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An overview of turbocharger history with a focus on turbocharger matching via the Winkler Turbocharger matching method, where the necessary equations are derived from first principles.
A turbocharger matching project is undertaken as well as providing full MATLAB simulation source-code.

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1 INTRODUCTION

Dr. Nickolaus A. Otto invented the four-stroke engine in 1876; twenty years later, Rudolf Diesel created the very first supercharger design. Sir. Dugald Clark discovered in 1901 that an engine was capable of producing more power if the volume of air entering the cylinders was artificially increased (Allard, 1986). It was only in 1902 that Frenchman Louis Renault patented a system that utilised a centrifugal fan to drive air into the carburettor via its inlet. Five years late, American Lee Chadwick and J. T. Nicholls implemented a centrifugal compressor to place the carburettor under pressure thereby increasing its volumetric efficiency, whereas the first successful modern turbocharger to be driven by the exhaust gasses of the engine was developed in 1905 by Swiss Dr. Alfred J. Buchi (Humphries, 1992). The First World War greatly advanced supercharger technology, as this enabled fighter aircraft and bombers to reach much higher altitudes. Naval vessels also greatly benefitted from turbocharged diesel engines; in 1925, one of the first successful applications of a turbocharged diesel engine was in a German ship capable of 2000 hp (Amann, 1992). Turbochargers were once again in demand in World War II, where they proved successful in aircraft such as the B-17 Flying Fortress, P-47 Thunderbolt, and P-38 Lightning (Logan and Roy, 2003). Between 1950 and the Second World War, turbochargers were commonly found fitted to diesel truck engines in a commercial capacity. Due to the much higher power densities and improved fuel consumption the application of turbocharging large diesel truck engines, typically with a displacement size exceeding 6 litres in capacity, is the industry standard in their production.

2 TURBO CHARGING

Supercharging an engine is the process by which a mechanically driven air pump, or compressor, is utilised to artificially provide a much larger amount of fuel-air mixture to the engine cylinders than normally taken in by naturally aspirated (nonsupercharged) engines. The basic concept of most of the supercharging devices available is an increase in pressure of the fuel-air mixture delivered to the cylinders results in an increase in the density and the mass flow rate of air drawn into the cylinders during each intake stroke (Mezger, 1978). It is therefore possible to burn more fuel during a combustion cycle, if the same ratio of air-to-fuel is maintained, and thereby generate more power. Therefore, a supercharged engine is able to significantly generate more power and torque than a naturally aspirated, yet identical engine in terms of displacement size. Conversely, a lighter supercharged engine with a smaller displacement size is capable of producing the same power and torque as a heavier and larger normally aspirated engine.

Figure 1: Supercharged engine; the compressor is driven off the crankshaft (BorgWarner Turbo Systems, 2009)

Figure 2: Turbocharged engine; the compressor is driven by a gas turbine running off the engines exhaust gasses (BorgWarner Turbo Systems, 2009)

When the source of mechanical power is obtained directly from the engine crankshaft, the system is classified as a supercharger, where a compressor is directly driven off the crankshaft. A turbocharger (turbo supercharger) has its centrifugal compressor

driven by the engines exhaust gasses; the compressor is axially connected to a centripetal radial-inflow exhaust-gas turbine via a common shaft. The turbocharger system is ineffective at low engine speeds due to the introduction of an exhaust backpressure, and as such the energy of the exhaust gasses are insufficient to efficiently operate the turbocharger (Schorr, 1979). Therefore, superchargers are more suited for operation at low engine speeds. Turbochargers offer two main advantages; the power density of the engine is increased, and particularly in diesel engines, the specific fuel consumption may be improved. Exhaust emission due to turbocharging is not adversely effected, as studies have previously shown, and claims have been made to suggest that typical fuel consumption is reduced by 20-25% (Schruf and Mayer, 1981). Of course, the operational characteristics of a turbocharged engine greatly depend on its application. The characteristics include maximum power output to high torque over a wide engine RPM (Revolutions Per Minute) while maintaining low fuel consumption. Turbocharged engines are greatly preferred in industrial and military applications due to their high power densities.

Figure 3: Turbocharger arrangement, with the compressor and turbine sections (Zinner, 1978)

Figure 3,

illustration above, the hot exhaust gases drive the turbine that is connected to a shaft, common to both the turbine and compressor, and is held in place by a bearing system.

The bearing system not only provides the required lubrication for the continued operation of the shaft but it also serves to isolate both the chambers from each other. Since the power generated by the gas turbine drives the compressor impeller, they both rotate as the same radial velocity, and the air drawn in from the ambient air inlet is compressed for delivery to the cylinders. The control system, as shown in performance (MacInnes, 1984). The centrifugal forces exerted by the compressor impeller accelerate the air to extremely high velocities thereby reaching a high level of kinetic energy. This kinetic energy is transformed into an increase in static pressure, in the diffuser section where its cross-sectional area increases gradually. With the rise in air pressure, the velocity of the air decreases and the air flowing along the perimeter of the diffuser is collected by a volute and delivered to the air outlet and flows to the cylinders of the engine. The process by which the high velocity, low pressure air is converted into a low velocity, high-pressure stream is called diffusion. The ambient air is drawn into the compressor at the ambient temperature of the immediate surroundings, and at a similar atmospheric pressure. Once compressed, this air is delivered to the air outlet at temperatures nearing 200C. While the compression of the air drawn in by the compressor increases the boost pressure and charge density, it results in an increase in the temperature of the air as well. As described by Charles Law, an increase in the volume of the air takes place 4

Figure 4,

serves to alter the operational parameters of the Turbocharger based on the engines

and therefore slightly reduces the charge density. A more immediate concern due to the increase in temperature is the excessive thermal stresses placed on the engine and its operating parts, which could ultimately results in pre-ignition or detonation. Figure 3, illustrates the implementation of an intercooler (or aftercooler) between the compressor and cylinder intake; this cooling is achieved either with air or water. The reduction in air temperature not only improves the volumetric efficiency, due to the density of the air increasing as a result of drop in volume as determined by Charles Law, but also ensures the increase in compression ratio without the overheating of the cylinder heads. The higher compression offers for improved low RPM output (Stone, 1999). Turbochargers were typically limited to diesel engines due to the high operational temperatures of petrol engine exhaust gases far exceeding the operational capabilities of the materials typically used in the construction of Turbochargers. However, advances in materials derived from aerospace technology has resulted in the development of the first Turbocharged petrol engine, developed by BorgWarner Turbo Systems (2009), and is currently featured in the Type 997 Porsche 911 Turbo (Paultan.org, 2009). One of the disadvantages of turbocharging has been commonly termed Turbo lag or Turbocharger lag. Since the exhaust gases drive the turbine, Turbo lag is the delay experienced during the time taken for the turbine to spool up and match the exhaust air velocity. During this period, less power output is experienced until the turbine spools up to reach the necessary radial velocity to supply optimal boost pressure. As the demand of torque fluctuates based on the need to accelerate and decelerate the turbine rotor, to and from high radial velocities, the resulting delay may take several seconds due to the rotational inertia of the turbine rotor affecting its response to changes in the exhaust air flow. Another phenomenon affecting turbochargers is commonly known as the Surge effect. The surge limit is shown in plots of typical turbocharger compressor maps,

Figure 5

and

Figure 6.

below that needed to prevail over the adverse pressure gradient between the ambient air inlet and compressor outlet, the flow of air suddenly collapses. The sudden 5

collapse in airflow results in the output pressure of the compressor dropping to a sufficient level, thereby re-establishing in the flow of air and this process continues to repeat in a cyclic manner. Both the turbocharger compressor maps in Figure 5 and Figure 6 show the surge limit and compressor efficiency in terms of the pressure ratio and rate of non-dimensional mass flow.

Figure 5: Typical Turbocharger compressor map (Logan and Roy, 2003) Figure 6: Typical performance map (pressure ratio plotted against mass flow parameter, where N is the rotational speed of the rotor and T and P the absolute temperature and pressure) for a compressor without a vaned diffuser. The surge limit is shown clearly on the left, and the limit on the right is that set by choking of the flow. Between the two are the loops of constant efficiency. The horizontal arcs represent constant-speed conditions (Garrett, Newton and Steeds, 2000)

Turbocharging is achieved one of two ways: constant pressure and pulse turbocharging. In constant pressure turbocharging, the exhaust gas is essentially discharged into a large manifold (plenum) so as to reduce the magnitude of its pulsations before entering the turbine. While energy conversion efficiency within the turbine is greater than in pulse turbocharging, much of the kinetic energy of the gas is lost on leaving the exhaust ports. This is due to the exhaust gas, initially travelling at a near sonic velocity, ultimately mixing turbulently with the relatively larger volume of gas in the large manifold as it discharges. Further more, potentially significant heat loses from the exhaust gas may occur if the plenum is not thermally insulated.

The primary disadvantage of pulse turbocharging is its inherently lower efficiency in energy conversion in comparison with constant pressure turbocharging. Appropriate manifold design will compensate for this disadvantage, and account for the decrease in turbine efficiency due to pulsation of the turbine flow. In modern automotive applications pulse turbocharging is the de facto standard, whereas constant pressure turbocharging is implemented in engines with a relatively large displacement size and is therefore typically utilised in large industrial engines.

2.1

TURBOCHARGER COMPONENTS

Figure 7.

The compressor

impeller is connected to that of the turbine via a common shaft that is mounted via a bearings and bearing housing. The bearings not only serve as a means for reducing contact friction, but also as a means for maintaining the isolation between both the compressor and turbine housing. The lubrication of this bearing system is achieved by oil that is fed under pressure from the engine into the bearing housing, which also serves the purpose of acting as a coolant for the heat generated (Curless, 1985). The oil inlet and drain are shown in Figure 8.

Figure 8: Typical turbocharger schematic depicting Figure 7: Typical turbocharger components: (1) compressor housing; (2) compressor wheel; (3) thrust bearing; (4) compressor back-plate; (5) turbine housing; (6) turbine wheel; (7) bearing; (8) bearing housing (Logan and Roy, 2003). directional flow of ambient air and exhaust gases (Garrett, Newton and Steeds, 2000)

The turbine driven by the exhaust gases consists of both the turbine wheel and the turbine housing, where the energy of the exhaust gases enables the rotation of the turbine. Once the exhaust gases pass through the blades of the turbine, they are discharged from the turbine housing through the exhaust outlet, shown in Figure 8. As the velocity of the exhaust gases is proportional to the speed of the engine, the rotational velocity of the turbine wheel is thus proportional to the operational speed of the engine. Turbines are therefore ineffective at lower engine RPMs as the exhaust gas energy needs to overcome the inertia of the turbine rotor, to set it in motion, and thereby provide boost pressure; at low RPMs, turbocharged engines therefore tend to behave like that of a naturally aspirated equivalent. Similarly, the compressor consists of the compressor wheel (impeller) and compressor housing. The compressor impeller therefore rotates at same rotational velocity as that achieved by the turbine wheel and compresses the ambient air drawn in from the air inlet. 2.2 AVAILABLE TECHNOLOGY

As turbocharges are implemented in a wide variety of applications, the requirements of these turbocharging systems vary greatly. The following techniques and solutions are utilised in turbocharged engines so as to obtain the optimum output, depending on the application of choice. Typical solutions vary in terms of geometrical alterations, to additional compensatory mechanisms. A few of these techniques are presented in the following section.

A Variable Turbine Geometry turbocharger is commonly known as a Variable Geometry Turbocharger (VGT) as well as a Variable Nozzle Turbine (VNT). These are a group of turbochargers designed to allow for the effective aspect ratio (commonly called A/R ratio) to be altered depending on operational conditions.

The optimum aspect ratio of a Turbocharged engine at low engine RPMs is significantly different to that of an engine operating at much higher RPMs. Too large an aspect ratio will result in the engine being unable to generate sufficient boost pressure at low RPMs. Conversely, too small an aspect ratio will result in the choking of the engine and ultimately leading to lower power output (Hishikawa, Okazaki and Busch, 1988).

Figure 9: Porsche VGT with the turbine guide vanes semi-closed (Paultan.org, 2009).

Figure 10: Exhaust flow through the VGT with the turbine guide vanes semi-closed (Paultan.org, 2009).

Figure 11: Porsche VGT with the turbine guide vanes open (Paultan.org, 2009).

Figure 12: Exhaust flow through the VGT with the turbine guide vanes open (Paultan.org, 2009).

The ability to alter the aspect ratio in Variable Geometry Turbochargers allow them to maintain the optimum aspect ratio during acceleration of the engine, and are therefore extremely efficient at higher engine RPMs (Okazaki, Matsuo, Matsudaira and Busch, 1988). As a result, many VGT configurations do not require the implementation of a wastegate for controlling the turbochargers maximum boost pressure; a higher turbocharger efficiency is also achieved that than with a wastegate.

Turbine-side bypass, more commonly called wastegate, is a valve that diverts a controlled portion of the exhaust gases away from the turbine wheel. The diversion of the exhaust gasses allows for maintaining the boost pressure of the turbocharger, the rotational velocity of the turbine is regulated and as such the rotational velocity of the compressor impeller is controlled (Lundstrom and Gall, 1986). This control is typically triggered once the boost pressure has reached a particular maximum threshold, and is achieved by means of a spring-loaded diaphragm specifically selected to open the exhaust bypass valve once the compressor output pressure reaches the predetermined maximum threshold. Such an implementation is shown in

Figure 13.

Figure 13: Typical implementation of a turbine wastegate (Garrett, Newton and Steeds, 2000)

As pulse turbocharging is the preferred form of turbocharging, the turbine wheel is subjected to variable pressure. The pulsation of the entering gases are optimised in twin entry turbine implementations as it allows for much higher pressure ratios to develop

Figure 14: Twin Entry Turbine (BorgWarner Turbo Systems, 2009)

10

in a much shorter time, and therefore results in an increase in efficiency. The chance of interference is greatly reduced during charge exchange cycles as the engine cylinders are divided into two groups for the exhaust inlets. As a result, a more efficient mass flow passes through the turbine resulting in a more desirable level of torque produced in the engine, especially at lower RPMs.

Turbochargers

are

not

limited

to

automotive

applications, and one of their first uses was in marine engines. Most marine engine assemblies are greatly overcrowded and therefore, water-cooled turbine housing reduces the chance of injuries to maintenance personnel.

Figure 15: Water-cooled Turbine Housing (BorgWarner Turbo Systems, 2009)

Such installations in relatively large marine engines require a great amount of cooling, especially those components in direct contact with exhaust gasses; this heated water may be further used in secondary applications such as cabin heating.

3 TURBOCHARGER MATCHING

The performance of a turbocharger, as illustrated in

Figure 6,

engine speed while being limited by the surge and choke lines. Delivery of the appropriate amount of air into the engine cylinders requires the matching of the size of both the compressor and turbine stages to the swept volume, capacity, and the power rating of the engine (Weaving, 1990) Matching turbochargers with engines with a limited or constant speed range has typically proven to be a rather straightforward task. However, the process or matching turbochargers with automotive engines that are typically characterised by their greatly varying speeds are accompanied by complex matching issues. 11

The conditions for matching have been derived with the assumption of constantpressure turbocharging, and the effect of pulsation is taken into consideration by the use of a variable. The following four conditions ensure the matching of a turbocharger with an engine: As the compressor and turbine share the same shaft, the compressor shaft power equals that of the turbine shaft power,

PC = PT

The rate of non-dimensional mass flow through the turbine is related to the rate of non-dimensional mass flow of air and rate of non-dimensional mass flow of fuel through the compressor,

T = m C + m f =m C m 1 + " tot ast " tot ast

where ast is the stoichiometric air-fuel ratio and " tot is the relative air ratio. given engine speed. ! ! The rotational velocity of the compressor impeller should be equal to the rotational velocity of the turbine wheel, as the pressure ratio and rate of air flow are fixed by the power balance; Both the compressor and turbine typically share a common shaft, so that,

NC = NT

The operating point must lie on the flow characteristic of the engine at the

3.1

The Winkler method, developed by Professor Gustav Winkler and detailed in his 1982 paper titled Matching turbocharger and engine graphically, is a means to allow those without access to simulation tools to easily accomplish the task of turbocharger matching to engines of choice. The greatest success of this process is its ability to enable engineers, lacking in-depth knowledge in turbocharging and thermodynamics, to be able to carry out the task of matching successfully even without much knowledge of the inner workings of the turbocharger in question. This is particularly useful during the product development process where alterations in the

12

design continue to take place; the process of re-matching the engine with the altered operating conditions is made considerably easier by this method. A Winkler diagram consists of four quadrants sharing four common axes, where an axis is dedicated to each one of the four fundamental parameters of a turbocharged system. These parameters are described below, x-axis: y-axis: z-axis: w-axis: Turbine pressure ratio, PT / P0 Compressor pressure ratio, PC / P0

/A " c Mass flow rate, m ! T P T T T / AP "T cT ( PT / P0 ) T0 / TC Mass flow rate relative to inlet parameters, m !

! The Winklers graphical iterative method, as suggested by the name, is one that is ! achieved in an iterative fashion across the four quadrants of the Winkler diagram to

determine the pressure ratios and rate of non-dimensional mass flow so as to obtain the best turbocharging performance being matched to a specific engine (Zinner, 1978).

Figure 16: Winklers graphical iterative method. The example above illustrates how the iterations are performed, ultimately leading to the solution rectangle (Winkler, 1982).

Figure 17: Direct solution obtained from known values of compressor and turbine pressure ratios (Winkler, 1982).

Each quadrant in the Winkler diagram is a graph that indicates the relationship between the four fundamental conditions of a turbocharged system (an elucidation to these fundamental conditions was provided earlier) with regards to one another based

13

on the various quadrant characteristics also known as the K values. definitions of these quadrant characteristics and their equations are shown below, Turbocharger efficiency parameter

#T & K0 = f"TC % C ( $ T0 '

The

%1 " #i " #1 (% + t " 1 ( Pi K1 = ' *' * & f$C #i )& + t ) P0

# T &# c & K2 = f"C % 0 (% m ( $ TC '$ 4 c0 '

K 3 = K1 " K2

# "A & T K4 = % T ( 0 $ AP ' TC

Winklers iterative graphical method is typically started at a relatively low ! compressor pressure ratio, ( PC / P0 ) " 2 , and the iterations across the quadrants are carried out until the final solution rectangle converges to the values representing the matching conditions of the turbocharger to the specific engine in question. The ! iterative procedure is further elucidated in Figure 16. The following sections detail the derivation of all the Winkler parameters and their respective equations.

14

A priori knowledge of the exhaust temperature is required to establish the power equilibrium of the turbocharger. The First Law of Thermodynamics states that energy is conserved; hence, considering Einsteins equation of relativity in the form m =

E c2

posits the fact that mass is conserved. Therefore, the fuel energy that is neither transformed into useful mechanical work nor lost to the environment via cooling may ! be found inextricably in the extremely hot exhaust gasses. This can be written as,

The following parameters are introduced,

Pi = "i mF CV VS

(1)

mT = f"C #CVS

!

!

"C =

PC RC TC

Substituting Equation 2 (in terms of mF ) and Equation 3 (in terms of mT ) into Equation 1, yields the following relationship between the compressor pressure ratio and temperature ratio,

PV (TT " TC ) f#C $CVS c p = (1 " %i " %1) i S CV CV %i

! !

(5)

(TT " TC )%

(6)

TT PC c p RC TC

"

TC PC c p RC TC

f$C #i

i

(7)

!

15

(8)

! Substituting

(9) (10) (11)

#T & (1 " )i " )1 ) # + t " 1 & PC % T " 1( = Pi % ( f*C )i $ TC ' $ +t ' "T % (1 ( )i ( )1) P " + t ( 1 % PC $ T ' = 1 + ' i$ f*C )i # TC & # +t & TT (1 " #i " #1) & % t " 1 ) Pi P0 = 1+ ( + TC f$C #i ' % t * P0 PC

So as to be able to isolate the engine characteristic parameters in Equation 11, the characteristic parameter K1 is introduced. As such, Equation 11 simplifies to 13,

%1 " #i " #1 (% + t " 1 ( Pi K1 = ' *' * & f$C #i )& + t ) P0 !

TT P = 1 + K1 0 TC PC

(12)

(13)

Winkler (1982) states, The power equilibrium of the turbocharger is described by what is sometimes called the first law of turbocharging, and an expression describing the relationship between the pressure ratios of the turbine and compressor may be obtained in consideration of this law,

* T #1 '.* C #1 + $ $ ' c PC T & P * T )0 = -1 + f"TC pT T 1 # & 0 ) P0 c pC T0 & & % PT ( ) )0 % (0 , / *C

(14)

! Since,

TT TT TC = , T0 TC T0

*C

(15)

16

TT , defined in Equation 13, and K0 are substituted into Equation 15, TC

) T (1 %-) C (1 * " " c %" PC , P0 %$ " P0 % ) T '/ pT ! = 1 + K0 $ 1 ( $ ' '/ $c ' '$1 + K1 P '$ P0 , # PT & ' pC &# C &$ # , # &/ + . )C

(16)

(17)

The characteristic lines in the second quadrant represent a relationship between the rate of non-dimensional mass flow and the compressor pressure ratio the air breathing characteristics of a four-stroke engine (Winkler, 1982). As such, the nondimensional mass flow rate is evaluated by the following equation, which relates turbine mass flow rate to the compressor mass flow rate,

T = fm C = f"C #CVS m

n 2

(18)

VS = AP S cm = 2 Sn

! !

"C =

PC RC TC

T = f"C m PC n AP S RC TC 2

(22) (23)

T m P c 1 P c = f"C C S m = f"C C m AP RC TC 2S 2 RC TC 4 ! !

17

Further simplification is obtained by the introduction of K2 ,

# T &# c & K2 = f"C % 0 (% m ( $ TC '$ 4 c0 '

(24)

(25)

!

Hence,

T m P = K2 C AP "0 c0 P0

(26)

Equation 26 is rearranged, as follows, so as to establish a new relationship between the mass flow rate and the flow conditions before the turbine stage,

T m P = K 2 C "0 c0 AP P0

(27)

cT = KRTT c0 = KRT0

! !

!

R=

PT "T TT

Substituting Equation 29 and Equation 30, in terms of "0 , into Equation 27 yields,

T m P P = K2 C 0 AP P0 RT0 KRT0

!

(31)

18

T m P = K2 C AP P0

P0 T P " TP T cT 0 = K2 C T T 0 cT 0 PT TT P0 PT T0 TT T0 ! ! "T TT

(32)

(33)

! Since x

1 = x, x

# P &# P & T T0 # PC &# P0 &# TT & m = % K2 C (% 0 ( TT = % K 2 (% (% ( % ( AP "T cT $ P0 '$ PT ' T0 $ P0 '$ PT '$ T0 '

(34)

TT P = 1 + K1 0 , TC PC

(35)

Introducing K 3 = K1 " K2 ,

# m T &# PT &# T0 & # PC & K3 ( = % K2 ( 1 + % (% (% ) PC , $ AP "T cT '$ P0 '$ TC ' $ P0 ' ! +K 2 . * P0 -

(36)

The characteristic lines in the fourth quadrant relate the rate of non-dimensional mass flow through the turbines exhaust to its pressure ratio. This rate of non-dimensional mass flow through an equivalent nozzle area is therefore given as,

T = "AT #T 2 RT TT $ m

(37)

where " is the turbine flow function parameter for the value of AT and is defined as,

2 # G +1 . + # G -% P4 (# G % P4 ( # G 0 "= ' * $' * 0 # G $ 1 -& P3 ) & P3 ) , /

(38)

19

!

T m AP "T cT # PT & T0 1 # PT & T0 = )AT "T 2 RT TT * % ( % ( AP "T cT $ P0 ' TC $ P0 ' TC !

1 AP "T cT

(39)

(40)

#P & 2 T # PT & T0 m = K4)% T ( % ( AP "T cT $ P0 ' TC $ P0 ' * T

(41)

20

4.1 TASK 1

The Ford Puma 2.2L diesel engine is a turbo diesel engine that has a single turbocharger interfaced with three of its cylinders, hence having a total of two turbochargers. Winklers iterative graphical method is utilised with the assumption of constant-pressure turbocharging, thereby greatly simplifying the task of matching. The parameters of each of the Winkler graph quadrants are calculated below as the first step in the Winkler turbocharger matching process. The operating conditions of the engine have been supplied in the project specifications.

#T & # 410.203 & K0 = f"TC % C ( = 1.048 ) 0.4527 ) % ( = 0.65306 $ 298 ' $ T0 '

(42)

%1 " #i " #1 (% + t " 1 (% Pi ( % 1 " 0.3821 " 0.2132 (% 0.35 (%18.8182 ( K1 = ' *' *' * (43) *' *' * = ' & f$C #i )& + t )& P0 ) &1.048 ,1.8478 , 0.3821 )& 1.35 )& 1 )

" 0.4047 %" 0.35 % K1 = $ '$ '(18.8182) = 2.66841 # 0.739935 &# 1.35 &

(44) (45)

!

! !

" 94.6 %" 2000 % cm = 2 Sn = 2$ '$ ' = 6.3067 m/s #1000 &# 60 &

# T &# c & # 298 &# 6.3067 & +3 K2 = f"C % 0 (% m ( = 1.048 )1.8478% (% ( = 6.5237 * 10 (46) $ 410.203 '$ 4 ) 340 ' $ TC '$ 4 c0 '

(47)

The aspect area of all the pistons is further tripled, as the turbocharger is interfaced with three cylinders,

# # D &2 &# "D2 & # " (8.6)2 & 2 AP = (n"r ) = % ( ( %n ( = ( 3)% ( = 174.26 cm % n" % ( $ 4 ' $ $ 2 ' '$ 4 '

2

(48)

# "A & T # 3.7 & 298 K4 = % T ( 0 = % = 18.097 ) 10*3 ( $ ' A T 174.26 410.203 $ P ' C !

(49)

21

The four quadrants were plotted, utilising the Winkler graph parameters that were previously calculated, and Winklers iterative graphical method was implemented to determine the pressure ratios of the compressor and turbine as well as their associated temperature ratio. Once the iterative process was completed, the solution rectangle was plotted as Figure 19. A developed MATLAB simulation verified the plotted results yielding an acceptable difference of ~ 2-5% between them (Appendix A). The following values were obtained from the graph,

TT " 2.05 TC PC " 2.6 (37.71 PSI of boost pressure) P0 ! ! ! PT " 2.55 P0

22

4.2

TASK 2

This task requires the same turbocharger to be matched to the Ford Puma engine, as in the previous task, at a decreased engine speed of 1700 rev/min and a compressor outlet temperature of 320K. As in the previous task, the Winkler graph parameters are calculated below,

#T & # 320 & K0 = f"TC % C ( = 1.048 ) 0.4527 ) % ( = 0.50945 $ 298 ' $ T0 '

(53)

%1 " #i " #1 (% + t " 1 (% Pi ( % 1 " 0.3821 " 0.2132 (% 0.35 (%18.8182 ( K1 = ' *' *' * (54) *' *' * = ' & f$C #i )& + t )& P0 ) &1.048 ,1.8478 , 0.3821 )& 1.35 )& 1 )

" 0.4047 %" 0.35 % K1 = $ '$ '(18.8182) = 2.66841 # 0.739935 &# 1.35 &

!

! !

" 94.6 %"1700 % cm = 2 Sn = 2$ '$ ' = 5.3607 m/s #1000 &# 60 &

# T &# c & # 298 &# 5.3607 & +3 K2 = f"C % 0 (% m ( = 1.048 )1.8478% (% ( = 7.108 * 10 $ 320 '$ 4 ) 340 ' $ TC '$ 4 c0 '

The aspect area of all the pistons is further tripled, as the turbocharger is interfaced with three cylinders,

# # D &2 &# "D2 & # " (8.6)2 & 2 AP = (n"r ) = % n " ( n = 3 % ( ( ) % ( = 174.26 cm % $ 2 ' (% 4 ( 4 ' $ ' $ '$

2

(59)

# "A & T # 3.7 & 298 K4 = % T ( 0 = % = 20.4898 ) 10*3 ( $ AP ' TC $174.26 ' 320 !

(60)

To ensure the surge effect does not take place the compressor surge line was plotted in the second quadrant on the Winkler graph, as per the project specifications indicated values of non-dimensional mass flow rates and pressure ratios of the compressor surge line.

23

However, the mass flow rate of the compressor specified in the project specifications

C into the same form as the z-axis, needed to be converted from m

T m . ( AP "T cT )

The density of air ! at a temperature of 20C and pressure of 1 atm or 101.325 kPa, ! defined as Normal Temperature and Pressure (NTP), is 1.204 kg/m3. However, at sea level the density of air is approximately 1.2 kg/m3, and as such "0 was taken as 1.2 kg/m3. Hence, as per Equation 18,

!

(61)

Since the calculated value for the aspect area of all the pistons in Equation 56 is in cm2, care has been taken to convert this to m2 in Equation 58. The values of the converted form of the non-dimensional mass flow rate of the compressor at their respective pressure ratios are tabulated in Table 1. Table 1: Converted values for plotting the compressor surge line in the second quadrant

T m ( AP "T cT )

0.00330 0.00398 0.00538 0.00641 0.00884 0.01266 0.01561 0.01828

PC P0

Due to the avoidance of the surge effect, the reduction in the boost pressure of the turbocharger prevents straightforward matching with the engine at its lower speed. A solution to this problem is achieved with the implementation of a Variable Geometry Turbocharger (VGT) and a variable turbine aspect area, AT . 24

Calculating the value for K4 in the fourth quadrant, as performed in Equation 60, shows AT as an inextricable variable in the formulation. Therefore, the iterative Winkler graphical method may not be applied in this particular scenario.

!

It is, however, possible to determine the solution rectangle based on K1, K2, and K3. Since, it is the value of K4 that determines the curvature of the curve in the fourth quadrant multiple plots of varying values for K4 will allow for a manual means for inspecting the correct curve that intersects the vertex of the solution rectangle in the fourth quadrant. Once an appropriate value is obtained for K4, Equation 60 may be re-evaluated to determine the required turbine aspect area. Utilising the specified value for indicated mean effective pressure of 18.8182 bars,

Pi = qC #C$Vi%i " tot ast

(62)

where the variables above have the following values and definitions,

qC : the Higher Heating Value (HHV) of diesel, taken as 42.5 MJ/kg

" tot : the fuel equivalence ratio, i.e. the ratio of fuel-air mix to stoichiometric

fuel-air mix, taken as 1.8

! ! !

"Vi : volumetric efficiency, i.e. how well the cylinder fills, taken as 0.97

"C =

18.8182 # 10 5 = 3.075 kg/m3 $ 42.5 # 106 ' & )(0.97)(0.3821) ! % 1.8 # 14.3 (

(63)

Substituting the above value for the density, where R = 287 J kg-1 K-1 is the universal

PC = "C RTC =

" PC = 2.82 P0

100 # 10 3

(64) (65)

25

!

The dashed solution rectangle was positioned in Figure 20 with its upper most side between K1 and K2 with a vertical displacement of

PC = 2.82 . As such, its vertex in P0

the fourth quadrant suggests the actual value of K4 is approximately 0.0143. The following values were obtained from the graph, ! TT " 1.95 TC

PT " 4.29 P0 ! !

(66) (67)

The effective turbine aspect area from the obtained value for K4 is calculated below,

#A K & T #174.26 ) 0.0143 & 320 AT = % P 4 ( C = % = 2.58226 cm2 ( $ " ' T0 $ ' 298 1

(68)

Figure 20: Winklers graphical solution based on three fixed positions for K1, K2, and K3. K4 is required to pass through the solutions vertex in the fourth quadrant, and is hence determined.

26

function result = winkler_1 % Engine characteristics and operating parameters B = 81; S = 94.6; T_0 = 298; P_0 = 1; C_0 = 340; alpha = 1; f = 1.048; gamma_t = 1.35; % Engine Bore [mm] % Engine stroke [mm] % Compressor inlet temperature [K] % Compressor inlet pressure [Bar] % velocity of sound [m/s] % Flow pulse factor % Mass ration of exhaust gas to air % Gas isentropic exponent

% Specifications for Task 1: n = 2000; lambda = 1.8478; P_i = 18.8182; eta_i = 0.3821; eta_1 = 0.2132; T_c = 425; eta_tc = 0.4527; A_t = 3.7; % Engine speed [rev/min] % Volumetric efficiency % Mean indicated pressure % Indicated efficiency % Energy loss to coolant relative to fuel energy % Compressor temperature [K] % Turbo charger efficiency % Effective turbine flow area [cm2]

% Assumption and data collected by author gamma_c = 1.4; P_t_P_0 = 3; P_c_on_P_0 = 3; C_pt = 1107; C_pc = 1004.5; % Solution K_0 = f * eta_tc * (T_c / T_0); K_1 = ((1 eta_i eta_1)/(f * lambda*eta_i)) * ( (gamma_t 1)/gamma_t ) * (P_i/P_0); C_m = 2 * (n * (S/1000))/60; K_2 = f * lambda * (T_0/T_c) * (C_m / (4 * C_0)); K_3 = K_1 * K_2; A_p = 3*((pi * (B/10)^2)/4); pistons per stroke K_4 = (alpha * (A_t/A_p)) * sqrt(T_0/T_c); % The error variable as an indication of convergence error = 1; % The multiplication by 3 is for 3 % In the compressor the gas is air % Turbine pressure ratio % compressor pressure ratio

27

% Calculation of Pc over P0 term_1 = 1; term_2 = K_0*(C_pt/C_pc); term_3 = 1 + K_1 * (1/P_c_on_P_0); term_4 = 1 - (1/P_t_P_0)^( (gamma_t-1)/gamma_t); P_c_on_P_0 = ( term_1 + term_2 * term_2 * term_3 * term_4) ^ ( gamma_c / (gamma_c - 1)); while (error > 0.1) % Calculation of Tt/Tc T_t_on_T_c = 1+ (K_1 * ( 1 / P_c_on_P_0)); % Calculation of non-dimensionalised mass flow rate nd_mass = K_2 * P_c_on_P_0; % Calculation of 3rd quadrant vertical axes relative_mass_flow = nd_mass * sqrt( 1 + K_3/( nd_mass)); % Calculation for the 4th quadrant zai = sqrt( ( gamma_t / (gamma_t +1) ) * ( (1/P_t_P_0)^(2/gamma_t) (1/P_t_P_0)^((gamma_t + 1)/gamma_t) )); denominator = K_4* zai * sqrt(2/gamma_t); P_t_P_0 = relative_mass_flow/denominator; % All the values at that stage are recorded answer = [P_c_on_P_0 , P_t_P_0 , nd_mass , relative_mass_flow]; % Calculation of new Pc over P0 term_1 = 1; term_2 = K_0*(C_pt/C_pc); term_3 = 1 + K_1 * (1/P_c_on_P_0); term_4 = 1 - (1/P_t_P_0)^( (gamma_t-1)/gamma_t); P_c_on_P_0 = ( term_1 + term_2 * term_2 * term_3 * term_4) ^ ( gamma_c / (gamma_c - 1)); error = abs(answer(1) - P_c_on_P_0); end result = answer;

28

REFERENCES

i

Allard, A. (1986) Turbocharging and Supercharging, 2nd edition, Yeovil, Somerset: Patrick Stephens Ltd. Amann, C.A. (1992) Air-Injection SuperchargingA Page from History, SAE Paper No. 920843. BorgWarner Turbo Systems (2009) Design and Function of a Turbocharger, http://www.turbodriven.com/en/turbofacts/designTurbine.aspx, Date accessed 8 December 2009. Curless, T. (1985) Turbochargers: Theory, Installation, Maintenance, and Repair, Osceola: Motorbooks International. Garrett, T.K., Newton, K. and Steeds, W. (2000) The Motor Vehicle, 13th edition, Milton Road, Cambridge: Elsevier Science & Technology Books (ButterworthHeinemann). Hishikawa, A. Okazaki, Y. and Busch, P. (1988) Developments of Variable Turbine for Small Turbochargers, SAE Paper No. 880120. Humphries, D. (1992) Automotive Supercharging and Turbocharging, Osceola: Motorbooks International. Logan, E. and Roy, R. (2003) Handbook of Turbomachinery, 2nd edition, Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press. Lundstrom, R.R. and Gall, J.M. (1986) A Comparison of Transient Vehicle Performance Using a Fixed Geometry, Wastegate Turbocharger and a Variable Geometry Turbocharger, SAE Paper No. 860104. MacInnes, H. (1984) Turbochargers, Tucson, AZ: HP Books. Mezger, H. (1978) Turbocharging Engines for Racing and Passenger Cars, SAE Paper No. 780718. Okazaki, Y., Matsuo, E., Matsudaira, N. and Busch, P. (1988) Development of a Variable Area Radial Turbine for Small Turbocharger, ASME Paper No. 88-GT102. Paultan.org (2009) How does Variable Turbine Geometry work?, http://paultan.org/2006/08/16/how-does-variable-turbine-geometry-work/, Date accessed 8 December 2009. Schorr, M.L. (1979) Turbocharging: The Complete Guide, Osceola: Motorbooks International.

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Schruf, G. and Mayer, A. (1981) Fuel Economy for Diesel Cars by Supercharging, SAE Paper No. 810343. Stone, R. (1999) Introduction to Internal Combustion Engines, 3rd edition, Basingstoke, Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan. Weaving, J.H. (1990) Internal Combustion Engineering: Science & Technology, Milton Road, Cambridge: Elsevier (Butterworth-Heinemann). Winkler, G. (1982) Matching turbocharger and engine graphically, Institution of Mechanical Engineers (IMechE) Conference Publications, pp. 165-174. Zinner, K. (1978) Supercharging of Internal Combustion Engines Fundamentals, Calculations, Examples, Springer-Verlag.

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