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1. The receiver of a communication system usually includes some provision for preprocessing the received signal. 2. The preprocessing may take the form of a narrowband filter whose bandwidth is just large enough to pass the modulated component of the received signal essentially undistorted but not so large as to admit excessive noise through the, receiver. The noise process appearing at the output of such a filter is called narrowband noise. 3. With the spectral components of narrowband noise concentrated about some midband frequency as in Figure.4(a), we find that a sample function n(t) of such a process appears somewhat similar to a sine wave of frequency ,which undulates slowly in both amplitude and phase, as illustrated in Figure.4(b).

Figure. 4 (a) Power spectral density of narrowband noise, (b) Sample function of narrowband noise 4. To analyze the effects of narrowband noise on the performance of a communication system, we need a mathematical representation of it. 5. Depending on the application of interest, there are two specific representations of narrowband noise: 1) The narrowband noise is defined in terms of a pair of components called the inphase and quadrature components. 2) The narrowband noise is defined in terms of two other components called the envelope and phase.

1. Consider a narrowband noise n(t) of bandwidth 2B centered on frequency , as illustratedin Figure 4. we may represent n(t) in the canonical (standard) form: 2 2 (1) Where is called the in-phase component of n(t), and is called the quadrature component of n(t). Both and are low-pass signals. 2. Given the narrowband noise n(t), we may extract its in-phase and quadrature components using the scheme shown in Figure.5(a). 3. It is assumed that the two low-pass filters used in this scheme are ideal, each having a bandwidth equal to B (i.e., one-half the bandwidth of the narrowband noise n(t)).

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Narrow-Band Noise

Unit-3 Noise Theory 4. The scheme of Figure 5(a).follows from the representation of Equation.(1). We may, of course, use this equation directly to generate the narrowband noise n(t), given its in-phase and quadrature components, as shown in Figure.5(b).

Figure 5 (a) Extraction of in-phase and quadrature components of a narrowband process. (b) Generation of a narrowband process from its in-phase and quadrature components 5. The schemes of Figure.5(a) and 5(b) may thus be viewed as narrowband noise analyzer and synthesizer, respectively. 6. The in-phase and quadrature components of a narrowband noise have important properties that are summarized here: 1) The in-phase component and quadrature component of narrowband noise n(t) have zero mean. 2) If the narrowband noise n(t) is Gaussian, then its in-phase component and quadrature component are jointly Gaussian. 3) If the narrowband noise n(t) is stationary, then its in-phase component and quadrature component are jointly stationary. 4) Both-the in-phase component and quadrature component have the samepower spectral density, which is related to the power spectral density of the narrowband noise n(t) as, { (1) occupies the frequency interval

5) The in-phase component and quadrature component have the same variance as the narrowband noise n(t). 6) The cross-spectral density of the in-phase and quadrature components of narrowband noise n(t) is purely imaginary, as shown by [ ]

= { Narrow-Band Noise

(2)

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Unit-3 Noise Theory 7) If the narrowband noise n(t) is Gaussian and its power spectral density symmetric about the mid-band frequency , then the in-phase component are statistically independent. is and

1. Represent the noise n(t) in terms of its envelope and phase components as follows: [ ] (1) Where [ ] (2) And 2. The function r(t) is called the envelope of n(t), and the function is called the phase of n(t). 3. The envelope r(t) and phase are both sample functions of low-pass random processes. 4. As illustrated in Figure 6, the time interval between two successive peaks of the envelope r(t) is approximately , where 2B is the bandwidth of the narrowband noise n(t). [ ] (3)

Figure 6. Sample function of narrowband noise 5. The probability distributions of r(t) and may be obtained from those of and as follows. 6. Let and denote the random variables obtained by observing (at some fixed time) the random processes represented by the sample functions and , respectively. 7. We note that and are independent Gaussian random variables of zero mean and variance , and so we may express their joint probability density function by, 8. Accordingly, the probability of the joint event that lies between and that lies between and +d (i.e., the pair of random variables jointly inside the shaded area of Figure 7(a) is given by, ( ) ( ) (4) and and lies

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Narrow-Band Noise

(5)

and (6) 9. In a limiting sense, we may equate the two incremental areas shown shaded in Figures 7a and 7b and thus write (7)

Figure 7. Illustrating the coordinate system for representation of narrowband noise: (a) in terms of in-phase and quadrature components, and (b) in terms of envelope and phase. 10. R and denote the random variables obtained by observing (at some time t) the random processes represented by the envelope r(t) and phase (t) respectively. 11. Then, substituting Equations (6)-(7) into (5), we find that the -probability of the random variables R and lying jointly inside the shaded area, of Figure 7b is equal to, (8) That is, the joint probability density function of R and is, (9) , which means that

This probability density function is independent of the angle the random variables R and are statistically independent. 12. We may thus express as the product of and . In particular, the random variable representing phase is uniformly distributed inside the range 0 to 2 , as shown by, { (10)

The probability density function of the random variable R as, { Narrow-Band Noise (11)

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Unit-3 Noise Theory Where is the variance of the original narrowband noise n(t). A random variable having the probability density function of Equation (11) is said to be Rayleigh distributed.

Figure 8. Normalized Rayleigh distribution 13. For convenience of graphical presentation, let (12) 14. Rewrite the Rayleigh distribution of Equation (11) in the normalized form, { (13)

Equation.13 is plotted in Figure 8. The peak value of the distribution occurs at =1 and is equal to 0.607. Unlike the Gaussian distribution, the Rayleigh distribution is zero for negative values of . This is because the envelope r(t) can assume only non-negative values.

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Narrow-Band Noise

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