 0oncealed 7osition, 1 if the enemy 0-in-0 is 9nert and @ if the weather is misty. 3educt & if the enemy has /eronauts and the weather is good. 4alf the total rounded up is the number of further bounds the attacker can make before the defender can throw 797 dice, shoot or move any element. #urprise ceases early if any of the attackerFs troops shoot, enter close combat or become visible within %!!p.


SEQUENCE OF PLAY The attacker takes 1st bound, and then the two sides alternate bounds. 3uring each side*s bound+ 1. @. 9t dices for player initiative points >797? and then uses these first to search for fords, then to make march moves, then to make tactical moves and lastly to rally routed elements. /ll elements of both sides that are able to shoot in distant combat and have a valid target can shoot once each and make or inflict outcome moves, in an order decided by the side whose bound it is. /ll elements of both sides that are now in suitable contact with enemy fight in close combat and make or inflict outcome moves, in an order decided by the side whose bound it is not. <lements whose pursuit move contacts their original enemy or a fresh enemy immediately fight again and make or inflict outcome moves. <lements with enemy in front edge contact with their flank or rear edge can now turn to face unless also in contact to their front.


PLAYER INITIATI2E POINT DICING The army commander simultaneously throws 1 differently coloured dice for each command that has any element on the battlefield or yet to arrive. / Bri ia.+ general or admiral can double his raw score in @ bounds of his choice during the battle, unless within his inert 0-in-0Fs easy command distance. /n general or admiral always deducts 1 from his raw score. / 0-in-0 or army commander can e-change his final score with that of one, directly subordinate >but not allied? general whose element is now within the seniorFs easy command distance >@,)!!p if an 4D and %!!p if a 07 or .7? and whose score was lower. /n army commander can transfer 1 element or group of his own command per bound to that of a subordinate general within easy command distance of it. /ny general can move or rally a non-staff friendly element in front or rear edge contact with him of a different or even allied command. PIP usage ! ! 1 @ A B4! The 1st march move this bound of an element or column if entirely by road. /ny other move by, or transfer between commands of, a single element or group. #earching for a ford. (allying a routing element.


1hen all of the land element or group that is using 797s to move, rally or search is beyond its general*s easy command distance, or its general is in difficult going off-road, is in close combat, is routing, is disabled or has been lost. U1 The move is off-road and includes /rtillery >unless supporting?, #toic 5oot, troops starting in an entrenchment or redoubt, an /rmy 4D, a Caager or /eronauts. U1 Marching a group that has already made+ >a? A march moves this bound if entirely along good roads at any time or bad roads in dry weather, or >b? @ march moves this bound if at least partially along bad roads in wet weather or off-road or >c? if naval. U1 (etiring an element now within 1 base width distance >)!!p? of any enemy. U1 (allying a routing element that has neither passed through friends facing in the opposite direction who do not rout, nor is in full front edge to front edge contact with any friendly staff element. Bnused 797s are lost.

5EATHER 1ind direction is decided by the attacking 0-in-0s 1st bound unadGusted 797 score. 9f this is 8, it is misty >or dust storm in desert? and continues so until the attacking 0-in-0 has an unadGusted 797 score of 8. Bntil then, ma-imum visibility and shooting range is @!!p, /eronauts cannot function, .aval other than 5lotilla cannot move and off-road land movement cannot e-ceed slow going distance. 9f it is 1, the weather is wet and rain continues so until the defending 0-in-0 has an unadGusted 797 score of 1. Bntil then, ma-imum visibility is 1,@!!p and /eronauts cannot function. Bntil he has a @nd such score, /rtillery and Caager cannot move more than slow going distance off-road. Bntil the end of the battle, movement on bad roads is hindered by mud and gullies are changed into streams.

TACTICAL6 MARCH AND OUTCOME MO2ES Tactical and March moves e-pend 797s. They are voluntary moves by a single element or a group of elements in their own side*s bound before combat. / March move cannot start or go closer than 8!!p to known enemy. 9f it is in difficult going, it must be by road unless by #pearmen or Marksmen. /n element can take part in either one or more March moves or one Tactical move. / legal move cannot be taken back once made. =utcome moves are compulsory or optional 7ress 5orward, 0harge, (ecoil, (epulse, (out and 7ursuit moves made by single elements in both sides* bounds as result of combat and do not re2uire 797s.

MO2ING SINGLE ELEMENTS / Tactical or March move by a single element can be in any direction, even diagonal or obli2ue, can pass through any gap as wide as its leading edge, and can end facing any way. 9t can

therefore be used not only to advance but also to retire, to e-pand a group*s frontage, to pivot an artillery element to face in another direction, or to rally and turn a routed element. 9t cannot be used to break-off from close combat.

MO2ING ELEMENTS TOGETHER AS A GROUP <lements are a group if each is in edge or corner contact, and either facing the same direction or in column. / column is a group only 1 element wide with each element following that in front. This represents bodies larger than an element with units all moving in succession along a road or on a constricted frontage. 6roups are temporary. 9f the whole of a group cannot move, some of its elements will probably be able to move as a smaller group or as individual elements. 0onversely, a group or single element can move to Goin other elements and make its ne-t move as a group with these. #upporting artillery cannot unite @ groups. To move as a group, each element must start or end the move in the group and not e-ceed its permitted move distance. 9t must end facing in the original direction of one or all elements, e-cept as follows. / group moves only in the direction it is facing. 9t can change direction by one or more wheels, each pivoting on the inner front corner of the group and measuring move distance along the outer arc of the wheel. 9f the group is a column, each element wheels in succession as it reaches the pivot point. 9f it is not, all elements wheel simultaneously. / column with no bend in it can use a group move to turn "! degrees into a 1 or @ element deep block representing a single line of battle or pair of successive lines. The leading elementFs open flank ends in the former position of its front edge. 0onversely, such a group can turn "! degrees into column. / group move can end in a column. / group move must end in a column if leaving a $B/, or moving along a road, or following the bank of a river, or crossing a river, stream, gully or difficult going >unless #pearmen or Marksmen?. The future front element of the column moves forward the full move of the groupFs slowest element. =ther elements move without measuring, the nearest falling in behind the column, others to close up any resulting gaps. .o element can end further to the rear than its previous position. /ll elements count as moving along a road if the head of the column does. 9t may take more than one move before the whole group is in column. / group can move less than a base width sideways to line up directly opposite enemy within )!!p. This is the only sideways or obli2ue movement permitted to an entire group and is not deducted from the move.

TACTICAL AND MARCH MO2E DISTANCES ON LAND / single element that overlapped an enemy element last bound can always move into close combat against its flank. =therwise moves are measured between the starting and finishing points of the front base corner which moves furthest of a single element or group. #uch a move cannot e-ceed+ <ntirely along (oad %!!p 1,@!!p 1,@!!p 1,8!!p @,!!!p )!!p %!!p 8!!p 1,@!!p %!!p )!!p )!!p 8!!p )!!p 9f entering or ending move in+ #low 6oing 3ifficult 6oing )!!p )!!p )!!p )!!p )!!p )!!p %!!p )!!p )!!p )!!p @!!p @!!p )!!p @!!p @!!p @!!p )!!p A!!p A!!p @!!p 8!!p )!!p @!!p )!!p !p @!!p @!!p !p

Troop Type /rmy 4D, .7, 7istols or 0uirassiers 4eavy 0avalry or #ipahis 3ragoons, (epeaters or Mounted (ifles Cight 0avalry or (ifle 0avalry 07 or Cight 4orse Muskets or #toic 5oot >unless Marching?, or 5irelocks Cight 9nfantry, #pearmen if <lite, or Marksmen =ther foot 4orse artillery 7ortable /rtillery 4eavy artillery =ther artillery >M1 &8? =ther artillery >1 &8M? 7ontooneers, Caager or /eronauts

6ood 6oing %!!p 1,@!!p 1,@!!p 1,8!!p @,!!!p )!!p %!!p 8!!p 1,@!!p %!!p )!!p )!!p 8!!p )!!p

CROSSING OR MO2ING BY 5ATER 1ater features include 1aterways, (ivers, and #treams and also 6ullies, even if currently dry. / 1aterway is unfordable and is always navigable by naval elements. 9f it is a giant river rather than a sea or lake, the army list will specify which end is upstream. / (iver, #tream or 6ully can always be crossed at a road ford or road, rail or temporary bridge by a single element or column, it being assumed that if there is no bridge there is a reliable ford or easy gully crossing. Troops crossing move normal distance. 7ontooneers intended to construct a temporary bridge are moved to the riverbank, then e-changed for a bridge at the end of their Ard consecutive full bound there unless repulsed. #uch bridges can also be pre-constructed by the defender in his deployment area. / (iver cannot be crossed where there is no ford or bridge unless an it is <C5. 9t may have unknown fords but these can only be found by searching for them.

To search for a ford, move an element up to the river edge >using up @ e-tra 797s? and dice. /dd one to the die score if there is a $B/ within )!!p on the near side of the river or within )!!p plus the width of the river on the far side, or add ) if both. 9f the total score is now+

• •

Cess than &+ .o unknown ford e-ists within 1,@!!p, even if searched for again. /t least &+ / one element wide ford is marked and the searching element is moved until its front edge touches the far bank.

/ #tream or 6ully can be crossed off-road anywhere but the initial move >whether March, Tactical or =utcome? must end when the rear base edge of a single element or of the leading element of a column is half way across. <lements crossing or moving in or astride it are treated as in slow going until clear. / (iver at least half a land element base width wide is navigable but only by 5lotilla elements. Movement on it counts as upstream if moving away from its Guncture with a 1aterway, moving in the direction from which most streams Goin it, or failing that, moving away from the end specified by the player who placed it. The ma-imum distance between the starting point of any front corner of a naval element moving on a navigable water feature and that cornerFs final position is+ Troop Type #teamer or 9ronclad. 5lotilla >1% 8M? #ubmarines #ail or 5lotilla >M1% &? Bnless partly upstream @,!!!p %!!p 1,@!!p 9f partly upstream 1,@!!p )!!p %!!p

MO2ING THROUGH OTHER TROOPS OR GAPS 5riendly naval elements can always interpenetrate if they have a clear space to end in within move distance. Cand elements making a Tactical or March move can move through friends occupying a $B/, or facing in the same or opposite direction and not on a road. #taff can move through friends facing in any direction. / #upply $ase can only be passed through by single element moves. / repulsed or routed element can pass through friends facing in any direction. <lements recoiled, repulsed or routed from outside into a friendly or unoccupied $B/, #7 or redoubt are assumed to flow through or round it and end in the first clear space beyond it if they have insufficient move to go further. (ecoiled and pushed-back elements otherwise do not pass through friends. 9f there is insufficient move to clear the first element met, the interpenetrating element is inserted immediately beyond it, subse2uent elements being moved back to make room.

Mounted move through enemy artillery or >1 "!M? through $ayonets, Cight 9nfantry or #toic 5oot after scoring e2ual to these in close combat or if subse2uently repulsed or routed back into these. This simulates flowing around unbroken s2uares or failing to take possession of batteries. /n element cannot enter a space between elements or terrain features insufficient for its own frontage. This does not prevent it moving sideways out of a column. / gap less than 1 element wide between the flanks of friendly or enemy redoubts or entrenchments >including elements in them?, or between these and a terrain feature, can be moved through, the move ending when clear of the gap.

MO2EMENT RESTRICTIONS DUE TO ENEMY PRO7IMITY Marksmen can only contact Train. 4D, /rtillery or Train can contact enemy only by an outcome move, and+ Mounted, #pearmen or 07 elements cannot move more than 8!!p and end in any contact with known enemy. .o 5oot >e-cept #pearmen? or 3ismounted or .aval element can move more than @!!p and end in any contact with known enemy. .o element can move into frontal contact with a known enemy element*s flank or rear unless it starts entirely behind a line prolonging that base edge of the enemy element or partly behind both flank and rear edges .o element may move while within )!!p of a visible enemy element or enemy-occupied $B/ or #7 to its front, e-cept to+

• • • •

Move directly towards that element, Cine up opposite that element, Move into close combat with that element, Move directly to own rear.

RESPONDING TO CONTACT 5ITH ENEMY /n element or group moving, pressing forward or pursuing, or a 07 not in a group, must conform to enemy in contact. 9f necessary the element, group or 07 can pivot andNor shift sideways an e-tra distance of up to 1 base width to do so. / staff, mounted, dismounted or foot element contacted by enemy only on its flank or rear edges >and which is not in an entrenchment or already repulsed or routing?, turns immediately to conform to whichever opponent its player prefers, provided all its opponents moved more than )!!p in sight this bound or from overlap. =therwise it turns after close combat if the outcome permits. 9f it turns immediately, its new flank or rear cannot be contacted this bound. 9f two elements are contacted by one, both turn, the second moving behind the first. =nly the first fights but both obey the outcome.

TYPES OF COMBAT 0ombat is either distant or close. Dis+a.+ c-'/a+ consists entirely of shooting and is limited to those troop types that shot effectively at long range and their targets. C -se c-'/a+ includes not only hand-to-hand combat with sword, lance, bayonet or pistol but also musketry and canister at decisive range or at charging enemy and bridge destruction by foot or dismounted.

DISTANT COMBAT <ach element of a type that can shoot may shoot at one enemy element that is a valid target, either as a primary or aiding shooter, provided that it is neither in close combat other than as an overlap nor prevented from shooting by its own movement or situation. The base edge shot from is the "shooting edge". This is+

• • •

/ny edge of a garrisoned $B/, an #7, a Caager or any naval elements e-cept 5lotilla or #ubmarine, The front or side edge of an element in a redoubt The front edge only of any other element.

The edge shot at is the Htarget edgeI /n element is a valid target if+

• • • •

9t is visible to the shooting element, 9t is in arc and range, 9t is not in frontal edge contact with enemy other than routers, nor in a $B/, #7 or field work in such contact, .o part of any element is between imaginary lines connecting one shooting edge corner to any visible corner of the target edge and the other to its other corner without the lines crossing >unless overhead shooting is permitted?.

5oot and dismounted elements must shoot in an enemy bound at a valid target not in an entrenchment or redoubt. =ther shooting is voluntary. 9f more than one valid target is available+

• •

/rtillery with no valid target within )!!p, naval, $B/ and #7 can choose which to shoot at. =ther elements must shoot at that closest to the centre of the shooting edge, or if e2uidistant, most directly in front.

/ll mutual shooting is simultaneous.

The following cannot shoot+ Troops while mounted.

• •

<lements that made a march move this bound. /rtillery while crossing a river, stream or gully, even if by a bridge, or while even partly in a marsh, wood or $B/, or from any part of a difficult hill e-cept its crest, or from there to less than )!!p beyond its foot. /rtillery that made a Tactical move this bound and are either heavy or would be shooting from behind a hillcrest.

=ther troops in woods or $B/ can only shoot outward from the edge. / naval elementFs or $B/ or #7 garrison*s target is in arc if any part of the target element is between lines e-tending beyond the shooting edge through diagonally opposite corners of the shooterFs base. =ther shooters* targets are in arc if any part of the target is within a half an element base width >@!!p? of straight ahead of any part of the shooting edge and no part is behind a line e-tending that edge.

SUPPORTING ARTILLERY /n /rtillery element is in #upport if its front edge is in contact with the rear edges of one or two elements of foot, dismounted or mounted. The /rtillery element is assumed to be distributed by batteries or sections in front of or between units. #upporting artillery aids the elements in contact with it and one element in side edge-to-side edge or corner-to-corner contact with each. #upporting artillery gives aid in distant and close combat against enemy that would be in the /rtillery elementFs arc and range from the supported elementFs front edge. 9t cannot be a primary shooter if it can instead aid supported troops. Ma-imum ranges from the nearest point of the shooting edge to the nearest point of the target are+ Troop Type =ther $ayonets M1 "! $ayonets if shooting at mounted P1%&1 $ayonets =ther $C 3ismounted 3ragoons M1%8A 3ismounted 3ragoons 1%8AM 3ismounted (epeaters 3ismounted (ifle 0avalry 5irelocks Ma(ange @!!p @!!p )!!p 8!!p @!!p 8!!p )!!p 1,@!!p @!!p Troop Type /rtillery 4eavy /rtillery - e-tend range for standard type by 4eavy (ifled firing at a $B/, or at troops on a hill, or at a logistics target Mi-ed or $rass (ifled =ther (ifled 7ortable #moothbore M1 "! #moothbore 1 "!M 6arrisons Caager Ma(ange U)!!p 8,!!!p @,)!!p A,@!!p %!!p 1,@!!p 1,8!!p 8!!p

Cight 9nfantry Marksmen M1%& Marksmen 1%& M Minie Mounted (ifles Muskets (ifles #toic 5oot M1%&8 #toic 5oot 1%& -1% & if <lite #toic 5oot 1%& -1%%! if not <lite #toic 5oot 1% &M if <lite #toic 5oot 1%%!M if not <lite

)!!p )!!p 8!!p 8!!p 1,@!!p @!!p 1,@!!p @!!p 8!!p 8!!p 1,@!!p 1,@!!p

#7 garrison .aval 5lotilla M1%)& 5lotilla or #ubmarines against naval only 1% 8M =ther .aval P1%&! =ther .aval 1%&!-1%&% =ther .aval 1%&"-1%%8 =ther .aval 1%% -1"!& =ther .aval 1"!8M

)!!p )!!p %!!p %!!p 1,@!!p @,!!!p A,!!!p 8,!!!p

1hen artillery or naval shoot at a $B/, #7 or bridge, this is at an H O+,erI target but occupiers also have separate combat outcomes. =ther elements shoot at the occupiers unless these are now in the interior of a $B/. Troops in a wood can be shot at only from outside and then only if within 1!!p of the near edge. Targets beyond a wood or $B/ >not #7? cannot be shot at unless shooting between upper halves of @ hills.

S,--+i.g -8er i.+er8e.i.g ,i cres+s -r u.c-.cea e0 +r--*s The only shooting allowed over intervening hillcrests or unconcealed troops is+

• • • • • •

$ayonets >1 "!M?, Cight 9nfantry, Minie, $C and (epeaters can shoot over a gentle or steep hillFs crest that is within @!!p. This simulates integral skirmishers being sent forward of the crest. (ifled /rtillery >1%""M? can shoot from @!!-)!!p behind a gentle hillFs crest at a target at least %!!p distant, or over entrenchments and foot occupying them, or at enemy more than 1,@!!p from them and up to )!!p beyond a gentle hillFs crest. #moothbore or Mi-ed /rtillery can shoot at enemy more than )!!p from them and up to )!!p beyond a gentle hillFs crest. This simulates ricochet fire with round shot and shells from the 1 or @ howitJers included in each smoothbore battery or rifled guns. /rtillery on a hill, artillery or naval shooting at a hill can shoot over intervening troops more than )!!p from both shooter and target. (ifled /rtillery can shoot over intervening troops more than %!!p away and more than )!!p from target. /rtillery can always shoot over troops it can support >its guns being assumed to be before or between? , or over enemy Marksmen more than )!!p from the shooters, or over friendly Marksmen.

9f more than one element shoots at a single enemy element, the additional elements aid the primary shooter instead of their shooting being resolved separately.

The primary shooter is that which the target element will shoot back at or if it will not shoot back, the closest to the target. <-ception+ if artillery or naval shoot at the same target as foot or dismounted and are not shot back at, the latter are the primary shooters. / target element that will be shot at without shooting back at any of the shooters can shoot at a third party >or aid friendsF shooting at this? immediately after, provided it can still shoot and has a legal target after combat outcomes. 9t then uses the same dice score but not the previous combat and tactical factors.

CLOSE COMBAT 0lose combat occurs when an element*s front edge is in both edge and front corner-to-any enemy corner base contact lined up with an enemy element, or in contact with >assaulting? an enemyheld $B/ or #7. /n element in close combat with the flank or rear of an enemy element which is also fighting to its front, or which overlaps it, acts as a tactical factor instead of fighting itself. 9t acts as an overlap if either+

• •

$oth right or both left front corners touch and at least the nearest part of the overlapping elementFs front edge is not in contact with an enemy element. $oth elementsF flank edges are in contact, neither element is artillery, and the elements are facing in opposite directions, even if the overlapping element is in contact with a friendly or enemy element to its front. <ach then mutually overlaps the other.

4owever, foot cannot overlap in an enemy bound e-cept on behalf of friendly /rtillery. Tactical factors for an enemy front edge in contact with an elementFs side or rear edge apply in all bounds. /n element can overlap two enemy elements on opposite flanks or enemy elements e-posed by its own frontal opponent having recoiled or been repulsed, routed or destroyed that bound. /n element can only be overlapped once on each flank and cannot be both overlapped and contacted on the same edge. /n #7, $B/, #upply $ase or Caager can overlap but not be overlapped. <ach element in close combat with its edges fights it separately and consecutively. / redoubt cannot be overlapped but can overlap or be contacted in flank. / staff element that would fight as such cannot provide overlap or flank or rear contact tactical factors

RESOL2ING COMBATS The order of 3istant 0ombats is chosen by the moving side, 0lose 0ombats by the other side. 1hether in close combat, shooting in distant combat or only shot at, both sides dice for each

fighting element and add the combat factor below and any tactical or grading factors that apply to its score. / command party substitutes the combat value of a mounted or foot element contiguous to its rear and then uses that elementFs tactical factors and outcomes. 9f in close combat, it adds its own combat factor. / dismountable element is always mounted if it moved more than 8!!p this bound, and if not, always dismounted if shooting, entrenched, manning an obstacle or in difficult going. =therwise a 3ragoons element is always mounted, a Mounted (ifles element is always dismounted and a (epeaters or (ifle 0avalry element*s player chooses whether it is to be mounted or dismounted before dicing for its combat. 1hen troops occupying a $B/ or $ridge are in combat only against artillery that are all beyond )!!p, 1 diceFs score is used for both, even though the troops and the $B/N$ridge will have different outcomes.

COMBAT FACTORS These vary according to your elementFs type and its opponent. 0ombat factors of+ 0uirassiers. 4eavy 0avalry or mounted (ifle 0avalry. 7istols. Cight 0avalry and mounted 3ragoons or (epeaters. Mounted (ifles when mounted. #ipahis. Cight 4orse. $C or (ifles and all dismounted e-cept 3ragoons. Muskets, Minie, $ayonets or Cight 9nfantry. #toic 5oot. 5irelocks. Marksmen. 3ragoons if dismounted. #pearmen. 4eavy /rtillery. =ther /rtillery. /rmy 4D. 0ommand 7arty. .ative 7otentate. #ail or #teamer. 5lotilla. 9ronclad. /gainst+ #taff or Mounted. U) U) UA U@ U1 UA U1 U) U) U) UA U1 U1 U@ U@ UA U@ U1 U) U@ U1 U1 3ismounted or 5oot. UA U@ UA U@ U@ U@ U1 U) UA U@ U@ U@ U@ U@ U) UA U@ U@ U@ UA U1 U@ =ther. U@ U@ U@ U@ U@ U@ U@ U@ U@ U@ U@ UA U@ U1 U) UA U@ UA U@ U) U@ U&

#ubmarine. 7ontooneers or /eronauts. Caager. #upply $ase. $B/. #7 and its garrison. Temporary bridge 7ermanent bridge.

U1 U& UA U) -

U1 U) U1 UA U@ UA

U) UA U@ U@ U& UA UA U)

TACTICAL FACTORS /dGust your elementFs, $B/Fs or bridgeFs score by each of the following tactical factors that applies+ 0lose combat /rtillery /rtillery support /ttacked in flank or rear 0over N protection

3emoralised opponent .aval =verlapped 7ursuers (epulsed or routing #low or difficult going Bphill #hooting or shot at /ssistance 0over N protection <nfiladed .aval #hot at+ 0over N protection

#ilenced artillery in close combat. #upporting artillery is aiding opponent other than mounted vs mounted. <ach enemy land element in front edge contact with a land elementFs flank or rear edge. 5oot or dismounted, protected in a field entrenchment. 7rotected in a redoubt or siege entrenchment, if this is not yet afire. 6arrison defending the edge of a $B/ or an #7, if this is not yet afire. Marksmen defending a $B/, wood or difficult hill. 5ighting an element of a defeated enemy command. 9f a damaged naval element. <ach flank of a land element overlapped in close combat. 9f pursuers in close combat against new enemy mounted. 9f repulsed or routing. Mounted, artillery or a Caager and in close combat in slow or difficult going or in a $B/. =pponents started the bound uphill. <ach element up to A >only 1 of which can be /rtillery? aiding a primary shooter or a target. 5oot or dismounted, protected in a field entrenchment. <nfiladed land element. #ail shooting from or shot at on its front or rear edge. 9f a damaged naval element. 5oot or dismounted, shot at on a base edge entirely in difficult going other than a burning $B/ or marsh. 7rotected in a redoubt or siege entrenchment, if this is not yet afire. 6arrison defending the edge of a $B/ or an #7, if this is not yet afire. Marksmen defending a $B/, wood or difficult hill. #hot at only by artillery that is either beyond a hill crest, or shooting over its own troops, or in a support role.

-@ -1 -A U1 U@ U@ U@ UA -@ -1 -@ -@ -@ -1 U1 U1 -@ -@ -@ U1 U@ U@ U@ U1

3ifficult target

<-treme range

1hile N after moving

#hot at by enemy all of which are beyond+ §1 @!!p if the shooters are foot, dismounted or an #7 or Caager, and the target is not artillery. §1 )!!p if the shooters are #moothbore, Mi-ed or 7ortable /rtillery and the target is neither artillery, nor a $B/, nor an #7. §1 4alf ma-imum range if both shooters and target are /rtillery or naval. Cand troops being shot at after making a march move. (ifles, $C or dismounted e-cept 3ragoons being shot at by foot, dismounted or an #7 after making a tactical move. /rtillery shot at after a tactical move or who were repulsed this bound or last.


-1 -1 -1

GRADING FACTORS 0ompare your elementFs current total after tactical factors to that of its opponent, and then adGust it as follows+ ELITE whose total score is+ §1 Cess if shot at in distant combat unless by artillery or naval, or §1 Cess in close combat, or §1 <2ual in close combat unless either is mounted and the other is foot or artillery. INFERIOR whose total score is+ §1 Cess if in close combat. §1 <2ual or more if in distant combat and shot at by artillery or shooting.



COMBAT OUTCOME 0ompare the final total of your element with that of its opponent and then make any immediate outcome move specified below. This depends on its type and that of the enemy element in close combat against it or shooting at it. The affected player can often choose between outcomes or vary the distance moved. 9f none of the outcomes apply, the element does nothing. #upporting artillery uses the lowest total of the supported elements directly in front but suffers artillery outcomes. <lements shooting in distant combat but not shot at by any enemy e-cept artillery in support, ignore outcomes e-cept press forward. <lements in close combat against the flank or rear of an enemy element always recoil if the enemy total is higher. <lements attempting to destroy an undefended bridge ignore outcomes. /n #7 garrison ignores outcomes not mentioning #7. =therwise+

If a. e e'e.+9s +-+a is '-re +,a. +,a+ -f i+s -**-.e.+! Mounted 9n distant combat in own bound, charge to contact any enemy in good going and within 8!!p directly to front. 9n close combat, pursue )!!p to 1,@!!p. 5oot or 3efending a $B/, #7, redoubt, entrenchment, <C5 or obstacle. Halt. 3ismounted #hot at in distant combat by foot or dismounted, after moving and without shooting back. Press forward @!!p. 9n distant or close combat in other circumstances. Press forward @!!p if desired. .aval /gainst enemy already within @!!p. Move into close combat if desired. =therwise Do nothing. If a. e e'e.+9s +-+a is e:ua +- +,a+ -f i+s -**-.e.+! Mounted or 9n close combat against enemy artillery or >1 "!M? against $ayonets, Cight 9nfantry or #taff #toic 5oot and there is room beyond these, interpenetrate them and pursue )!!p to %!!p. 9f insufficient room beyond, then repulsed 8!!p to 1,@!!p unless Cight 4orse. #upporting 4orse /rtillery is repulsed too. 9f in close combat against other troops, repulsed 8!!p to 1,@!!p unless Cight 4orse. #upporting 4orse /rtillery is repulsed too. 5oot or #hot at in distant combat in own bound by dismounted or foot without shooting back, 3ismounted press forward @!!p if desired or halt. 9n close combat with enemy defending a $B/ or #7, recoil. /rtillery 9n close combat against mounted who interpenetrate them, then in subse2uent bounds while these remain to their rear, they cannot move, shoot or be shot at or fight in close combat and are destroyed by enemy foot or dismounted in contact. =therwise Do nothing. If a. e e'e.+9s +-+a i. 0is+a.+ c-'/a+ is ess +,a. +,a+ -f i+s -**-.e.+6 /u+ '-re +,a. ,a f! Mounted or Cight 4orse repulsed 1,8!!p to @,)!!p. #taff =thers repulsed 8!!p to 1,@!!p by enemy within )!!p, recoiled if enemy beyond )!!p. 5oot or 9n a redoubt or entrenchment are silenced. 3ismounted 9f will be contacted by enemy pressing forward, halt. =therwise+ § 3ragoons or (epeaters are repulsed 8!!p to 1,@!!p, § =ther 3ismounted, Marksmen, (ifles or $C shot at from beyond )!!p halt, § #toic 5oot halt, § =thers recoil. 9n addition+ /rtillery destroy any obstacle protecting the target element. /rtillery 0hoose whether to be silenced, or to be repulsed @!!p if in difficult or slow going or a >if its total is at redoubt, otherwise l,@!!p to 1,8!!p if 4orse /rtillery, %!!p if not. least @ less? .aval Damaged by naval or artillery unless #ubmarine. >if its total is at least @ less? $B/ #et afire by artillery or naval.


Do nothing.

If a. e e'e.+9s +-+a i. c -se c-'/a+ is ess +,a. +,a+ -f i+s -**-.e.+6 /u+ '-re +,a. ,a f! Mounted 5ighting against routers are spent. /lready routing or attacking over an obstacle are destroyed. 0uirassiers, 4eavy 0avalry, 3ragoons or Mounted (ifles fighting against #ipahis or Cight 4orse are destroyed. 9f not destroyed or spent and already repulsed this bound then routed 1,@!!p. 9f none of these, repulsed 8!!p to 1,@!!p. 5oot or #taff 9n good going with enemy mounted in front edge contact with front, flank or rear are destroyed. 3efending a redoubt or #7 are destroyed. Marksmen in a $B/ are destroyed. 9n an entrenchment or others in a $B/ are routed 800p. 9n a 1ood or defending an obstacle recoil. /ttacking the edge of a $B/ or #7 or an entrenchment or redoubt are repulsed )!!p. 9f none of the above+ § #toic 5oot recoil, § =thers routed %!!p by 5irelocks, $ayonets, Cight 9nfantry, #toic 5oot, $C or (ifles if these moved or pressed forward into contact this bound, § =thers destroyed by #pearmen. 9f none of these apply+ § Routed %!!p if enemy are in front edge contact with flank, § Repulsed )!!p if enemy are only in contact with front. 3ismounted 9n good going with enemy mounted in front edge contact with front, flank or rear are destroyed. 9n the interior of a $B/ or defending an obstacle are repulsed 1,@!!p. 9n a wood or defending the edge of a $B/ recoil. /ttacking the edge of a $B/ or #7 or an entrenchment or redoubt are repulsed )!!p. 9f none of the above+ § Repulsed )!!p by Marksmen or artillery, § Repulsed %!!p by #pearmen, § Routed 1,@!!p by others. 4orse /rtillery 9n good going, fighting against foot, rout 1,@!!p. =ther land Destroyed. .aval 5lotilla, repulsed %!!p. 9nferior #ubmarine and opponent both destroyed >M1% ?. =therwise, destroyed by #ubmarine or 5lotilla, damaged by other naval. =therwise Do nothing. If a. e e'e.+9s +-+a i. 0is+a.+ -r c -se c-'/a+ is ,a f -r ess +,a. ,a f +,a+ -f +,e e.e'4! #taff 9n close combat or which is a .ative 7otentate are destroyed. 9f not, recoil disabled. Mounted 9n close combat against any e-cept mounted are spent. Cight 4orse fighting against 0uirassiers or 4eavy 0avalry are repulsed 1,@!!p. 9n distant combat in enemy bound are repulsed 1,@!!p. 9f none of these, destroyed. Marksmen 9n close combat in the interior of a $B/ or against mounted in good going or against any foot e-cept Muskets or #toic 5oot are destroyed.




9n distant combat are repulsed %!!p. 9f none of these, routed 1,@!!p. 9ronclads are destroyed by Mi-ed or (ifled 4eavy /rtillery or 9ronclad or 5lotilla >1% 8M? or if in close combat against 5lotilla or #ubmarine. =ther naval fighting 9ronclad, #teamer, #ail or artillery are destroyed. =ther naval in close combat against 5lotilla or #ubmarines are destroyed. =ther naval fighting land troops other than artillery are repulsed )!!p. $ridge, destroyed. $B/ or #7 set afire by artillery or naval. Troops in $B/ in distant combat are routed )!!p. Troops in $B/ in close combat are destroyed. #7 garrison in close combat are destroyed and #7 rendered useless. 7ontooneers in close combat are destroyed, otherwise repulsed )!!p. Repulsed by #upply $ase, 7ontooneers or /eronauts. =ther land troops not in an #7 or $B/ are destroyed. Do nothing.

Des+r-4e0 elements are removed. This represents broken survivors dispersing, fleeing and discarding weapons, surrendering as prisoners or being slaughtered by a savage pursuit, or artillery having lost too many men and horses to function effectively or retire safely, or naval vessels blowing-up, sinking, running aground as wrecks, being taken by boarding or being rammed. Da'age0 naval elements incur a permanent X@ tactical factor and their ma-imum move is permanently reduced by )!!p. 9f markers are needed, small puffs of dark brown cotton wool or wreckage are suitable. S*e.+ elements have e-pended their mounts* strength and the riders* dash and cohesion but mostly survive, so are removed but do not count as lost. They reappear before the ne-t battle of a campaign. Disa/ e0 staff elements remain so until they ne-t have an unadGusted 797 score of 8. This simulates the effects of confusion while a general recovers from inGury or is being replaced by the ne-t in command. / $rilliant generalFs replacement is not $rilliant. /n 9nert generalFs replacement is 9nert. Si e.ce0 elements remain so until the end of the following bound. Bntil then, they cannot shoot in distant combat, support friends or make a tactical or march move. This represents a temporary unwillingness of troops behind defences to e-pose themselves, or artillery crew depleted, driven from guns or repairing them. 9f a marker is needed, a small puff of dust coloured cotton wool, a casualty figure or a shell hole are all suitable. =pponents they would otherwise have shot at can charge or press forward as if shot at unsuccessfully. Ha +e0 elements do not make an outcome move this bound but act normally in subse2uent bounds.

Rec-i e0 elements have staggered back a short distance in response to casualties. The element moves back its base depth still facing its original direction, pushing back friends facing the same direction or following it along a road, or Marksmen, or friendly staff. 9f the recoil result was caused by being shot at from entirely behind a line e-tending its rear edge, the element turns to face the shooters instead. <lements recoiling across a bridge end on the bank. <lements recoiling into a $B/ end in its interior. <lements recoiling against occupied entrenchments end beyond. <lements that cannot complete a (ecoil are destroyed if in close combat or if recoiling into terrain they cannot cross or into enemy, otherwise they are repulsed %!!p together with any friends preventing the recoil. Re*u se0 elements have lost cohesion and are falling right back to reorganise. They recoil, then turn 1%! degrees and move the remaining distance directly to their former rear, e-cept that they divert around impassable terrain or to cross a bridge. They pass through friendly elements met. They cannot make a tactical or march move in their ne-t bound but turn 1%! degrees at the end of it unless contacted by enemy. They cannot shoot until the bound after they turn. / repulsed element halts on reaching terrain it cannot cross or avoid. / repulsed element that reaches enemy must immediately conform to and fight them if it can. 9f it cannot conform or is not destroyed it routs 1,@!!p straight ahead, bursting through the enemy who halt. R-u+e0 elements turn 1%! degrees and move either straight back to their rear or follow a road, river bank or terrain feature edge leading nearer to their original entry point, passing through friendly elements they meet. (outers that reach a bridge or ford stop at the nearside. 5riendly elements contiguous to the initial rear edge of routers or cavalry destroyed in close combat immediately r-u+ full tactical move distance unless defending a $B/, #7 or redoubt or the routers are Marksmen or naval or the routers only are 9nferior. The element moving furthest ends in front. (outers end their rout move facing in the direction they are moving and remain there until their armyFs ne-t bound. 9f they are not rallied in that bound, they are 0es+r-4e0. / routing element is destroyed on reaching terrain it cannot cross or avoid, a. / routing element that reaches enemy must immediately conform to and fight them if it can. 9f it cannot conform or is not destroyed it routs 1,@!!p straight ahead, bursting through the enemy who halt. Pressi.g f-r;ar0 is always straight ahead unless along a road or the element contacts enemy. <lements pressing forward cannot shoot or be shot at again until ne-t bound. 5riendly elements lined up either in flank contact with or to rear of that with the press forward outcome but which have not and would not themselves be shot at or shoot, can choose to move with it >conforming with it to enemy it contacts?. <lements pressing forward into close combat as a result of distant shooting fight this bound. <lements pressing forward after close combat do not fight again until ne-t bound >unlike pursuers?.

Pursui.g elements follow recoiled, repulsed or routed opponents they were in close combat with this bound, or if these were destroyed, move straight ahead. They need not e-ceed minimum pursuit move or enter slow or difficult going >other than a $B/? or leave the table, unless they choose to. 9f they contact enemy, one side must conform in the usual way described in (<#7=.39.6 T= <.<M: 0=.T/0T and the combat is resolved immediately. 7ursuit of opponents in or entering a $B/ ends in its interior E e'e.+s i. fr-.+a c-.+ac+ ;i+, a. e.e'4 e e'e.+<s f a.= -r rear + >a? recoil if friends in close combat against that elementFs front recoil or are repulsed, routed or destroyed, >b? Goin to e-tend the front of such friends if they press forward or pursue. E e'e.+s c-.+ac+e0 -. 4 +- f a.= -r rear and not obligated to move turn to face. 1hen a C-''a.0 Par+4 has added the combat factor of an element contiguous to its rear, it is repulsed 8!!p to 1,@!!p if the latter becomes spent, otherwise both obey the latterFs outcome. 9f the outcome is charge to contact enemy, press forward or pursue the element behind follows the same distance. Ra ie0 elements turn 1%! degrees instead of moving that bound. They act normally in subse2uent bounds.

LOST ELEMENTS 3estroyed troops are permanently lost. / routing element that has not left the battlefield counts as lost until it rallies. Troops that recoil, rout or that are pushed back or repulsed across a battlefield edge are counted as lost but reappear in the ne-t period of a campaign.

ELEMENT EQUI2ALENTS /n <C9T< element or an /rtillery element counts as @ element e2uivalents. / Caager counts as @ element e2uivalents. / #upply $ase counts as A element e2uivalents per @!! /7 >rounded up? of elements in the army. / 5lotilla, #ubmarine or inferior naval element count as T an element e2uivalent. /ll other elements count as 1 element e2uivalent. DEFEATED COMMANDS / command >but not a naval contingent? is defeated at the end of any bound after which+ >a? it has lost a third of the total of its original element e2uivalents, plus or minus any elements transferred to or from it, or >b? which has all its original elements lost or spent. <lements cannot be transferred to a defeated command or from a command that would then be defeated.

9f the 0ommand is allied, all its 797s thereafter must be used for single element moves towards and over its original battlefield edge. 9f the 0ommand is subordinate, its elements cannot move closer to enemy elements unless these are between them and the commandFs original battlefield edge.

5INNING OR LOSING THE BATTLE / side loses the battle if at the end of any bound it is the first to have its cumulative losses e-ceed a 2uarter of its original element e2uivalents and to have lost more element e2uivalents in that bound than the enemy. /ll battles end at nightfall unless renewed the ne-t day. .ightfall occurs after @) pairs of bounds unless the optional map movement system is being used.

BEYOND means Hfurther thanI. 5ITHIN means Hat or closer thanI. DIRECTLY SUBORDINATE means one command level down i.e. / 0orps commander is directly subordinate to one /rmy commander. 9f there is more than one /rmy commander, all are directly subordinate to the 0-in-0. /n allied commander is directly subordinate only to a more senior commander of his own nation. ENFILADED means a line e-tending your elementFs rear edge meets an enemy shooting edge. /n #7, $B/, #upply $ase or Caager, or a 7ontooneers, /eronauts or naval element cannot be enfiladed. TO ITS FRONT> REAR means with any part directly in front ofNbehind the element. CONTACT means Htouching on any edge or cornerI. FRONTAL CONTACT means Hwith own front edge in contact with any enemy edgeI. SAME DIRECTION means He-actly the same directionI. COLUMN means Ha group only 1 element wide with each element following that in front. LINE means Ha group only 1 element deep with each element in front corner-to-front corner contactI.

H9n war all is simple, but the most simple is still very difficult. The instrument of war resembles a machine with prodigious friction but cannot, as in ordinary mechanics, be adGusted at pleasure but is ever in contact with a host of chancesY.9t thus falls out that we remain behind the line we have drawn by anticipation, and that no common powers are re2uired to maintain us even at a medium point.I >0lausewitJ?. HTactical talent consists in causing the une-pected arrival, upon the most accessible and the most important positions, of means which destroy the e2uilibrium, and give victory, to e-ecute, in a word, with promptness, movements which disconcert the enemy, and for which he is entirely unpreparedI. >Marmont?. H5atigue the opponent, if possible, with few forces and conserve a decisive mass for the critical moment. =nce this critical mass has been thrown in, it must be used with the greatest audacity.I >0lausewitJ? H/lways mystify, mislead and surprise the enemy if possibleI >#tonewall Rackson?. H9f the art of war consisted merely in not taking risks, glory would be at the mercy of very mediocre talent.I >.apoleon?. H5irst reckon, then risk.I >Moltke?. HThere is always haJard in military movements but we must decide between possible loss from inaction and the risk of action.I >Cee?. H9f you attack e-pecting to prevail, do it in full strength, because a surplus of victory never caused any con2ueror one pang of remorse.I >Eenophon?. HCuck is like a sum of gold, to be spent.I >/llenby?. H.ot only strike while the iron is hot but make it hot by striking.I >0romwell?. H9n war there is only one favourable moment. 6enius seiJes it.I H9t is very advantageous to rush une-pectedly on an enemy who has erred, to attack him suddenly and come down upon him with thunder before he has seen the lightningI. >.apoleon?. H9f a segment of oneFs force is located where it is not sufficiently busy with the enemy, or if troops are on the march X that is, idle X while the enemy is fighting, then those forces are being managed uneconomically. 9n this sense they are being wasted, which is even worse than using them inappropriately. 1hen the time comes, the first re2uirement should be that all parts must act, even the least appropriate task will occupy some of the enemyFs forces and reduce his overall strength, while completely inactive troops are neutralised for the time being.I >0lausewitJ?. HThere is a gift of being able to see at a glance the possibilities offered by the terrainY=ne can call it the coup dFoeil and it is inborn in great generals.I >.apoleon?.

H/ general should show boldness, strike a decided blow, and manoeuvre upon the flank of his enemy. The victory is in his hands.I H0arry your troops well on and attack the enemy vigorously.I H9n war as in love, we must achieve contact ere we triumph.I H9n order to smash, it is necessary to act suddenly.I >.apoleon? HThe bayonet is a wise man, the bullet is a fool.I H1e must attackKKK 0old steel - bayonets and sabres. 7ush the enemy over, hammer them down, donFt lose a momentK =vercome everything that stands in your way, however insurmountable it may appearK 5ollow on their heels, destroy them to the last manK The 0ossacks will catch the fugitives and all their baggage. 5orward without rest and e-ploit the victory.I >#uvorov?. H4e who stays on the defensive does not make war, he endures it.I >6oltJ?. HThe defensive-offensive is the strongest form but the most difficult of e-ecutionI >0lausewitJ?. H.othing is more dangerous than the attempt at defending seriously a river line, by keeping his side of the river occupied, for if the enemy were to cross suddenly with surprise effect X and that he will always be able to do somehow X we would find the defender in e-tensive positions from which the latter will be unable to assemble in time.I >.apoleon?. HTime spent in reconnaissance is seldom wasted.I >5#( 1"1@?. H/ general should never have to say, H9 did not e-pect it.I >Maurikios?. H:ou will usually find that the enemy has three courses open to him, and of these he will usually choose the fourth.I >Moltke?. HThe first duty of an advance guard is to advance.I >#lim?. HThe true speed of war is not headlong precipitancy but the unremitting energy that wastes no time.I>Mahan?. HMost opponents are at their best if they are allowed to dictate a battle, they are not so good when they are thrown off-balance by manoeuvre and are forced to react to your own movements and thrusts.I >Montgomery? HThe use of cavalry demands boldness and ability+ above all, it should not be handled with any miserly desire to keep it intact.I H0harges of cavalry are e2ually useful at the beginning, the middle and the end of a battle. They should be made always, if possible, on the flanks of the infantry, especially when this last is engaged in front.I >.apoleon?. HThe defeat of the hostile cavalry is purely a family affair and without influence on the course of the battle if the cavalry contents itself with this small success and does not endeavour to attain the greater and more important result of advancing against the flank and rear of the enemy.I >$alck?. H9t is with artillery that one makes war.I H=ne must have as much artillery as oneFs enemy.I HThere is no infantry, however brave, which can, without artillery, march with impunity ten or twelve hundred yards against 18 pieces of cannon well placed and well-served.I >.apoleon?.

H.o e-traordinary effort is re2uired for infantry to seiJe a few guns, but when the fire of many guns is concentrated to oppose its attack, the havoc created is so dreadful that the most courageous infantry fre2uently fails in the attempt to carry a powerful battery.I >(obertson?. H1e still have in our recollection the character of weariness and e-haustion which it >the battle of $orodino? assumed. The infantry masses were so reduced, that, perhaps, not more than a third of their original strength was engaged. The rest were either killed, wounded, engaged in removing the wounded, or rallying in the rear. Carge vacancies were everywhere apparent. That enormous artillery, which had brought on the two sides nearly @,!!! pieces into the field, was now heard only in single shots, and even these seemed to have lost the force and thunder of their original voice, and to give a hoarse and hollow tone. The cavalry had almost everywhere taken up the place and position of the infantry, and made its attacks in a weary trot, riding hither and thither, disputing and gaining by turns the field works. Towards Apm it was evident that the battle was on its last legs, and that, according to all rule, the decision depended entirely on the possession of the last trump card, i.e. the strongest reserve.I >0lausewitJ?. H7rovidence is always on the side of the last reserve.I H/ general who retains fresh troops for the day after a battle is almost always beaten. 4e should throw in his last man.I >.apoleon? HThe great secret of battle is to have a reserve. 9 always had one.I >1ellington?. HTo fight without a reserve is like playing cards without capital X sheer gambling.I >5uller? H/ prompt and vigorous pursuit is the only means of ensuring complete success.I >#heridan?. H.ever let up in pursuit while your men have strength to follow, for an army, if hotly pursued, becomes panic stricken and can be destroyed by half their number.I >#tonewall Rackson?. H4istoryYis indeed little more than a chronicle of the crimes, follies and misfortunes of mankindI>6ibbon?. HThe kind of person who could not lead a patrol of " men is happy to arrange armies in his imagination, criticise the conduct of a general, and say to his misguided self HMy 6od, 9 know 9 could do better in his place.I>5rederick?.

(eal battles were not mutually arranged but were the conse2uence of previous movement by the opposing sides in attempting to apply their respective strategies. The deployment rules give some of the flavour of this but this can be enhanced if you wish by a simple preliminary map campaign using the following system. More elaborate campaigns using real maps and third party umpires can be substituted but will need more time, effort and organiser e-pertise. The two sides share a single stylised map. This is marked with road or water links between nodal points which are usually villages but can also be road Gunctions, defiles or Gust arbitrary intermediary points. The distance between two adGacent nodes is called a #T/6<, and is notionally .& miles or 1@ kilometres. =nly maGor rivers are shown and in <urope are crossed by e-isting bridges. <ach campaign day is split into three periods M=(.9.6, /5T<(.==. and .964T. Movement is simultaneous, to simulate the fact that generals usually heard of other actors* movements but only after some delay. $efore the start of play, each player writes down movement orders that will be implemented at game start. /t dawn each day, each player then writes down movement orders for that day. The previous days moves are then implemented on the common map. The only reason for having weather in a war game is to cause inconvenience. 9t should not therefore be omitted because it is inconvenientK 3ice at the end of each afternoon. / score of 1 indicates bad weather, which for our purposes is assumed to be prolonged heavy rain that turns bad roads to mud. 3ice again at the start of each succeeding period, a score of ) or more indicating that the rain stops but that roads are still affected until the end of that period. 0ommand parties, 3ragoons, Cight 0avalry, (epeaters, Mounted (ifles, (ifle 0avalry, Cight 9nfantry, Cight 4orse, #pearmen or Marksmen march up to A stages in one period and up to A stages in total per day. 0uirassiers, 7istols, 4eavy 0avalry, #ipahis, $ayonets, Minie, $C or (ifles or 4D march up to @ stages in one period and up to A stages in total per day. =ther foot march @ stages in one period and up to @ stages in total per day. 4orse /rtillery or 7ortable /rtillery march A stages in one period and up to A stages in total per day. =ther /rtillery and train other than a #upply $ase march 1 stage in one period and up to @ stages in total per day. / march partly or entirely over bad roads in bad weather andNor by night cannot e-ceed 1 stage. 1 period of work is needed to construct infantry entrenchments or break down a bridge, @ periods to construct artillery redoubts or repair a bridge, A periods to construct a bridge. Bnless in rout, no more than @ commands or 1& elements can be marching on the same stage during the same period. Troops cannot march or work for more than @ successive periods. / march starting or finishing at night must be followed by a rest period.

9n colonial warfare, we suggest that the native side moves only every second day but then makes two days* moves, so as to provide an e-tra element of surprise. .aval can move 1 dice score of stages per period and A periods per day. 9f the score for the latest stage is ) or more, surf prevents landing or embarkation other than at a friendly port. Canding or embarkation takes 1 whole period for foot or command parties and @ consecutive periods for other troops. =nly foot can land at night. Troops transported by railway move % stages per period and up to A periods per day. Cine capacity limits despatches and arrivals to 1 element per period. The first element disembarks at the start of the Ard period following despatch, then 1 each subse2uent period. 1hen opposing forces meet, they are transferred to the wargames table and a battle is fought. / side arriving first is always the defender but not all the opposed troops will necessarily be on the battlefield at the start and if not they will continue to arrive. /fter 1@ bounds by each side, another map period starts during which troops may start arriving from 1 stage away Hmarching to the sound of the gunsI. (etreat to avoid battle is possible only if the retreating force has movement remaining and has no troops with a shorter tactical move than the shortest of the other force. (etreat from a battle once started is by a compulsory army rout of 1 or @ stages. $attles cease at nightfall. The night can be used to retreat, or the battle can resume ne-t morning.


The primary web site for 456 is now but 456 can also presently be accessed via my own personal web page at #uggestions, comments and criticisms are still very welcome. 9deally, you should send me a brief report on each game you play, preferably to the list if you are a member, otherwise to my current email address of My thanks are due to all those that have provided 456 input, especially to Rohn (ohde, /drian 1ebb and .orman 1hapshott, who have been from the start prolific and e-ceptionally well informed testers and commentators, to Martin 1inser and #ue Caflin-$arker for providing the diagrams, and to 6eoff 7earson for the birds eye view photograph of his 1&mm 1aterloo game that provides the basis for the front cover. My own web page also provides access to other e-perimental rules, currently including H3amn $attleships /gainI >3$#/? - simple ;ictorian naval set, H3e $ellis ;elitumI >3$;? - 3$ style ancient skirmish set, H3e $ellis Magistrorumi MilitumI >3$MM? - a radical successor for 3$M, and HThe #harp <ndI X a ground-breaking company level modern set covering H1ars in the Third 1orldI instead of the HThird 1orld 1arI 456 has already inspired a tempting new range of e-cellent lively 1&mm figures for the $alkan wars. #adly the designer, #piros 'oumassis, has since died but we hope that the range may be adopted by some other manufacturer. 7hil $arker.


Dis+a.+ C-'/a+

I. arc?

2a i0 > I.8a i0 +arge+

1 element width . a0e

T- rear

Gr-u* M-8es

>End of move)

>Start of move)

>Start of move)

Usi.g a gr-u* '-8e +- +ur. a si.g e e e'e.+ ;i0e c- u'. i.+- a i.e


M-8i.g i.+- C -se C-'/a+


O8er a*s

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