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Tricorne and Musket 1745
Wargame rules for battles of the Jacobite Rebellion Peter Morffew
These rules are part of a series that covers the era of the Musket . Starting when the smoothbore musket became the primary weapon for Infantry in the 1690's , to the end of the era when the smoothbore Musket's were being converted to rifled muskets or being discarded for more modern weapon's in 1862 during the American Civil War .
These rules are designed to capture the flavour of specific war's or campaign's with the subtle changes and inuendoes . They are also designed to be easy to use , fast flowing and capable of covering small and large scale games . Happy gaming .
Contents of rules
Troop types - Description's of the type of troops of the period. Unit size - A description of the maximum size for units when using these rules. Formation's - A description of the different formation's used within these rules. Scale - Description of the scale used in the rules and in a game Definition's - A description of words used within these rules and their definition's. Setting up the game - A description of how to set a game, pre-game rules and sequence of play. Charging - A description of the rules for charges and charging. Response to a charge - A description of the rules for a units response to being charged. Break through- A description of the rules for a break through after a charge and the melee. Melee A description of the melee rules. Movement - A description of the movement rules. Firing- A description of the rules for Artillery and Musket fire. Morale- A description of the morale check morale factor's. Morale result's - The morale result's and the reaction's to a morale check
British Musketeer : These troop's were the line Infantry of the day . The Fusilier's had lost their role as baggage guard's and were now front line troop's . Neither of these troop's were used as Light Infantry in Europe and cannot be used in skirmish formation . Royal Ecossois : These Infantry were Irish and Scottish that were in French Service and had volunteered to fight for the Jacobites. They formed a sizeable unit of about 400 men. The Regiments these Infantry were from were considered some of the best troops in French service. Especially the Irish who had fought at several battles with distinction. Grenadier's : These troop's were the assault troop's of the period . The Grenadier's were the taller men of a Regiment . They carried a musket and manoeuvred the same as other Infantry on the battle field . Highland Infantry : The Highland infantry during the Jacobite Rebellion had a variety of arms. Broad Swords, Lochaber Axe, improvised pole arms, muskets, pistols, dirks and Targe ( Targets ). By Colluden a lot of the Highlanders had muskets but because of the nature of their fighting style they tended to discharge a volley and then charge. Because of the type of weapons they had the Highlanders inflicted considerable casualties. More than was inflicted by any musket fire. The Highland regiments and battalions varied in size from 50 up to about 400. For convenience a average unit size can be used of 300 maximum and compose of up to half of the Jacobite Army Other Jacobite units : Other Jacobite units included the Manchester Regiment and various Lowland Regiments and Battalions. These would be about three quarters of the Jacobite Army Light Cavalry : The light cavalry on both sides had small ponies that did great service. Some Highland cavalry carried a lance. Medium Cavalry : These troop's were Dragoons who dismounted on a number of occasions to fire their muskets . Militia : The British had several militia units that varied in quality. When they were charged by the Highlanders they tended to rout. Hanovarians : The British army had a large number abroad fighting in Flanders. To compensate and ensure a loyal fighting force for the King a number of Hanovarians were station in Britain and fought in the battles of the Jacobite Rebellion. Field Artillery : Field gun's were all small pieces of artillery. Mostly 3lb guns and also 1½lb guns. The terrain and geography did not give itself to heavy artillery pieces and there was very little means to tow any heavy artillery guns.
The following table's give the maximum size of Infantry Battalions and Cavalry Regiment's that are permissible in these rules . The number of figures is arrived at by only accounting for the Musketeer's , Fusilier's or trooper's in a unit . Staff are not accounted for . Where here are two figures in a cell the following applies . Jacobians 12 8 4 8 5 6 8 10 10 10 Britain 14 14 4
Dragoon's Irregular Cavalry Light Cavalry Royal Ecossois Musketeer's Highlanders Grenadier's Hanovarians Militia
Line : Line is a formation of two rank's of figure's to indicate the unit in close formation in three rank' .
Column of route : This formation is a column of figures two figures wide . This formation is to assist a unit to move from A to B in an orderly manner and then to be able to deploy in line .
Skirmish line : This formation is used by the Highland Infantry .
Unformed : This is a unit that has had it's uniformity disrupted , this could be caused by a number of reason's . Melee , breakthrough , routing , etc. . To signify that a unit is unformed each base / stand is turned diagonally to the next one .
Reforming : When a unit comes to reform the unit must be stationary . The unit changes it's formation from that as above i.e. unformed and adopts the reforming formation . To signify a unit is reforming the stand's / bases are formed up in staggered line with the corner's of each base touching .
The following scales apply to these rules Ground scale : 3'' = 100 paces Time scale : One bound = 5 minutes Figure scale : Each figure represent's fifty men or horses on a base size that represent's an area covered by the given ground scale in three ranks' or in the case of the Russian's , four rank's shoulder to shoulder and one rank for Jager's . The unit size represents the troops that would fight in a battle , this excludes officer's and drummer's . The factor's are taken into account for the different depth's and the base size is kept the same for consistency . These rules are designed for 15mm and 25mm figures . For 6mm , 10mm figures halve the firing and movement . For 2mm figure's treat each firing and movement measurement in centimetres . One gun represents a whole battery based on a card of a suitable size, see below. The base size is extended according to the number of guns in the battery. E.g. a battery of four guns in 15mm would have a base size of 80mmx 40mm. Figure base : Below are the figure base sizes . These are per figure except for field artillery where this is the base size for gun and crew . For Battalion gun's one single Artillerist figure represent's the Battalion gun and crew , this is the same width as the infantry figure but double the depth of a Infantry figure . Infantry 10mm x 5mm 5mm x 5mm 10mm x 6mm 10mm x 15mm 15mm x 15mm Cavalry 10mm x 4mm 10mm x 5mm 15mm - x 10mm 10mm x 20mm 25mm x 50mm Field Artillery, 1 or 2 guns 10mm x 10mm 20mm x 20mm 35mm x 35mm 40mm x 40mm 70mm x 70mm General 10mm x 10mm 15mm x 15mm 20mm x 20mm 30mm x 30mm 40mm x 40mm
2mm figures 6mm figures 10mm figures 15mm figures 25mm figures
Retire : A unit will move away from the direction of the charge , attack , fire or melee in good order towards it's own base line for one bound. If attacked the unit will defend itself and only retire for half of a bound. If a friendly unit is blocking the direction to be retired in the unit will halt in front of the friendly unit and turn to face the enemy . If a friendly unit is directly behind blocking the route to retire in the unit retiring will pass through the friendly unit's rank's leaving it unformed . After retiring the full bound the unit will turn to face the enemy . A unit retires at the normal line pace . Retreat : A unit retreating will move away from the direction of charge , attack , fire or melee towards it's own base line for one bound . If the unit is followed up and contact is made the retreat will become a rout . If the unit is retreating in response to a charge and the charging unit can make contact the unit will then rout for the remainder of the move . If no follow up is made or contact made the unit will retreat as normal . If the line of retreat is blocked by a friendly unit the retreating unit will pass through the friendly unit's rank's thus unforming it self and the friendly unit . At the end of the retreat the unit will remain facing away from the enemy and will have to turn to face next bound . A retreating unit will move at column of rout pace . Rout :A unit routing will move away from the direction of attack , fire , charge or melee towards it's own base line for one bound . If followed up the unit will rout for a further bound , if the morale check dictates yet another bound of rout this will be added to the number of bounds that have already been dictated . If the line of rout is blocked by a friendly unit the unit will rout through it's rank's thus unforming it . At the end of a rout the unit will be facing away from the enemy and will also be unformed . A unit that rout's has to spend two bound's reforming . Artillery that rout's will abandon the gun's and will not return to them for the rest of the game . A routing unit will move at column of rout charging pace . Battalion : A unit of Infantry that can be joined with other Battalion's to form Regiment's . Reform : An action carried out by a unit so that it can dress it's rank's . This is carried out after a rout regardless of circumstance's . It can also be carried out after a melee , charge , breakthrough or being broken through by another unit . In the later the reform is optional . Shaken : A unit has become unsteady and need's to reform , the morale is affected and could have a detrimental affect on any future action's . Breakthrough : A charging cavalry unit has impacted on another unit and the impetus of the charging unit has caused it to penetrate the rank's and exit the opposite side/end of the charged unit . Any unit behind can be engaged during the same bound if contacted . The first engagement must be resolved first . Both unit's that have been contacted must resolve the melee . A stand : One stand is four figure's = 200 men . Referred to in the response to a charge , one stand may turn to face . Unformed : A unit that has lost it's cohesion and is unable to operate as normal i.e. it will lack impetus in a charge . An unformed unit can charge but will have it's limitation's .
To run a game the player need's a measure , pencil , note paper and a six sided die . Prior to setting out the figures and starting the game player's on each side must mark where they will set up their figures . This can be done with a notation of each Battalion , Regiment or Brigade on a map of the game area . Also the objectives of each Brigade must be either written out or marked on the map . The objective can be to hold ground or a feature , hold the right or left flank /wing , attack the left or right flank or even capture a certain geographical feature on the table . Having drawn up the starting position's the figures are laid out on the table .
Sequence of play
1 ) Declare charges - move charging unit up to maximum musket range of the intended target . 2 ) Charged unit's need to check their response to the charge . 3 ) Charged unit carries out it's response to the charge . 4 ) Where contact is made carry out melee . 5) Charging unit check's to see if it's break's through . 6 ) If the unit breaks through and contacts another unit carry out the same as above for charges , i.e. response to charge , etc. 7 ) If the charging unit breaks through and makes contact with another unit , again check charged unit's response and then carry out action's and melee . 8 ) Other movement , those that moved in the morale reaction's from the previous bound or charge phase do not move . 9 ) Other firing - unit's that fired in the charge response phase cannot fire . 10) Morale check's . 11 ) Morale reaction's - retire , retreat , rout , follow up . These unit's cannot move in the next bound's movement phase
All charges are declared at the beginning of the bound cycle . The unit or unit's charging must be indicated as well as the unit or unit's being charged . The unit or unit's charged must check their response to being charged . If a charged Infantry unit has a rout reaction and the charging unit is Cavalry which makes contact in the charge phase the Infantry unit is considered to have been ridden down and will take no further part in the game and will carry on routing for the rest of the game . This does not mean that the entire unit is destroyed . If the game is part of a campaign the melee phase is resolved as normal to see what casualties are inflicted . If a charging unit is fired on and takes casualties . The casualties are removed before contact is made . If the casualties amount to more than fifty percent of the front rank the charge has been broken and will halt at at the next range bracket i.e. if fired at from short range the Cavalry will halt at short range . If fired at from medium range the unit halts half an inch short of contact . If the Cavalry unit has any movement left it may use that up , taking into account the deduction for turning about . If there are any friendly troops behind the unit that has been stopped who are also charging they will move up to base to base contact with the rear rank and halt there . When this happens the front unit , the one that has had it's charge broken cannot elect to use up any movement that remains and will stay where it is for the rest of the bound . The unit behind can if it wishes use up any remaining movement and turn about . In the event of a Cavalry unit breaking through that melee must be resolved first and the casualties taken off . The breakthrough takes place and if a second unit is contacted that melee is then resolved . Charging Infantry cannot fire regardless of the distance they have too move. With the order to charge Infantry would do just that thus ensuring momentum and shock on impact
Response to a charge
A unit being charged must check it's response to being charged . If a friendly unit is in base to base contact with a charged unit this unit must check it's response to a charge as well . A Cavalry unit that has a reaction to obey order's and is unformed can remain stationary and dress rank's . The unit will be form to receive the charge . If the Infantry or Artillery response to a charge is to fire and the target is closer than the range given then the unit does not fire as it is construed that the unit is unable to respond quickly enough and is shaken . Infantry will stand and receive the charge . Artillery crew's will abandon the gun's . Artillery crew's who abandon the gun's will seek cover with Infantry within six inches and when the threat has receded can return to the guns . If the closest Infantry are further than six inches but less than twelve inches they will abandon the gun's and will need a morale check to return to the gun's unless an Infantry unit moves to within base to base contact with the gun bases , physically recapturing the gun's . If the closest Infantry are more than twelve inches the Artillery crew's will abandon the gun's and not return for the rest of the game . Where the Artillery crew's seek refuge with an Infantry unit they are effectively part of that unit and will adopt the same charge and morale reaction's . Where the Infantry unit rout's the gun's are also lost for the rest of the game . To check a unit's response to being charge . Role a six sided die and compare the score against the unit's present morale status on the chart below . Die role score 6 or more points under present morale status 4 or 5 point's under present morale status Response to the charge Infantry fire at 2'' , if charge is halted will counter charge . Artillery will fire at 3'' and stay with gun's . Cavalry counter charge and use charge factor's Infantry fire at Cavalry at 2'' range , Infantry counter charge Infantry . Artillery fire at 3'' range and retire to closest Infantry . Light Infantry fire at 3'' and retire . If attacked in the flank Cavalry and Infantry turn to face .Cavalry counter charge but do not count the charging factor . Artillery crews of 8lb or less turn the guns . Heavier gun's crew's abandon gun's and retire to nearest Infantry unit . Infantry charged by Cavalry fire at 3'' . Cavalry and Infantry against Infantry obey order's . Light Infantry fire at 6'' and retire . If attacked in the flank or rear one stand my turn and face . Artillery fire at 6'' then retire to safety . Infantry fire at 5'' , Artillery fire at 8'' , Light Infantry fire at 8'' and retire , Light Cavalry retire , Medium and Heavy cavalry dress rank's and receive charge . If being charged in the flank rear will retreat . Infantry shaken , will not fire . Artillery fire at 10'' , Light Cavalry retreat , Medium and Heavy Cavalry retire . Light Infantry retreat . If being charged in the flank or rear will rout . Infantry rout . Artillery fire at 15'' , Light Cavalry rout , Medium and Heavy Cavalry retreat . If being charged in the flank or rear will rout for two bounds . All rout for two bounds . If charged in the flank will rout off table .
Equal to the morale status or 1,2 or 3 point's under present morale status 1 or 2 points over present morale status 3 or 4 point's over present morale status . 5 or 6 points over present morale status More than 6 points over present morale status
A charging Cavalry unit can check to see if it breaks through the unit or unit's it is charging . If two Cavalry unit's charge each other and only one breaks through , that unit will carry on . The other unit will have it's movement arrested at the point of contact and will remain stationary for the rest of the bound . It will reform if not attacked . Infantry and Cavalry will automatically break through infantry in skirmish line . To test for a break through . Total up the factor's below to determine the factor needed required to break through . Role a six sided die . If the score is less than the factor the charging Cavalry unit has broken through . Charging unit factor : Medium Cavalry..........................................................4 Light Cavalry.............................................................. 3 Factor's : If charging a unit in the flank or rear .......................+ 2 Cavalry charging Cavalry .........................................- 2 Both unit's charging each other ..............................+ 1 Each casualty lost during the charge .....................- 1 Charging unit unformed ...........................................- 2
When a melee is carried out the first two rank's of a unit are counted . There is also an over lap of two figures at each end . Infantry in square can only count those figures facing the opposing figure's . After one bound of melee all troop's become unformed. To reform the unit need's to be stationary for one bound and carry out no other function , i.e. fire , move or come under fire . A unit unformed can still charge , test for a break through and melee but with impediment's . Unit's in skirmish line will avoid a melee . If charged they will fall back as indicated by the response to a charge and will then reform in skirmish line at the end of the bound , unless in hard cover then the unit will stay where it is . If a Cavalry unit contact's with a unit in skirmish line it will automatically break through . Artillery that is attacked will fall back to safety to the closest Infantry within 6'' . They will return to the gun's once safe and will not be able to fire until next bound . If a Cavalry unit has broken through a square that has been formed this bound then the factor for Cavalry against Infantry in square does not apply . The melee factor for the charging unit breaking through is applicable for both units whether they have broken through or have been broken through .
Casualty calculation :
Multiply the melee factor's by the number of figures . Add or subtract the tactical factor . Subtract the score of a six sided die . For each total score of six one figure or one gun is lost . If the final score is less than six than the die is rolled . The score must be equal or be less than the remaining melee factor . Melee factor : In contact : melee from last bound Infantry / Light Cavalry........1 Medium Cavalry ..............1 . 5 Highlanders.......................2 Charging : first bound of contact Infantry / Light Cavalry .......1 . 5 Medium Cavalry.........................2 Highlanders.......................2 . 5
Tactical factor adjustment :
Being attacked in the rear or flank .........................................................................................Deduct 2 Infantry meleeing against troop's behind hard cover .............................................................Deduct 2 Meleeing up hill .....................................................................................................................Deduct 1 Reforming , shaken , unformed, retreated last bound ...........................................................Deduct 1 Unit routed last bound ...........................................................................................................Deduct 2 Grenadiers meleeing against troops in hard cover ................................................................Deduct 1 Highland lancers…………………………………………………………………………….Add 1
Formation's : Line is a unit of figures formed up in two rank's . Skirmish line is a unit - battalion formed up in single rank . Column of route is a unit formed up in a column , two figures wide . Advancing and firing : Infantry may advance and fire . The distance they can advance and fire depend's on the type of Infantry they are . Light Infantry can advance 5'' and fire , other Infantry can advance 3'' and fire . Infantry cannot charge and then fire. Formation changes : These are carried out with the unit stationary and will take one bound to complete . A unit forming square can change formation whilst being charged . This can only be carried out during the response to the charge phase . Turning about , turning to the right or left only takes half a bound . Reforming : Unit's take two bound's / cycles to reform after a rout and one bound to reform after any other event i.e. melee , charge , breaking through another unit or being broken through . Unit's reforming must be stationary whilst carrying out this action and cannot change formation . If a unit need's to defend itself it cannot reform until it has finished firing or meleeing . Any troops routing off table will not return to the game . Any troops following up a routing unit off table will need a morale check to return i.e. obey order's or better . Arriving on table they will be unformed . Obstacles : Wood's , wall's , hedge's , uphill , moving in and out of building's , crossing stream's and ditches reduces a unit's speed by half .Wood's , wall's , ditches , stream's building's and hedges nullify the charge impetus of Infantry . Wall's , wood's and building's nullify the charge impetus of Cavalry . Artillery : Movement of Artillery is restricted by the weight of the cannon / howitzer . Artillery : 1lb ,1½, 3lb cannon's
Infantry Line Skirmish line Charge Column of route Limber up unlimber 8''
11'' +3'' 12''
Light Medium Light Medium Cavalry Cavalry 14'' 12'' 6'' 4''
+3'' 10'' one Bound
Both rank's in a Infantry unit formed up in line may fire when stationary . Infantry may advance and fire, Musketeers and Fusiliers can advance 3”and fire. Light Infantry can move 5'' . When a unit advances and fires only the front rank may fire . If a unit being charged intends to fire it must remain stationary . There are three types of fire in these rules they are direct , diagonal or oblique and enfilade fire . a) Direct fire is directed at right angles to the target unit at the front or rear. b) Diagonal or oblique fire is directed at a 45 degree angle and is aimed at the widest part of the target unit thus firing across the target unit and can be aimed at the front or rear of the target unit . c) Enfilade fire is directed at right angles to the target unit aimed at the narrowest part of the target unit i.e. the end firing along the target unit . A unit firing has a 45 degree arc to it's front . Any target in this arc can be fired upon by all of the figures in the Battalion or Battery . If an intended target is outside this arc the firing unit must wheel or pivot around with the distance moved measured from the outer edge . When a target is within range of the musket's in a Battalion the Battalion gun's will also fire at this target . The Battalion gun fire factor is added to the Battalion musket fire . Then the firing factor's are added or subtracted along with the die score . Calculation of casualties : To calculate firing casualties multiply the weapon factor by the number of figures firing in a Infantry Battalion or the number of gun's in the battery. Apply the firing factor's then subtract the score of a six sided die. The remaining figure is the casualty factor . For each score of six a figure or battery gun is lost . If the final figure is less than six or there is a remaining amount then a six sided die is rolled , the die role must equal or be less than the factor to gain a casualty . E.G. 10 figures at 3” have a weapons factor of 10, they are firing for the first time which has a +2 giving a total of 12. A die role of 3 is subtracted leaving 9. One figure is lost with a remainder of 3. A die is role of 3 or less is need for a second figure.
Weapon factor's Musket - per figure Jager's / Rifles - per figure 1lb / 2lb gun - per gun 3lb / 4lb gun - per gun
Short range 2'' - 1 . 5 3'' - 1 . 5 6'' - 1 . 5 9'' - 1 . 5
Medium range 4'' - 1 6'' - 1 12'' - 1 15'' - 1
Long range 6'' - 0 . 5 9'' - 0 . 5 21'' - 0 . 5 24'' - 0 . 5
Firing factor's :
Target formed up in skirmish line . Target enfiladed or in column of route. Diagonal / oblique fire. Target in or behind hard cover . Target in or behind soft cover , i.e. in a wood Musket fire at Cavalry. Artillery fire at Cavalry. Infantry advancing and firing . Firer shaken , unformed , retired this bound or retreated last bound . Infantry firing first volley of the game, ( each group of 3 figures ).. Firing unit routed last bound . Deduct 2 Add 2 Add 1 Deduct 2 Deduct 1 Add 2 Add 1 Deduct 1 Deduct 1 Add 1 Deduct 2
Morale check's are carried out for the following reason' s . Having taken casualties during a melee , casualties from Artillery or musket fire , if a friendly routing unit passes through another unit's rank's - unless either are Light Infantry or if when formed up in line the unit is in base to base contact with the next unit which rout's , if a unit that follow up a routing unit and goes off table , it will need to take a morale check to return . Morale checks are carried out at Battalion level for Infantry , Regimental level for Cavalry and battery level for Artillery . Any morale check on an Infantry Battalion will also affect the Battalion gun's . To check the present morale status of a unit you add or subtract the morale factor's to the relevant unit morale factor below . The resulting score is the present morale status . Role a six sided die and consult the morale result's chart , the bold type refers to the die roll . Unit morale factor :
Artillery , Cavalry , British Musketeer's 5
Grenadier's Royal Ecossois 6
Morale factor's : General with unit - base to base contact Unit in hard cover General within 3'' Each casualty taken by a unit during game . Each bound Cavalry are in continuous melee Battalion , Regiment shaken or retired this bound / Infantry rank's broken through by Cavalry Being attacked in the flank or rear Unit retreated this bound . Unit routed this bound Unit routed last bound
Add2 Add2 Add1 Deduct1 Deduct1 Deduct3 Deduct2 Deduct3 Deduct 2
5 or more point's under the morale status : Cavalry in melee follow up routing , retreating or retiring unit's for one bound . Infantry in melee follow up routing or retreating Infantry for half a bound . Artillery man gun's . Otherwise obey order's . 4 points under the morale status : Cavalry in melee follow up routing or retreating unit's for one bound . Infantry in melee follow up routing Infantry for half a bound . Artillery man gun's . Otherwise obey order's . 3 point's under morale status : Cavalry in melee follow up routing unit's for one bound . Infantry in melee follow up routing Infantry for half a bound . Artillery man gun's . Otherwise obey order's . Equal or 1 or 2 point's under morale status : Obey order's . 1 point over morale status : Shaken , will not initiate a charge , halt for half a bound to dress rank's . Artillery battery that is limbered up will unlimber to fire . If unlimbered will hold unless in melee will then abandon guns . 2 point's over morale status : Shaken , will not initiate a charge , Infantry in melee will recoil 3'' , if followed up will retire . Infantry in square against Cavalry will hold . Cavalry will retire for one bound . Artillery battery unlimbered will hold present position . Artillery limbered up will unlimber to fire . Artillery in melee will abandon gun's . 3 point's over morale status : Shaken , will not initiate a charge , halt for one bound to dress rank's . Infantry in melee will retire , if followed up and casualties received will become a retreat . Cavalry will retire for one bound . Artillery unlimbered will hold present position for the rest of the game unless it has a reaction to retire , retreat or rout . Artillery limbered up will retire for one bound and unlimber - will not advance any further for the rest of the game . Artillery in melee will abandon gun's for two bound's . 4 point's over morale status : Retire for one bound at line pace , if followed up and casualties received will become a retreat . Artillery unlimbered or limbered up will limber up and retire for one bound and not advance for the rest of the game . Artillery in melee will abandon gun's . 5 point's over morale status : Retreat at line pace for one bound , if retreat is followed up the retreat becomes a route . Infantry in square against Cavalry can be broken through , Cavalry can role for the break through . If successful square will break and rout for one bound . Artillery retreat for one bound whether unlimbered or limbered up , If battery is attacked or fired upon whilst retreating it will become a rout . 6 points over morale status : Route for one bound at column of rout pace , Artillery will abandon gun's for the rest of the game . Unit will take two bounds to reform . More than 6 points over morale status : For each point the die roll exceeds 6 point's over the morale status the unit will rout one extra bound . I.e. a unit has a morale status of minus one . A die roll is six . This is one point above six and so the unit will route two bounds .
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