“HORSE, FOOT AND GUNS" QUICK PLAY ARMY LEVEL WARGAMES RULES FOR LARGE LAND BATTLES 1701
-1 1! INTRODUCTION These rules are primarily intended for games between two players each controlling a complete army against its historical opponents using a minimum number of figures on a small table, but can also be used for larger or multi-player games featuring big armies split into wings and/or combinations of allied armies. There will also be more detailed companion sets, initially "Tricorne & Musket" covering !" - !#", "$hako and %ayonet" for !# - &'", and "(epi & )ifle" for &' - # *. The series+ inspirations are that no current rules can cope with more than one corps per player, that few of the many wars of the period e,cept the -apoleonic and .merican /ivil 0ars are covered by e,isting rule sets, the greater interest being shown in smaller model scales for which casualty removal is impractical, and the realisation that the methods of our 1uick play ancient set "2e %ellis .nti1uitatis" can be e,tended further than originally supposed. My intent here is to provide the simplest possible set of wargames rules that retain the full feel and generalship re1uirements of &th and #th century battle at army level. Those wishing for more specific period te,ture with more detailed troop classification and attention paid to lower level formation and tactics will find these in the companion sets. 345+s simplicity makes it especially suitable as an introduction to wargaming the era for beginners and the young. .t first sight, you may doubt the simplicity, which is more real than apparent, but bear in mind that while many troop types are catered for, no individual army will employ more than a few of them. The e,tended historical scope may cause raised eyebrows, but while many wars were between like systems, many others were not. Traditional musket lines fought 4rench columns and skirmishers, )ussian musket columns fought %ritish and 4rench Minie rifles in the /rimea, 6russian 2reyse needle guns fought .ustrian Minie in &77 but were outranged by 4rench /hassepot and machine guns in &!", smoothbore and rifled artillery were partnered in more than one war, while at sea ironclads fought unarmoured steamers and wooden sail. -evertheless, 345 is not intended for competition play unless with very rigid restrictions on period and priority pairing of historical opponents. 8t is also unsuitable for battles involving limited numbers of troops, such as most of those of the .merican 0ar of 8ndependence, nor for siege warfare. 9ou should not assume that the differences between my perception of the realities of warfare during the era and received opinion are due to ignorance. $ome formerly respected secondary sources have recently been discredited by modern research. "The .natomy of :ictory" and "%attle Tactics of -apoleon and his ;nemies", both by %rent -osworthy and "4orward into %attle" and ")ally <nce .gain" by 6addy 5riffith provide good analysis, and many useful books by &th and #th century soldiers or theoreticians e,ist. /opyright =c> 6hil %arker ## , ##!, ?"" , ?""?, ?""@, ?""*.
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GAME PHILOSOPHY These rules are based on detailed analysis of a number of key battles for which a good se1uence of events is available. This shows that, e,cept for approach marches while out of contact, events are discrete initiatives and responses. This version is the result of testing against participantsE accounts of very many more battles 8n 345, troops are assumed to attempt at all times to be in their preferred formation for their current situation. 0hether they achieved this is sometimes shown by their combat results. 4or e,ample, if infantry are destroyed by cavalry, they have probably failed to form s1uare in time or flinched from the charge. The other rule sets in the series include a variety of formations and formation changing. $kirmishers integral to units are assumed to be present even if not represented by figures. 8nfantry elements represent the main body, but the range at which they fire may assume that the fire is actually coming from skirmishers posted in front. The forward edge of an element base does not represent the position of the front rank. 8nstead, the combined base depth between figures of opposing elements in base contact represents point blank range. $hooting ranges are those at which substantial casualties could be e,pected. $hooting is assumed to also occur at up to double that range, but to only put a brake on enemy movement by forbidding march moves in non-tactical formations such as column of route. .rtillery ranges are those considered practical by contemporaries and were often limited by considerations of visibility and long range shot dispersion. /ombat results are matched to the range or those recorded during confrontations between troops of those types in similar situations in real battles. /ombat factors have been set to produce historical effects in conFunction with the combat outcome table and should not be Fudged in isolation. <ne innovation is a G$pentH result for cavalry that used up their mountsE strength and the ridersE dash and cohesion but mostly survive, so that they are removed but do not count as lost. This encourages use rather than hoarding. .t the other e,treme, another innovation for the first time provides an ade1uate reason to reserve elite troops for the decisive moment of the battle. /onventional rule sets give the player far too much information. . real general does not know that a unit has Fust lost a certain number of men, or even its total losses until ne,t day, if then. 3owever, he will usually be in a position to see if a body is moving forward cheering, edging back looking over its collective shoulders, or has disintegrated. 0e provide players with that information and that only. <ur command and movement system is arbitrary, but its results are very similar to those from elaborate systems incorporating written orders, transmission by a limited number of messengers or signals, and then testing interpretation by the recipient. 8n any case, as /lausewitI points out, confusion is the normal state in battle, good staff work merely reducing it to a barely acceptable level. The function of the command system in a wargame differs from that in a real battle in that it is not used to enable the general to manoeuvre his troops at all, but to prevent him doing so too freelyJ This we achieve. $ome features of related rule sets are not applicable in this era and others were less or more important. 4or e,ample, night marches were plentiful, but night attacks were rare and usually restricted to localised assaults on strong points, which is surprising considering the need towards the end of the era to overcome the defensive power of longer ranged firearms. $uccessful attacks taking advantage of morning mist were less rare, but invariably due to coincidence rather than planning. 8ndeed, on one occasion, the attacker actually waited for an hour in the hope that the mist that was to give him victory would clearJ The effects of attacks also differ in this era, brigades attacked in both front and flank being more often repulsed or routed than destroyed. -aval co-operation was more common than previously, especially in .merica on coasts, great lakes and large rivers, though the feats of the 2anish ironclad )olf (rake against the 6russians also deserve a mention. <ff-table flank marches and decentralisation into semi-independent
/orps were increasingly important from the -apoleonic 0ars on. 0hile treachery resulting in allies changing side in mid-battle did not occur, misunderstanding and lack of co-operation between allies was rife.
PLAYING EQUIPMENT AND REPRESENTATIONAL SCALES CHOICE OF FIGURE AND MODEL SCALE These rules are primarily intended for 'mm or smaller figures. ?'mm can also be used if the ground scale is increased by '"K and its easier visibility may be helpful in public demonstration games. TROOP REPRESENTATION AND ARMY SI"E 4igures are combined into elements, each of which consists of several figures or figure blocks fi,ed to a rectangular base of card or some similar material. .ll bases used by both sides must have the same frontage. ;ach element type has a cost in .rmy 6oints =.6> ranging from to '", intended to render opposed armies appro,imately e1ual in ability and encourage realistic proportions of elite troops, cavalry and artillery. <pposing sides must be historical contemporaries, or if fictional, of the same putative year. ;ach side consists of elements of an agreed total of .6 and each army =a side may have more than army> must include or more staff elements and up to logistics element. staff element represents the sideEs /ommander-in-/hief =/-in-/> and others his subordinate or allied army, wing or corps commanders. . defending player can also use .6 to add garrisoned strong points, provide field defences or conceal troops. . staff element represents a senior general together with his staff and escorts. . cavalry element represents a brigade of 7- " s1uadrons =usually ,"""- ,'"" men>, or a commando =or about '"" men> of Mounted )ifles. . foot element represents a regiment or small brigade of ? very strong or @-* average battalions =usually ,'""-?,'"" men>, reducing to a single battalion =about ,""" men> if )ifles = &#&L> or Marksmen. .n artillery element represents &-?* guns, twice as many machine guns, or "" Fingal or rocket men. . strong point garrison represents several companies of foot together with any subse1uent reinforcements. . naval element represents -? ironclads, a single submersible or semi-submersible or ?-@ other vessels. The units represented by an element are assumed to always attempt to be in the appropriate formation. This will normally be single or multiple columns while moving out of contact, and lines, columns or s1uares, sometimes with advanced skirmisher screens, when in combat. PLAYING AREA AND GROUND SCALE . playing area 7 miles wide by @ miles deep is ample for normal siIed battles of up to *"".6. 8ncreasing width to # miles permits the largest historical battles, such as %orodino, 5ettysburg or (oniggratI. .lso increasing depth to 7 miles allows paired battles such as Buatre %ras/Aigny, 0aterloo/0avre or 5ravelot$t.6rivat. These improve elbowroom in multi-player games and scope for manoeuvre, but slow play. .ll distances are given in paces =p> of ".!' metres or @" inches. .n element+s frontage represents *"" paces in real life, which sets the standard ground scale at "mm M ""p, inch M ?'"p, and ?""mm/& inches M mile. Measure distances on the table with a card strip or similar marked at ?""p intervals up to &""p, then at *""p pace intervals. ;lement base dimensions are significant multiples of ""p and this will often make use of a measure unnecessary. . pair of *""p , ?""p bases with handles instead of figures can be very useful for measuring gaps. 6lay is smoother and pleasanter if players do not try to position elements "Fust outside" a critical distance and specify intended separation distance on completing moves. TIME SCALE 6lay is in alternate bounds. These do not represent fi,ed arbitrary divisions of time, but initiatives and responses by the two sides. 3owever, dividing known battle durations by the number of discrete phases that can be identified produces consistent enough results to define a bound as e1uivalent to an average of " minutes in real life. ;,cept for march movement out of contact, which is assumed to be continuous and to
have been during the previous enemy bound as well as your current bound, move distances are not a function of time available and theoretical speeds, but are based on typical moves in real battles. DICE <ne differently coloured ordinary to 7 dice is re1uired for each staff element used.
TROOP DEFINITIONS Troops are defined by battlefield behaviour as well as by their weapons. 0e distinguish only those troops thought by contemporaries to differ sufficiently to need different handling by their commanders or the enemy. ;ach type is identified by a name descriptive of its armament and fighting methods. 3owever, be warned that these necessarily arbitrary names may contradict regimental titles, which were often deceptive and/or obsolete. 4or e,ample, not all regiments with dragoon titles still practised dismounted fighting and many light infantry regiments came to differ from line regiments only in dress distinctions. 0here a date range is specified =NDDDD> M only before DDDD, =LDDDD> M only before and including DDDD and =DDDDL> M only after DDDD. $taff elements can be a large .rmy 3B, a small /ommand 6arty, or a -ative 6otentate. Mounted elements can be 6istols, /uirassiers, 3eavy /avalry, 2ragoons, Aight /avalry, )epeaters, Mounted )ifles, )ifle /avalry, Aight 3orse or $ipahis. 4oot elements can be $hot, Muskets, %ayonets, Aight 8nfantry, $toic 4oot, Minie, %A, )ifles, Marksmen, $pearmen, or a $trong 6oint =$6> garrison. .rtillery elements can be $moothbore, Mi,ed, )ifled, or Aight. -aval elements can be 4lotilla, $ail, $teamer, 8ronclad or $ubmarine. can be designated 4lagship. Train elements can be 6ontooneers, a $upply %ase, a Aaager, or .eronauts. . few elements can be additionally graded as %)8AA8.-T or 8-;)T if staff, as ;A8T; if mounted or foot, as 3<)$; or 3;.:9 if artillery. .ny number of mounted, foot or naval can be graded as 8-4;)8<). .)M9 3;.2BC.)T;)$ =3B>, representing the person, advisers, aides, staff, gallopers, escort, and sometimes kibitIing royalty, of an army commander who prefers to change position infre1uently and relies on ample messengers to e,ert authority, such as -apoleon at 0aterloo, $chwartIenburg at AeipIig, Mc/lellan in &7? or Moltke in &!", or more rarely, the similar entourage of an ally general. /<MM.-2 6.)T9 =/6>, representing the person and small entourage of an army commander who prefers seeing for himself and personal communication to total reliance on messengers, such as Marlborough, 0ellington or )aglan, or of a subordinate general or ally general =.5> commanding a wing of the army or a corps. -.T8:; 6<T;-T.T; =-6>, representing the ruler, viIier or other sole commander of an .frican or .siatic native army, often mounted on an elephant, horse or camel or sitting on a portable throne or litter, together with his advisors, lackeys, fan bearers and bodyguard. 68$T<A$, representing early &th century cavalry who moved deliberately in close formation and often received enemy cavalry charges at the halt with a fire of pistols and/or carbines rather than countercharging, such as the 4rench =L !@"> and the .ustrians =L !' >. This tactic was the best against Turkish sipahis, but less effective against ;uropean cavalry charging sword in hand. /C8).$$8;)$, representing cavalry in steel plate armour corselet or half-corselet on big horses who charged sword in hand in close formation, such as %ritish cavalry under Marlborough, 6russian cuirassiers of the $even 9ears 0ar, 4rench -apoleonic cuirassiers or later 6russian cuirassiers even if brigaded with uhlans. #th century e,perts disagreed as to whether the protection offered by a cuirass Fustified its e,tra weight and fatigue, though most agreed it made the wearer braver, especially when attacking foot. 3;.:9 /.:.A)9, representing other cavalry mounted on big horses intended almost e,clusively for the mounted charge and inefficient at other duties, such as #th century %ritish dragoon guards and heavy dragoons, 4rench carabineers and horse grenadiers, or cuirassier regiments that had abandoned armour. 2).5<<-$, representing plainer, cheaper and/or worse mounted cavalry who could not only charge or carry out outpost duties mounted, but retained some ability to fight on foot, such as early &th century and
some later dragoons and early .merican /ivil 0ar cavalry. -ot all troops with a dragoon title 1ualify. A853T /.:.A)9 = !*!L>, representing regular cavalry with theoretically smaller men mounted on light fast horses trained to charge in line, but also e,pected to perform the bulk of the army+s mounted outpost, escort, scouting, screening and skirmishing duties, such as dashing romantic regiments of hussars, light dragoons, chasseurs or lancers, sometimes supported by duller and less fashionable dragoons. The first troops in this category were the 6russian hussars after their reorganisation by von 0interfeldt. );6;.T;)$ = &7@- #"'>, representing cavalry mostly armed with repeating magaIine carbines as well as with sabre and revolver, and at least as likely to fight with most troopers dismounted as to fight entirely mounted, such as later Cnion cavalry of the .merican /ivil 0ar. M<C-T;2 )84A;$ = &&"L>, representing sharpshooters or infantry with modern rifles riding ponies, mules or camels, such as %oers or regular camel corps, or cavalry whose carbines have been replaced by rifles to fight mostly on foot in a single firing line. They were very wary of cavalry who had swords. )84A; /.:.A)9 = #"'L>, representing riders with modern rifles, but keeping =or if .ustralians after # ! scrounging> swords and combining dismounted fire with decisive mounted charges. A853T 3<)$;, representing those undisciplined irregular skirmishing horsemen or camel men who dominated the war of outposts, sought to engulf unwary enemy cavalry, but more often hovered in swarms around formed enemy than charged desperately to disaster, such as &th century .ustrian hussars, )ussian /ossacks, Tartars, Maratha pindaris or marauding %edouin. .lso used for Aight /avalry present in small number for scouting, but not numerous enough to be formed into brigades, such as %ritish, Aoyalist and )ebel cavalry during the .merican 0ar of 8ndependence, and partisan rangers of the .merican /ivil 0ar. $86.38$, representing fiercer native cavalry charging wildly in loose swarms and superior to ;uropeans in a confused meleeO such as Mamluks, Turkish $ipahis, 8ndian silhadars or Tuareg. 48);A</($, representing ;uropean infantry = !" - !*#> still using the 4rench system of the late !th century, though now often all armed with flintlock smoothbore musket and bayonet. They still formed *-7 ranks deep with large intervals between ranks that had to be closed up to deploy, change direction or fire. They defended with rank fire, each rank stooping after it fired so that the ne,t could fire over its heads, but were supposed to attack with sword or bayonet without firing. .lso those non-;uropean infantry with matchlock or flintlock muskets who fired a volley or two, then charged with swords, such as Turkish Panissaries. MC$(;T$ = !" - &7">, representing infantry also armed with muIIle-loaded smoothbore musket and bayonet, but using the new 2utch drill and firings, such as the 2utch themselves =L !#*>, %ritish =N !!'>, 4rench = !'*- !# >, 6russians =L &"!>, and .ustrians = !* - &"!>. They usually formed in @ ranks with small intervals and marched in step and drilled in cadence, these greatly improving their ability to change formation or direction. 0hether in attack or defence, they fought erect in rigid shoulder-to-shoulder lines, the ranks "locked on" by moving half a man width sideways so that all could fire simultaneously. /ombat started with platoon fire, with each platoon volleying in its succession, but tended to degenerate into independent fire. .t short range, their fire was often more deadly than the skirmishing fire or single volley and charge of the following type, though less decisive than the latter. Their bayonets were chiefly valuable for defence against charging cavalry, against whom there was only time for a single close range volley. %.9<-;T$ = !" - &&'>, representing infantry armed and drilled like those we class as 4irelocks or Muskets or = &'"L> like those we class as Minie, but chiefly relying on the moral effect of a bayonet or sabre charge in line after a single volley amid ringing cheers or rebel yell or of a rapid advance in column, such as brigaded grenadiers, $wedish =L ! &>, %ritish = !!'- &'">, 4rench = !#?- &7!>, 6russian = &"&&7*>, .ustrian = &"&- &'" and &7*- &77> and .merican /ivil 0ar /onfederates. Those like Muskets = !# L> preferred to form battalion s1uares when attacked by cavalry and relied for distant or more continuous fire against infantry on skirmishers thrown out in front, which are assumed to be present,
though not depicted. $uccessful bayonet charges killed and wounded few enemy compared with more continuous shooting but were more decisive, since they left fleeing opponents in no doubt that they had lost. A853T 8-4.-T)9 = !""- &7!>, representing infantry brigades similar to those classed above as %ayonets, but entirely of men trained to move e,ceptionally fast and act independently, such as those of the .nglo-6ortuguese Aight 2ivision of the 6eninsular 0ar and 4rench Qouaves and Turcos before &7!. 8t does not include 6russian fusiliers and 4rench /hasseurs de 6ied of &'#, since these were brigaded with normal infantry rather than together. $T<8/ 4<<T = !""- # '>, representing infantry with muIIle-loaded smoothbore musket and bayonet and drilled as any of the types above, or = &'!L> with rifles but still relying on dense formations and volley fire, more remarkable for endurance than for marksmanship but fond of the bayonet and whom "it is 7 times easier to kill than to defeat", such as regulars of the $ikh khalsa until &*# and )ussian line infantry. M8-8; = &' - &7!>, representing infantry armed with muIIle-loaded e,panding bullet rifles such as the Minie, ;nfield, $pringfield, AorenI or 6odewil, the theoretical range of which was not however achieved in war due to the unfamiliar problem of range estimation, a short beaten Ione and a lack of practise facilities. They fought erect or kneeling in a looser two-deep line using available cover and mostly relying on its own fire rather than on that of detached skirmishers. ;,amples include %ritish /rimean 0ar infantry and Cnion infantry of the .merican /ivil 0ar. %A = &*&- &!">, representing infantry armed with low velocity breech-loaded rifles, such as the 2reyse needle gun, $nider or )emington. .s well as firing faster, these they could load and fire prone with reduced e,posure to enemy fire, so fought in a thick swarm instead of in line or column. )84A;$ = &7!L>, representing infantry armed with higher velocity breech-loaded or = &&7L> magaIine rifles, such as the /hassepot, Martini, %erdan or Aee-Metford, and usually fighting as a prone firing line with supports and reserve. . flatter traFectory and adFustable sights permitted long range volleying, and the increased firing rate of magaIine rifles and aid by machine guns later allowed even more open formations. M.)($M;-, representing both the occasional specialist Fager battalion employed by ;uropean armies during the early part of the period and the larger numbers of irregulars such as .ustrian pandours, 8ndian naFibs or FeIailachis, wily 6athans and .fghan irregularsO but not the skirmishers of # th century regular units or specialist Fager or rifle battalions integral to line brigades, such as .ustrian Fager in &'# and &77. $6;.)M;-, representing undrilled foot mainly relying on a charge with spear and/or sword, such as 8rish rebel pikemen, )ussian <polchenie militia, 2ervish, Qulus, or in the related rule sets, 3ighland $cots Pacobite rebels. $M<<T3%<); .)T8AA;)9 = !""- &7&>, representing entirely smoothbore artillery batteries allocated to a corps or its constituent divisions, or to a grouping of e1uivalent power centralised under the /-in-/+s personal control as an artillery reserve for use in mass at a decisive point. 8t does not include light guns accompanying individual infantry battalions or regiments, which are instead assumed to be included in these. ;ach artillery element may include a minority of horse or heavy as well as field batteries, but some armies can also have a few elements entirely of horse artillery, or have their reserve artillery entirely or predominantly of heavy guns. M8R;2 .)T8AA;)9 = &'!- &!#>, representing divisional and corps or reserve artillery with a mi,ture of often larger calibre but light smoothbore batteries and longer-ranged but less lethal rifled batteries = &'!&! >, such as .merican /ivil 0ar artillery, or of rifled and mitralleuse batteries = &!">, such as the 4rench artillery of &!". )84A;2 .)T8AA;)9 = &77L>, representing divisional and corps or reserve artillery entirely of rifled steel
or shorter ranged brass batteries firing efficient point detonation e,plosive or shrapnel shells. 6<)T.%A; .)T8AA;)9, representing man or pony-carried /hinese Fingals, camel-mounted Iamburaks and/or swarms of 8ndian rocketeers launching rockets by hand and their pack camels. 6<-T<<-;;)$, representing troops able to move to a river and construct a temporary bridge. $C66A9 %.$;, representing the army+s supplies, hospitals, stores and transport depots, and positioned contiguous to a built-up area =%C.> or battlefield edge and also on a waterway, navigable river, road or railway. 8t cannot be moved during a battle and is only feebly defended by its own personnel. 8ts function is to increase endurance, re1uire protection and offer a target for raids. A..5;), representing circled supply wagons such as those of a %oer army. 8t differs from a $upply %ase in being heavily defended and able to move freely, if slowly. .;)<-.CT$ = !#*L>, representing an observation balloon tethered at ,""" feet and able to see * S miles plus its detachment and wagon, or = # "L> or more grounded aeroplanes able to see the whole battlefield when aloft, a canvas hangar, vehicles and ground crew. 8t can be moved, but can only operate if stationary for the whole of this bound and that preceding, in good going, in good weather, in daylight and within the /-in-/Es easy command distance. 8t can be attacked, but cannot fight back. 4A<T8AA., representing small craft effective only in close combat including both groups of boarding craft such as galleys, cutting-out e,peditions in shipsE boats, canoe fleets or war Funks and also unarmoured rams, fire ships and = &7"L> spar- or = &!7L> other torpedo boats. $.8A =L &7#>, representing substantial wooden broadside warships dependent entirely upon sail and unable to move closer than *' degrees to directly upwind. $T;.M;) = &?*L>, representing similar wooden warships additionally provided with a steam engine driving paddle wheels or screw propeller, or unarmoured vessels powered only by steam. 8)<-/A.2 = &''L>, representing broadside or turret steam warships with sufficient iron or steel armour to provide substantial protection against artillery for armament, engines and flotation. $C%M.)8-; = &7 L>, representing a single practical fully submersible boat or partly submersible G2avidH. Troops graded as ELITE include guard cavalry, full brigades of guard infantry or grenadiers, regular marksmen entirely armed with good rifles and fanatic spearmen. ;lite cavalry were used for decisive attacks, foot guards and grenadiers to press difficult assaults on villages or as a final reserve to tip a battle hanging in the balance. -ot only is the cost increased, but also each element counts as ? element e1uivalents. Troops graded as INFERIOR include all those cavalry or foot significantly deficient in some of the battle skills e,pected of their type, such as recently recruited volunteers, militia, landwehr, badly-trained reservists, badly-officered and neglected regulars, cavalry dispersed into regiments, s1uadrons or companies instead of formed into brigades or on bad or half-starved horses. This grading does not reflect on the menEs individual courage or mean that they will not fight well on occasion or be good value. -aval elements similarly graded are those too weakly armed or unseaworthy to lie in line of battle in open sea, such as sailing frigates, corvettes or brigs, steam frigates unless armed with large shell guns, river steamers, coastal, riverine or obsolete 8ronclads and all submarines =N #"">. .rtillery is graded as 3;.:9 if heavy ?pdr or larger smoothbores or if 'pdr or larger rifled guns.
.rtillery is graded as 3<)$; if either smoothbores up to 7pdr or rifled guns up to "pdr with gun crews carried on the limbers or riding the teamEs off-side horses, or smoothbores up to light ?pdr or rifled guns up to @pdr with crew riding separate mounts. DISMOUNTABLE TROOPS 2ragoons, )epeaters, Mounted )ifles and )ifle /avalry can fight either mounted or dismounted and so are 28$M<C-T.%A;. 2ismountable elements need not be duplicated in mounted and foot forms, but if not should have a mi,ture of mounted figures, dismounted figures and led horses. . dismountable element is always mounted if it has moved more than 7"" paces this bound, and if not, always dismounted if shooting, entrenched, manning an obstacle or in difficult going. <therwise, 2ragoons are always mounted, Mounted )ifles always dismounted, )epeaters and )ifle /avalry declared by their player before combat dicing.
ORGANISING AN ARMY ELEMENT BASING .n element consists of several figures fi,ed to a thin rectangular base of card or similar material. The siIe of this base and even the scale of the figures are not critical provided that all land elements have the same frontage. 3owever, some standardisation is needed if you are to play against other peopleEs armies, and the conventions specified below are the best that can be done to represent the true space occupied. $tandard basing mounts ?'mm figures on 7"mm wide bases and smaller figures on *"mm wide bases. 8f figures were previously on @"mm wide bases, fi, these to the centre of a *"mm base. The standard basing for ?'mm and 'mm figures is the same as in the other sets of the series. 4igures smaller than ?'mm can alternatively be mounted on &"mm bases, allowing formations to be depicted more realistically and 0)5 7&'- &*' elements to be combined into an 345 element. 8f so, use the "mm number of figures per base for 'mm figures and double the number in each rank for all smaller scale elements e,cept staff. %.$; $8Q;$ 7"mm ,T*"mm ,T &"mm ,T ?"mm. &"mm. .eronauts. 7"mm. *"mm. *"mm. @"mm. @"mm. ?"mm.
7"mm. &"mm. 7"mm. *"mm.
.rmy 3B, 6ontooneers, $upply %ase, Aaager and -ative 6otentate, 2ismounted and .rtillery. /ommand 6arty, Mounted, %A, )ifles and $pearmen. <ther foot.
);/<MM;-2;2 -CM%;) <4 485C);$ <) M<2;A$ 6;) %.$; 5 M 5eneral, ) M )ider on horse, 3 M Aed horse, . M .rtillery piece and crew, $k M in $kirmisher block, AM in Aoose order block, =D d> is the number of ranks a figure block is cast in if greater than . $pacing codes areT 4ront to rearT o M -o gap between ranks, U M $mall = /? figure depth> gap between ranks, UU M largest possible gap between ranks. V M $ingly, between and beside columns front ranks. $ide to sideT -o code M shoulder-to-shoulder in centre of base, s M spaced e1ually across base, r M spaced randomly, s/r M s if soldiers and r if irregulars, D, M in that number of separate groups. ?'mm & 'mmT 5U -?U -@) 5 -?) 5?) ?)s/r @)s/r @-*) @ @UU@3 ?UU?3 ) @s/rUU@3 ?sUU?3 ) "mmT 5U?U?-@) 5M?) 5o*-7) @)s/r *)s/r ') ') *UU*3 ) @UU@3?) 's/rUU'3 @s?)UU@3 7mm %accusT 5U?-@ U?-@) @)s/r ')s/r *)o*) 7) 'U )U73 *UU*3?) 7s/rUU73 @s@)UU@3 <ther 7mmT 5?) D ")s D &)o&) ?- 7)U 7=?d> '$kU "$kU '$k7)U ?mmT 5L
3B. /ommand 6arty. 5 ) -ative 6otentate. 5?) Aight 3orse. $ipahis. 6istols. <thers if mounted. U"-7) 2ragoons if not. U?)UU 73 )epeaters. U7)73 Mounted )ifles. U ?3 )ifle /avalry. U73 4irelocks. Muskets. $toic 4oot. Marksmen.
* * * ?s
7sU7s & 7o7 *r
7sU7sU7s &o& &o&o& *r
*"=*d> *&=@d> *&=7d> "$k
%ayonets =linear>.* ?sUU& ?sUU&o& '$kUU?7=?d> %ayonets =columns>. * @sV?,?o? @sV?,@o@o@ "$k U U?, 7=*d> Aight 8nfantry. * *sUU7 *sUU7o7 "$kUU?"=?d> Minie. * sUU&r sUU&ro&r *"*&=?d> %A. @s 7sUU?,?7sUU@,?o? ?"AUU?, 7=*d> )ifles. @s 7sUU* 7sUU7 ?"AU U?7=?d> $pearmen. @-*ro?-*r D @-!ro!-&ro'-7r D 6ortable artillery. ?.s @.s *.s D <ther artillery. . . ?. @. . strong point garrison is represented by a single un-based figure or block to fit in among model buildings. Most foot figures should be positioned at the rear of their base so that muIIles do not protrude beyond its front edge. Those with an GoH spacing code can be locked, i.e. covering the intervals of the front rank with muIIles between the front rank heads. 4igures further forward represent skirmishers or &c grenade throwers. 3B can be embellished with tents, tables, led horses or travelling coach as desired. $upply bases can be represented by tents, field bakeries, transport animals, or anything else your artistic mind desires. 5round scale considerations make it inconvenient to represent draft teams under these rule unless using 7mm or ?mm, so they are otherwise assumed to have been withdrawn out of sight into dead ground. 8t is not necessary to duplicate dismountable elements as mounted and dismounted bases unless you wish to. 8f you do not, dismounted bases are usually preferable. $pearmen can alternately use dismounted base depth to permit substitution of -? 2%) or 2%M elements of similar figures. The increased depth of )epeaters, Mounted )ifles, )ifle /avalry, %A and )ifle elements is to suit the use of prone firing figures and also the increased tactical depth due to horse holders in rear and later #c infantry organisation into separated firing line, supports and reserves. .lthough 7mm and ?mm blocks are intended for use without bases, our e,perience shows bases .); needed and that using the same base siIes as 'mm figures is most realistic. ?mm blocks are in a variety of widths that can be selected or combined. ?mm cavalry are cast in blocks of 7 light or & heavy. My basing allows a single line of heavy or ? lines of light, or even a mi,ed brigade of cuirassiers and uhlans. 3orse artillery are best represented by 7 horse teams with guns hooked up, field artillery by guns in action with * horse teams behind, and heavy artillery by guns in action with 7 horse teams behind. 8rregular Miniatures cast 7mm %ritish -apoleonic infantry blocks as loose order, so substitute their /rimean blocks. 0hen 7mm manufacturers do not distinguish heavy guns, try substituting )enaissance sakers, but with contemporary horse teams and crew. Those 7mm cavalry or infantry blocks cast with slight gaps between figures can be easily cut and combined to fit base frontages. -aval and .eronaut elements are represented by smaller models than other land elements, this being rationalised as the element being viewed from a greater distance. There are e,cellent ranges of / ?"" ships for the .merican /ivil 0ar and of /?*"", /@""" and /7""" ships for other wars of our era. / ?"" naval elements have a frontage of @"mm and depth of '"mm. /?*"" or /@""" naval elements have a frontage of ?"mm and depth of ""mm. /7""" naval elements have a frontage of ?"mm and depth of '"mm. These base siIes are compatible with the e,perimental 2%$. naval rules also on my web page.
ELEMENT COLOUR CODING 0hile uniform colours provide opponents with all the identification clues they are entitled to, the player controlling them, especially with the smallest figure scales, may need some aid. 0e recommend painting the rear edge of each base with a single colour indicating the nationality and differing from those of as many as possible of its historical opponents and battlefield allies. )oyal %lue M 4rench or /hilean, %lack M 6russian, %runswick, Montenegro or $udanese, Aight 5rey M .ustrian or /onfederate, 2ark 5reen M )ussia, 6iedmont/$ardinia or (ingdom of 8taly, Aight 5reen M Turkish, ;gyptian, 3anoverian, 8rish )ebel or .fghan, )ed M %ritish, %ulgarian, 6eruvian or 3ungarian revolutionaries, <range M -etherlands, -assau or %oer )epublics, Aight %lue M %avarian, 2anish, 5reek, .rgentine, Te,as )epublic or Cnited $tates, 9ellow M $wedish, $a,on, )omanian, Me,ican, %olivian, $ikh or 8mperial /hinese, 0hite M $panish, 3essian, $erbian or Papanese, Mid-%rown M 6ortuguese or %elgian, 6urple M -eapolitan or 8ndian 6rincely. 0here ? nations have the same colour, their dress will usually distinguish them. Troop grade can then be indicated by central dots of a contrasting colour 5old M ;lite, $ilver M Aight /avalry, Aight 8nfantry or 3orse .rtillery, Mud M 8nferior. ARMY SI"E Cnless the battle is a campaign or scenario game, each side consists of troop elements up to an agreed total of army points =.6>, normally between "" and ,""" .6. 8n all games each side is controlled by or more staff elements, which must include a /ommander-in-/hief =/-in-/>. <ther staff elements can be subordinate or allied generals, sometimes grouped under an intermediate army commander. ;ach subordinate or allied staff element controls a command of at least 7 elements including itself. ;ach element must be part of one of these commands and, unless in a /-in-/Es or other army commanderEs command, cannot be transferred to another. Aogistic elements must be part of a /-in-/Es or other army commanderEs own command. NAVAL CONTINGENTS -aval forces in the army lists reflect the relative strength and ship types of opposed nations, but not usually overall numbers, since only small portions of fleets were likely to be involved in supporting land forces. .ny naval element other than a 4lotilla or $ubmarine can be nominated as a flagship e1uivalent to an allied general controlling all naval elementsO otherwise all naval elements are controlled by the /-in-/ ELEMENT COST /ost in .6 ifT 8nferior. .rmy 3B. /ommand 6arty. -ative 6otentate. 6ontooneers. $upply %ase. Aaager. .eronauts. /ost in .6 ifT 6istols. /uirassiers. 3eavy /avalry. * 2ragoons. Aight /avalry. %asic. ' 7 ' * ' ;lite. ! & ! ' 7 8nferior. @ * @ ? @ ? & * ?'
%asic. %rilliant. 8nert.
/ost in .6 ifT
?" ' "
*" @" ?"
" ' '
$moothbore .rty. Mi,ed .rtillery. " )ifled .rtillery. ? 6ortable .rtillery.
& ' & '
? ?" ?* -
4lotilla. $ail. $teamer. & 8ronclad.
@ 7 ?"
' )epeaters. Mounted )ifles. " )ifle /avalry. Aight 3orse. $ipahis. 4irelocks. Muskets. %ayonets. Aight 8nfantry. $toic 4oot. Minie. %A. )ifles. Marksmen. $pearmen.
7 & " ? @ ? @ * ' @ * 7 ! ?
" @ ' * ' ' 7 ' ' ! & @ @
* ' ! ?
8f 4lagshipT $ubmarine
U " " -
? @ * ? @ * ' -
SETTING UP A BATTLE SETTING UP SEQUENCE = > =?> =@> =*> ='> =7> 2ecide which army is the attacker and which is the defender. /hoose and place battlefield terrain. 2ecide battlefield base edges. )ecord command structure and deployment plans. 2efender deploys all undelayed unconcealed troops and unconcealed battlefield preparations. .ttacker deploys all undelayed troops.
DECIDING ATTACKER AND DEFENDER The army commanders each dice and add their armyEs aggression factor, which is based on its historical preference for tactical attack or defence and not on which nation is invading the other. The army with the larger total is the attacker and that with the smaller is the defender. ;1ual scorers dice again. BATTLEFIELD TERRAIN 6layers must be able to provide a battlefield in case they become the defender. .s generalship is definable as the skill with which generals adapt their troops movements to those of the enemy and to the battlefield, varied and realistic terrain is essential for interesting battles. $ince the playing area is so small, we hope players will spend time and ingenuity on making their terrain as visually attractive as their troops. The battlefield is normally produced by placing separate terrain features of a type appropriate to the theatre of war on a flat board or cloth representing flat or slightly rolling good going. The types of terrain that are significant at army scale during this era often differ from those familiar from other scales and eras. Those selected appear on published maps of maFor historical battles. Ainear features can be 0aterways, $treams or 5ullies, )ivers, )oads or =from &'#> )ailways. .rea features can be %C. =%uilt Cp .rea>, 3ills, 0oods, Marsh or $low 5oing. .ll e,cept %C. must have curved edges. The features used may be restricted by army lists, otherwise must include a minimum of @ )oads and ? %C.O and ma,ima of each of 0aterway, )iver and )ailway and 7 of any single type of feature. 4or every # s1uare miles of total battlefield area, there must be '-& features, up to ? of which can be area features more than ,"""p across in any direction. ;ach short edge of the battlefield and each half of each long edge are numbered clockwise from to 7 by the defender. 4eatures are now diced for and placed in the order in which they are listed below. The attacker can provide and place ? of these features if he so wishes. .ll others are provided and placed by the defender. 8f both defender and attacker wish to place features of the same type, the defender dices and places first. 8f there is a gap between area features, it must be at least *""p wide. 0.T;)0.9$ represent the sea or a large un-fordable and navigable river such as the Mississippi, lower 2anube or 9iangtse/3wangshi. . 0aterway re1uires positioning dice and e,tends 7""p-?,"""p inward from a side edge running to, from or along the edge section corresponding to its score. $T);.M$ represent minor rivers, streams, creeks or brooks, which, although easily fordable, are a significant obstacle due to steep or muddy banks or rocky bed. They are depicted as W of an element base
width across and flowing in =often reversing> gentle curves. . $tream re1uires ? positioning dice and runs from one of the indicated edge sections to the other unless it meets a previously placed 0aterway, $tream or )iver, which it Foins instead. 8ts length cannot e,ceed S times the straight-line distance between its ends. )8:;)$ represent a single wider and mostly unfordable river, created by optionally upgrading $tream that runs between ? long battlefield edges by increasing its width to up to element base width across. . )iver at least S an element base width wide is navigable, but only by 4lotilla elements. 5CAA8;$ represent a sunken dry or almost dry sunken streambed, gully, wadi, Fhil, khor or nullah. 8n dry climates, such as in 8ndia during the fighting season or the /rimea in summer, they are substituted for all $treams not already replaced with a )iver. They have the same effect as $treams, e,cept that they can conceal foot within them and cannot run through or contact a Marsh. M.)$3;$ can be up to @,"""p long but no more than '""p wide. . Marsh re1uires positioning dice and must be placed both nearer to the indicated edge section than to any other and also either at the edge of a 0aterway or under a $tream so that it protrudes on both sides of this. Marshes are impassable to .rmy 3B, artillery unless 6ortable and Aaager, difficult going to all other troops. 38AA$ must be between '""p and *,"""p across in every direction. . 3ill re1uires positioning dice and must be placed nearer to the indicated edge section than to any other. 8t can be difficult or gentle. 2ifficult 3ills are steep and rocky or heavily vegetated and are difficult going. 5entle 3ills are smooth bare or lightly treed or brushed good going. 5entle 3ills whose minimum width is less than ,"""p and all 2ifficult 3ills slope up to a central crest line. <ther 5entle 3ills slope up to a flat plateau starting '""p in, the edge of which counts as a crest. .ll hills give a close combat advantage if all an elementEs front edge started the bound higher than all of its opponent, even if the hillEs crest then separated them or the initially higher element moved down or off the hill to contact its opponentEs nearest edge, but not if it contacted any other edge. .n element with such an advantage is said to be GuphillH. Troops within *"" paces of the far side of the crest of a 5entle 3ill can be fired on by artillery, though at much reduced effect, being reached only by ricochets, rolling round shot and shell, as were the %ritish s1uares in nominally dead ground at 0aterloo. Those foot classed as %ayonets = !#"L>, Aight 8nfantry or Minie can shoot over a 5entle 3illEs crest if within ?"" paces to their front, being assumed to send skirmishers forward to that crest. )<.2$ are the most important terrain features. They must form a connected net. $ome were now metalled, so a single turnpike or similar maintained good road can be depicted as a roughly "-?'mm wide strip coloured as paving, cobbles, gravel, pale brown packed dry earth or even = &?"L> tarmac. <thers are bad roads and should instead be depicted as earth with deep ruts, potholes and/or stretches of dark wet mud. ;ach road re1uires ? positioning dice and must run from one indicated edge section towards the other, e,cept that if both scores are the same, it runs to the orthagonally opposite edge section. 8f the terminal edge is a waterway the road must end at a %C. touching that waterway. . road that intersects a river, stream or gully is assumed to cross it at a ford if no bridge is provided. . permanent bridge can be destroyed by an element which declares that intention and remains in contact with it for ? entire friendly bounds even if in combat. . permanent or temporary bridge can be destroyed with difficulty by artillery or naval shooting or in close combat by naval, foot or dismounted. . good road that reaches a bad road continues across it. . bad road that reaches another road can either end there or continue on the far side. ;lements may have to fight astride a road, so it is important that the terrain for half an element width on both sides should be identical so that it is obvious whether elements count as in good or other going for combat, though not for movement along the road.
).8A0.9$ = &'#L> represent a single track of ? iron rails laid on wooden sleepers bedded in gravel. This cannot cross a hill, but it can cross a marsh, pass through a wood or cross a river, stream or gully by a bridge, or cross a road. 8t re1uires positioning dice and runs from the indicated edge section to that directly opposite. 8t is assumed to allow train each way per double bound. %C8AT-C6-.);.$ =%C.> must be '""p-7""p s1uare. They are usually small villages or hamlets but can occasionally be sections of a larger village or town separated by roads. They re1uire positioning dice. They must be closer to the indicated edge section than to any other. They must be astride a road or road Function. Movement inside a %C. or march movement completely through it is in good going. <ther movement out from a %C. other than into an adFacent %C. section is at slow going rate even if by road. . %C. can be occupied and defended by a single foot or dismounted element. This does not prevent other friendly elements passing through it to end on the far side. Troops defending a %C. have a substantial advantage over attackers until these succeed in entering, but =e,cept for specialist skirmishers, who tended to get cut-off inside buildings> are then bundled out 1uickly in disorder if they fail to hold. $ome %C. derive their defensive strength from stone or brick perimeter walls, substantial stone buildings or mud brick houses with flat roofs and blind walls, but most from gardens, fences, enclosures, winding alleys, general irregularity and especially from orchards. .lthough distant shooting from more than one source can be combined against a %C., close combats against each edge are treated as separate and consecutive, the defender facing each in turn. .ny recoil by the defending element is into the %C.Es interior. <nly the enemy element that defeated it presses forward. . %C. set afire by artillery has smoke and flame markers placed. 8t is not untenable, but becomes difficult going and its defensive value is reduced. 0<<2$ represent areas thickly covered with mature trees. They must be between '""p and @,"""p across in every direction and are difficult going. They re1uire positioning dice and must be placed nearer to the indicated edge section than to any other. They give a substantial combat advantage to foot and dismounted defending them against enemy outside. 4oot and dismounted getting the worst of a combat while within them can be driven back only slowly. $hooting in distant combat at or by troops in a 0ood is possible only if they are within ""p inside its edge and their opponents are outside it. $A<0 5<8-5 is a catch-all term for terrain cover that offers concealment and hinders movement but not shooting, such as bush or Fungle of low brush with occasional trees, sand hills or boulders, elephant grass, haIel or Funiper shrub, gorse, vineyards, hop gardens, olive groves, orchards, tall kaoliang millet or areas divided into small fields by substantial hedges, walls, sunken lanes, irrigation channels or paddy bunds. .n area of slow going must be between '""p and @,"""p across in every direction. 8t re1uires positioning dice and must be closer to the indicated edge section than to any other. Troops that end an off-road move in a stream or gully are in slow going until moved clear. 4A.T 5<<2 5<8-5 is the remainder of the playing area surface still e,posed after all terrain features have been placed. 8t should be depicted as a reasonably uniform appro,imation of flat or slightly rolling pasture, large cultivated fields or desert, but is still assumed to provide some cover for skirmishing foot. EFFECT OF TERRAIN ON VISIBILITY 0e distinguish the terms (-<0- =to all elements of a command> and :8$8%A; =to a specific element>. ;lements visible to any element are known to all elements of its command. 4eatures and elements visible to .eronauts in good weather are known to all commands with the same entry edge e,cept allied commands, but not until the /-in-/ has had an unadFusted 686 score in any previous bound of at least *. Terrain features beyond the crest of any intervening hill are visible only to .eronauts. Troops beyond an intervening %C. or wood are visible only from the upper half of a hill or to .eronauts. Troops beyond the crest of a difficult hill or *""pL beyond that of a gentle hill, are visible only to .eronauts.
Troops more than ""p inside a wood edge or in the interior of a %C. are not visible from outside and cannot see out. .fter the introduction of smokeless powder in &#?, foot or dismounted who shoot out from a /oncealed 6osition =see ne,t page> and do not move are invisible to enemy not within *""p who have not already shot at them. CHOICE OF BATTLEFIELD EDGE .fter all terrain has been positioned, the players commanding each side dice for choice of battlefield edge, the attacking side adding ? to its score. The side with the higher total chooses which long side will be its base edge. The other side takes the opposite long edge as its base edge.
ARMY COMMAND STRUCTURE Troops must now be allocated to commands. 8t will obviously save playing time if this has been done in advance and this will normally be the case if the army is permanently organised in /orps. 3owever, some adFustment of resource allocation once the terrain has been seen and a plan formulated is reasonable, but do appreciate that the time available for victory can easily be frittered away by micro-management. 0e allow generals to be graded according to their historical performance. %rilliant generals are capable of a sudden stroke throwing the opposing army off balance. 3owever, only good players will have the necessary situational awareness and sense of timing to benefit and even then opponents may deny them opportunities. 8nert generals may handicap their troops by lethargy, indecision, timidity, over-confident neglect of elementary precautions, failure to take firm control of subordinates, innate incapacity, dementia, Fealousy, e,treme pig-headedness, reluctance to beat the enemy badly or even wanting to lose, but are cheap. . small army will usually be commanded in its entirety directly by the .rmy /ommander. The e,tra 686s provided by additional generals will rarely Fustify those generalsE cost. . larger army that intends to manoeuvre is best divided into commands for e,tra 686s, though large native armies which rely on sheer numbers of troops or on field defences can make do without them and indeed may not be permitted them. 8f the .rmy /ommander is using an 3B element, he will usually only retain a reserve of elite troops or artillery under his personal command and dole these out to the other commands when needful. 8f he is using a /6 element, he may sometimes command a large proportion of the army directly, but this may hinder him moving to crucial points using his e,tra mobility. DEPLOYMENT PLANNING The defender writes down the order of his initially present commands from left to right and front to rear, the position of his e,treme element on each flank, the type and position of his battlefield preparations, the position of any bridges pre-constructed by %ridging Trains and the arrival roads or railway lines of commands not initially present. 3e cannot initially have any elements forward of the centreline, or any within ,?""p of a side edge unless either naval or in a %C. or $6. The attacker writes down the order of his initially present commands from left to right and the arrival roads or railways of commands arriving later or from flank edges. 3e cannot initially have any elements further forward than ,?""p from his base edge or less than *""p from a side edge. BATTLEFIELD PREPARATION The defender can use .6 he has allocated to prepare the battlefield as permitted by his army list by garrisoning strong points, constructing fieldworks, mining waterways or concealing troops. The attacker can use .6 only for concealment, all .6 allocated to other preparations being wasted. Types of preparation areT $T)<-5 6<8-T =$6> up to ?'"p s1uare, consisting of a strong stone building, such as a seminary, walled farm, chateau or other large house, or in 8ndia a walled garden/orchard such as a bagh or mango tope, but not earthworks. 8ts garrison, initially of several companies or a battalion detached from one or more of the armyEs elements but assumed to be kept up to strength by reinforcements, is represented by a single foot figure. 8ts walls aid defence but prevent escape. /apture destroys it. /ost " .6. Cp to @ can be used, placed anywhere in the defenderEs deployment Ione e,cept within ,?""p of a previously placed $6 or redoubt. );2<C%T, representing open-backed earthwork redoubt/s protecting an artillery or foot element from enemy not directly to their rear. 8t cannot be enfiladed or overlapped, but can be contacted in flank. 6revents occupants turning, or moving other than directly to its rear. /ost ' .6. Cp to @ can be used, placed anywhere in the defenderEs deployment Ione e,cept within ?""p of a previously placed redoubt or within ,?""p of a previously placed $6. ;ach model redoubt represents large real life redoubt or up to * smaller.
;-T);-/3M;-T, representing &""p of straight trench, breastwork of earth and/or logs or rough line of fleches or sangars to protect foot or dismounted from enemy not enfilading them or in front edge contact with their flank or rear. <ccupiers cannot turn unless they first move back or recoil, but can move a base width sideways along it. /osts ' .6. Cp to 7 can be used, placed in the defenderEs deployment Ione. ;R6A<8T.%A; A8-;.) 4;.TC); =;A4>, up to ,?""p long, such as a railway embankment or cutting or a hedge-banked or sunken road, or a high riverbank on the enemy side of the river. 8f it is a riverbank, the river is fordable along the ;A4Es length, but can be crossed only to retire to the other side or by the enemy. .n ;A4 provides the same protection as an entrenchment. /ost ". -eed not be specified in army list, but only can be used and then only if diced for at placement and ' or 7 scored and along an e,isting railway, road or river in the defenderEs deployment Ione. /annot be used if the /-in-/ is inert. <%$T./A;, up to *""p long, such as improvised barricades of wagons or furniture, abatis of felled trees, thorn bush Iariba or barbed wire. 6laced as if an entrenchment but protects troops manning it only in close combat. 8f undefended, counts as difficult going. )emoved when crossed by either side. /ost ?.6 /<-/;.A;2 6<$8T8<-, representing a hidden position in a %C., wood, gully or slow going, on a difficult hill, or behind a %C., wood or hill for element or a group of up to " elements. The troopsE position and direction is recorded, and they are deployed only when they first move, shoot, or become known to enemy. 8t also hides entrenchments or a redoubt occupied by the concealed troops or that the troops are e,ploiting a linear feature. /ost " .6. <nly @ can be used by the defender, placed in any such position within his deployment Ione. The attacker must convert any concealed position into a $urprise. -.:.A M8-;48;A2, *""p s1uare, representing an area of a 0aterway that has been sown with commandor contact-detonated e,plosive mine/torpedoes/infernal devices or other deadly obstructions. This cannot be entered by friendly naval. ;ach enemy naval element entering it must dice and is destroyed if it scores . /ost ?" .6. <nly can be used, placed anywhere in a 0aterway within the sideEs deployment Ione. INITIAL DEPLOYMENT The defender deploys all initially present elements and battlefield preparations that are not concealed. The attacker then deploys all initially present elements. DELAYED DEPLOYMENTS The .rmy /ommanderEs own command must always arrive from the sideEs base edge. .n .llied 5eneralEs command or = !#'L> a $ubordinate 5eneralEs command can either be deployed then or be retained for later arrival along a road, or = &'#L> a railway, specified in deployment planning. $uch a command arrives in their own sideEs ne,t bound in which the commandEs unadFusted 686 score is *, ' or 7 if from its sideEs base edge, ' or 7 if from a side edge. .ll elements to arrive in that bound must do so by railway or in column on a road entering the battlefield either on their own sideEs base edge, or on a side edge but nearer to their sideEs base edge than the enemyEs. They measure their move from where that road crosses the edge. .ny enemy element blocking arrival by a road is repulsed *""p. . command that cannot arrive completely in its initial bound of arrival continues to arrive in subse1uent bounds, the off-battlefield elements counting as part of the same column as the last element to arrive and using the same 686s. Troops arriving by railway can deploy up to * foot or other land element at a single place on that railway each bound. They cannot do so if any enemy could shoot at them between entry edge and detraining point. DILATORY ALLIES 8f an .llied 5eneralEs command has a lower aggression factor than that of the .rmy /ommander, it throws no 686 dice until the number of friendly bounds completed e,ceeds the difference.
SURPRISE .n attacker that has a %rilliant /-in-/ or that has used .6 for /oncealed 6ositions throws dice. .dd to the score if its /-in-/ is %rilliant and for each /oncealed 6osition, if the enemy /-in-/ is 8nert and ? if the weather is misty. 2educt ' if the enemy has .eronauts and the weather is good. 3alf the total rounded up is the number of bounds the attacker can make before the defender can throw 686 2ice or move any element. $urprise ceases early if any troops shoot, enter close combat or become visible within &""p. FIGHTING THE BATTLE SEQUENCE OF PLAY The attacker takes st bound, and then the two sides alternate bounds. 2uring each side+s boundT = > 8t dices for player initiative points =686>, and then uses these first to search for fords, then for march movement, then for tactical moves and lastly for rallying routed elements.
=?> .ll elements of both sides that are able to shoot in distant combat and have a valid target can shoot
once each and make or inflict outcome moves, in an order decided by the side whose bound it is. =@> .ll elements of both sides that are now in suitable contact with enemy fight in close combat and make or inflict outcome moves, in an order decided by the side whose bound it is. ;lements whose pursuit move contacts their original or fresh enemy immediately fight these and make or inflict outcome moves. ;lements with enemy in front edge contact with their flank or rear edge can now turn to face unless also in contact to their front. PLAYER INITIATIVE POINT DICING The army commander simultaneously throws element on the battlefield or yet to arrive.
differently coloured dice for each command that has any
8f a /-in-/ or army commander so wishes, he can e,change his score for that of a directly subordinate =but not an allied> general whose element is within the seniorEs easy command distance =?,*""p if an 3B and &""p if a /6 or -6> and whose score was lower. .n army commander can transfer element or group of his own command per bound to that of a subordinate general within easy command distance of it. .ny general can move or rally a non-staff friendly element in front or rear edge contact with him of a different or even allied command. 686s cannot otherwise be transferred between commands. Cnused 686s are lost. . B#$%%$&'( general can double his initial score in ? bounds of his choice during the battle, unless within his inert /-in-/Es easy command distance. .n I')#( general always deducts from his final score. -o 686 is used up byT 686 is used up byT ? 686s are used up byT @ 686s are used up byT The
march move this bound of an element or column if entirely by road.
.ny other move by, or transfer between commands of, a single element or group. $earching for a ford. )allying a routing element.
e,tra 686 is used up ifT =a> The land element or group using 686s to move, rally or search is beyond its general+s easy command distance, or its general is in difficult going off-road, in close combat, routing, disabled or has been lost. =b> . tactical move by artillery, $toic 4oot, troops in an entrenchment or redoubt, an .rmy 3B, a -ative 6otentate, a Aaager or .eronauts.
=c> Marching a group that has already made @ march moves this bound if entirely along good roads and/or bad roads in dry weather, or ? if at least partially along bad roads in wet weather or off-road or if naval. =d> )etiring an element now within base width distance =*""p> of any enemy.
=e> )allying a routing element that has neither passed through friends facing in the opposite direction who do not rout, nor is in full front edge to front edge contact with any friendly staff element. WEATHER 0ind direction is chosen by the attacking /-in-/, weather decided by his
bound unadFusted 686 score.
8f this is 7, it is misty =or dust storm in desert> and continues so until the defending /-in-/ has an unadFusted 686 score of 7. Cntil then, ma,imum visibility and shooting range is ?""p, .eronauts cannot function, -aval other than 4lotilla cannot move and off-road land movement cannot e,ceed slow going distance. 8f it is , the weather is wet and rain continues so until the defending /-in-/ has an unadFusted 686 score of . Cntil then, ma,imum visibility is ,?""p and .eronauts cannot function. Cntil he has a ?nd such score, .rtillery and Aaager cannot move more than slow going distance off-road. Cntil the end of the battle, movement on bad roads is hindered by mud and gullies are changed into streams. TACTICAL, MARCH AND OUTCOME MOVES Tactical and March moves are voluntary moves by a single element or a group of elements in their own side+s bound before combat and e,pend 686s. . March move cannot end closer than 7""p to known enemy. 8f in difficult going, it must be by road unless by $pearmen or Marksmen. .n element can take part in either or more March moves or Tactical move. . legal move cannot be taken back once made. <utcome moves are compulsory or optional 6ress 4orward, /harge, )ecoil, )epulse, )out and 6ursuit moves made by single elements in both sides+ bounds as result of combat and do not re1uire 686s. MOVING SINGLE ELEMENTS . tactical or march move by a single element can be in any directions, even diagonal or obli1ue, can pass through any gap as wide as its leading edge, and can end facing any way. 8t can therefore be used not only to advance, but also to retire, to e,pand a group+s frontage, to pivot an artillery element to face in another direction, or to rally and turn a routed element. 8t cannot be used to break-off from close combat. MOVING ELEMENTS TOGETHER AS A GROUP ;lements are a group if either all facing in the same direction with each in edge or corner contact with another, or in a element wide column and in front or rear edge or corner contact with another element. 5roups are temporaryT if the whole of a group cannot move, some of its elements will probably be able to move as a smaller group or as individual elements. /onversely, a group or single element can move to Foin other elements and make its ne,t move as a group including these. To move as a group, each element must start and/or end the move in the group and not e,ceed its permitted move distance. 8t must end facing in the original direction of or all elements, e,cept thatT . group can change direction by or more wheels, each pivoting on the inner front corner of the group and measuring move distance along the outer arc of the wheel. 8f the group is a element wide column, each element wheels in succession as it reaches the pivot point. 8f not, all elements wheel simultaneously.
. element wide column can use a group move to change into a or ? element deep line at #" degrees to its leading elementEs facing at the start of the move. The leading elementEs open flank ends in the former position of its front edge. /onversely, such a line can turn #" degrees into column. . group move must end in a element wide column if leaving a %C., or moving along a road, or following the bank of a river, or crossing a river, stream or gully or, unless $pearmen or Marksmen, difficult going. The element that is to head the column moves forward by up to its full tactical move distance. <ther elements move without measuring. The nearest elements fall in behind the column. <ther elements move to close up any resulting gaps. -o element can end further to the rear than its previous position. .ll elements count as moving along a road if the head of the column does. 8t may take more than one move before the whole group is in column. . group can move less than a base width sideways to line up directly opposite enemy. This is the only sideways or obli1ue movement permitted to a group and is not deducted from the move.
TACTICAL AND MARCH MOVE DISTANCES ON LAND . single element can always move from front corner-to-front corner contact with an enemy element into close combat with its flank. <therwise, moves are measured between the starting point of the front base corner moving furthest of a single element or group and that cornerEs final position, and cannot e,ceedT I* )'($#)%+ &%,'- #,&. ,# $' -,,. -,$'-/ $'2 S%,3 -,$'-/ -,$'-/ .rmy 3B, -6, 6istols or /uirassiers. ?""p 3eavy /avalry or $ipahis. 2ragoons, )epeaters or Mounted )ifles. *""p Aight /avalry or )ifle /avalry. @""p /6 or Aight 3orse. @""p &""p ,?""p ,?""p ,7""p ?,"""p *""p *""p *""p *""p *""p ?""p D$**$45%( I* &( %)&0( 1&#(%+ ,**-#,&.
Muskets or $toic 4oot unless marching, or 4irelocks. *""p Aight 8nfantry, $pearmen unless inferior, or Marksmen. 7""p <ther foot. *""p 3orse artillery. ?""p 6ortable .rtillery. *""p 3eavy artillery. "p <ther artillery =L !'7>. ?""p = !'7L>. ?""p 6ontooneers, Aaager or .eronauts. *""p
*""p &""p 7""p &""p *""p
,?""p &""p *""p *""p 7""p
*""p *""p ?""p ?""p *""p
CROSSING OR MOVING BY WATER 0ater features include 0aterways, )ivers, and $treams and also 5ullies, even if currently dry. . 0aterway is unfordable and is always navigable by naval elements. 8f it is a giant river rather than a sea or lake, the army list will specify which end is upstream. . )iver, $tream or 5ully can always be crossed at a road ford or road, rail or temporary bridge by a single element or a element wide column, it being assumed that if there is no bridge there is a reliable ford or easy gully crossing. /rossers move normal distance. 6ontooneers intended to construct a temporary bridge are moved to the riverbank, then e,changed for a bridge at the end of their ? nd consecutive full bound there unless repulsed. $uch bridges can also be pre-constructed by the defender in his deployment area. . )iver cannot be crossed where there is no ford or bridge unless an ;A4 =see 6. *>. 8t may have unknown fords, but these must be searched for. To search for a ford, move an element up to the river edge using up ? e,tra 686s, and dice. .dd to the score if there is a %C. within *""p on the near side of the river or within
*""p plus the width of the river on the far side, or * if both. 8f the total score is nowT Aess than 'T -o unknown ford e,ists within ,?""p, even if searched for again. .t least 'T . element wide ford is marked and the searching element is moved until its front edge touches the far bank.
. $tream or 5ully can be crossed off-road anywhere, but the initial move must end when the rear base edge of a single element or of the leading element of a column is half way across. ;lements crossing or moving in or astride it are treated as in slow going until clear. . )iver at least S a land element base width wide is navigable, but only by 4lotilla elements. Movement on it counts as upstream if moving away from its Functure with a 0aterway, moving in the direction from which most streams Foin it, or failing that, moving away from the end specified by the player who placed it. The ma,imum distance between the starting point of any front corner of a naval element moving on a navigable water feature and that cornerEs final position isT U'%)00 1&#(%+ 510(#)&6/ ?,"""p &""p ,?""p I* 1&#(%+ 510(#)&6/ ,?""p *""p &""p
$teamer or 8ronclad. $ubmarines. $ail or 4lotilla.
MOVING THROUGH OTHER TROOPS OR GAPS 4riendly naval elements can always interpenetrate if they have a clear space to end in within move distance. Aand elements making a tactical or march move can move through friends occupying a %C., or facing in the same or opposite direction and neither on a road nor occupying an entrenchment. $taff can move through friends facing in any direction. . $upply %ase can only be passed through by single element moves. . repulsed or routed element can pass through friends facing in any direction. ;lements recoiled, repulsed or routed into a friendly or unoccupied %C., $6 or redoubt are assumed to flow through or round it, ending in the first clear space beyond it if they have insufficient move to go further. )ecoiled and pushed-back elements otherwise do not pass through friends, but push them back if they are facing in the same direction, rout instead if they are not. 8f there is insufficient move to clear the first element met, the interpenetrators are inserted immediately beyond it. Mounted move through enemy artillery or = !#"L> through %ayonets, Aight 8nfantry or $toic 4oot after scoring e1ual to these in close combat or if subse1uently repulsed or routed back into these. This simulates flowing around unbroken s1uares or failing to take possession of batteries. The smallest gap that can be entered or shot through between elements or terrain features is element wide. This does not prevent an element moving sideways out of a column. . gap less than element wide between friendly or enemy redoubts or entrenchments =including elements in them> or between these and a terrain feature can be moved through, the move ending when clear of the gap. MOVEMENT RESTRICTIONS DUE TO ENEMY PRO7IMITY Marksmen can only contact Train. .rtillery or train cannot contact any enemy. Cnless in an outcome moveT
=@> -o mounted, non-inferior $pearmen or /6 elements can move more than 7""p, nor other foot,
dismounted or naval element move more than ?""p, and end in any contact with enemy.
=*> -o element can move into frontal contact with an enemy element+s flank or rear unless it starts
entirely behind a line prolonging that base edge of the enemy element or partly behind both flank and side edges =c> -o element may cross the front of an enemy element that is within base width distance =*""p> or pass an occupied %C. or $6 within *""p unless to retire directly to its own rear, or to move up to a S element width sideways and/or pivot to contact or line up opposite such an element+s front. RESPONDING TO CONTACT WITH ENEMY .n element or group moving, pressing forward or pursuing into close combat with an enemy element must pivot and/or shift sideways up to base width to conform to that enemy. . staff, mounted, dismounted or foot element contacted by enemy only on its flank or rear edges turns immediately to conform to one such if not already repulsed or routing and all its opponents moved more than *""p in sight this bound or pivoted from overlap. <therwise it turns after close combat if the outcome permits. 8f it turns immediately, its new flank or rear cannot be contacted this bound. 8f ? elements are contacted by , both turn, the ?nd moving behind the st.. <nly the st fights, but both obey the outcome. TYPES OF COMBAT /ombat is either distant or close. D$0(&'( 4,68&( consists entirely of shooting and is limited to those troop types that shot effectively at long range and their targets. C%,0) 4,68&( includes not only hand-to-hand combat with sword, lance, bayonet or pistol, but also musketry and canister at decisive range or at charging enemy and bridge destruction by foot or dismounted. DISTANT COMBAT ;ach element of a type that can shoot and that is neither in close combat other than as an overlap nor prevented from shooting by its own movement or situation can shoot at enemy element that is a valid target, either as a primary or aiding shooter. The base edge shot from is the "shooting edge". This is any edge of a garrisoned %C., an $6, a Aaager or any naval elements e,cept 4lotilla or $ubmarine, the front or side edge of an element in a redoubt, but the front edge only of any other element. .n element is a valid target if it is known to the shooting element, in arc and range, it is not in frontal edge contact with enemy other than routers and =unless overhead shooting is permitted> no part of any element is between imaginary lines connecting shooting edge corner to any visible corner of the target and the other to another corner without the lines crossing each other. 4oot and dismounted elements must shoot at a valid target in an enemy bound. <ther shooting is voluntary. 8f more than valid target is available to an element, artillery can choose which to shoot at. <ther elements must shoot at that closest to the centre of the shooting edge, or if e1uidistant, most directly in front. .ll shooting is assumed to be simultaneous. .n .rtillery element can be a grand battery or in support. 8f in support, it is placed immediately behind of ?-* elements of foot, dismounted or mounted in side edge-to-side edge contact with each other, but assumed to be distributed by batteries or sections slightly in front or behind all supported troops. 8t aids each supported element within a base width =*""p> in both distant and close combat against enemy in arc and range, but cannot aid others or be a primary shooter. .rtillery cannot shoot while crossing a river, stream or gully, even if by a bridge, or while even partly in a marsh, wood or %C., or from any part of a difficult hill e,cept its crest, or from there to less than *""p beyond its foot. <ther troops in woods or %C. can only shoot outward from the edge. .rtillery also cannot shoot if they made a tactical move this bound and are either heavy or would be shooting from behind a hillcrest. -o troops can shoot while mounted. -o element can shoot that made a march move this bound.
. naval elementEs or %C. or $6 garrison+s target is in arc if any part of the target element is between lines e,tending beyond the shooting edge through diagonally opposite corners of the naval elementEs, %C.Es or $6Es base. <ther shooters+ targets are in arc if any part of the target is within a S element base width =?""p> of straight ahead of any part of the shooting edge and no part is behind a line e,tending that edge. Ma,imum ranges from the nearest point of the shooting edge to the nearest point of the target areT .rtilleryT &""p if 6ortable, ,7""p if $moothbore, ?,*""p if Mi,ed or %rass )ifled, @,?""p if other )ifled. .dd *""p if 3eavy .rtillery. 8ncrease to 7,"""p if heavy )ifled firing at a %C., or at troops on a hill, or at a logistics target. -avalT 4lotilla or $ubmarines &""p = &!7L only>. <thers &""p =N &'">, ,?""p = &'"- &'&>, ?,"""p = &'#- &&7>, @,"""p = &&!- #"'>, 7,"""p = #"7L>.
?""p if 4irelocks, Muskets, %ayonets =L !#" or if shooting at mounted N &' >, $toic 4oot =L &'7> or dismounted 2ragoons =L &7@>. *""p if other %ayonets, Aight 8nfantry, Marksmen =L &'!>, dismounted )epeaters, or $6 garrison. 7""p if Minie, Marksmen = &'!L>, $toic 4oot = &'!- &!' if ;lite, &'!- &&" if not>, %A, dismounted 2ragoons = &7@L> or a Aaager. ,?""p if )ifles, $toic 4oot = &!'L ;lite, &&"L other>, dismounted )ifle /avalry or Mounted )ifles. 0hen artillery or naval shoot at a %C., $6 or bridge, this is at an O(9)# target, but occupiers also have separate combat outcomes. <ther elements shoot at the occupiers unless these are now in the interior of a %C.. Troops in a wood can be shot at only from outside and then only if within ""p of the near edge. Targets beyond a wood or %C. =not $6> cannot be shot at unless shooting between upper halves of ? hills. The only shooting allowed over intervening hillcrests or unconcealed troops isT
='> %ayonets = !#"L>, Aight 8nfantry, Minie, %A and )epeaters can shoot over a gentle or steep hillEs
crest that is within ?""p. This simulates integral skirmishers being sent forward of the crest.
=7> )ifled .rtillery = &##L> can shoot from ?""-*""p behind a gentle hillEs crest at a target at least
&""p distant, or over entrenchments and foot occupying them, or at enemy more than ,?""p from them and up to *""p beyond a gentle hillEs crest.
=!> $moothbore or Mi,ed .rtillery can shoot at enemy more than *""p from them and up to *""p
beyond a gentle hillEs crest. This simulates ricochet fire with round shot and shells from the howitIers included in each smoothbore battery or rifled guns. or ?
=&> 8ntervening troops more than *""p from both shooter and target can be shot over by artillery on a
hill, or by artillery or naval shooting at a hill, or by )ifled .rtillery more than &""p from them.
=#> .rtillery can always shoot over enemy Marksmen more than *""p from the shooters or over
friendly Marksmen. 8f more than element shoots at a single enemy element, the additional elements aid the primary shooter instead of their shooting being resolved separately. 8f artillery or naval shoot at the same target as foot or dismounted and are not shot back at, the latter are the primary shooters. <therwise, the primary shooter is that which the target element will shoot back at or if it will not shoot back, the closest to the target.
. target land element that will be shot at without shooting back at any of the shooters can either aid friendsE shooting or shoot immediately after it has been shot at and if it still has a legal target after combat outcomes. 8t then uses the same dice score, but not any tactical factors already used. CLOSE COMBAT /lose combat occurs when an element+s front edge is in both edge and front corner-to-any enemy corner base contact lined up with an enemy element, or in contact with an enemy-held %C. or $6. .n element in close combat with the flank or rear of an enemy element which is also fighting to its front, or which overlaps it, acts as a tactical factor instead of fighting itself. 8t acts as an overlap if eitherT
= "> = >
%oth right or both left front base corners touch and at least the nearest part of the overlapping elements front edge is not in contact with an enemy element. %oth elementsE flank edges are in contact, neither element is artillery, and the elements are facing in opposite directions, even if the overlapping element is in contact with a friendly or enemy element to its front. ;ach then mutually overlaps the other.
3owever, foot cannot count as an overlap against mounted. Tactical factors for an enemy front edge in contact with an elementEs side or rear edge do apply. .n element can overlap two enemy elements on opposite flanks or enemy elements e,posed by its own frontal opponent having recoiled or been repulsed, routed or destroyed that bound. .n element can only be overlapped once on each flank and cannot be both overlapped and contacted on the same edge. .n $6, %C., $upply %ase or Aaager can overlap but not be overlapped. ;ach element in close combat with its edges fights it separately and consecutively. . redoubt cannot be overlapped, but can overlap or be contacted in flank. . staff element that would fight as such cannot provide overlap or flank or rear contact tactical factors RESOLVING COMBATS 0hether in close combat, shooting in distant combat or only shot at, both sides dice for each fighting element and add the combat factor below and any tactical or grading factors that apply to its score. . command party substitutes the combat value of a mounted or foot element contiguous to its rear and then uses that elementEs tactical factors and outcomes. 8f in close combat, it adds its own combat factor. . dismountable element is always mounted if it moved more than 7""p this bound, and if not, always dismounted if shooting, entrenched, manning an obstacle or in difficult going. <therwise a 2ragoons element is always mounted, a Mounted )ifles element is always dismounted and a )epeaters or )ifle /avalry element+s player chooses whether it is to be mounted or dismounted before dicing for its combat. 0hen troops occupying a %C. or %ridge are in combat only against artillery that are all beyond *""p, the latterEs score is used for both, even though the occupiers will have a different outcome. C,68&( *&4(,#0 ,*2 O(9)#/ .rmy 3B. U? /ommand 6arty. U@ -ative 6otentate. U? /uirassiers. U U* U U? A-&$'0(2 S(&** ,# M,5'()./ D$06,5'(). ,# F,,(/
U? 3eavy /avalry or mounted )ifle /avalry. U* U? 6istols. U? Aight /avalry and mounted 2ragoons or )epeaters. U? U? Mounted )ifles when mounted. U? %A or )ifles and all dismounted e,cept 2ragoons. U? Muskets, Minie, %ayonets or Aight 8nfantry. U? $toic 4oot. U? 4irelocks. U? Marksmen. U@ 2ragoons if dismounted. U? 3eavy .rtillery. U* <ther .rtillery. U@ $ipahis. U? $pearmen. U Aight 3orse. U? $ail or $teamer. U* 4lotilla. U? 8ronclad. U' $ubmarine. U* 6ontooneers or .eronauts. U@ Aaager. U? $upply %ase. U? %C.. U' $6 and its garrison. U U U* U*
U? U@ U? U U? U@
U* U@ U* U@ U U? U? U? U?
U@ U? U
U? U? U
U? U U? -
U U' U@ U* U
U@ Temporary bridge U@ 6ermanent bridge. U* U? U@
T&4($4&% *&4(,#02 .dFust your elementEs, %C.Es or bridgeEs score by each of the following that applyT U@ U? U if in close combat against an element of a defeated enemy command. if either shot at or in close combat while protected in a redoubt. if foot or dismounted, and eitherT $hooting or shot at or in close combat while protected in an entrenchment. $hot at or in close combat while defending the edge of a %C. or an $6, not yet afire. $hot at on a base edge entirely in difficult going other than a burning %C. or marsh. $hot at by artillery while in slow going other than a gully or stream. 8n close combat while manning an obstacle. if shot at by enemy, all of whom are beyondT ?""p if the shooters are foot, dismounted or a Aaager, and the target is not artillery. *""p if the shooters are $moothbore or Mi,ed .rtillery and the target is not artillery, a %C. or an $6. 3alf ma,imum range if the shooters are )ifled .rtillery or naval. if shot at only by artillery shooting from beyond a hill crest or over troops of the artilleryEs side. for each friendly element aiding a primary shooter or a target in distant combat, or a single supporting artillery element aiding close combat. for each flank overlapped in close combat, or each flank enfiladed by shooting. if close combat opponents started the bound uphill. if any land troops being shot at after making a march move, or if )ifles, %A or dismounted e,cept 2ragoons and being shot at by foot or dismounted after making a tactical move, or if artillery shot at after a tactical move or who were repulsed this bound or last. if $ail shooting from or shot at on their front or rear shooting edge. if 4irelocks, Muskets or $toic 4ootO and in close combat in difficult going or in the interior of a
%C.. -? -? -?
if mounted, artillery or a AaagerO and in close combat in slow or difficult going or in a %C.. if silenced artillery in close combat, or a damaged naval element. if pursuers in close combat against new enemy mounted, or if repulsed or routing.
for each enemy element in front edge contact with flank or rear edge.
G#&.$'- *&4(,#02 /ompare your elementEs current total after tactical factors to that of its opponent, and then adFust it byT U ifT ELITE and its total is ;1ual to its opponentEs in close combat unless either is mounted and the other is foot or artillery. Aess than its opponentEs if shot at in distant combat unless by artillery or naval or if in close combat. INFERIOR and its total is Aess than its opponentEs if in close combat. ;1ual to or more than its opponentEs if in distant combat and shot at by artillery or shooting.
COMBAT OUTCOME -ow compare the final total of your element with that of its opponent, and then make any immediate outcome move specified below. This depends on its type and that of the enemy element in close combat against it or shooting at it. The affected player can often choose between outcomes or vary the distance moved. 8f none of the outcomes apply, the element does nothing. ;lements shooting in distant combat but not shot at by any enemy ignore outcomes e,cept press forward. ;lements in close combat against the flank or rear of an enemy element always recoil if the enemy total is higher. $upporting artillery use the total of the supported element directly in front, but artillery outcomes. ;lements attempting to destroy an undefended bridge ignore outcomes. .n $6 garrison ignores outcomes not mentioning $6. <therwiseT I* $(0 (,(&% $0 6,#) (9&' (9&( ,* (9) )')6+2 Mounted. 8f in distant combat, charge to contact any enemy in good going and within 7""p directly to front. 8f in close combat, pursue @""p to ,?""p. 4oot or dismounted. 8f shot at in distant combat after moving by foot or dismounted without shooting back, press forward ?""p. 8f in distant or close combat in other circumstances, press forward ?""p if desired. Move into close combat against enemy already within ?""p if desired.
I* $(0 (,(&% $0 (9) 0&6) &0 (9&( ,* (9) )')6+2 Mounted or staff. 8f in close combat against enemy artillery or = !#"L> against, %ayonets, Aight 8nfantry or $toic 4oot and there is room beyond these, interpenetrate them and pursue *""p to &""p. 8f there is insufficient room or if in close combat against other troops, repulsed 7""p to ,?""p unless Aight 3orse. 3orse .rtillery in support are repulsed with them. 4oot or dismounted. 8f shot at in distant combat in their own bound by dismounted or foot without shooting back, press forward ?""p if desired. 8f not, halt. 8f in close combat against mounted who interpenetrate them, then in subse1uent bounds while these remain to their rearO they cannot move, shoot or be shot at or fight in close combat and are destroyed by enemy foot or dismounted in contact. 8nferior $ubmarine and opponent both destroyed if in close combat =L &!!>.
I* $(0 (,(&% $' .$0(&'( 4,68&( $0 %)00 (9&' (9&( ,* (9) )')6+ 85( 6,#) (9&' 9&%*2 Mounted or staff. Aight 3orse repulsed ,7""p to ?,*""p and other troops recoiled by artillery. )epulsed 7""p to ,?""p by troops other than artillery. 4oot or dismounted. 3alt if will be contacted by opponents pressing forward. $ilenced if in a redoubt or entrenchment. <therwise 2ragoons or )epeaters are repulsed 7""p to ,?""p, other dismounted, )ifles and %A shot at from beyond *""p or $toic 4oot halt, others recoil. 8n addition to these, artillery destroy any obstacle protecting the target element. /hoose whether to be silenced, or to be repulsed ?""p if in difficult or slow
.rtillery if its total
is at least ? less. -aval if its total is at least ? less.
going or a redoubt, otherwise l,?""p to ,7""p if 3orse .rtillery, &""p if not. 2amaged by naval or artillery unless $ubmarine.
%C.. $et afire by artillery or naval. I* $(:0 (,(&% $' 4%,0) 4,68&( $0 %)00 (9&' (9&( ,* (9) )')6+ 85( 6,#) (9&' 9&%*2 Mounted. $pent if fighting against routers. 2estroyed if already routing or if attacking over an obstacle. 2estroyed if /uirassiers, 3eavy /avalry, 2ragoons or Mounted )ifles and fighting against $ipahis or Aight 3orse. )outed ,?""p if not destroyed or spent and already repulsed this bound. 8f none of these, repulsed 7""p to ,?""p. 4oot or staff. 2estroyed if in good going and any enemy mounted in front edge contact with front, flank or rear. 2estroyed if defending a redoubt. )outed &""p if in an entrenchment. )epulsed &""p if in the interior of a %C. or defending an obstacle. )ecoiled if in a 0ood or defending the edge of a %C.. )epulsed *""p if attacking the edge of a %C. or $6 or an entrenchment or redoubt. 8f none of these, recoiled if $toic 4oot, otherwise routed &""p by 4irelocks, %ayonets, Aight 8nfantry, $toic 4oot, %A or )ifles if these moved or pursued into contact this bound, destroyed by $pearmen. .ll others routed &""p if any enemy are in front edge contact with flank, repulsed *""p if only with front. 2estroyed if in good going and any enemy mounted in front edge contact with front, flank or rear. )epulsed ,?""p if in the interior of a %C. or defending an obstacle. )ecoiled if in a wood or defending the edge of a %C.. )epulsed *""p if attacking the edge of a %C. or $6 or an entrenchment or redoubt. 8f none of these, repulsed *""p by Marksmen or artillery, repulsed &""p by $pearmen, routed ,?""p by others. )out ,?""p if 3orse .rtillery in good going fighting against foot. 8f not,
<ther land. destroyed. -aval.
)epulsed &""p if 4lotilla. 8f not, destroyed by $ubmarine or 4lotilla, damaged by other naval.
I* $(0 (,(&% $' .$0(&'( ,# 4%,0) 4,68&( $0 9&%* ,# %)00 (9&' 9&%* (9&( ,* (9) )')6+2 $taff. 2estroyed if in close combat or if a -ative 6otentate. 8f not, recoil disabled. Mounted. $pent if in close combat against any e,cept mounted. )epulsed ,?""p if Aight 3orse fighting against /uirassiers or 3eavy /avalry. 8f none of these, destroyed. 2estroyed if in close combat in the interior of a %C. or against mounted in good going or against any foot e,cept Muskets or $toic 4oot. )epulsed &""p if in distant combat. 8f none of these, routed ,?""p.
8ronclads destroyed by Mi,ed or )ifled 3eavy .rtillery or 8ronclad or 4lotilla = &!7L> or if in close combat against 4lotilla or $ubmarine. <ther naval destroyed by 8ronclad, $teamer, $ail or artillery or if in close combat against 4lotilla or $ubmarines, repulsed *""p by land troops other than artillery. %C. or $6 set afire by artillery or naval or bridge destroyed. Troops in %C. routed *""p if in distant combat, destroyed if in close combat. $6 garrison destroyed if in close combat. 6ontooneers destroyed if in close combat, repulsed *""p if not. )epulsed by $upply %ase, 6ontooneers or .eronauts. <ther land troops not in an $6 or %C. destroyed.
D)0(#,+). elements are removed. This represents artillery having lost too many men and horses to function effectively or retire safely, other troops+ broken survivors dispersing, fleeing discarding weapons, surrendering as prisoners or being slaughtered by a savage pursuit, or a naval element+s vessels blowing-up, sinking, running aground as wrecks or being taken by boarding or rammed. D&6&-). naval elements incur a permanent X? tactical factor and their ma,imum move is permanently reduced by *""p. 8f markers are needed, small puffs of dark brown cotton wool, or wreckage are suitable. S1)'( elements have e,pended their mounts+ strength and the riders+ dash and cohesion but mostly survive, so are removed but do not count as lost. They reappear before the ne,t battle of a campaign. D$0&8%). staff elements remain so until they ne,t have an unadFusted 686 score of 7. This simulates the effects of confusion while a general recovers from inFury or is being replaced by the ne,t in command. . %rilliant generalEs replacement is not %rilliant. .n 8nert generalEs replacement is 8nert. S$%)'4). elements remain so until the end of the immediately following bound. Cntil then, they cannot shoot in distant combat, support or make a tactical or march move. This represents a temporary unwillingness of troops behind defences to e,pose themselves, or artillery crew depleted, driven from or repairing guns. 8f a marker is needed, a small puff of dust coloured cotton wool, a casualty figure or a shell hole are all suitable. <pponents of silenced troops can charge or press forward as if unsuccessfully shot at. H&%(). elements do not make an outcome move this bound, but act normally in subse1uent bounds. R)4,$%). elements have staggered back a short distance in response to casualties. The element moves back its base depth, pushing back friends facing the same direction or following it along a road, or Marksmen. 8f recoiled by shooting from entirely behind a line e,tending its rear edge, it first turns to face, otherwise remains facing in its original direction. ;lements recoiling across a bridge end on the far bank. )ecoiled and pushed-back elements that cannot complete the recoil are destroyed if in close combat or reaching terrain they cannot cross or enemy, otherwise are repulsed &""p together with any friends preventing the recoil. R)15%0). elements have lost cohesion and are falling right back to reorganise. They recoil, then turn &" degrees and move directly to their former rear, e,cept that they divert around impassable terrain. They pass through friendly elements met. They cannot make a tactical or march move in their ne,t bound, but turn &" degrees at the end of it unless contacted by enemy. They cannot shoot until the bound after they turn. R,5(). elements turn &" degrees and move either straight back to their rear or follow a road, river bank or terrain feature edge leading nearer to their original entry point, passing through friendly elements they meet. )outers that reach a bridge or ford stop at the nearside. 4riendly elements contiguous to the initial rear edge of cavalry destroyed in close combat or routers immediately rout full tactical move distance unless defending a %C., $6 or redoubt or the routers are Marksmen or naval or the routers only are 8nferior. The element moving furthest ends in front. )outers end their rout move facing in the direction they are moving and remain there until their armyEs ne,t bound. 8f they are not rallied in that bound, they are destroyed. . repulsed element halts on reaching terrain it cannot cross or avoid, a routing element is destroyed. . repulsed or routing element that reaches enemy must immediately conform to and fight them if it can. Cnless destroyed by this, it immediately routs ,?""p straight ahead, bursting through the enemy who halt. R&%%$). elements turn &" degrees instead of moving that bound. They act normally in subse1uent bounds. P#)00$'- *,#3&#. is always straight ahead unless along a road or the element contacts enemy who are not obligated to conform. . foot or dismounted element both prolonging the front of =i.e. in both front corner to front corner and side edge contact with> the friendly element with the press forward combat result and
which is not itself in close combat or going to be shot at also presses forward. ;lements pressing forward cannot shoot or be shot at again until ne,t bound. ;lements pressing forward into close combat with enemy as a result of distant shooting fight them this bound. ;lements pressing forward after close combat =unlike pursuers> do not fight again until ne,t bound. P5#05$'- elements follow recoiled, repulsed or routed opponents they were in close combat with this bound, or if these were destroyed, move straight ahead. They need not e,ceed minimum pursuit move or enter slow or difficult going unless they choose to, or leave the table. 8f they contact enemy, one side must conform in the usual way described in );$6<-28-5 T< ;-;M9 /<-T./T on 6. # and the combat is resolved immediately. ;lements in frontal contact with an enemy element+s flank or rear recoil if friends in close combat against its front are recoiled, repulsed, routed or destroyed and Foin those friends to prolong their front if they press forward or pursue. .n element contacted only to flank or rear and not obligated to move turns immediately to face. 0hen a /ommand 6arty has added the combat factor of an element contiguous to its rear, it is repulsed 7""p to ,?""p if the latter becomes spent, otherwise both obey the latterEs outcome. 8f the outcome is charge to contact enemy, press forward or pursue the element behind follows the same distance. LOST ELEMENTS 2estroyed troops are permanently lost. . routing element that has not left the battlefield counts as lost until it rallies. Troops that recoil, rout or are repulsed across its edge are counted as lost, but reappear in the ne,t period of a campaign. ELEMENT EQUIVALENTS .n ;A8T; or .rtillery element counts as ? element e1uivalents. . Aaager counts as ? and a $upply %ase as @ element e1uivalents per ?"" .6 =rounded up to the ne,t ?""p> in the army. . 4lotilla, $ubmarine or inferior naval element count as S an element e1uivalent. .ll other elements count as element e1uivalent. DEFEATED COMMANDS . command that at the end of any bound has lost a third of the total of its original element e1uivalents plus or minus any elements transferred to or from it, or which has all its original elements lost or spent is defeated. ;lements cannot be transferred to or from it. 8f allied, all its 686s must be used for single element moves towards and over its original battlefield edge. 8f subordinate, its elements cannot move closer to enemy elements unless these are between them and the commandEs original battlefield edge. WINNING OR LOSING THE BATTLE The first side at the end of any bound to have its cumulative losses e,ceed a 1uarter of its original element e1uivalents and to have lost more element e1uivalents in that bound than the enemy loses the battle. .ll battles end at nightfall unless renewed the ne,t day. -ightfall occurs after ?* pairs of bounds unless the optional map movement system is being used. DEFINITIONS %;9<-2 means Gfurther thanH. 08T38- means Gat or closer thanH. 28);/TA9 $C%<)28-.T; means one command level down i.e. . /orps commander is directly subordinate to one .rmy commander. 8f there is more than one .rmy commander, all are directly subordinate to the /-in-/. .n allied commander is directly subordinate only to a more senior commander of his own nation. ;-48A.2;2 means a line e,tending your elementEs rear edge meets an enemy shooting edge. .n $6, %C., $upply %ase or Aaager, or a 6ontooneers, .eronauts or naval element cannot be enfiladed. T< );.) means with any part directly behind the element. /<-T./T means Gtouching on any edge or cornerH.
4)<-T.A /<-T./T means Gwith own front edge in contact with any enemy edgeH. $.M; 28);/T8<- means Ge,actly the same directionH. /<ACM- means Ga group only element wide with all elements facing in the same direction e,cept when wheeling.H
ADVICE FROM THE MASTERS G8n war all is simpleO but the most simple is still very difficult. The instrument of war resembles a machine with prodigious friction, but cannot, as in ordinary mechanics, be adFusted at pleasure, but is ever in contact with a host of chancesY.8t thus falls out that we remain behind the line we have drawn by anticipation, and that no common powers are re1uired to maintain us even at a medium point.H =/lausewitI>. GTactical talent consists in causing the une,pected arrival, upon the most accessible and the most important positions, of means which destroy the e1uilibrium, and give victoryO to e,ecute, in a word, with promptness, movements which disconcert the enemy, and for which he is entirely unpreparedH. =Marmont>. G4atigue the opponent, if possible, with few forces and conserve a decisive mass for the critical moment. <nce this critical mass has been thrown in, it must be used with the greatest audacity.H =/lausewitI> G.lways mystify, mislead and surprise the enemy if possibleH =$tonewall Packson>. G8f the art of war consisted merely in not taking risks, glory would be at the mercy of very mediocre talent.H =-apoleon>. G4irst reckon, then risk.H =Moltke>. GThere is always haIard in military movements, but we must decide between possible loss from inaction and the risk of action.H =Aee>. G8f you attack e,pecting to prevail, do it in full strength, because a surplus of victory never caused any con1ueror one pang of remorse.H =Renophon>. GAuck is like a sum of gold, to be spent.H =.llenby>. G-ot only strike while the iron is hot, but make it hot by striking.H =/romwell>. G8n war there is only one favourable moment. 5enius seiIes it.H G8n order to smash, it is necessary to act suddenly.H G8t is very advantageous to rush une,pectedly on an enemy who has erred, to attack him suddenly and come down upon him with thunder before he has seen the lightningH. =-apoleon>. G8f a segment of oneEs force is located where it is not sufficiently busy with the enemy, or if troops are on the march X that is, idle X while the enemy is fighting, then those forces are being managed uneconomically. 8n this sense they are being wasted, which is even worse than using them inappropriately. 0hen the time comes, the first re1uirement should be that all parts must act, even the least appropriate task will occupy some of the enemyEs forces and reduce his overall strength, while completely inactive troops are neutralised for the time being.H =/lausewitI>. GThere is a gift of being able to see at a glance the possibilities offered by the terrainY<ne can call it the coup dEoeil and it is inborn in great generals.H =-apoleon>. G. general should show boldness, strike a decided blow, and manoeuvre upon the flank of his enemy. The victory is in his hands.H G/arry your troops well on and attack the enemy vigorously.H G8n war as in love, we must achieve contact ere we triumph.H G8n order to smash, it is necessary to act suddenly.H =-apoleon> GThe bayonet is a wise manO the bullet is a fool.H G0e must attackJJJ /old steel - bayonets and sabres. 6ush the enemy over, hammer them down, donEt lose a momentJ <vercome everything that stands in your way, however insurmountable it may appearJ 4ollow on their heels, destroy them to the last manJ The /ossacks will catch the fugitives and all their baggage. 4orward without rest and e,ploit the victory.H =$uvorov>.
G3e who stays on the defensive does not make war, he endures it.H =5oltI>. GThe defensive-offensive is the strongest form, but the most difficult of e,ecutionH =/lausewitI>. G-othing is more dangerous than the attempt at defending seriously a river line, by keeping his side of the river occupiedO for if the enemy were to cross suddenly with surprise effect X and that he will always be able to do somehow X we would find the defender in e,tensive positions from which the latter will be unable to assemble in time.H =-apoleon>.
GTime spent in reconnaissance is seldom wasted.H =4$) # ?>. G. general should never have to say, G8 did not e,pect it.H =Maurikios>. G9ou will usually find that the enemy has three courses open to him, and of these he will usually choose the fourth.H =Moltke>. GThe first duty of an advance guard is to advance.H =$lim>. GThe true speed of war is not headlong precipitancy, but the unremitting energy that wastes no time.H=Mahan>. GMost opponents are at their best if they are allowed to dictate a battleO they are not so good when they are thrown off-balance by manoeuvre and are forced to react to your own movements and thrusts.H =Montgomery> GThe use of cavalry demands boldness and abilityT above all, it should not be handled with any miserly desire to keep it intact.H G/harges of cavalry are e1ually useful at the beginning, the middle and the end of a battle. They should be made always, if possible, on the flanks of the infantry, especially when this last is engaged in front.H =-apoleon>. GThe defeat of the hostile cavalry is purely a family affair and without influence on the course of the battle if the cavalry contents itself with this small success and does not endeavour to attain the greater and more important result of advancing against the flank and rear of the enemy.H =%alck>. G8t is with artillery that one makes war.H G<ne must have as much artillery as oneEs enemy.H GThere is no infantry, however brave, which can, without artillery, march with impunity ten or twelve hundred yards against 7 pieces of cannon well placed and well-served.H =-apoleon>. G-o e,traordinary effort is re1uired for infantry to seiIe a few gunsO but when the fire of many guns is concentrated to oppose its attack, the havoc created is so dreadful that the most courageous infantry fre1uently fails in the attempt to carry a powerful battery.H =)obertson>. G0e still have in our recollection the character of weariness and e,haustion which it =the battle of %orodino> assumed. The infantry masses were so reduced, that, perhaps, not more than a third of their original strength was engaged. The rest were either killed, wounded, engaged in removing the wounded, or rallying in the rear. Aarge vacancies were everywhere apparent. That enormous artillery, which had brought on the two sides nearly ?,""" pieces into the field, was now heard only in single shots, and even these seemed to have lost the force and thunder of their original voice, and to give a hoarse and hollow tone. The cavalry had almost everywhere taken up the place and position of the infantry, and made its attacks in a weary trotO riding hither and thither, disputing and gaining by turns the field works. Towards @pm it was evident that the battle was on its last legs, and that, according to all rule, the decision depended entirely on the possession of the last trump card, i.e. the strongest reserve.H =/lausewitI>. G6rovidence is always on the side of the last reserve.H G. general who retains fresh troops for the day after a battle is almost always beaten. 3e should throw in his last man.H =-apoleon> GThe great secret of battle is to have a reserve. 8 always had one.H =0ellington>. GTo fight without a reserve is like playing cards without capital X sheer gambling.H =4uller> G. prompt and vigorous pursuit is the only means of ensuring complete success.H =$heridan>. G-ever let up in pursuit while your men have strength to follow, for an army, if hotly pursued, becomes panic stricken and can be destroyed by half their number.H =$tonewall Packson>. G3istoryYis indeed little more than a chronicle of the crimes, follies and misfortunes of mankindH=5ibbon>. GThe kind of person who could not lead a patrol of # men is happy to arrange armies in his imagination, criticise the conduct of a general, and say to his misguided self GMy 5od, 8 know 8 could do better in his
OPTIONAL PRELIMINARY MAP MOVEMENT )eal battles were not mutually arranged, but were the conse1uence of previous movement by the opposing sides in attempting to apply their respective strategies. The deployment rules give some of the flavour of this, but this can be enhanced if you wish by a simple preliminary map campaign using the following system. More elaborate campaigns using real maps and third party umpires can be substituted, but will need more time, effort and organiser e,pertise. The two sides share a single stylised map. This is marked with road links between nodal points which are usually villages, but can also be road Functions, defiles or Fust arbitrary intermediary points. The distance between two adFacent nodes is called a $T.5;, and is notionally !.' miles or ? kilometres. <nly maFor rivers are shown and in ;urope are crossed by e,isting bridges. ;ach campaign day is split into three periods M<)-8-5, .4T;)-<<- and -853T. Movement is simultaneous, to simulate the fact that generals usually heard of other actors+ movements, but only after some delay. %efore the start of play, each player writes down movement orders that will be implemented at game start. .t dawn each day, each player then writes down movement orders for that day. The previous days moves are then implemented on the common map. The only reason for having weather in a war game is to cause inconvenience. 8t should not therefore be omitted because it is inconvenientJ 2ice at the end of each afternoon. . score of indicates bad weather, which for our purposes is assumed to be prolonged heavy rain that turns bad roads to mud. 2ice again at the start of each succeeding period, a score of * or more indicating that the rain stops, but that roads are still affected until the end of that period. /ommand parties, 2ragoons, Aight /avalry, )epeaters, Mounted )ifles, )ifle /avalry, Aight 8nfantry, Aight 3orse, $pearmen or Marksmen march up to @ stages in one period and up to @ stages in total per day. /uirassiers, 3eavy /avalry, $ipahis, %ayonets, Minie, %A or )ifles or 3B march up to ? stages in one period and up to @ stages in total per day. <ther foot march ? stages in one period and up to ? stages in total per day. 3orse .rtillery or 6ortable .rtillery march @ stages in one period and up to @ stages in total per day. <ther .rtillery march stage in one period and up to ? stages in total per day. . march partly or entirely over bad roads in bad weather and/or by night cannot e,ceed stage.
period of work is needed to construct infantry entrenchments or break down a bridge, ? periods to construct artillery redoubts or repair a bridge, @ periods to construct a bridge. Cnless in rout, no more than ? commands or ' elements can be marching on the same stage during the same period. Troops cannot march or work for more than ? successive periods. . march starting or finishing at night must be followed by a rest period. 8n colonial warfare, we suggest that the native side moves only every second day, but then makes two days+ moves, so as to provide an e,tra element of surprise. 0hen opposing forces meet, they are transferred to the wargames table and a battle is fought. . side arriving first is always the defender, but not all the opposed troops will necessarily be on the battlefield at the start and if not they will continue to arrive. .fter ? bounds by each side, another map period starts
during which troops may start arriving from stage away Gmarching to the sound of the gunsH. )etreat to avoid battle is possible only if the retreating force has movement remaining and has no troops with a shorter tactical move than the shortest of the other force. )etreat from a battle once started is by a compulsory army rout of or ? stages. %attles cease at nightfall. The night can be used to retreat, or the battle can resume ne,t morning.
COMMENTS The primary site for 345 is now my own www.phil-barker.pwp.blueyonder.co.uk. 345 can no longer be viewed as 3TMA files, but can be downloaded as an 3TMA file or 0<)2 document. 8 must once more apologise for the long gap since the last version of 345. 2%MM has now settled down to a manageable 1uantity of emails, so 8 can now press ahead with the 345 lists, for which 8 have steadily been ac1uiring material. $uggestions, comments and criticisms are still very welcome. 8deally, you should send me a brief report on each game you play, to my current email address of pc.barkerZblueyonder.co.uk. 2o not assume that every or indeed any idea from net discussion groups will necessarily be forwarded to me. Material arriving is still mostly from the same stalwarts playing historical scenario games. :ery few reports do not lead to some changes in the rules. More would still be useful. 8n particular, use of aeronauts is so far largely une,plored, though some very useful naval material has arrived and been responsible for changes. The web page also provides access to G2amn %attleships .gainH =2%$.> - simple :ictorian naval set, G2e %ellis :elitumH =2%:> - 2% style ancient skirmish set, and G2e %ellis Magistrorumi MilitumH=2%MM> an e,perimental big battle ancient set based on 2%M. My thanks to all those that have provided input so far, especially to Pohn )ohde, .drian 0ebb and -orman 0hapshott, who are currently the most prolific testers and commentators. 345 has already inspired new ranges of 'mm figures for the %alkan wars. 8 have seen some of the 5reeks, %ulgarians and Turks, which are both accurate and full of character. /ontactT $.(oumoussis, @* 8thakis $tr., 6.(okkinia &? @@, 6iraeus, 3ellas-5reece, or skoumousisZhotmail.com.