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NEMA Standards Publication No.

SM 23-1991(R1997,R2002)
Steam Turbines for Mechanical Drive Service

Published by:

National Electrical Manufacturers Association


1300 North 17th Street, Suite 1847
Rosslyn, VA 22209

O Copyright 2002 by the National Electrical Manufacturers Association. All rights including
translation into other languages, reserved under the Universal Copyright Convention, the Berne
Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works, and the international and Pan
American Copyright Conventions.

NOTICE AND DISCLAIMER


The information in this publication was considered technically sound by the consensus of
persons engaged in the development and approval of the document at the time it was
developed, Consensus does not necessarily mean that there is unanimous agreement
among every person participating in the development of this document.
The National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA) standards and guideline
publications, of which the document contained herein is one, are developed through a
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NEMA does not undertake to guarantee the performance of any individual manufacturer or
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NEMA has no power, nor does it undertake to police or enforce compliance with the
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compliance with any health or safety-related information in this document shall not be
attributable to NEMA and is solely the responsibility of the certifier or maker of the
statement.

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STQ-NEMA

SM 23-ENGL 1991

6470247 0524297 714

TABLE OF CONTENTS

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CiassiedbyExhaustcaiditiasis..............................
.
-N
Tiabmc ..................................
CoadensingTUrbinc ...................................
classified by Number of Stages and Coam1Valves ....................
SingleValveSingieSEagC'Iirrbint ............................
Single Vaive MuuistegeMine .............................
Multi*
sil@ stage m
i
n
e ............................
Muitivaive Muitisiage'ixine .............................
C i a s s i d b y ~ N e e d s................................
controlled (Alumtic) Exeraction Turbine .......................
NoncwtrolletiExtractiosi nlrbhw ............................
Noacontrolled Induction 'linbine ............................
CmmUed InQiCtim(Mixdnesslire) M e .....................
InductimExtractionTirrbine ..............................
SteamIIiabinecctUl~ts..................................
Turbinecasmg .......................................
SteamInletEndseCtion .................................
ExhaustEI?dstction ...................................
Irlemedia&sactiw ...................................
Steam Chest (GOV~IIKN
vahe Body) ............................
SteamRing .........................................
Nozzles ...........................................
StatiomyReveEngBladcs ................................
StationaryRevczsingCham~ ..............................
Diciphragm .........................................
sw.nlrbirbe ........................................
ImpuIseStage ......................................
ReactianStage ......................................
shaftseals .........................................
casingshaftseals .....................................
Intemagestlaftseals ..................................
BearingHousing ......................................
Bearings ...........................................
RacaiBcarings .....................................
ThnistBearings .....................................
AntitiCtianBearings ...................................
RotorAssembly .......................................
wheels@iscs) .........................................
Biades(Buckets) ........................................
Shroud .............................................
Handvalve@) .........................................
RotectiveDevice .......................................
COnmhgDevi~. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
ExtemalcontrolDevice ....................................
WamingDeVice ........................................
SCOPE
REFERENCEDSTANDARDS AND DEPlNlONS
RefaencedSEancbrrds
Definithm
CONSTRUCTION
'I)pesofSteamT

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Sentinel W h g Valve
soleplate(s) ..........................................
Basephte .........................................
FeatmsandAccessan?es

...................................

BasicFeaMesaQd...............................
OptiOnalFeaMesandAccessorics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
c o n t r o n e d ~ ~ a n d c o n t r o l l ?Itrrbines
e d ~ .................
Ncmwntroiled Exach Turbhes

.............................
Nonconp.olled InductiaiIlabines .............................
?IiirbineRating.........................................
power ............................................
speed ............................................
Ratedspeed .......................................
Maximum continwusspeed ..............................
N d Power end Speed and Steam Caiditions .....................
Stcamconditiaas: ......................................
MinimwnSteam(hKiibS ...............................
MaximumStcamconditions ..............................
MinimumEnergystcamccmditions ..........................
Inletsteampressure ...................................
ExhaiistSteampressUre .................................
Extraction Steam Rressiire

................................

Induction Steam Pressure ................................


Inlet Steam Tempemure ..................................

ExhaustSteamT~
perame

...............................
..............................

Extiaction SteamTemperatrae
LndpctimSteam Tempgatme
Maximum Mowable Working PressuresandTeanptmtms

DualSteamconditions

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Thermodynamic?Iienns ....................................
SteamRateS .........................................
TheOretidSteamRate .................................
ActualsteamRates ...................................
GuaranteedSteamRate .................................

VauiationsinSteamconditions
Flow Limits for an Automatic Exaaction ? M i h e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
HowrjmitpforanInductionTurbine
Units of Measurement for Absolute
and Gauge Pressure . . . . . . . . . . . .

?Iiirbineconnectiais......................................

outputshaftExte~..................................

.....................................
...................................
...........................................

Steamcohus
AuxiliaryconnectionS
LlbiClUb

..................

NonpFessure?lSpeLubncation(Single stage lbbines)


oil Lulnicztred sleeve Beanngs (HarizwEalTiirbines)
G?ease or oillubricatadAntinictionBearings .....................
pressure?lslpeoilLu~
InProduction
Oilnrmpr ........................................
oilReservoir

.................

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oilcooler ........................................
OilFdt~zs.........................................

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vibration ..........................................
Singlestagerbim ..................................
M d t i s t a g e r b ~ ...................................
clitwspeeds.L...................................
NameplateData .......................................
CONTROLS ..........................................
GoveaningSystem .......................................
SpeedGOmar .......................................
Multivariable Govexnor ...................................
CoatmlMeChanism .....................................
GOvmorconmlled WVe(S) ...............................
Servomom System .....................................
E x t e m a l C d D e v i w ..................................
Speedcbangetlype ...................................
RemoteSetPointQpe ..................................
Valve Actuating..................................
speedchanger .......................................
Speed Govaning System classification ............................
SpeedRange ........................................
Maximums@Rise ....................................
speedvariation .......................................
DeadBand ........................................
stability .........................................
Speed Regulation. Steady State ..............................
steamPressurecaritrd ....................................
PressureRegUlatingSysea~................................
PressureRegUlatw .....................................
Control MechaniSn .....................................
nessUre Controlled Wves .................................
pressurechanger ......................................
SteadyStatePxess~mRe
guuion ..............................
PressureReguiatioaiC .
............................
stability ...........................................
pressure control perfamilmce ...............................
Compensated coatrol System .................................
Electronic Governing System .................................
Basic Features ........................................
Accessones .........................................
Control Primiries .....................................
Control of inuctimor Extracoon ............................
Missing Signai Detection Featrae ............................
SensorRedundancy ...................................

piping and Instnunentation


nwisons for the Esrvin>nment
Eaclosufe
Exposwe to Nanrral Elements
Exposure to Abnonnal Ahnphedic conditioas
GeneraiRequiremeats
PltsSureandTempemmRanges

......................................
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Automatic S t a t Controls ...................................
OverSpeeaTnp

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STD.NEMA Sfl 23-ENGL 1991 m b470247 0524300 039

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Overspeed'LtipSystem ...................................
OverspeedScnsingD .................................
n i p speed ..........................................
nipvalve ..........................................
Combined 'Ltip and IhrottltValve .............................
overspeednipsystemsetting ...............................
FACIDRYTESTING .....................................
'Iiirbine .............................................
HydroTd ..........................................
NoLoadRUnmngTesc ...................................
SOUNDPESSUREJEVELS ................................
Gtaeral .............................................
swnd3essweLev& .....................................
soSmd~LevelMtasuremcntprocedme........................
Camction for BacLgrwnd Noise ...............................
souadResolution .......................................
Instnuneats...........................................
S d A e nd o n .......................................
PRapARATI0NFORS"TANDSTORAGE
....................
PRECTiON
BasicFeaues
UanUalTrip

S h i j l p i D g R e ......................................
~
Shipneat ............................................
W i t and Storage of Equipmeat ..............................
INSTALLAIION
In-tion
...........................................
SupervisionOfIaseallation

.......................................
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Fouudation .........................................
steam Inlet and Exhaust Piping ...............................
C i e a m n g o f ~ S t e a m P i p i n g.............................
SteamPipingSystems .....................................
I n e t i o n .........................................

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Grwting ............................................
FlushingiiSystem ......................................
OPERATONANDMAINTENANCE ............................
The Piping noblem as Applied to ?brbines
FbmsDue to Stearn Pressure
FbmsDue to Temperatwe
FarcesDue to Dead Weight
AuowaMe Fces and Moments on Sttam Turbines
DrainPiping
Iak-ofli
Fuil-FiowReii&Device
CoUptingAlignmcnt

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..........................................

operatioa ............................................
Noncondensin
' g 'hbine opetatianof aMultisragecondensia
. g'Ihrbine ..........
'I)pical SEertmg Seqaence fima Steam nirbine ........................

..........................................

Maintlmance
Intluduction

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S T D m N E U A SU 23-ENGL 1991

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6470247 0524303 T75

pige

UitemalWaterWashing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
steamhinty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
INQUIRYGUIDE.. .....................................

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S T D * N E M A SU 23-ENGL L99L

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Foreword
Ilhis standard has been developed by the Steam "wbiine Section of NEMA. In its preparation
andrevision,considaationbas been given to the work of other organizations. such as the American
National Standards institute, the American Peuoleum institute, the AmericanBoiler Manufacturas
Association, and the Amencan
. SoCiety of Mechanical Engineers, striving toward the deveiopment
ofstandards,anddtishaebygiventoaii whosesiandardsmayhavebeenh~~inthepreparatian
of this publication.
nK purpose of this standard f a singie stage and multistagemechanid drive steam turbines is
to faciiitate the appiication of the.se turbines by engineers, users, aad conuactas, to promote
ecwomieS m driving rotalhg mechanical equipment, and to assist in the proper seiection and
app~ofthedifferingmechantcaldesigns of turbines.
NEMA Standards P u b l i a SM 23-1991revises and SupeISedes the NEMA StandardsPubliCation Steam Turbinesfor Me~hanicalz)rive S e M e , SM 23-1985.
User needs have been considertd throughout the development of this standard. Proposed M
recommmdedrevisions should be submitted to:
Vice Resident,Engineering Depamnent
NationalEiecaicalManufacturersAssociation
2101 L S l E a Nw,suite 300
Washnigton,DC 20037
(202)457-8400

S T D - N E M A SU 23-ENGL L99L

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