“The Power of Speed”


Head Office

Tel: +971 2 676 77 11 Fax: +971 2 676 77 22
Corniche Road Alia Tower P.O.Box 28768 Abu Dhabi

Tel.: +971 2 550 00 11 Fax: +971 2 550 00 33
ICAD 1 M41 P.O.Box: 28768 Abu Dhabi UAE


the late Sheikh Zayed bin Sultan Al Nahyan. and to preserve it for succeeding generations. to take from it only what they needed to live. Founding father of the United Arab Emirates Abu Dhabi. They were able to do so only because they recognized the need to conserve it.“On land and in the sea.” His Highness. CONTENTS Intro Production of PAC Life Cycle Sustainability Building with PAC 2-9 10-12 13 14-16 . our forefathers lived and survived in this environment. February 1998.

without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs”.I N T R O The Concept of Sustainability in Construction The environmental sustainability movement emerged in the 1960s and 1970s in response to concerns that the way in which we were developing our planet. 2 . By the late 1980s sustainable development was defined as “Development which meets the needs of the present. would irreversibly damage the environment.

preserving non . relevant to the needs of the occupants). toxicity and waste • Create thermally efficient structures through design and material choices • Protect the natural environment and biodiversity at each building phase Buildings and the communities they form. It has been used successfully in all climatic conditions throughout the world. engineers. also need to be financially sustainable and socially sustainable (i. contractors and building owners.e.long before we even had a term to explain it. Good Design Starts with Choosing the Right Material Autoclaved. For many decades.renewable resources • Decrease building material manufacturing energy. developers. Precast Aerated Concrete being manufactured in Abu Dhabi. since its invention in the late 1920’s. Precast Aerated Concrete (PAC) is one of the few building materials which can lay claim to truly meeting the aims of a sustainable building product. building in a manner that minimizes impact on the natural environment has been the challenge of the current generation of designers.In the years since. Sustainable building aims to: • Reduce carbon emissions to the atmosphere (slowing pollution and resulting climate change) • Decrease construction energy and goods transportation energy • Decrease raw material use. PAC products have been used to make environmentally friendly. 3 . green buildings .

CE M E NT German Emarati Company . design flexibility. PAC uses less material and less manufacturing energy. The following graphs and tables show that compared to conventional concrete and masonry. Some materials are dense and heavy. BENA offers the widest range of PAC products. recycling and sustainability in raw material use. social and safety issues and take a long-term view on when and how resources should be applied for the common good. economic. Assessments need to look at a number of environmental. building systems and support services available in the UAE. low energy product which provides an environmentally responsible building system. others light and low volume. BENA is committed to the principles of environmental responsibility. At all stages of manufacture. from the start till we reach the end result. construction practices and life cycle energy reductions. because it is difficult to determine the level of energy use and carbon emitted to make a structure and provide for its ongoing energy needs. Energy assessments should consider whether the likely end use is in a low or a high mass/ volume ratio – so energy used per kilogram and energy used per cubic meter should be considered. any processing energy and numerous calculations of electrical. BENA is embracing the concept of sustainable development – the ability to build the facilities and structures we need today without depleting resources for the future. transport to the production plant. Abu Dhabi. Measuring Sustainability Quantifying how sustainable your building is can be a challenge. 4 . speedy construction and great looks. transportation and installation. PAC offers outstanding value for money and environmental peace of mind. must take into account the journey of the materials from sources such as mining. coupled with affordability. Measuring the amount of energy consumed in the manufacture of a product.BENA produces PAC in a state of the art facility in Musaffah. Precast Aerated Concrete (PAC) is an insulating. In an effort to reduce the overall energy consumption of the United Arab Emirates. transport fuel and other energy expenditure to arrive at a finished product.

Lime Bricks BENA .Lime Bricks BENA .E NERGY USED TO CREATE BUILDING PRODUCTS (E NERGY CONSUMPTION .KWH PER M3 OF PRODUCT) kWh/m3 900 900 800 650 700 600 423 500 300 400 250 300 200 100 0 Clay Bricks Concrete Concrete Blocks Sand .PAC 5 .PAC RAW MATERIALS USED IN BUILDING PRODUCTS (KG OF RAW MATERIAL PER M3 OF PRODUCT) kg/m3 2500 2200 1800 2000 1500 1500 1150 1000 500 500 0 Concrete Clay Bricks Concrete Blocks Sand .

gas and their byproducts). 6 . We therefore need to set a target to reduce emissions in construction processes and create habitable spaces that do not need high energy input to keep them at comfortable operating temperatures. The majority of the energy. as the largest producer of carbon emissions per capita. this places the UAE in second place behind Qatar. Unfortunately. This is what creates a large proportion of our carbon output. Energy efficient villas under construction using Precast Aerated Concrete walls. Carbon emission is the largest threat to the environment. It is estimated that buildings contribute approximately 40% of global carbon emissions. including the creation of electricity in our country. floors. according to 2006 estimates.Statistics The United Arab Emirates may only contribute half a percent of the worlds’ carbon emissions. however this volume comes from a comparatively small population. responsible for pollution and climate change. lintels and roofs. comes from the burning of fossil fuels (oil.

uninsulated concrete walls. Each villa within the Emirate uses a staggering 32. Flats and apartments benefit from having centralized A/C units and only a few external walls per dwelling exposed to the hot outside air. the Regulation and Supervision Bureau and a variety of government and scientific bodies. Peak electricity demands. As temperature rise. The cellular construction means flats are insulated from above and below by neighbouring flats. can be tracked against the climate data for external ambient temperature.000 KwH/annum. The studies showed that high rise flats in Abu Dhabi use energy levels of 7.000 and 7. individual A/C units and high proportion of exposed external surface relative to internal volume. per annum. which cover the electricity consumption for the Emirate. suggesting air conditioning to cool the buildings may be responsible for up to 70% of electricity use during these peak times. which range between 3.Air-Conditioning Energy in UAE Air conditioning the buildings of Abu Dhabi uses vast amounts of electrical energy.000 to 12. 7 . according to studies and reports from Abu Dhabi Water and Electricity Authority. but twice as much as the more thermally efficient Singaporean high rise apartments.000 to 97. which is comparable to air conditioned stand alone homes in the southern USA. electricity consumption increases to match the temperature curves on the graphs.000 KwH of energy. year upon year.000 KwH per annum. “Stand-alone” Abu Dhabi villas have by far the worst consumption of energy due to their large spaces. with the highest electricity loads required in summer months.

we can significantly reduce the amount of air-conditioning energy needed to keep them comfortable. By increasing the thermal insulation of the outer walls and roofs of these buildings. 8 . thermally efficient structures can be created with no noticeable change in appearance or construction technique.Living in a detached villa is a desirable lifestyle choice in the UAE. By simply changing from dense concrete to insulating Precast Aerated Concrete. which is bad news for the environment and the finances of the building occupant. PAC has more than ten times the thermal insulation of conventional concrete of equal thickness. but it currently comes with a high cost in energy.

0 4400 Clay Brick 2.3 117500 Steel (beams.0 3200 Polystyrene sheet Insulation 117.1 5890 Glass 15.1 1005 Softwood 970 BENA PAC BLOCKS (AAC) 2. PAC takes Our story begins with the raw materials.6 631164 Sources: Centre for Building Performance Research . continues less energy to create than other building through manufacture.0 93620 Paint 93. Whether considered by weight or by volume. New Zealand www. S. kiln dried dressed 2.Green Building with PAC Embodied Energy When you choose to build with PAC it is important The following table shows the amount of energy to understand why this is a “Green” building in Mega Joules (MJ) used to create a kilogram of product and how it’s use in buildings reduces building product and also the amount of energy energy. This has a corresponding result on the and our positive impact on the environment lasts emissions of CO2 that the manufacturing process for the lifetime of the structure it creates.0 3770 Particle board (wood chip) 8. reinforcing bars. London.94 2350 Precast Concrete 2. 78-MCA & 51-ALC.University of Victoria.3 3180 Cement mortar 2. E & FN Spon. emits. RILEM Technical Committees.4 5720 Gypsum Plasterboard 6. 1993 9 . Testing & Design. Embodied Energy Coefficients Material MJ/kg MJ/m3 Fibreglass Batting Insulation *Aroni.5 5170 Plywood sheeting 10.0 251200 Aluminium window extrusion 227 515700 Copper pipe 70. Wellington. et al Autoclaved Aerated Concrete: Properties.0 2780 30 MPa Site poured concrete 1. to make a cubic metre of the product. transport and construction materials. etc) 32.9 37550 Carpet (synthetic) 148 84900 PVC pipe 70.5 1380 Concrete Block (CMU) 0.

is the most common mineral on the shared activities. 11% lime. such as cement. Precast Aerated Concrete (PAC) is conventional masonry products.P R O D U C T I O N o f PA C Raw Materials Because we do not need to look very far to find the The first step in choosing a building material with raw ingredients. Alumina 15%. truck . This close proximity of ingredients minimizes are widely and locally available low valuable the fuel used to get raw materials to our plant. high production PAC provides it with low consumption of raw energy components or non – renewable organic materials and hence less of the energy – intensive materials are probably not going to meet the aims ingredients. Silica The BENA factory is conveniently located in the makes up just fewer than 60%. is never far away. Products that are made with energy intensive ingredient used. the crust is composed of Transportation of Raw Materials to Factory rocks made from a few key oxidized minerals. minimize cost and environmental impact through silica sand. reducing vehicle carbon emissions. The aeration of toxic or rare chemicals or minerals. for every around 60% silica sand. so it is a further than 500 kms away and most are within 50 product that does not use scarce resources. iron. Silica is the most abundant mineral on Earth’s to be predominantly iron. . neighbouring companies process lime. four almost 4% gypsum and 0. Lime Industrial City of Abu Dhabi (ICAD) in Musaffah. are used compared to of sustainability. the energy needed to procure them environmentally sound characteristics is to look at is minimal. (calcium oxide) 5% and the remaining 20% made Here. range of precast concrete businesses in ICAD surface. from oxides of magnesia. are the Earths’ resources used so sparingly and efficiently. commodities. The cement (burnt lime) is the most what it is made from.008% aluminum (the truckloads of building material is created. No supplier of raw material is cement and gypsum are calcium based. Although the core of the planet is assessed take advantage of bulk transport efficiencies to 10 Precast Aerated Concrete (PAC) main ingredient. Seldom metallic acid that causes the mix to aerate). sand Earth’s crust. If fact. potassium taken from the UAE hills. into cement. 25% cement. It’s other key ingredients – lime. A wide and a handful of other minerals. They kms.load of raw material entering our factory. Our main raw ingredient. sodium.

4% • Other Oxides of Magnesium.6% • Iron Oxides FeO + Fe2O3 1. SilO2 58. Potassium.7% • Calcium Oxide CaO 6.5% • Calcium Oxide CaO 27.6% 11 .7% Composition of Earth’s Crust • Silica.6% • Alumina.Raw Materials Composition of PAC • Silica. • Sulfur and Phosphorus 8. SilO2 60. Al203 15. Titanium. Sodium. Titanium.9% • Iron Oxides FeO + Fe2O3 6.0% 0.9% • Alumina. Al203 2. Sulfur and Phosphorus • Others 9. Sodium. Potassium.5% • Other Oxides of Magnesium.

systems efficiently vacuum the autoclave curing where they are flushed back into the wet slurry chambers. Up to 10% of our recipe is recycled product. the heat energy removed. During the cutting stage and the side. . before the remainder is sliced into panels is conserved and recycled. with minimal heat loss. end and top trimmings are Even during this heating process. Surplus steam is piped to pre – curing chambers to keep the 12 (PAC) Even hardened. it is fused in to a when partially cured and put through a series of crystal. Steam control or blocks. The product is still soft and moist at this We never throw anything away. Nothing goes to waste. autoclaved material and material warm prior to curing and even the damaged block can be crushed and returned condensate water from the autoclaving process through the sand grinding mill to re-enter the is recycled.Manufacturing Energy and Heat Recycling Recycling the off-cut waste To make such an aerated concrete strong enough process. under steam pressure. These trimmings fall into a slurry trench. quickly dissolving and returning to a useable transfer the steam from one autoclave to the next mix. process. cutting wires. a cake of PAC is taken from its mould to use for structural applications. pump in steam from the boiler and system.

T x 10-3 = 0. Long term energy consumption by building occupants in Abu Dhabi’s highly air .330) x 100% = 69. T x 10-3 is used . PAC will keep building energy at minimum levels for the lifespan of the structure.75 (m2.028 kWH Heat Loss for Dense Concrete Wall Q = U. the calculation Q = U. ∆t.K)/W.K) x 120m2 x 15°C x 10-3 = 3. A plastered 200 mm core filled concrete block wall (2000kg/m3) has a Thermal Resistance value of 0. flowing through a wall.330 kWH The reduction in heat transfer = (1-1.K). ∆t. ∆t. Its Transmittance (U value) is 0. The millions of tiny bubbles that give PAC its light weight also provide many times the resistance to thermal transmission than conventional dense concrete. Heat Loss for PAC Wall Q = U. The thermal insulation offered by PAC is the most significant of its’ environmental contributions.K).571 W/(m2.conditioned homes and workplaces will ultimately be higher than the initial energy used to create the buildings. T x 10-3 = 1. A is the area of the wall. ∆t is the temperature difference between each side of the wall and T is the time period in hours.850 W/(m2.1% 13 . The following comparison between a dense concrete wall and a PAC wall demonstrates that heat transfer is reduced by 69. Measuring Heat Loss To measure the quantity of energy (Q) measured in kilowatt hours (kWh).K) x 120 m2 x 15°C x 10-3 = 1.571 W/(m2.L I F E C YC L E S U S TA I N A B I L I T Y Thermal Insulation Precast aerated concrete provides excellent thermal insulation.where U is the thermal transmittance of the wall. The reduction in heat transfer through these materials when there is a 15 degree centigrade difference between interior space the exterior (as is common in Abu Dhabi summer) can be shown by the following calculation for a sample 120 m2 area of wall surface.K)/W.028/3.54 (m2. Heat Loss Example Calculation A plastered 200 mm Precast Aerated Concrete (PAC) wall with a density of 500 kg/m3 has a Thermal Resistance (R value) of 1. A. It’s Transmittance value is 1.85 W/(m2. A. By reducing the heat transfer through walls and roofs. A.1%. This level of insulation has a direct saving in air – conditioning energy in the hot gulf climate.

PAC does not need large foundations. so four times as much wall or floor area can be support columns and beams. As they have been factory Power of Speed cut and crystallized. the more electricity thickness over such smooth surfaces. wall or floor slabs are high users of fuel energy to transport them to a site. compared to heavy petrol quicker and with less equipment than conventional driven concrete working tools and high energy construction. minimizing the embodied may be used. Smaller members loaded onto each truck. and reinforcement requirements for the support structures has a further reduction in the overall Hence less fuel is required to transport precast carbon footprint of the building. time and energy. Not only is PAC an aerated concrete structures.B U I L D I N G w i t h PA C Transport of PAC to the Site contractor and building owner time and money Heavy building products. since they are lighter environmentally considerate product. etc. concrete transport energy. transporting workers to and from the site. Due to their weight. drilled 14 Precast Aerated Concrete products are lightweight. and nailed using normal wood working tools. The more days products. it allows other than the equivalent amount of conventional building elements to be reduced to minimize their concrete. conditioned site offices. Workability Precast Aerated Concrete can be sawn. All of enabling them to be large format. whether from lights. PAC is only one quarter of the weight. concrete. reducing and resources are used. This “Power of Speed” saves the electrical equipment needed for other types of . The size and these processes are low energy and conserve weight advantage allows them to be installed electricity use on site. Therefore this represents a significant impact. they are dimensionally The amount of time taken on a building site to accurate. air- material use. Plaster coatings can be reduced in that products take to install. such as precast concrete and it also saves the environment. This reduction in the steel. the Low Mass area of wall and floor that each truck can transport At only a quarter of the weight of conventional is minimal. with resulting Accuracy reduction in carbon emissions. This makes installation easier and raises erect the structure has a direct impact on the the quality of the construction process and finished building site energy consumption. Precast Aerated Concrete products arrive at the jobsite ready to install. reduction in the number of truck movements and reduced consumption of fuel.

the fires with only minor repairs needed. years. such as PAC. dense concrete is also non - combustible. or burn. Tragically. even the sand account the long term durability of a building. but also catastrophic destructive events the heat source for much longer than non-insulating must be considered. the driving force behind good fire rust. it can soften as it heats up. replacement building process starts the whole embodied energy story from the beginning. A secondary consideration is to save the durable. reducing the only releases much of the structures embedded chance of failure. a building fire not on structural members during a fire. A well designed concrete weight of the heavy concrete slab). concrete structures combustible. to is crushed into a fine grain to match the cement and maximize the return on the investment in materials. Dense concrete is measured against the life of the building. Long Life sand and cement particles within it will cause All buildings embodied and lifecycle energy is cracking and flaking to occur. causing weakness and we can go a long way to offsetting our carbon structural failure (especially in floors once the steel footprint against a durable structure with a long reinforcing mesh becomes too soft to resist the term payback period. so differential thermal expansion does not affect time and energy. PAC’s millions of air pockets resist heat transfer. The Designing with sustainability in mind should take into ingredients are of similar particle size. By making not a good heat insulator. A structures ability to resist not only the slow ravages ensuring that reinforcing steel remains protected from of time. lime. rot. it exhibits better fire resistance than have withstood the test of time for more than 2. Durability is a significant sustainable attribute of all concrete and masonry products because it will not Naturally.000 conventional concrete and masonry products. Durability doubling the energy cost for the site. PAC’s low weight also helps lessen the load building replacement. Because of its longevity. structure should last for hundreds of years. Concrete builds property. so reinforcing steel within a structure with permanent materials. As the most widely used Not only is Precast Aerated Concrete non – building material in the world.Fire Protection PAC does not behave in the same way. it can be a viable Standard solution for environmentally responsible design. but under heat load from a fire the differing rates of thermal expansion of the stone. carbon emission and replacement costs. 15 . long – lasting structures including sidewalks. building foundations and envelopes. as well as roadways and bridges. requiring less energy and resources protection for buildings is to save human lives and over time to repair or replace. Many PAC buildings have survived carbon into the atmosphere during the event. Fire is a major cause of concrete. PAC the way that it does in conventional concrete.

The VOC emissions are minimized with the use of precast materials in it should be salvaged for re – use. it should products and produce negative health impacts. exceed the economic costs. or during its value for money. . PAC aerated concrete. It does not emit any harmful Economic Sustainability is the measure of true emissions. not sustain mould growth and therefore it is a completely non – toxic material. Mold spores are also a significant can be returned to the factory. crushed and contributor to indoor air quality problems. not simply be demolished and dumped. where the economic benefits creation.Recycle-able compounds (VOCs) that can be emitted from some Ideally. either as a finished product. Non Toxic Precast aerated concrete is made from sand. The of our modern age and is affordable in all of its primary impact comes from volatile organic forms. Precast Aerated Concrete is an environmentally friendly and energy 16 The materials used in construction can affect the conserving material that meets all the requirements quality of a building’s indoor environment. at the end of a buildings lifetime. PAC does recycled into a new mix and a fresh block cast. Economic Sustainability cement and lime.

value for money. Slabs and Panels are becoming designers’ and contractors’ products of choice in the UAE. easy workability. Whether selected for the superior fire rating. you can be sure the decision to use PAC is also an environmentally considerate one. If building in a sustainable manner is a key design consideration. acoustic or thermal performance. light weight.Protect the environment of the United Arab Emirates Build with PAC PAC Blocks. then PAC is the ideal material to help your next project become a “green” building. .

ae .Light Weight Quick to Install Easily Shaped Easily to Lay Accurate Versatile Economical Energy Saving Noise Resistant Non-Toxic Breathable Environment Friendly Fire Resistant Bullet Resistant Long Life www.bena.