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CONFIDENCE INTERVAL IN SINGLE PROPORTION:

Recall that in finding the confidence interval in single mean of normal distribution,
=
!

!
!

A binomial distribution has a mean and variance (1 - ).


Thus, in finding the confidence interval in single proportion, as long as n is sufficiently large,
=
!

! (! ! !)
!

, where (1 ) may be estimated with .

Note that at 90% confidence interval, use z = 1.645


at 95% confidence interval, use z = 1.96
at 99% confidence interval, use z = 2.575
INFERENCE IN PROPORTIONS
Assumptions in tests involving inference in proportions:
samples are randomly selected to avoid bias in the sample proportion
from binomial experiments: there are only two possible outcomes, success and failure 1 -
a binomial distribution has a mean and variance (1 - ).
n 5
INFERENCE IN SINGLE PROPORTION
- determines if the sample proportion is from a population with mean .

=
(1 )

EXAMPLES:
1. (vitamindeficiency.sav) A milk advertisement claims that 1 out of 5 children (3 to 12 years old) suffers from vitamin deficiency.
To test this claim, another milk manufacturer randomly selected 50 children and found that 8 of them have osteoporosis.
Does the manufacturer have a reason to believe the claim? Test at 5% level of significance.
Hypotheses:
Ho: ________________________________________________________________________________________
Ha: ________________________________________________________________________________________
Construct the 95% confidence interval for .

Test Statistic:

Critical Value(s): _________

Decision: _____________

p-value: __________

Conclusion: ____________________________________________________________________________________
2. In a random sample of 500 Asian males, it was found that only 13 suffers from red-green color blindness. Do the data provide
sufficient evidence that below 5% of Asian males suffer from red-green color blindness? Test at = 0.05.
Hypotheses:
Ho: ________________________________________________________________________________________
Ha: ________________________________________________________________________________________
Construct the 95% confidence interval for .

Test Statistic:

Critical Value(s): _________

Decision: _____________

p-value: __________

Conclusion: ____________________________________________________________________________________

INFERENCE IN TWO PROPORTIONS


- determines if the proportion parameters, ! = ! are equal.

!! !!! ! !! !!!
! !!!
!!

! !!!
!
!!

, where =

!! !!!
!! !!!

EXAMPLE:
1. (autism.sav) Autism is reported to be more common in males than in females. To test this claim, a randomly selected 800
males and 1200 females were tested for autism and found that 12 males and 4 female was positive for autism. Test the
hypothesis at 5% significance level that the proportion of males with autism is greater than females.
Hypotheses:
Ho: ________________________________________________________________________________________
Ha: ________________________________________________________________________________________
Test Statistic:

Using chi-square test of homogeneity:


Male
Female TOTAL
Autism
No Autism
TOTAL

Odds Ratio: ___________________________


Critical Value(s): _________

Decision:

p-value: __________

_____________

Conclusion: ____________________________________________________________________________________
INFERENCE IN TWO OR MORE PROPORTIONS
(Chi-square test of homogeneity)
- extension of z-test for two proportions
- assumes that at least 20% of the k categories have Ek 5.
Note that Chi-square test of homogeneity assumes independent groups.

! =

!! !!! !
!!

, with df = (# of rows 1)(# of columns 1)

EXAMPLE:
1. (dengueseason.sav) A researcher wants to determine if dengue has, still, a
seasonal pattern. From the 400 random cases for the year 2012 were gathered
each quarter and it was found that 4, 10, 14, and 11 were found to had dengue
during the 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th quarter of the year, respectively. Do we have a
reason to believe that dengue has a seasonal pattern? Test at = 0.05
Hypotheses:
Ho: ____________________________________________________
Ha: ____________________________________________________
Test Statistic:
1st Quarter

2nd Quarter

3rd Quarter

4th Quarter

TOTAL

Dengue
No Dengue

Critical Value(s): _________

Decision:

_____________

Conclusion: _____________________________________________________________________________________
2. Use chi-square test of homogeneity in the example of Inference In Two Proportions. Compute the odds ratio of autism for
males versus females.

Biostatistics
Homework Inference in Proportions
Names: ______________________________ & _____________________________

Score: ________ / 15

You may create your own data in SPSS satisfying the given in the following examples.
1. Suppose that in a certain community, 19 out of 35 randomly selected children suffer from chickenpox the past five summer
vacations. Is there sufficient evidence to conclude that majority of children suffered from chickenpox during the past five
summer vacations? Test at = 0.05.
Hypotheses:
Ho: ________________________________________________________________________________________
Ha: ________________________________________________________________________________________
Test Statistic:

Critical Value(s): _________

Decision:

_____________

p-value: __________

Conclusion: ____________________________________________________________________________________
2. Suppose that during the past five summers in a certain community, 15 out of 40 randomly selected boys ages 3 to 12 suffer
from chickenpox. 10 out 50 randomly selected girls of the same age also suffer from chickenpox. Can we infer from the data
that there are equal number of boys and girls of ages 3 to 12 who suffered from chickenpox for the past five summers? Test at
= 0.05.
Hypotheses:
Ho: ________________________________________________________________________________________
Ha: ________________________________________________________________________________________
Test Statistic:

Critical Value(s): _________

Decision:

_____________

p-value: __________

Conclusion: ____________________________________________________________________________________
3. Suppose that during the past five summers in a certain community, 10 out of 50 randomly selected pre-school children suffer
from chickenpox, 15 out of 30 are children in primary school. Lastly, 7 out of 20 are in intermediate schools. Test at = 0.05
that grade school levels determines the chance of experiencing chickenpox for the past five summers.
Hypotheses:
Ho: ________________________________________________________________________________________
Ha: ________________________________________________________________________________________
Test Statistic:

Critical Value(s): _________

Decision:

_____________

p-value: __________

Conclusion: ____________________________________________________________________________________