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Appendix I Alternative models for creep and shrinkage


A.1 Introduction
In Sections 2.5.2 and 2.5.3, two relatively simple procedures for determining the magnitude and rate of development of the creep coefficient and shrinkage strain were presented. Many more complex procedures have been developed and are recommended by the various concrete authorities. A description and comparison of some of the better known techniques has been presented by Gilbert (1986,1988). In this Appendix, two well known and widely used procedures are outlined.

A.2 The ACI Committee 209 method (1978)


Creep The ACI Committee 209 (1978) adopts a hyperbolic function to represent the relationship between creep and age at first loading: (A.1) where is the age of the concrete at first loading (in days), is the duration of loading (in days), and is the final creep coefficient for concrete first loaded at age and is expressed as (A.2) where 1 to 6 are correction factors which account for many of the parameters that affect the magnitude of creep. 1 depends on the age of concrete at the time of first loading, , and is

Page 491 given by (A.3)

(in percent): 2 is a function of the relative humidity, (A.4) 3 accounts for the size and shape of the member and depends on the dimension ho given by 4V /S, where V/ S is the volume to surface ratio. When , 3 is obtained from
h o (mm) 3 50 1.30 75 1.17 100 1.11 125 1.04 150 1.00

When 150 mm<ho<380 mm: (A.5)

and when (A.6) 4 to 6 account for parameters associated with the composition of the concrete; specifically, 4 depends on the slump of the fresh concrete, s (in mm); is a function of the ratio of the fine 5 aggregate to total aggregate by weight, (in percent); and 6 accounts for the air content, a (in percent): (A.7)

(A.8) and (A.9) Under a constant stress o first applied at age , the load-dependent strain

Page 492 at time t is (A.10)

where is obtained from Equation 2.6. The concrete strength at age may be obtained from the 28 day strength using Equation 2.2. Shrinkage The shrinkage strain at time t, measured from the start of drying, is given by (A.11)

where

is the final shrinkage and may be calculated from (A.12)

The factors to in Equation A.12 depend on the same parameters as the corresponding factors for creep ( 2 to 6), and are given by (A.13)

When

is given by (A.14)

When (A.15)

Page 493 and when ho>380 mm: (A.16)

(A.17)

(A.18)

(A.19)
3 The term 7 depends on the cement content, c (in kg/m ) and is determined from

(A.20) Finally, 8 is a function of the period of initial moist curing T c (in days) and is given by (A.21)

For concrete which is steam cured for a period of between one and three days, 8=1.0.

A.3 The CEBFIP method (1978)


The method for predicting creep and shrinkage contained in the CEB-FIP Model Code (1978) is based on the method proposed by Rsch and Jungwirth (1976). Creep The creep strain at time t caused by a constant sustained stress o applied at time is assumed to be (A.22)

Page 494 where E c28 is the longitudinal modulus of deformation at 28 days and may be taken as (A.23)

The creep coefficient is therefore defined as the ratio of creep strain at time t to the instantaneous elastic strain at age 28 days. The total stress produced strain (instantaneous plus creep) at time t is given by (A.24) The creep coefficient is assumed to consist of a reversible delayed elastic component and an irreversible flow component, and is given in Equation A.25. The flow component is further sub-divided into an initial flow component (which occurs within the first 24 hours under load) and a subsequent flow component: (A.25) where is the final delayed elastic creep coefficient (i.e. the ratio of the final delayed elastic strain and the instantaneous strain at 28 days) and is taken to be 0.4. The delayed elastic creep coefficient is associated with the recoverable part of creep. The term is a function describing the development of the delayed elastic strain with time and may be calculated from (A.26) is the rapid initial flow and is given by (A.27)

The strength ratio

is obtained from (A.28)

Page 495 The flow coefficient in Equation A.25 is the sum of two components: (A.29) where depends on the relative humidity (in percent) and is given by (A.30) depends on the size of the member and may be obtained from Equation A.31 using the notional thickness ho (mm): (A.31) where (A.32) A c is the cross-sectional area of the member (in mm 2), u is the perimeter exposed to drying (in mm), and is a humidity coefficient obtained from (A.33)

The development of the subsequent (or delayed) flow component with time depends on the notional thickness ho and is described by the function the f (t). When function f (t) may be calculated from the following expression: (A.34) where =0.8+0.55 exp( 0.003ho) and =770+210 exp( 0.0043ho). The elastic modulus at the age of first loading to be used in Equation A.24 is (A.35)

and

is obtained from Equation A.28.

Shrinkage

The mean shrinkage strain which occurs within the time interval t o to t is

Page 496 given by (A.36) where sho is a basic shrinkage coefficient obtained from the product of two functions and is given by (A.37) The function and is obtained from sh1 depends on the relative humidity (A38) The term sh2 depends on the notional thickness ho and may be expressed as (A.39) The development of shrinkage with time is described by sh(t) and this also depends on the notional thickness: (A.40)

Temperature effects When the ambient temperature during curing is significantly different from 20 C, the age of the concrete should be adjusted according to the following: (A.41) where T is the mean daily temperature of the concrete occuring during the period tm days. depends on the cement type and equals 1 for normal and slow-hardening cements, 2 for rapidhardening cements and 3 for rapid-hardening, high-strength cements. The adjusted effective age te is used for t in Equations A.25 and A.34.

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A.4 References
ACI Committee 209, Subcommittee II 1978. Prediction of creep, shrinkage and temperature effects 2. Draft Report. Detroit: American Concrete Institute. CEBFIP 1978. Model code for concrete structures. Paris: Comit Euro-International du Bton Fdration Internationale de la Precontrainte. Gilbert, R.I. 1986. Prediction of creep and shrinkage in concretethe sorry state of the art. Uniciv Report No. R-234. Kensington: School of Civil Engineering, University of New South Wales. Gilbert, R.I. 1988. Time effects in concrete structures. Amsterdam: Elsevier. Neville, A.M., W.Dilger & J.J.Brooks 1984. Creep of concrete and its effect on structural behavior. Amsterdam: North-Holland. Rsch, H. & D.Jungwirth 1976. Stahlbeton-Spannbeton, Band 2, Dsseldorf: Werner-Verlag.

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Index
ACI, American Concrete Institute ACI 209 (Committee) 32, 41, 43, 4903 ACI 31883: bearing stress 225 bonded tendons, ultimate stress 140 crack control 69 column rigidity 477 deflection multiplication factor 115 design interaction curve 46970, 481 design strength 23, 147 direct design method 4012 drop panels 415 ductility 127 effective flange width 154, 243 effective length of a column 4734 effective moment of inertia 111 elastic modulus of concrete 37 equivalent frame method 398 extreme fibre strain 125, 459 friction losses 104 horizontal shear strength 26970, 2734 load combinations 19, 21 moment magnifier method 4748 maximum tendon spacing in slabs 421 minimum level of prestress in slabs 420 moment redistribution at ultimate 361 permissible concrete stresses 612 permissible steel stresses 64 punching shear 1967 rectangular stress block 1256, 459 secondary effects at ultimate 361 serviceability 27 shear strength of beams 166 strength reduction factor 234 tension member, design of 485 transfer length 21213 transverse reinforcement in columns 482 unbonded tendons 145 ACI 435 (Committee) 430 Age-adjusted effective modulus 41, 91, 92, 252, 257 Age-adjusted effective modulus method 401, 89 Age-adjusted transformed section 92, 94 Ageing coefficient 41 Aggregate interlock 1645 Allowable stresses, see Stress limits Alloy bar 512 Analogous gridwork method 4312 Analogous truss 1634, 1845 Anchorage length 209 Anchorage set (slip) 1056 Anchorage zone:

anchorage plates 218 bearing 214, 225 bursting 215, 217 bursting moment 220 cracking (splitting) 215, 220, 221 methods of analysis 21825 post-tensioned members 21438 pretensioned members 21014 reinforcement requirements 213, 218, 2245, 228, 2334, 2357 single anchorage 2201, 2258 spalling 217, 2212 spalling moment 221 stress isobars and trajectories 21418, 223 symmetric prism 222, 230 transfer length 20910, 212 transverse forces 209, 215, 220 truss analogy 219, 2378 twin anchorages 2214, 22934 Angle of dispersion 380 AS, Australian Standard AS 13021304 57 AS 13101313 4951 AS 14801982 387 AS 14811978 120 AS 36001988: anchorage zones 2234 biaxial bending and compression 4701 bonded tendons, ultimate stress 140 crack control 26, 63, 4402 column rigidity 4778 creep coefficient 467 deflection calculations (slabs) 431 design for serviceability 267 design interaction curve 469 design requirements for shear 1702 design strength 23, 126, 147 direct design method 4013 edge-supported two-way slabs 3856 effective flange width 1534, 243 effective length of columns 4724 effective span 425

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elastic modulus of concrete 37 extreme fibre strain 125, 459 fire resistance of slabs 4223 frame method for flat slabs 399400 friction losses 104 horizontal shear strength 2679, 2723 load factors and combinations 203 minimum ultimate curvature 127 moment coefficients 386 moment redistribution at ultimate 360 permissible stresses 62 prestressing steels 49 punching shear 197, 198204 rectangular stress block 1256, 459 relaxation of steel 53 secondary effects at ultimate 361 shear strength of beams 16773 span-to-depth ratios 4238 shrinkage 47 strength reduction factors 234 tension members 485 thermal expansion 48 transfer length 212 unbonded tendons 145 ASTM A416 50 ASTM A421 48 ASTM A722 51 Balanced load 9, 420 Band-beam and slab systems, see Slabs (post-tensioned) Bazant, Z.P. 41 Beam-type shear 195 see Shear strength of beams Bearing failure 214, 225 Bond stress, factors affecting 21012 Bonded tendons 4, 140 Branson, D.E. 111, 438 Bresler, B. 90, 470 BS, British Standard BS 8110, Parts 1 and 2, 1985: bonded tendons 1412 creep coefficient 445 design for serviceability 27 design strength 25 effective flange width 1534, 243 elastic modulus of concrete 44 extreme fibre strain 125 friction losses 104 horizontal shear strength 271, 2745 load factors and combinations 20, 22 moment redistribution at ultimate 360 rectangular stress block 125, 127 shear strength of beams 1667 shrinkage 456 transfer length 212 unbonded tendons 1456 Bursting forces 215 Bursting moment 220

CAN 3, 1984: bearing stress 225 crack control in slabs 43940 design for serviceability 27 design strength 25 load factors and combinations 20, 22 Shear strength, General Method 167 Shear strength, Simplified Method 168 Cable profile and location 7, 757, 3213, 3424 Canadian Prestressed Concrete Institute 156 Cantilever construction 323 Capacity reduction factor 234, 126, 168 Carry-over factor 3356 Carry-over moment 334 CEB (1983) 11112, 114, 120 CEB-FIP 1970 44 CEB-FIP Model Code, 1978: creep predictive model 41, 43, 4935 design strength 25 load factors 20, 23 relaxation of steel 534 shear strength 167 shrinkage predictive model 4956 Cement types 30 Chakrabarti, P. 433 Coefficient of thermal expansion 478 Collins, M.P. 167 Column line tendons 394 Column strip 3968, 4335 Column strip moment factor 400 Combined load approach 1011 Compatibility torsion 182, 1856 Composite members: advantages 2402 bond between mating surfaces 242 code provisions 26771 determination of prestress 2468 effective flange width 243 flexure-shear cracking 2767 horizontal shear 242, 2657 loading stages 2436 short-term service load analysis 24951 time analysis 2523 types 2402 ultimate flexural strength 265 ultimate shear strength 2757 web-shear cracking 276 Compression field theory 167 8 Compression members: biaxial bending and compression 4701 braced and unbraced structures 473 critical buckling load 472 design interaction curve 46870 effective length 473 geometric non-linearity 455

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moment magnifier method 47481 primary and secondary moments 455, 475 primary compressive failure 458 primary tensile failure 458 reinforcement requirements 4813 slender columns 4556, 47181 slenderness effects 47181 slenderness ratio 496 stocky columns 456 strength interaction curve 45768, 475 strength interaction surface 470 types 4545 ultimate strength analysis 45962 Concordant tendons 324, 330 Concrete: admixtures 30 aggregates 30 coefficient of thermal expansion 478 composition 30 compressive strength (characteristic) 301 confinement effects 34 creep 3841, 445, 467 creep coefficient 3940, 427 deformation of 3442 density 37 elastic modulus 367, 44 high strength 31 hydration 30 instantaneous strain 368 Poissons ratio 38 shrinkage 412, 456, 47 strain components 35 strength versus time 323 stress limits 614 stress-strain curves 312, 36 tensile strength 33 water-cement ratio 30 Continuous members, see Statically indeterminate members Control joints 440 Crack control 26, 63, 358, 439 42 Crack types: direct tension 4402 flexural 81, 161 flexure-shear 161, 16970, 276 7 web-shear 161, 170, 276 Cracked section analysis 818 Cracking moment 81 Creep: coefficient 3940, 427 delayed elastic component 39 factors affecting 389 flow component 39 losses 1078 prediction of 40, 427, 4905 recoverable and irrecoverable 39 strain 345, 3841 tensile 41 variation with time 356, 39, 43

Critical buckling load 472 Critical shear perimeter 1989 Cross, H. 334 Cross-sectional analysis: short-term, uncracked 7781 short-term, cracked 818 time-dependent, uncracked 8998 time-dependent, cracked 98102 Cross-sections (sizing): initial trial dimensions 2836 minimum dimensions based on flexural strength 2845 minimum moment of inertia 284 minimum section modulus 689, 283 types 2813 Crossing beam analogy 431 Darwin, D. 33 Decompression moment 169 Deflection: allowable 27 approximate calculation of 10820 coefficients for slabs 4301 composite beams 24953 creep 116 instantaneous 11015 limitations 267 long-term 11520 models for two-way slabs 42938 multiplication factor 115, 284, 425 problems 26 shrinkage 11617 Deformation of concrete 3442 Design action 23, 147 Design strength 23, 126, 147 Design procedures: continuous beams 35475 fully-prestressed beams (constant eccentricity) 30311 fully-prestressed beams (draped tendons) 286 303 general requirements 1728 partially-prestressed beams 31218 slabs 3812 Diagonal compression struts 1634 Diagonal tension failure 160 Direct design method 4013 Direct tension cracking in slabs 4402 Distribution factor 336 Disturbed region 214 Doubly reinforced section 1334 Dowel action 164 5, 266 Drop panels 41516 Ductility 1214, 127, 148, 398, 400, 482

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Edge-supported two-way slabs, see Slabs (post-tensioned) Effective area of a support 1989 Effective depth 124 Effective length of columns 4736 Effective modulus of concrete 40 Effective span 425 Effective width of flange 1534, 243 Elastic modulus of concrete 367, 44 Elastic modulus of steel 49, 51, 57 Elastic stresses, calculation of 915 Equilibrium torsion 183, 1867 Equivalent column 398 Equivalent frame method 398 9 Equivalent load method 3334, 337, 3445 Equivalent loads 3334, 3378 Ewell, W.W. 431 Faulkes, K.A. 64, 220, 361 Favre, R. 54, 89 Finite element methods 4234, 4367 FIP 219, 4212 Fire resistance period 4223 Flat-ducted tendons 3778, 3889 Flat plates, see Slabs (post-tensioned) Flat slabs, see Slabs (post-tensioned) Flexibility coefficient 329 Fixed-end moment 334 Flexural behaviour: at overloads 1224 general 1517 Flexural cracks 81, 161 Flexural strength theory: 12440 bonded tendons 1279, 1405 design calculations 14753 flanged sections 1539 idealized rectangular stress blocks 1247 trial and error procedure 12933 ultimate moment 1267, 129, 1335, 137, 1402 unbonded tendons 1457 Flexure-shear cracking 161, 16970, 2767 Force method, (flexibility method) 325 Friction losses 1045 Fully-prestressed concrete 16, 61, 6470 Fully-prestressed concrete, design procedures 2867, 3036 Furr, W.L. 432 Gergely, P. 220 Ghali, A. 54, 89, 326, 336 Gilbert, R.I. 28, 33, 35, 37, 40, 43, 77, 89, 116, 249, 400, 4235, 427, 4367, 476, 490 Guyon, Y. 21518, 222 Hall, A.S. 197, 326, 336 Hanson, N.W. 213, 245 Hawkins, N.M. 197 Hognestad, E. 164 Hoyer, E. 211

Hoyer effect 211 Hsu, T.T.C. 190 Hydration 30 Illinois method for slab deflection 4323 Inclined cracking 161 Internal couple concept 1112 Irwin, A.W. 28 ISO-3898 18 Iyengar, K.T.S.R. 215 Johansen, K.W. 410 Jungwirth, D. 493 Kaar, P.H. 213 Kabaila, A.P. 326, 336 Kupfer, H. 33 Leonhardt, F. 239 Limit state 15, 17 Limit state design 1728 Lin, T.Y. 64, 361 Linear transformation 3302 Live load factors for serviceability 223 Live load patterns 399 Load balancing approach 9, 12, 60, 64, 74, 3825, 3946 Load factors and combinations: for serviceability 213 for stability 21 for strength 1921 Loads: balanced 9 characteristic (or specified) 1819, 212 dead 18 factored 1923 live 1819 service 213 snow 1819 wind 1819 Long-line pretensioning 241 Loov, R.E. 141 Losses of prestress: 29, 1028 anchorage slip 1056 creep 1078 elastic deformation 1034 friction 1045 immediate 102 relaxation 108 shrinkage 107 time-dependent 1023, 1068 Magnel design diagram 678, 72, 2468 Magnel, G. 64, 67, 220 Marsh, C.F. 431

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Marshall, W.T. 213 Mattock, A.H. 213, 361 Membrane action 414 Mickleborough, N.C. 28, 425 Middle strip 3968, 4335 Mitchell, D. 167 Modular ratio 78 Moment-area methods 326, 340, 345 Moment distribution 333, 3346, 338 Moment-curvature relationship 845, 3589 Moment magnifier method 47481 Mohrs circle 162, 170 Murray, D.W. 436 Naaman, A.E. 482 Nawy, E.G. 433 Neville, A.M. 29, 31, 35, 38, 41, 43, 48, 326, 336 Nilson, A.H. 361, 4335 One-way slabs, see Slabs (post-tensioned) Over-reinforced beams 123 Pannell, F.N. 470 Parrott, L.J. 45 Partially-prestressed concrete 16, 61, 69, 248, 31218 Partial safety factors 19, 23 Pauw, A. 37 Pecknoid, D.A. 33 Permissible stresses, see Stress limits Plastic analysis 17, 359, 410 Plastic hinge, (constant moment hinge) 3589 Plate theory 430 Poissons ratio for concrete 38, 430 Portland Cement Association 431 Post-tensioning: anchorage zones 21438 friction 1045 methods 34 profiles 7, 757, 3213, 3424 Post-Tensioning Institute 421 Precast elements 2402 Precast pretensioned trough girder 253 Pressure line 330 Prestressed concrete: basic concepts 1 benefits 12 introductory example 46 methods 24 Prestressing force, transverse component 69 Prestressing steel: relaxation 524 strain components 1279 types 4852 Pretensioning: anchorage zones 21014 method 23 losses, 3103

Principal tensile stress 162 Principle of virtual work 32432, 411, 413 Profile of tendons 7, 757, 3213, 3424 Punching shear strength: ACI 31883 approach 1967 AS 3600 approach 198204 critical shear perimeter 1989 edge column 2068 general 195 interior column 2045 minimum moment transferred to column 403 torsion strips 2001 with moment transfer 2004 with NO moment transfer 199200 Rangan, B.V. 190, 194, 1978, 2013 Reinforced concrete 1, 2 Reinforcemem, non-prestressed 547 Relaxation of steel 524, 108 Ritter, W. 163 Ritz, P. 414 Rusch, H. 493 Saemann, J.C. 245 Sargious, M. 215 Scanlon, A, 436 Secondary moments and shears 321, 32432, 337, 339, 3612, 398 Section modulus, minimum required 68, 283 Selna, L. 90 Serviceability: design for 258, 60120 load combinations 213 Sign convention, see Notation Shear-compression failure 161 Shear-friction 26970 Shear strength of beams: ACI 31883 approach 17980 anchorage of longitudinal reinforcement 168 anchorage of stirrups 165, 172 AS 3600 approach 16773 BS 8110 approach 1802 concrete contribution 165, 16970 critical section 171 design equation 172 design requirements 170 3 maximum and minimum strength 168 maximum spacing of stirrups 171 minimum transverse steel 167, 171, 182 steel contribution 166, 171 ultimate strength 165

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web steel requirements 1723 Shrinkage: factors affecting 412 loss due to 107 prediction of 423, 457, 4923, 4956 strain 35, 412 Simpsons rule 327 Singly-reinforced section 12933 Skew bending 184 Slabs (post-tensioned): balanced load stage 41921 band-beam and slab systems 377, 41617 bonded versus unbonded tendons 3778 calculation of slab thickness 4239 cracking in slabs 43842 deflection coefficients 4301 deflection models 42938 edge-supported two-way slabs 3767, 38294, 427, 431, 4436 effects of prestress 37881 finite element models 4367 fire resistance 4223 flat plate slabs 3767, 394414, 4267 flat slabs with drop panels 3767, 41516, 4267, 44652 frame analysis 398400 live load patterns 399 long-term deflections 4423 non-prestressed reinforcement requirements 380, 43940 one-way slabs 3767, 382, 426 shear strength, see Punching shear strength 4023 span-to-depth ratios 4212, 4238 yield line analysis of flat slabs 41014 Slab system factor 423, 4267 Slater, W.A. 386 Slender columns 455, 47181 Slenderness ratio 476 Slope 1089 Sozen, M.A. 220 Spalling moment 221 Span-to-depth ratio: edge-supported slabs 421, 425, 427 flat slabs 4212, 4257 one-way slabs 421, 4256 Spandrel beam 2001 Spandrel strip 198, 200, 398 Spiral reinforcement in columns 482 Stage stressing 242, 372, 420, 485 Static moment 397, 401 Statically indeterminate members: advantages and disadvantages 31921 concordant tendons 324, 330 design of continuous beams 35475 design steps 3624 effects of creep 34750 equivalent load method 3334, 337, 344 frames 3503 hyperstatic reactions 323, 3301 linear transformation 3302 moment distribution 3336, 338

moment redistribution at ultimate 3601 non-prismatic members 3467 pressure line 330, 332 primary moments and shears 3245, 3301 secondary effects at ultimate 3612 secondary moments and shears 321, 32432, 3612, 398 tendon profiles 3213, 3426 tertiary effects 351 virtual work 32432 Statics ratio method 432 Steel: alloy bar 512 low relaxation 50, 524 reinforcing bar 547 relaxation 524 strand 501 welded wire fabric 567 wire 4850 Stiffness coefficient 3356 Stirrups 1637, 1712 Strand 501 Strength of concrete: biaxial 334 characteristic compressive 301 cylinder versus cube 31 gain with age 323 uniaxial 312 tensile 33 Strength, see Flexural strength, Shear strength, Torsional strength Strength reduction factor, see Capacity reduction factor Stress block, rectangular 1246 Stress limits: concrete 614 steel 64 satisfaction of 6474 Stress-strain relationships: concrete 312, 367 prestressing steel 4952 reinforcing bars 567 Stress isobars 21518, 223 Stress trajectories 21415, 217 St. Venants principle 215 Superposition principle 16, 74, 98, 325, 354 Symmetric prism 222, 2301 Tasuji, M.E. 33 Tendon profile, see Cable profile and location Temperature effects on creep and shrinkage 496

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Tension members: advantages and applications 483 axial deformation 485 behaviour 4836 design example 4869 Tension stiffening effect 82, 11012 Tesar, M. 215 Theorem of complementary shear stress 266 Thornton, K. 361 Time-dependent behaviour 89102 Timoshenko, S. 430 Torsional cracking 184, 1889 Torsional strength: additional longitudinal steel 185, 187 AS 3600 provisions 18594 beam with transverse reinforcement 1867 beam without transverse reinforcement 186 combined torsion, bending and shear 1879 design equation 187, 189 detailing of stirrups 188 effect of prestress 184 maximum strength 187 minimum closed hoops 185 truss analogy (3-D) 184 5 Transfer length 20914 Transfer of prestress 60 Transformed sections 778, 92, 94 Transmission length, ( see transfer length) Transverse reinforcement in columns 4813 Transverse tendon forces 69 Trost, H. 41 Trough girder 253 Ultimate curvature 1267 Ultimate load stage 17, 1224 Ultimate strength design 121, 124 Ultimate flexural strength: code-oriented procedures 1407 general 23, 12147 Under-reinforced beams 123 Upper bound approach 414 Vanderbili, M.D. 432 Variable angle truss model 167 Vibration in buildings 278 Virtual force 326 Virtual work, see Principle of virtual work VSL 380 Volume integration 3278 Walters, D.B. 4335 Warner, R.F. 64, 220, 361 Washa, G.W. 245 Web-crushing 164, 168 Web-shear cracking 161, 170, 276 Westergaard, H.M. 386 Wide beam method for slab deflection 4335

Wire mesh, welded 567 Wires 4850 Woinowsky-Krieger, S. 430 Work products, external and internal 326, 41113 Yield line theory, 385, 41014 Yield lines 41011 Yield stress 49, 51, 557 Yogananda, C.V. 215 Zia, P. 190