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This first section introduces some general background information and terminology. This document is not intended as an exhaustive study of this subject, but as an introduction to some of the essential concepts on which subsequent topics are based.
Contents: Lighting Basics Lighting Quantities Visual Functions Colour in Radiance Materials in Radiance Daylight Factor Sky Component/Vertical Sky Component Glare
Page 1 of 14
It is important that these criteria are not seen in isolation to one another. hence the term photo-realistic images. The lighting quality of a space may be judged on a number of quantitative and qualitative criteria. In lighting simulation we are not trying to model the way the eye and brain work but rather the way a more simple device operates – the camera. Lighting is an art and a science. colour appearance and colour rendering 7.the freedom from disturbing glare The principal qualitative criteria are: 6. for each is dependent on and influenced by each of the others.Lighting Basics When considering light – which is “visible” electromagnetic radiation – we are concerned on the one hand with energy and on the other with a sensation obtained through the eye – two principally dissimilar things. The human eye is an extremely sensitive and complex sense organ.light directionality and shadows Page 2 of 14 . The principal quantitative criteria are: the lighting level luminance (or brightness) distribution in the field of view 5.the light colour. A large proportion of the brains function is concerned with vision and perception.
which varies greatly with wavelength. A more familiar term would be “lighting level”. Illuminance is expressed in lux (lx). Luminous intensity is expressed in candelas (cd). although this term must. A more familiar word is “brightness”. This is in contrast with measuring practice in other wavelength regions of the electromagnetic spectrum which is generally based on the familiar concepts of energy and power. [other units are – metrecandle. phot. nox] In Imperial units the unit is the foot-candle which equals lumen per square foot (lm/ft²). The principal reason for this is that a lighting unit must not only take into account the energy content of the radiation but also the spectral distribution of the sensitivity of the human eye. one lux equals one lumen per square metre (lm/m²). Luminous flux – is the total amount of light radiated by a light source per second.Lighting Quantities For the quantitative measurement of light. strictly speaking. a special set of concepts and units has been adopted that bear no direct relationship to those used in other domains of physical science. Luminance – is the quantitative expression for the amount of light reflected by a surface in a specific direction. Illuminance – is the quantitative expression for the luminous flux incident on unit area of a surface. and therefore use the SI units of joules and watts. be reserved to Page 3 of 14 . Luminous intensity – is the luminous flux radiated by a light source in a specific direction. A more familiar term would be “light output". It is expressed in lumens (lm).
and is expressed in lumens per watt (lm/W). The luminance of a surface is determined by the illuminance on the surface in question and its reflective properties. In Imperial units the unit is the foot-lambert. referred to as the nit. Luminance is expressed in candelas per square metre (cd/m²). which is candelas per square foot (cd/ft²) Luminous efficacy – is the ratio between luminous flux and power dissipation.describe the subjective impression of luminance on the eye. stilb. Page 4 of 14 . blondel. apostilb. Each lamp type has a different luminous efficacy. [other units are – lambert. skot].
1000 Lux very difficult visual tasks. under a tree In the open.25 Lux The target illuminance for an interior space depends on the specific visual tasks carried out in the space and can be anything from hundreds to thousands of Lux.000 Lux 10. under a heavily overcast sky Indoors by the window. Code for Interior Lighting” for more details] Page 5 of 14 .Examples of Illuminance Summer. on a clear night 100. in the open Summer. 200 Luxinteriors occupied for long periods. in the open. 100 Luxinteriors used occasionally with visual tasks confined to movement and for only limited perception of detail. perhaps involving colour judgement. 2000 Lux exceptionally difficult visual tasks [see “CIBSE.000 Lux 2.000 Lux 5. or for visual tasks requiring some perception of detail. under a cloudless sky.000 Lux 300 Lux 0. shaded. 500 Luxmoderately difficult visual tasks. under a cloudless sky. clear day Indoors away from the window Full moon.
In the retina there are two types of receptor. adaptation from dark to light is more rapid. Adaptation from normal lighting levels to dark conditions can take up to 10 minutes. Focussing is not achieved by altering the distance between lens and retina (as with a camera) but by changing the shape of the lens. rods. without attempting to provide too much detail. This is achieved by changing the focal length of the lens of the eye using the ciliary muscles. Superficially the eye resembles a camera in so far that it has a lens. Page 6 of 14 . and cones. which are highly lightsensitive and are principally responsible for detection of shape and movement. Accommodation Accommodation is the ability of the eye to focus on objects at varying distances from the eye. Adaptation This is the mechanism by which the eye changes its sensitivity to lighting levels. This ability varies with age of the individual and state of tiredness and also with the luminance of the visual scene.Visual Functions This section contains definitions of some of the functions the eye can perform. which are less sensitive to light. which throws an image onto the light sensitive back surface. which is called the retina. but can distinguish colours.
Radiance uses the RGB colour model. beams of electrons are fired at a screen composed of 3 different phosphors. We call this contrast. there are two sub-categories of disability glare. However when we look at a nearby object our lines of sight intersect at the target. This can vary from person to person and also is strongly linked with the background luminance and observation time. Green and Blue. Red. Glare There are two forms of glare.Convergence Almost invariably. “veiling glare” and “adaptive glare”. Disability glare is the result of interference in the visual process. Visual Acuity The ability to differentiate between closely spaced visual stimuli. This subject is in more detail in subsequent chapters. probably as the result of frequent changes in pupil size caused by excessive brightness contrasts. Colour in Radiance In common with most computer based interfaces which use images as a method of displaying information. we focus both our eyes on the same target. Contrast can take two forms. which mostly occur together. discomfort glare and disability glare. [known as the additive primary Page 7 of 14 . Convergence allows the eyes to rotate inward so that both eyes focus on this object. contrast in colour and contrast in luminance. When that target is distant the lines of sight are in parallel. This is the technology of the TV screen and computer monitor. Discomfort glare is a sensation of annoyance or pain. Contrast Detection Most of the visual information we receive is the result of luminous variations in the field of view.
1.0. The volume bounded by the minimum and maximum values of each colour forms a cube.0 Yellow = 1.0 White = 1.e. Y and Z axes in conventional 3D space. 0.0.0. Magenta and Cyan.0 to 1.0.0 Red = 1. 0.0 Cyan = 0. 1. as against the subtractive primary colours.0 Magenta = 1. Yellow. 1. 1. 0.0. 0. The origin (0. the amount of each primary colour.0.0.0. 1.0. 1.0 Page 8 of 14 . 1. 0.0.0) represents Black and the diagonally opposite corner (1. It is possible to visualizing the 3 colours as the X. Black = 0.0. [the scale is sometimes defined as 0.0 Green = 0.0 Blue = 0. 0.1.0 in real numbers and sometimes as 0 to 255 in integer numbers] Thus any colour can be represented by the co-ordinate location within the cube i. 0.0.colours.0.0. 0.1) represents White. 1.0.0. which are used in printing] Varying levels of these three colours are mixed to give the impression of all possible colours from Black to White.0.
0. based on the physics of light. G and B values]. 0.0 to 1.0 (although 0. B reflectance values and the specularity and roughness.0 to 1. Specularity also has the range 0. G. where you are only interested in illuminance this single value can be used for each of the R. In future versions of the <Virtual Environment> additional material types may be made available. We have reflection. [The name “plastic” should not be interpreted as referring to plastic objects]. and/or refraction depending on the type of material. transmission. Define the R. In this version of the <Virtual Environment> we have limited the material types to the most commonly occurring materials found in buildings. most materials fall into this category. Plastic has a colour associated with diffusely reflected light.0 do not occur in nature) [sometimes for a given surface a single reflectance value is given – this probably refers to the average “hemispherical” reflectance.0 and 1.0 for a perfect mirror. These different materials have different ways of manipulating the rays of light that interact with them.0 for a perfectly diffuse surface and 1. In reality plastic materials are generally not very reflective and the specularity value is usually in Page 9 of 14 .Materials in Radiance In Radiance we can define different material properties for the various objects of our models. The reflectance values have the range 0. but the specular component is uncoloured.
0. and for roughness a range of 0. to convert to transmissivity use the following equation - transmissivity = (sqrt(a+4*sq(b*Tn))-c)/(d*Tn) where Tn = transmittance.5 – 1. B transmissivity values. However.042579995.00362611194 We have also found it impossible to get RGB data from glazing Page 10 of 14 .0 – 0.5.0 – 0. Specularity and roughness have the same theoretical limits as given above. Metal is the same as plastic except that the specular component is coloured by the material. with the same limits.the range 0.52 and all that needs to be defined is the transmission at normal incidence ]. G. Plastic materials generally have a roughness in the range 0. The properties of glass are commonly defined in terms of the transmittance (by glazing manufacturers).916653006. 0. refers to how the surface scatters what light is reflected. B reflectance values and the specularity and roughness. d = 0. c = 0.02. Roughness. Define the R. G.0 – 0. [glass is a special case of dielectric with a refractive index fixed at 1. metal materials are reflective and the usual range for specularity is 0.8402528435.0 meaning perfectly smooth. a = 0.07. Define the R. Glass is used to model transparent materials. b = 0.
It takes the same parameters as plastic plus the transmission factor and a transmitted specularity value. G and B values. Page 11 of 14 . Define the R. for a green glass increase the G value and decrease the R and B.manufacturers. G. We suggest for illuminance images this single value is used for each of the R. The following materials have recently been added and will be discussed more fully in a separate document. Trans is used to model a translucent surface. the refraction index and the Hartmann constant.g. B transmissivity values. who will only quote a single transmittance value (even for tinted glass). For luminance images make minor adjustments to the relevant colour e. Dielectric is a transparent material that refracts and reflects light (such as water or crystal).
to that on a horizontal plane due to an unobstructed hemisphere of this sky. E = illuminance on unobstructed plane e = illuminance at point in interior Daylight Factor = e/E (often expressed as a percentage) Illuminance is measured in LUX Page 12 of 14 . CIE Overcast Sky).Daylight Factor The ratio of the illuminance at a point on a given plane within an interior due to the light received directly and indirectly from a sky of assumed or known luminance distribution. Direct sunlight is excluded from both values of illuminance (i.e.
E = illuminance on unobstructed plane e = illuminance at point in interior Sky Component = e/E (often expressed as a percentage) Vertical Sky Component = v/E Page 13 of 14 .e. to that on a horizontal plane due to an unobstructed hemisphere of this sky.Sky Component/Vertical Sky Component The ratio of the illuminance at a point on a given plane within an interior due to the light received directly from a sky of assumed or known luminance distribution. Direct sunlight is excluded from both values of illuminance (i. CIE Overcast Sky). Note: this is the same as the Daylight Factor except the indirect component has been removed.
The strongest luminance source is the Sun. excessive luminance values in the field of view too high luminance contrasts Windows can have a high luminance compared with other luminances in a room. 2. These values are calculated at fixed angles to the left and right of the centre of focus (usually at 10 degree intervals from –60 to +60 degrees). if required the user can specify an alternative value. In Radiance simulations we may offset this by providing some internal background lighting. potentially causing glare. and if this in the field of view then glare is inevitable. This gives a strong contrast from inside to outside. see figure below. Page 14 of 14 . The default glare threshold is calculated by the program to be 7 times the average luminance level. We normally give the CIE Glare Index and the GUTH Visual Comfort Probability (% of people who are satisfied) as measures of glare.Glare Glare is caused by either or both the following : 1.