Information Technology in Business & Industry
Mohammad Raisul Alam Lecturer in Computer Science BUBT Course Title: Computer Application Course No: CIS-202
Ryhanul islam khan
ID:06072101139 Section: 03 Intake: 12th Program: BBA
Submission Date: 03 APRIL, 2008
Bangladesh University of Business & Technology
Information Technology – A Definition
We use the term information technology or IT to refer to an entire industry. In actuality, information technology is the use of computers and software to manage information. In some companies, this is referred to as Management Information Services (or MIS) or simply as Information Services (or IS). The information technology department of a large company would be responsible for storing information, protecting information, processing the information, transmitting the information as necessary, and later retrieving information as necessary.
History of Information Technology
In order to perform these functions, the modern Information Technology Department would use computers, servers, database management systems, and cryptography. The department would be made up of several System Administrators, Database Administrators and at least one Information Technology Manager. The group usually reports to the Chief Information Officer (CIO). In relative terms, it wasn't so long ago that the Information Technology department might have consisted of a single Computer Operator, who might be storing data on magnetic tape, and then putting it in a box down in the basement somewhere. Four basic periods Characterized by a principal technology used to solve the input, processing, output and communication problems of the time: 1. 2. 3. 4. Premechanical, Mechanical, Electromechanical, and Electronic
Information Technology in Business: The name of some information technology devices in business with explanation are given below: CAD/CMA Desktop publishing Robotics Transaction processing system Process control
CAD/CAM AS A INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY:
CAD originally meant Computer-Aided Drafting or designing because of its original use as a replacement for traditional drafting.Ruing the past ten years, few aspects of manufacturing have Progressed as rapidly as PC-based CAD/CAM technology. As with most innovations, the market Presses for improvements, and eager hardware and software developers strive to meet the demands. But as PC-based CAD/CAM software grows more sophisticated, it becomes difficult for a shop to decide exactly what they require. It’s also important to consider what type of work you plan to do in the future. Many shops prefer a system that lets them purchase the capabilities they need now, and also offers additional functions they can add as their needs change. This lets them build on their initial software investment and avoids the need to learn a new system later. Paragon Enterprises is one of only nine qualified Millwork CAD/CAM companies in the country that offer Micro vellum CAD/CAM services. We are staffed with experienced Manufacturing Managers and trained CAD personnel. We offer timely start-to-finish Micro vellum generated shop drawings with Overdrive Drive Pro database creation, Nested Optimization and G-Code generation. This includes incorporating Redline Markups and Field Measure adjustments. All of this from our end will allow you to concentrate on your more pressing business needs, while leaving the entire Shop Drawing, Manufacturing data process up to us.
DESKTOP PUBLISHING AS AN INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY:
Use of special programs running on personal computers to design and print professional-quality documents. These programs assist the user with layout design; the insertion of photographs, sketches, or graphics; many various typefaces; and the use of multiple input files so that any individual with a personal computer can produce customized documents to suit specific advertising or marketing needs. There is also a type of desktop publishing, called electronic publishing, where documents are produced in a similar manner (although they may require more sophisticated equipment) but are meant to be viewed on-screen rather than to be printed. These documents are typically highly specialized, featuring sound or music, animations or video clips, and hypertext links and are generally distributed through computer networks such as the World Wide Web or on CD-ROMs. Desktop publishing, or DTP, is the term applied to the process of creating and publishing professionallooking documents using microcomputers. DTP systems can produce many types of documents, from simple to sophisticated, including business cards, letterhead stationery, brochures, newsletters, flyers, maps, coupons, posters, invitations, business graphics, annual reports, proposals, and magazines. For such projects, a company would need photography equipment, photo-editing software, illustration software, and page-layout software. For example, creating a brochure would require photographs of people or products. Photo-editing software would be used to edit, combine, and give special treatment to the photographs. Illustration software would be needed to create line drawings or other special effects. And page-layout software would be needed to arrange all the text and graphic elements. The following sections review the history, system components, design process and guidelines, features, and management guidelines pertaining to DTP.
Robots and robotic technologies have an intellectual and emotional appeal that transcends any other type of engineered product, and this appeal is felt no more so than with children and young adults. Robots and robotic technologies represent a practical application of physics, computer science, engineering, and mathematics, and provide a very powerful and flexible approach to demonstrate a variety of engineering concepts. In addition, robotics appeals to a broad range of interests and allows multiple points of access to science, mathematics, and engineering for many types of learners. As a result, robotic technology and robots are being used by an increasing number of educators at the college level to reinforce computer science and engineering theory, and to teach basic software and mechanical engineering at the grammar school, middle school and high school levels. But perhaps most importantly for younger students, robots and robotic technology inculcate an interest in science and increase self-esteem, as well as teach basic life skills such as problem solving, decision making, goal setting and logical thinking.
Transaction processing system
A transaction processing system (TPS) supports the processing a firm’s business transactions. The TPS of a university helps perform such tasks as enrolling students in courses, billing students for tuition, and issuing paychecks to faculty. This transaction processing system associated with large pension fund may ID-06072101139
assist stockbrokers in executing by and sell orders, then help with accounting for the transaction (Ackoff, 1967). Transaction processing systems keep an organization running smoothly by automating the processing of the voluminous amounts of paper work that must be handled daily. These systems includes the accurate recording of transactions, as well as control procedures used in using such documents as paychecks, invoices, customer statements, payments reminders, tuition bills and students schedules (Maher, 2002). The TPS of an organization may be far-reaching, extending completely through and out of the organization, looking together the entire financial system. Computer based transaction processing Computer based transaction processing systems Computer based transaction processing Computer based transaction processing systems are often considered the bread and Butter MIS application. No matter how nervous upper management in a medium to large organization is about spending in the information system area it knows that it can not pull thee plug on its TPS and Survive. Today, many firms consider transaction processing to be their most important computer application. A surprisingly large number of firms, however, have not carried computer based information processing far beyond the transaction processing stage. Transaction processing systems in many organizations today are used in this way as competitive weapons. Additionally, the move from dumb terminals intelligent microprocessor based workstations is expected to alter transaction processing in other ways, such as by distributing certain traditionally mainframe-based centralized transactions processing functions closer to their functional area. Transaction processing system supports the processing of an organization’s transactions. This includes accounting for the transactions on its records, as well as providing support activities such as sending out payment reminders. Recently gaining competitive advantage has become a transaction processing concern in some firms, especially those that are working to tie customers and suppliers together more closely with the organization’s transactions TPS via Electronic linkages.
TP monitor technology is software that is also referred to as Middleware. It can provide application services to thousands of clients in a distributed client/server environment. TP monitor technology does this by multiplexing client transaction requests (by type) onto a controlled number of processing routines that support particular services. These events are depicted in Figure.
Figure: Transaction Processing Monitor Technology Clients are bound, serviced, and released using stateless servers that minimize overhead. The database sees only the controlled set of processing routines as clients.
Most businesses have responded by implementing a series of fragmented, tactical, one-off projects to address governance, risk, and compliance (GRC) issues. These are usually manual efforts that result in duplicated activities, high costs, and limited GRC effectiveness. But building effective GRC controls into processes is no simple task. You need to be able to document and monitor business processes that cross multiple enterprise divisions and regions, span entire process chains, and are supported by multiple, disconnected IT applications. With the SAP GRC Process Control application – part of SAP solutions for GRC – you can embed a rich set of rationalized, automated controls into cross-enterprise business processes. Using the application to implement effective GRC practices actually improves operational effectiveness by ensuring that daily business activities align with the strategies and policies developed by executive management. And it can significantly increase the level of confidence that executives have in the integrity of corporate financial statements. Embedded computer: Method for modeling the performance of an Information Technology system are disclosed. The method includes the steps of receiving performance data of the system; receiving data of transaction flows and system topology; and inferring service demand parameters based on the received data. If closed form expressions are available to characterize the system, an optimization algorithm based on minimum distance between predicted and measured response times and may be used to obtain the performance parameters. Alternatively, a discrete event simulator together with a set of meta-heuristic search methods may be applied to obtain the optimized performance parameters.
Telecommunication is the assisted transmission of signals over a distance for the purpose of communication. In earlier times, this may have involved the use of smoke signals, drums, semaphore, flags, or heliograph. In modern times, telecommunication typically involves the use of electronic transmitters such as the telephone, television, radio or computer. Early inventors in the field of telecommunication include Antonio Meucci, Alexander Graham Bell, Guglielmo Marconi and John Logie Baird. Telecommunication is an important part of the world economy and the telecommunication industry's revenue has been placed at just under 3 percent of the gross world product.Telecommunication is an important part of modern society. In 2006, estimates placed the telecommunication industry's revenue at $1.2 trillion or just under 3% of the gross world product (official exchange rate). On the microeconomic scale, companies have used telecommunication to help build global empires. This is selfevident in the case of online retailer but, according to academic Edward Lenert, even the conventional retailer Wal-Mart has benefited from better telecommunication infrastructure compared to its competitors In cities throughout the world, home owners use their telephones to organize many home services ranging from pizza deliveries to electricians. Even relatively poor communities have been noted to use telecommunication to their advantage. In Bangladesh's Narshingdi district, isolated villagers use cell phones to speak directly to wholesalers and arrange a better price for their goods. In Cote d'Ivoire, coffee growers share mobile phones to follow hourly variations in coffee prices and sell at the best price. On the macroeconomic scale, Lars-Hendrik Röller and Leonard Waverman suggested a causal link between good telecommunication infrastructure and economic growth. Few dispute the existence of a correlation although some argue it is wrong to view the relationship as causal Due to the economic benefits of good telecommunication infrastructure, there is increasing worry about the digital divide. This is because the world's population does not have equal access to telecommunication systems. A 2003 survey by the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) revealed that roughly onethird of countries have less than 1 mobile subscription for every 20 people and one-third of countries have less than 1 fixed line subscription for every 20 people. In terms of Internet access, roughly half of all countries have less than 1 in 20 people with Internet access. From this information, as well as educational data, the ITU was able to compile an index that measures the overall ability of citizens to access and use information and communication technologies. Using this measure, Sweden, Denmark and Iceland received the highest ranking while the African countries Niger, Burkina Faso and Mali received the lowest
The acquisition of new technologies tops the list of initiatives that survey respondents, including CEOs, hope will improve the level of IT-business alignment. But organizational measures are also prominent: all executives place strong emphasis on joint project management responsibility between IT and business managers, as well as the use of cross-functional teams.
Class lecture en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Information_technology chronicle.com/infotech www.it.rit.edu www.technology.ku.edu www.penton.com/Market/InformationTechnology.aspx