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. The filter was a 6-in. filter press with an area of 1.0 ft2. The mass fraction of solids in the feed to the press was 0.13 . a. Calculate the !alues of

" Rm and cake thickness for each of the e#periments. The temperature is $0 0%

&. De!elop a model or an empirical e'uation for = f ) P ( . c. *f the slurry is to &e filtered in a lar+e-scale &atch filter press ha!in+ a total area of , m 2 and operated at a constant pressure drop of 2 atm with dry cake thickness of 36 mm )-ssume that the filter medium resistance in the lar+e press is the same as that in the la&oratory filter(" calculate the filtration time re'uired and the !olume of filtrate o&tained in one cycle. d. -ssumin+ that the actual rate of washin+ is ,0. of the theoretical rate" how lon+ will it take to wash the cake in the lar+e-scale filter press with a !olume of wash water e'ual to that of the filtrate/ -ssume also that thorou+h washin+ is performed. e. This time" a continuous rotary !acuum filter operatin+ with a pressure drop of 0.$ atm is to used to filter the same slurry. The drum su&mer+ed is to &e 20.. 1hat total filter area must &e pro!ided to match the o!er-all producti!e capacity of the filter press descri&ed in c if its drum speed is 2 rpm. *nclude a cleanin+ time and cake dischar+e time of 0.16$ hour. %ilter medium resistance is not ne+li+i&le. Trial 1 pressure drop" l&f2in2 5 M filtrate,lb 0 2 3 6 , 10 12 13 16 Density of dry cake" l&m2ft3 t, s 0 23 $1 136 233 3$2 023 6 0 ,,, Trial 2 15 M filtrate,lb 0 0 10 10 20 20 30 t, s 0 00 1,1 3,0 660 1"00 1"333 Trial 3 30 M filtrate,lb 0 0 10 10 20 20 30 30 t, s 0 26 , 211 361 000 $,, 1"0,3 Trial 4 50 M filtrate,lb 0 0 10 10 20 20 30 30 t, s 0 1 6, 132 231 36, 023 $02

63.0

$3

$3

$3.0

1here P is in pound force per s'uare foot. This relation is followed o!er a pressure ran+e from 0 to 1"000 l&f2in2. - slurry of this material +i!in+ 3.0 l& of dry solid cake per cu&ic feet of filtrate with a constant pressure drop of $0 l&f2in2 and a temperature $00%. 4#periments on this slud+e and the filter cloth to &e used +a!e a !alue

10 1 of Rm =1.2 x10 ft . - pressure filter of the tank type is to &e used.

a. 5ow many s'uare feet of filter surface are needed to +i!e 1"300 +al of filtrate in a 1-hr filtration/ The !iscosity of water is 6.6#10-3 l&m2s2ft at $00%. &. *f it is washed at $00% and $0 l&f2in2 with a !olume of wash water e'ual to 123 of that of the filtrate. The washin+ rate is ,0. of the theoretical !alue. 5ow lon+ should it take to wash the cake/ c. 6ow" the filter is operated at a constant rate of 0.6 +al2ft 2.min from the start of the run until the pressure drop reaches $0 l&f2in2 and then at a constant pressure drop of $0 l& f2in2 until a total of 1"300 +al of filtrate is o&tained. The operatin+ temperature is $00%. 1hat is the total filtration time re'uired/ d. - continuous pressure filter is then used instead to yield 1"300 +al2hr of filtrate from the slurry. The pressure drop is limited to a ma#imum of 00 l& f2in2. 5ow much filter area must &e pro!ided if the cycle time is 3 min. and the drum is su&mer+ed is 00..

3. - 60 m7 sample of penicillin fermentation is filtered in the la&oratory on a 2.0 cm 2 filter at a pressure drop of 6 psi. The filtration time is 0 minutes. 8re!ious studies ha!e shown that the filter cake of Penicillin chrysogenum in si+nificantly compressi&le with 9 : 0.3. *f ,00 7 of fermentatoion &roth from a pilot plant ha!e to &e filtered in 1 hour" what si;e of filter is re'uired for a pressure drop of 12 psi and 6 psi/ 6e+lect the resistance of the filter medium.

3. %iltration of 300m7 of fermentation &roth was carried out in a la&oratory-si;ed filter with pressure drop of 10 psi. The filtration took 20 min. <ased on pre!ious studies" the filter cake o&tained from Penicillium Chrysogenum was compressi&le with the e#ponent s in the e'uation for calculation of filter area e'ual to 0.0. a. 1hat si;e of filter is re'uired to carry out filtration of 1 m 3 &roth from a pilot plant in 20 hours and at a pressure drop of 20 psi/ &. 1hat is the percenta+e increase in filter area if the pressure drop is reduced to 10 psi/ 5. - filtration is carried out for 10 min at a constant rate in a leaf filter and there after it is continued at constant pressure which is attained at the end of the constant rate period. *f one 'uarter of the total !alue of the filtrate is collected durin+ the constant rate period. 1hat is the total filtration time/ -ssume that the cake is incompressi&le and that the filter medium resistance is ne+li+i&le. 6. - !acuum leaf filter +i!es a total !alue of 10 m 3 of filtrate of 30 minutes. *f the resistance of filter cloth is ne+li+i&le" the time taken for the collection of 20 m 3 of filtrate is ----------------- minutes and for the collection of 30 m3 of filtrate is ---------------- minutes. 7. - filter press contains 20 frames" each of 0.6 m &y 0.6 m inside dimension. The frames are 0.020 m thick. The press is e'uipped with 1-&utton and 3-&utton plates for washin+. The !olume of wash water used to 10. of the filtrate per cycle. The time re'uired for filterin+" at constant pressure" is 2 hours &y which time the frames are full. 1ashin+ is done at the same pressure as filterin+ and the !elocity wash water is nearly the same as that of the filtrate. 1hat is the time for washin+/ There is 0.00 m 3 of final cake per m3 of filtrate. 6e+lect the resistance of the filter medium.

,. - constant pressure filtration test +a!e data that can fit an e#pression" dt = .3.V + ,.0 )t : seconds" = : liters (. dv *f the resistance of filter medium is assumed unaffected with pressure drop and the compressi&ility coefficient of the filter cake is 0.3. what will &e the time taken for the collection of 3.0 litres of filtrates at a filtration pressure twice that used in the test/

. The !olumetric flow rate durin+ constant pressure filtration is dV 1 = 1 dt K C .V + qo where = is the total !olume of filtrate collected in time t" and > c and 'o are constants. *nte+rate the a&o!e e'uation to o&tain a relation &etween = and t ?ake a sketch of t2= !ersus = from your results @i!en = : 1.0 7iter at t : 31.3s and = : 2.0 liter at t : 10,.3s find >c.

10. *n a filtration process" if = is the !olume of filtrate collected in time t" a +eneral relationship can &e +i!en as dt .c.V = + Rm dV A.( P ) A where a is the specific cake resistance" Am is the filter medium resistance" - is the filter area" c is the concentration of solids in the slurry" ? is the !iscosity of the filtrate and 8 is the o!erall pressure drop. %iltration e#periments were carried out at a constant pressure drop on a slurry containin+ 20 k+2m3 of CaCO3 in water. The data o&tained from the plots of t2= !s = at two different pressure drops are +i!en in the ta&le &elow B Pressure ro! "#$m2% 0 # 103 30 # 103 Slo!e "s$liter2% 12.0 3.0 &nter'e!t "s$liter% 26.0 6.

*f the filter area is 0.0 m2 and the !iscosity of the filtrate is 0.001 k+2m s" determine the specific cake resistance and the filter medium resistance correspondin+ to each pressure drop. Determine from the a&o!e data whether the cake is compressi&le/ 11. The &asic filtration e'uation is +i!en as dt .c.V = + Rm . 1here = is !olume of the filtrate" dV A.( P ) A is the filtration areaC a is specific cake resistance"m is !iscosity of the filtrate" and C is the concentration of solids in the feed slurry.

12. *n a 20 min. constant rate filtration" 0 m 3 of filtrate was o&tained. *f this is followed &y a constant pressure filtration" how much more time in minutes will it take for another 0 m3 of filtrate to &e produced/ 6e+lect filter medium resistance" Ami assume incompressi&le cake

13. - centrifu+e of diameter 0.2 m in a pilot plant rotates at a speed of 00 5; in order to achie!e effecti!e

separation. *f this centrifu+e is scaled up to a diameter of 1 m in the chemical plant" and the same separation factor is to &e achie!ed" what is the rotational speed of the scaled up centrifu+e/

13. - filtration is conducted at constant pressure to reco!er solids from dilute slurry. To reduce the time of filtration"

the solids concentration in the feed slurry is increased &y e!aporatin+ half the sol!ent. *f the resistance of the filter medium is ne+li+i&le" the filtration time will &e reduced &y a factor of

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