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2009 by R.C. Hibbeler. Published by Prentice Hall, Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd. All rights reserved. This material is protected under copyright
laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.
1-1. The oor of a light storage warehouse is made of
150-mm-thick cinder concrete. If the oor is a slab having a
length of 3 m and width of 2.4 m, determine the resultant force
caused by the dead load and that caused by the live load.
From Table 13,
DL (150 mm)(0.017 kN/m
2
/mm(2.4 m)(3.0 m) 18.4 kN Ans
From Table 14,
LL (6 kN/m
2
)(2.4 m)(3.0 m) 43.2 kN Ans
From Table 13.
DL (3.78 kN/m
2
)(3 m) + (0.57 kN/m2)(3m) 13.1 kN/m Ans
3 m
1-2. The building wall consists of 200-mm clay brick. In the
interior, the wall is made from 50 mm 100 mm wood studs,
plastered on one side. If the wall is 3 m high, determine the
load in kN per meter of length of wall that the wall exerts on
the loor.
13. The second oor of a light manufacturing building is
constructed from a 100-mm thick reinforced-stone concrete
slab with an added 75-mm cinder concrete ll as shown. If
the suspended ceiling of the rst oor consists of metal lath
and gypsum plaster, determine the dead load for design in
Newtons per square meter of oor area.
100 mm concrete slab
ceiling
75 mm cinder fill
From Table 1 3.
100 mm reinforced stone slab 100(0.023) 2.30 kN/m
2
75 mm cinder concrete 75(0.017) 1.28 kN/m
2
Plaster and lath 0.48 kN/m
2
Total p 4.06 kN/m
2
Ans
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2009 by R.C. Hibbeler. Published by Prentice Hall, Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd. All rights reserved. This material is protected under copyright
laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.
14. The hollow core panel is made from plain stone
concrete. Determine the dead weight of the panel. The holes
each have a diameter of 100 mm.
175 mm
300 m
300 m
300 m
300 m
300 m
300 m
3.6 m
W = (22.6 kN/m
2
)[(3.6 m)(1.8 m)(0.175 m) 5(3.6 m)(p)(0.05 m)
2
]
= 22.4 kN Ans
200 mm
200 mm
150 mm
150 mm
150 mm
375 mm
500 mm
375 mm
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2009 by R.C. Hibbeler. Published by Prentice Hall, Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd. All rights reserved. This material is protected under copyright
laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.
17. The second oor of a light manufacturing building is
constructed from a 125-mm-thick stone concrete slab with an
added 100-mm cinder concrete ll as shown. If the suspended
ceiling of the rst oor consists of metal lath and gypsum
plaster, determine the dead load for design in kN per square
meter of oor area.
100 mm cinder fill
125 mm concrete slab
ceiling
From Tables 1 2 and 1 3,
125-mm concrete slab (22.6)(0.125) 2.825
100-mm cinder ll (17.0)(0.100) 1.700
metal lath & plaster 0.48
Total dead load 5.0 kN/m
2
Ans
*18. The T-beam used in a heavy storage warehouse is
made of concrete having a specic weight of 19.6 kN/m
3
.
Determine the dead load per meter length of beam, and the
live load on the top of the beam per meter length of beam.
Neglect the weight of the steel reinforcement.
A = 900(150) + 200(500) + 300(250) = 310 000 mm
2
DL = (310 000 10
6
m
2
)(19.6 kN/m
3
) = 6.08 kN/m Ans
From Table 1 4,
LL = (11.97 kN/m
2
)
900 mm
1000 mm/m

= 10.77 kN/m Ans


900 mm
900 mm
200 mm
250 mm
150 mm
300 mm
19. The beam supports the roof made from asphalt shingles
and wood sheathing boards. If the boards have a thickness of
38 mm and a specic weight of 7.86 kN/m
3
, and the roofs
angle of slope is 30, determine the dead load of the roong
per square meter that is supported in the x and y directions
by the purlins.
3O
puilin
shealhing
shingles

r = 0.40 kN/m
2
r
x
= (0.40) sin 30 = 0.20 kN/m
2
Ans
r
y
= (0.40) cos 30 = 0.35 kN/m
2
Ans
Weight per square meter = (7.86 kN/m
3
)
38 mm
1000 mm/m

= 0.30 kN/m
2
From Table 1 3
Shingles = 0.10 kN/m
2
Total p = 0.40 kN/m
2
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2009 by R.C. Hibbeler. Published by Prentice Hall, Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd. All rights reserved. This material is protected under copyright
laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.
a) For ground floor column:
L = 1.45 > 0.5 L
O
= 0.96
F
F
= 1.45(20.25) = 29.46 kN
F
g
= F
F
+ F
R
= 29.46 + 20.25 = 49.71 kN Ans
b) For second floor column:
F = F
R
= 20.25 kN Ans
Tributary area A
T
= (4.5)(4.5) = 20.25 m
2
F
R
= 1(20.25) = 20.25 kN
Since K
LL
A
T
= 4(20.25) > 37.2
Live load for second floor can be reduced.
L = L
O
(0.25 +
4 57 .
K A
LL t
)
L = 1.92(0.25 +
4 57
4 20 25
.
( )( . )
= 1.45 kN/m
2
110. A two-storey school has interior columns that
are spaced 4.5 m apart in two perpendicular
directions. If the loading on the flat roof is estimated
to be 1 kN/m
2
, determine the reduced live load
supported by a typical interior column at (a) the
ground-floor level, and (b) the second-floor level.
*112. A four-storey office building has interior
columns spaced 9 m apart in two perpendicular
directions. If the flat-roof loading is estimated to be
1.5 kN/m
2
, determine the reduced live load supported
by a typical interior column located at ground level.
Floor load:
L
O
= 2.40 kN/m
2
A
t
= (9)(9) = 81 m
2
L = L
O
(0.25 +
4 57 .
K A
LL t
)
= 2.40(0.25 +
4 57
4 81
.
( )
) = 1.21 kN/m
2
% reduction =
1 21
2 40
.
.
= 50% > 40% (OK)
F
g
= 3[1.21 kN/m
2
)(9 m)(9 m)] + 1.5 kN/m
2
(9 m)(9 m) = 415.5 kN Ans
1.11.
a) F
g
= 2[(36 m
2
)(1.21 kN/m
2
)] + (36 m
2
)(1.5 kN/m
2
)
= 141.2 kN Ans
b) F
2F
= (36 m
2
)(1.21 kN/m
2
) + (36 m
2
)(1.5 kN/m
2
)
= 97.6 kN Ans
111. A three-storey hotel has interior columns that
are spaced 6 m apart in two perpendicular directions.
If the loading on the flat roof is estimated to be 1.5
kN/m
2
, determine the live load supported by a typical
interior column at (a) the ground-floor level, and (b)
the second-floor level.
A
t
= (6)(6) = 36 m
2
L
O
= 1.92 kN/m
2
L = L
O
(0.25 +
4 57 .
K A
LL t
)
=1.92(0.25 +
4 57
4 36
.
( )
) = 1.21 kN/m
2
*1.12.
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2009 by R.C. Hibbeler. Published by Prentice Hall, Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd. All rights reserved. This material is protected under copyright
laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.
y
x
z
3 m
1.35 m
2.4 m
1.8 m
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2009 by R.C. Hibbeler. Published by Prentice Hall, Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd. All rights reserved. This material is protected under copyright
laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.
q
1
0.613K
z
K
z1
K
d
V
2
I
0.613K
z
(1)(1)(40)
2
(0.87)
q
15
0.613(0.85)(1)(1)(40)
2
(0.87) 725 N/m
2
q
20
0.613(0.90)(1)(1)(40)
2
(0.87) 768 N/m
2
h 15 +
1
2
(7.5 tan 10) 5.16 m
q
h

725
5 16 4 6
768 725
6 1 4 6 . . . .
q
h
741 N/m
2
External pressure on windward side of roof
p q
h
GC
p
h
L
= =

=

5 16
15
0 344
0 9 0 7
0 5 0 25
.
.
[( . ) ( . )]
( . . )
( 00 9
0 5 0 344
. )
( . . )

C
p
C
p
0.7752
p 741(0.85)(0.7752) 488 N/m
2
Ans
External pressure on leeward side of roof
[ . ( . )]
( . . )
( . )
( . .

0 5 0 3
0 5 0 25
0 5
0 5 0 344
C
p
))
C
p
0.3752
p q
h
GC
p
741(0.85)(0.3752) = 236 N/m
2
Ans
Internal pressure
p q
h
(GC
p1
) 741(0.18) 134 N/m
2
Ans
30 m
15 m
wind
A
B
C
D
4.5 m
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2009 by R.C. Hibbeler. Published by Prentice Hall, Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd. All rights reserved. This material is protected under copyright
laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.
30 m
15 m
wind
A
B
C
D
4.5 m
q
1
0.613K
z
K
z1
K
d
V
2
I
0.613K
z
(1)(1)(40)
2
(0.87)
q
15
0.613(0.85)(1)(1)(40)
2
(0.87) 725 N/m
2
q
20
0.613(0.90)(1)(1)(40)
2
(0.87) 768 N/m
2
q 4.5 +
1
2
(7.5 tan 10) 5.16 m
q
h

725
5 16 4 6
768 725
6 1 4 6 . . . .
q
h
741 N/m
2
External pressure on windward wall
p q
z
G C
p
725(0.85)(0.8) 493 N/m
2
Ans
External pressure on leeward wall
L
B
= =
15
30
0 5 .
p q
h
GC
p
741(0.85)(0.5) 315 N/m
2
External pressure on side walls
p q
h
GC
p
741(0.85)(0.7) 441 N/m
2
Ans
Internal pressure
p q
h
(GC
p1
) 741(0.18) 134 N/m
2
Ans
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2009 by R.C. Hibbeler. Published by Prentice Hall, Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd. All rights reserved. This material is protected under copyright
laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.
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2009 by R.C. Hibbeler. Published by Prentice Hall, Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd. All rights reserved. This material is protected under copyright
laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.
119. A hospital located in Chicago, Illinois, has a at roof,
where the ground snow load is 1.2 kN/m
2
. Determine the design
snow load on the roof of the hospital.
C
I
1.3
C
I
1.0
I 1.2
p
f
0.7C
I
C
I
Ip
g
p
f
0.7(1.3)(1.0)(1.2)(1.2) 1.31 kN/m
2
Since p
g
> 0.96 kN/m
2
, then use
p
f
I(0.96 kN/m
2
) 1.2(0.96 kN/m
2
) 1.15 kN/m
2
Ans