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MINI PROJECT REPORT ON

ADVANCED HEALTH MONITORING AND CONTROL SYSTEM


Submitted By RIJIN P K MEHUL MOHAN T Under the Guidance of Prof. V Vinod Kumar (ECE Dept.)

In partial fulfilment for the award of the Degree of

BACHELOR OF TECHNOLOGY IN ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING GOVT. COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING, KANNUR 670563 November 2013

DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING GOVT. COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING KANNUR

CERTIFICATE
This is to certify that the project report on ADVANCED HEALTH MONITORING AND CONTROL SYSTEM submitted by RIJIN P K (B0ENEC1730) and MEHUL MOHAN T (B0ENEC1739) during the year 2013-2014 to Govt. College of Engineering, Kannur towards the partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of the degree of Bachelor of Technology in Electronics & Communication, under Kannur University, is a bona fide record of the work carried out by them.

Prof. V Vinod Kumar Project Guide

Prof. Alex Raj S.M Project Coordinator

Dr. P.Reena
Project Coordinator

Dr. T.P.Byjubai Head of Department

Place: Date:

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
It is with great enthusiasm and the learning spirit that we bring out this project report. We also feel that it is the right opportunity to acknowledge the support and guidance that came in from various quarters during the course of the completion of our project.

We are extremely grateful to the Principal Dr. T.D.JOHN, Govt. College of Engineering Kannur, for providing the necessary facilities. We would like to express our sincere gratitude to Dr. BAIJU BAI T P, Head of Department of Electronics and Communication for giving us all the support and confidence to work with the project.

We express our sincere gratitude to our project coordinators Dr. P.Reena and Prof. Alex Raj S.M and our project guide Prof. V Vinod Kumar for their great support given for doing this project.

We express our sincere gratitude to our teaching and non-teaching staffs of Govt. Collage of Engineering, Kannur for their valuable help in the successful completion of our project.

We extend our thanks to family members and especially to our friends for encouraging and helping us in critical situations and make the project successful.

Last but not the least we would like to thank God Almighty for giving us confidence to do the project.

ABSTRACT

Advances in electronics and wireless sensor networks have opened up new opportunities in healthcare systems. The future will see the integration of the abundance of existing specialized medical technology with pervasive, wireless networks. They will co-exist with the installed infrastructure, augmenting data collection and real-time response. An example of an area in which future medical systems can benefit the most from wireless sensor networks is in-home assistance. In-home pervasive networks may assist residents by providing memory enhancement, control of home appliances, medical data lookup, and emergency communication. The main requirements are Interoperability, Real-time data acquisition and analysis, Reliability and robustness and new node architectures. The proposed project integrate a coherent set of interacting portable devices, while preserving mobility and independence and bringing optimum assistance to medical support. Hospitals in the remote areas have a lack of doctors where they are available only once in a week. The goal of this project is to monitor the parameters such as temperature, pressure and Heart Beat of the patient and based on those results treatment is being performed. We will be displaying the values on a computer monitor and updating it in real time. In future, we will upgrade this project such that if there is any deviation in any parameter in the patient's status, the details will be sent to the prescribed doctors and the treatment is performed in accordance to his guidance.

CONTENTS

CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION... 1 CHAPTER 2. BLOCK DIAGRAM LEVEL DESCRIPTION .. 2 CHAPTER 3. HARDWARE REQUIREMENTS & PARTS IDENTIFICATION 5 CHAPTER 4. WORKING......15 CHAPTER 5. SOFTWARE SECTION..16 5.1) FLOW CHART16 5.2) LABVIEW...17 CHAPTER 6. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS18 CHAPTER 7. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE SCOPE20 BIBLIOGRAPHY..21

LIST OF FIGURES
Fig.2.1. Block Diagram.. 2 Fig 3.1. Arduino Duemilanove Microcontroller Board with ATmega 328P. 7 Fig 3.2. ATmega 328 Microcontroller...10 Fig 3.3. Temperature Sensor- Internal Diagram11 Fig 3.4. Temperature Sensor LM35...12 Fig 3.5. Bottom View of LM 3512 Fig 3.6. Heartbeat Sensor LM3513 Fig 3.7. A sample measurement taken with the heartbeat sensor..13 Fig 3.8. Buzzer...14 Fig 5.1. Graphical user interface done using LabView.17 Fig 6.1. Our equipment in action...19

ADVANCED HEALTH MONITORING AND CONTROL SYSTEM

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION
Nothing is important than HEALTH of a person. Hence monitoring of important parameters like temperature, heartbeat, pressure etc. should be given utmost priority. Our equipment can be used in hospitals and also for patients who can be under continues monitoring while traveling from place to place. This can also be used for regular home use and therefore intellectually helps lakhs of people. This simple equipment is a low cost device and has multi-level applications. Cardiovascular disease is one of the main causes of death in the many countries and in 1999, it accounted for over 15 million deaths worldwide. And things have been changed worse now. Nowadays the number of heart patients have been increased inexorably especially in a developing country like India due to change in life style, lack of food management, lack of exercise etc. The most important part is, these people are not aware of these critical health situations and thinks about a remedy only in the final stage of their disease. Even technology advancements we have achieved till now will not be able to help those people. Prevention is always better than cure. With the help of the equipment we have, it is possible to do tasks by reducing human interference and also helps alarming people that their health condition is weak and needs care. This equipment is most useful in remote areas where number of hospitals are very less and doctors availability is also an issue. The drastic conditions makes things even worse day by day. More number of people are trapped by cardio vascular diseases and high pressure. We have to prevent this exponential increase of this rate as todays children are the future of tomorrow. We need a healthy generation ahead and here we present a multi-purpose device which can decrease those large diseased patients by a quite comfortable margin by alarming those affected people and thereby taking necessary steps to preserve the health of their respective life. Again it is the individuals responsibility to take care themselves. By using industry leading components, greater accuracy with high precision and possibly with less errors can be achieved. Here we use a technique in which the sensors can be attached on a plug n play basis (easy and way too convenient). This equipment can be used in hospitals and also for patients who can be under continues monitoring while traveling from place to place.
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ADVANCED HEALTH MONITORING AND CONTROL SYSTEM

CHAPTER 2 BLOCK DIAGRAM LEVEL DESCRIPTION

Patient

Fig 2.1. Block Diagram

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2.1. TEMPERATURE SENSOR


Temperature sensors are transducers which are used for the measurement of the temperature in electronic methods. Here it is used to find the body temperature of a patient or any human being. The temperature sensors needs to be in contact with the body of the person in order to pick up the temperature. These transducers give out electrical output to the corresponding body temperature they exists. These electrical signals are in the form of analog voltage. Since our MCU has inbuilt analog pin input, the electrical output from the temperature sensor can be directly connected to these analog pins without the need for analog to digital conversion. Here we use the IC package type temperature sensors, whose output voltage is linearly proportional to the Celsius (Centigrade) temperature.

2.2. HEARTBEAT SENSOR


The Heartbeat Sensor provides a simple way to study the heart's function. This sensor monitors the flow of blood through Finger. As the heart forces blood through the blood vessels in the Finger, the amount of blood in the Finger changes with time. The sensor shines a light lobe (small High Bright LED) through the ear and measures the light that is transmitted to LDR. The signal is amplified, inverted and filtered, in the Circuit .By graphing this signal, the heart rate can be determined, and some details of the pumping action of the heart can be seen on the graph.

2.3. MCU (MICROCONTROLLER UNIT)


MCU is the microcontroller unit, which controls all the functions of other blocks in this system. MCU takes or read data from the sensors and controls all the functions of the whole system by manipulating these data. The temperature sensor and heartbeat sensor sense the temperature and heartbeat of a person respectively. These data are given to the microcontroller unit and it manipulates the data it received. These data are given to a monitor for display purpose. The readings shown on monitor like temperature and heartbeat are updated in real times as soon as the sensors are connected to the microcontroller unit. Here we use ATmega 328 microcontroller

on an arduino duemilanove board.

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2.4. DISPLAY SECTION


A computer monitor is used for displaying the state of the unit. Here it displays the status of the sensors in real time. That is, the sensed values are updated at regular time intervals. Labview software is used to show the status of the sensors with a graphical user interface. Hence it is easy to read the sensed values for both patients and nurses/doctors as the graphical user interface is really simple and easy to sum things up.

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ADVANCED HEALTH MONITORING AND CONTROL SYSTEM

CHAPTER 3 HARDWARE REQUIREMENTS & PARTS IDENTIFICATION


3.1. ARDUINO DUEMILANOVE BOARD

CONTENTS 3.1.1. Product Description 3.1.2. Arduino Duemilanove Microcontroller Board 3.1.3. Microcontroller 3.1.4. Sensors o 3.1.4.1. Temperature Sensor o 3.1.4.2. Heartbeat Sensor 3.1.5. BZ(Buzzer)

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ADVANCED HEALTH MONITORING AND CONTROL SYSTEM

3.1.1 PRODUCT DESCRIPTION Arduino Duemilanove Board:


Microcontroller Operating Voltage Input Voltage (recommended) Input Voltage (limits) Digital I/O Pins Analog Input Pins DC Current per I/O Pin DC Current for 3.3V Pin Flash Memory SRAM EEPROM Clock Speed USB powered USB programmable : ATmega328 : 5V : 7-12V : 6-20V : 14(of which 6 provide PWM output) : 6 : 40 mA : 50 mA : 32 KB of which 2 KB used loader : 2 KB : 1 KB : 16 MHz

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3.1.2 Arduino Duemilanove Microcontroller Board:

Fig 3.1. Arduino Duemilanove Microcontroller Board with ATmega 328P 3.1.2.1. INPUT AND OUTPUT
Each of the 14 digital pins on the Duemilanove can be used as an input or output, using pinMode (), digitalWrite (), and digitalRead () functions. They operate at 5 volts. Each pin can provide or receive a maximum of 40 mA and has an internal pull-up resistor (disconnected by default) of 20-50 KOhms. In addition, some pins have specialized functions:

Serial: 0 (RX) and 1 (TX). Used to receive (RX) and transmit (TX) TTL serial data. These pins are connected to the corresponding pins of the FTDI USB-to-TTL Serial chip.

External Interrupts: 2 and 3. These pins can be configured to trigger an interrupt on a low value, a rising or falling edge, or a change in value.

PWM: 3, 5, 6, 9, 10, and 11. Provide 8-bit PWM output with the analogWrite () function.
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SPI: 10 (SS), 11 (MOSI), 12 (MISO), 13 (SCK). These pins support SPI communication using the SPI library.

LED: 13. There is a built-in LED connected to digital pin 13. When the pin is HIGH value, the LED is on, when the pin is LOW, it's off.

The Duemilanove has 6 analog inputs, each of which provide 10 bits of resolution (i.e. 1024 different values). By default they measure from ground to 5 volts, though is it possible to change the upper end of their range using the AREF pin and the analogReference () function. Additionally, some pins have specialized functionality:

I2C: analog input pins A4 (SDA) and A5 (SCL). Support I2C (TWI) communication using the Wire library.

There are a couple of other pins on the board:


AREF. Reference voltage for the analog inputs. Used with analogReference (). Reset. Bring this line LOW to reset the microcontroller. Typically used to add a reset button to shields which block the one on the board.

3.1.2.2. COMMUNICATION
The Arduino Duemilanove has a number of facilities for communicating with a computer, another Arduino, or other microcontrollers. The ATmega328 provide UART TTL (5V) serial communication, which is available on digital pins 0 (RX) and 1 (TX). An FTDI FT232RL on the board channels this serial communication over USB and the FTDI drivers (included with Windows version of the Arduino software) provide a virtual com port to software on the computer. The Arduino software includes a serial monitor which allows simple textual data to be sent to and from the Arduino board. The RX and TX LEDs on the board will flash when data is being transmitted via the FTDI chip and USB connection to the computer (but not for serial communication on pins 0 and 1).

3.1.2.3. PROGRAMMING
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The Arduino Duemilanove can be programmed with the Arduino software. The ATmega328 on the Arduino Duemilanove comes pre-burned with a bootloader that allows you to upload new code to it without the use of an external hardware programmer. It communicates using the original STK500. We can also bypass the bootloader and program the microcontroller through the ICSP (In-Circuit Serial Programming) header.

3.1.2.4. USB OVERCURRENT PROTECTION


The Arduino Duemilanove has a resettable polyfuse that protects your computer's USB ports from shorts and overcurrent. Although most computers provide their own internal protection, the fuse provides an extra layer of protection. If more than 500 mA is applied to the USB port, the fuse will automatically break the connection until the short or overload is removed.

3.1.2.5. PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS


The maximum length and width of the Duemilanove PCB are 2.7 and 2.1 inches respectively, with the USB connector and power jack extending beyond the former dimension. Three screw holes allow the board to be attached to a surface or case. Note that the distance between digital pins 7 and 8 is 160 mil (0.16"), not an even multiple of the 100 mil spacing of the other pins.

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3.1.3. MicroController

Fig 3.2. ATmega 328 Microcontroller


The high-performance Atmel 8-bit AVR RISC-based microcontroller combines 32KB ISP flash memory with read-while-write capabilities, 1KB EEPROM, 2KB SRAM, 23 general purpose I/O lines, 32 general purpose working registers, three flexible timer/counters with compare modes, internal and external interrupts, serial programmable USART, a byteoriented 2-wire serial interface, SPI serial port, 6-channel 10-bit A/D, programmable watchdog timer with internal oscillator, and five software selectable power saving modes. The device operates between 1.8-5.5 volts. By executing powerful instructions in a single clock cycle, the device achieves throughputs approaching 1 MIPS per MHz, balancing power consumption and processing speed.

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3.1.4. SENSORS
3.1.4.1. TEMPERATURE SENSOR

Fig 3.3. Temperature Sensor- Internal Diagram

This LM 35 based temperature sensor circuit is used for measuring the body temperature. 1st pin of this IC is its supply. It is connected to the source through a current limiting resistor (100ohm). 10uF capacitor is for noise filtering of the source. 3 rd pin of LM35 is grounded. Output from LM35 is taken from its second pin, which is connected to a variable load resistor (100K preset). By the preset we can adjust the output to a desired level. 0.1uF capacitor is for filtering the sensor output. The output of the temperature sensor is fed to analog pin of the microcontroller. The temperature sensor is in continuous contact with the body of the person/patient.

For measuring the temperature here we use a temperature sensor LM 35. The LM35 series are precision integrated-circuit temperature sensors, whose output voltage is linearly proportional to the Celsius (Centigrade) temperature. The LM35 thus has an advantage over linear temperature sensors, as the user is not required to subtract a large constant voltage from its output to obtain convenient Centigrade scaling. The LM35 does not
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require any external calibration or trimming to provide typical accuracies of 14C at room temperature and 34 cover a full 55 to +150C temperature range. Low cost is assured by trimming and calibration at the wafer level. The LM35s low output impedance, linear output, and precise inherent calibration make interfacing to readout or control circuitry especially easy.

Fig 3.5. Bottom View of LM 35

Fig 3.4. Temperature Sensor LM35

It can be used with single power supplies, or with plus and minus supplies. As it draws only 60 A from its supply, it has very low self-heating, less than 0.1C in still air. The LM35 is rated to operate over a 55 to +150C temperature range, while the LM35C is rated for a 40 to +110C range (10 with improved accuracy). The LM35 series is available packaged in hermetic TO-46 transistor packages, while the LM35C, LM35CA, and LM35D are also available in the plastic TO-92 transistor package. The LM35D is also available in an 8-lead surface mount small outline package and a plastic TO-220 package.

3.1.4.2. HEARTBEAT SENSOR


The Heart Beat Sensor provides a simple way to study the heart's function. This sensor monitors the flow of blood through Finger. As the heart forces blood through the blood vessels in the Finger, the amount of blood in the Finger changes with time. The sensor shines a light lobe (small High Bright LED) through the ear and measures the light that is transmitted to LDR. The signal is amplified, inverted and filtered, in the Circuit .By graphing
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this signal, the heart rate can be determined, and some details of the pumping action of the heart can be seen on the graph.

Fig 3.6. Heartbeat Sensor LM35

Fig 3.7. A sample measurement taken with the heartbeat sensor

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Figure shows that the blood flowing through the Finger rises at the start of the heartbeat. This is caused by the contraction of the ventricles forcing blood into the arteries. Soon after the first peak a second, smaller peak is observed. This is caused by the shutting of the heart valve, at the end of the active phase, which raises the pressure in the arteries and the earlobe. Note: Thumb finger nail should be faced to LDR and flesh should be faced to LED.

3.1.5. BUZZER
A buzzer is used to alarm people that the health of the person is not well and he/she needs care. In this way, it is easy to help ill people in an efficient way and hence monitoring becomes easier.

Fig 3.8. Buzzer

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CHAPTER 4 WORKING
Our advanced health monitoring system consists of a temperature sensor, a heartbeat sensor, a microcontroller unit, a computer monitor (preferable a laptop for portability and easy handling). The temperature sensor senses the temperature of the human body. Its output is analog voltage which is linearly proportional to the Celsius (Centigrade) temperature. The LM35 thus has an advantage over linear temperature sensors calibrated in Kelvin, as the user is not required to subtract a large constant voltage from its output to obtain convenient Centigrade scaling. The LM35 does not require any external calibration or trimming. Low cost is assured by trimming and calibration at the wafer level. The LM35s low output impedance, linear output, and precise inherent calibration make interfacing to readout or control circuitry especially easy. It is in contact with human body to measure the body temperature and the output pin is connected to the analog pin of arduino Duemilanove board. The heartbeat sensor monitors the flow of blood through Finger. As the heart forces blood through the blood vessels in the Finger, the amount of blood in the Finger changes with time. The sensor shines a light lobe (small High Bright LED) through the ear and measures the light that is transmitted to LDR. The signal is amplified, inverted and filtered, in the Circuit .By graphing this signal, the heart rate can be determined, and some details of the pumping action of the heart can be seen on the graph. Its output is also connected to the microcontroller unit and the microcontroller manipulates the data it just received. The manipulated data has to be sent to the computer monitor to see the values. Here we us use a graphical user interface program implemented using virtual instrumentation software from National Instruments called Labview for displaying the parameters that we got from our sensors on to the computer monitor. The further steps can be taken for the care of the person depending on the values. A small alarm system is provided to alarm for any unusual change in the critical parameters like body temperature and heartbeat from a preset threshold value.

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CHAPTER 5 SOFTWARE SECTION


5.1. FLOW CHART
START

INITIALISATION OF TEMPARATURE AND HEARTBEAT SENSORS

READ TEMEPERATURE AND HEARTBEAT SENSOR OUTPUT VALUES

CHECK TEMPERATURE

CHECK HEART RATE

YES if temp < 36 or temp > 38 YES BUZZER BEEP If bpm <68 or bpm >76

NO DISPLAY

NO

TERMINATE

NO YES
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5.2. LABVIEW The user interface monitoring system is designed using virtual instrument software from National Instruments called LabView. The variation in the parameters can be recorded for a period of time and can be updated in real time.

Fig 5.1. Graphical user interface done using LabView

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CHAPTER 6 RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS

ADVANTAGES & APPLICATIONS: Enables reliable remote patient monitoring Can be used in home for any individual Portability and easy to use graphical user interface Maintains freedom of mobility Offers safety and activity monitoring sensors for home and medical use Offers prompt feedback for better self-management Offers out-of-box security for easy use

DISADVANTAGES: Accuracy is not high. For better accuracy, better precision sensors have to be used. Sensor values are ambient room temperature dependent.

RESULT

Sensed values obtained:

SL NO.
1. 2.

SENSOR
TEMPERATURE (LM35) HEART RATE

OBTAINED VALUE
36-38 68-74

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Fig 6.1. Our equipment in action

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CHAPTER 7. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE SCOPE

The proposed project integrate a coherent set of interacting portable devices, while preserving mobility and independence and bringing optimum assistance to medical support. Hospitals in the remote areas have a lack of doctors where they are available only once in a week. The goal of this project is to monitor the parameters such as temperature and Heart Beat of the patient and based on those results treatment is being performed. If there is any deviation in any parameter in the patient's status , concerned people are alarmed. In future we will be able to send and display sensed values wirelessly, use of better precision sensors for cutting edge accuracy, touch screen control for older people, video conferencing with experienced doctors, add additional parameters like ECG, EEG, blood pressure etc.

Future Scope: Sending and displaying sensed values wirelessly. Use of better precision sensors for cutting edge accuracy. Touch screen control for older people. Video conferencing with experienced doctors. Additions like ECG, EEG, blood pressure etc.

We have made great effort to complete this project successfully. In the meanwhile, we faced some difficulty for the accurate measurement of parameters. However we achieved what we have actually wanted at the end.

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BIBLIOGRAPHY
W. Durfee, Arduino Microcontroller Guide, University of Minnesota. HANS-PETTER HALVORSEN, Introduction to LABVIEW. http://arduino.cc/en/Reference/HomePage. http://arduino.cc/en/Main/arduinoBoardDuemilanove. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arduino. http://tutorial.cytron.com.my/2011/08/11/arduino-tutorial/

http://www.ni.com/white-paper/7466/en/

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