Proper party (Locus Standi

)

Taxpayers suit – requisites

Macalintal vs PET, GR 1 1!1"

#acts$ Par %, Sec &, 'rt ()) o* t+e 1 "% ,onstitution provides$ -T+e Supre.e ,ourt, sittin/ en 0anc, s+all 0e t+e sole 1ud/e o* all contests relatin/ to t+e election, returns, and quali*ications o* t+e President or (ice2President, and .ay pro.ul/ate its rules *or t+e purpose34

Sec 15, 'rt3 ())) o* t+e ,onstitution provides$ T+e Me.0ers o* t+e Supre.e ,ourt and o* ot+er courts esta0lis+ed 0y la6 s+all not 0e desi/nated to any a/ency per*or.in/ quasi21udicial or ad.inistrative *unctions3

T+e case at 0ar is a .otion *or reconsideration *iled 0y petitioner o* t+e S,7s decision dis.issin/ t+e *or.er 7s petition and declarin/ t+e esta0lis+.ent o* t+e respondent PET as constitutional3

Petitioner ar/ues t+at PET is unconstitutional on t+e /round t+at Sec &, 'rt ()) o* t+e ,onstitution does not provide *or t+e creation o* t+e PET, and it violates Sec 15, 'rt ())) o* t+e ,onstitution3

T+e Solicitor General .aintains t+at t+e constitution o* t+e PET is on *ir. *ootin/ on t+e 0asis o* t+e /rant o* aut+ority to t+e Supre.e ,ourt to 0e t+e sole 1ud/e o* all election contests *or t+e President or (ice2President under par %, Sec &, 'rt ()) o* t+e ,onstitution3 )ssue$

8+et+er or not PET is constitutional3 8+et+er or not PET exercises quasi21udicial po6er3 9eld$

:es3 T+e explicit re*erence o* t+e Me.0ers o* t+e ,onstitutional ,o..ission to a Presidential Electoral Tri0unal, 6it+ #r3 ;oaquin <ernas cate/orically declarin/ t+at in cra*tin/ t+e last para/rap+ o* Sec3 &, 'rt ()) o* t+e 1 "% ,onstitution, t+ey -constitutionali=ed 6+at 6as statutory34 ;udicial po6er /ranted to t+e Supre.e ,ourt 0y t+e sa.e ,onstitution is plenary3 'nd under t+e

doctrine o* necessary i.plication, t+e additional 1urisdiction 0esto6ed 0y t+e last para/rap+ o* Section &, 'rticle ()) o* t+e ,onstitution to decide presidential and vice2presidential elections contests includes t+e .eans necessary to carry it into e**ect3

>o3 T+e traditional /rant o* 1udicial po6er is *ound in Section 1, 'rticle ())) o* t+e ,onstitution 6+ic+ provides t+at t+e po6er -s+all 0e vested in one Supre.e ,ourt and in suc+ lo6er courts as .ay 0e esta0lis+ed 0y la634 T+e set up e.0odied in t+e ,onstitution and statutes c+aracteri=e t+e resolution o* electoral contests as essentially an exercise o* 1udicial po6er3 8+en t+e Supre.e ,ourt, as PET, resolves a presidential or vice2presidential election contest, it per*or.s 6+at is essentially a 1udicial po6er3

T+e ,?MELE,, 9RET and SET are not, strictly and literally spea@in/, courts o* la63 'lt+ou/+ not courts o* la6, t+ey are, nonet+eless, e.po6ered to resolve election contests 6+ic+ involve, in essence, an exercise o* 1udicial po6er, 0ecause o* t+e explicit constitutional e.po6er.ent *ound in Section 5(5), 'rticle )A2, (*or t+e ,?MELE,) and Section 1%, 'rticle () (*or t+e Senate and 9ouse Electoral Tri0unals) o* t+e ,onstitution3

1. Taxpayers, voters, concerned citizens, and legislators may be accorded standing to sue, provided that the following requirements are met:chanroblesvirtuallawlibrary

(1 cases involve constitutional issues! (" for taxpayers, there must be a claim of illegal disbursement of public funds or that the tax measure is unconstitutional! (# for voters, there must be a showing of obvious interest in the validity of the election law in question! ($ for concerned citizens, there must be a showing that the issues raised are of transcendental importance which must be settled early! and (% for legislators, there must be a claim that the official action complained of infringes upon their prerogatives as legislators. &ontrary to the well'settled actual and direct in(ury test, petitioner has simply alleged a generalized interest in the outcome of this case, and succeeds only in muddling the issues. )aragraph " of the petition reads:chanroblesvirtuallawlibrary

". x x x *ince the creation and continued operation of the )+T involves the use of public funds and the issue raised herein is of transcendental importance, it is petitioner ,s humble submission that, as a citizen, a taxpayer and a member of the -./, he has the legal standing to file this petition.

-ut even if his submission is valid, petitioner ,s standing is still imperiled by the white elephant in the petition, i.e., his appearance as counsel for former )resident 0loria 1acapagal'.rroyo (1acapagal'.rroyo in the election protest filed by "22$ presidential candidate 3ernando )oe, 4r. before the )residential +lectoral Tribunal,51#6 because (udicial inquiry, as mentioned above, requires that the constitutional question be raised at the earliest possible opportunity.51$6 *uch appearance as counsel before the Tribunal, to our mind, would have been the first opportunity to challenge the constitutionality of the Tribunal,s constitution.

.lthough there are recognized exceptions to this requisite, we find none in this instance. )etitioner is unmista7ably estopped from assailing the (urisdiction of the )+T before which tribunal he had ubiquitously appeared and had ac7nowledged its (urisdiction in "22$. 8is failure to raise a seasonable constitutional challenge at that time, coupled with his unconditional acceptance of the Tribunal,s authority over the case he was defending, translates to the clear absence of an indispensable requisite for the proper invocation of this &ourt,s power of (udicial review. +ven on this score alone, the petition ought to be dismissed outright.

?posa v3 #actoran #',TS$ ' class suit 0rou/+t 0y && c+ildren, as represented 0y t+eir parents, clai.in/ t+at t+ey 0rin/ t+e case in t+e na.e o* Bt+eir /eneration as 6ell as t+ose /enerations yet un0orn3B 'i.in/ to stop de*orestation, it 6as *iled a/ainst t+e Secretary #actoran o* t+e Cepart.ent o* Environ.ent and >atural Resources, see@in/ to +ave +i. cancel all t+e ti.0er license a/ree.ents (TL's) in t+e country and to cease and desist *ro. acceptin/ and approvin/ .ore ti.0er license a/ree.ents3 T+e c+ildren invo@ed t+eir ri/+t to a 0alanced and +ealt+*ul ecolo/y and to protection 0y t+e State in its capacity as parens patriae3 T+e petitioners clai.ed t+at t+e CE>R SecretaryDs re*usal to cancel t+e TL's and to stop issuin/ t+e. 6as Bcontrary to t+e +i/+est la6 o* +u.an@ind 22t+e natural la622 and violative o* plainti**sD ri/+t to sel*2preservation and perpetuation3B T+e case 6as dis.issed in t+e lo6er court, invo@in/ t+e la6 on non2i.pair.ent o* contracts, so it 6as 0rou/+t to t+e Supre.e ,ourt on certiorari3

)SSEE$ 8+et+er or not petitioners +ave t+e le/al standin/ to *ile t+e caseF

?)3 T+e C?T.ended in t+e .REL)>G$ :ES3 T+e Supre.ar/o (Paircar/o) 6as c+osen3 'EC. 9i7ewise several employees of the 1:.. so t+ey *or. develop. t+e Supre.aintenance and operations o* >')' ter.inals ) and )).inal ))) (>')' )PT ))))3 T+e >EC' approved t+e >')' )PT ))) pro1ect3 <idders 6ere invited.ple. group of congressmen filed similar petitions 3 Pres3 'rroyo declared in +er speec+ t+at s+e 6ill not +onor P)'T.ent in 1 % to *ranc+ise and operate t+e said ter. .atters o* pertainin/ to t+e de*inition o* t+e o0li/ations /iven to t+e concessionaire. and P)'T.e .? contracts 6+ic+ t+e Exec3 <ranc+Ds le/al o**ice concluded null and void3 )ssue$ 8+et+er t+e petitioners and t+e petitioners2in2intervention +ave standin/G 9eld$ :es.on/ t+e proposal Peoples 'ir .e ti.ent o* >')' )ntl3 Passen/er Ter.ent o* contracts . P+il3 )ntl3 'irport Ter. explored t+e possi0ility o* investin/ in t+e ne6 >')' airport ter.pair.ust /ive 6ay to t+e exercise o* t+e police po6er o* t+e state in t+e interest o* pu0lic 6el*are3 '/an v P)'T.ed 'sians E.inals .ent *or t+e succeedin/ /enerations3 Section 1! o* 'rticle 5 6+ic+ reco/ni=es a0ove allG BT+e state s+all protect and advance t+e ri/+t o* t+e people to a 0alanced and +ealt+*ul ecolo/y in accord 6it+ t+e r+yt+. six 0usiness leaders. petitioners +ave a direct and su0stantial interest to protect 0y reason o* t+e i. a property ri/+t 6+ic+ is =ealously protected 0y t+e .ent carried 6it+ it an o0li/ation to preserve t+e environ.ourt in /rantin/ t+e petition ruled t+at t+e c+ildren +ad t+e le/al standin/ to *ile t+e case on 0e+al* o* *uture /enerations 0ased on t+e concept o* Binter2/enerational responsi0ilityB3 T+eir ri/+t to a +ealt+y environ.inal. filed a motion for intervention. and a.ourt said t+at t+e la6 on non2 i. 0ut still t+e pro1ect 6as a6arded to Paircar/o3 <ecause o* t+at.itted proposals to t+e /overn. 5IIJ #acts$ So. filed a petition assailing the legality of arrangements.? .? G3R3 >o3 1HHII13 May H.inal *or 51years3 )n >ov3 1 " it 6as a. and t+e ter. petitioners +ave t+e requisite standin/3 )n t+e a0ove2. and +ar.orp3 T+ey su0.? entered into a concession a/ree.entioned cases.ony o* nature3B 'lso. it incorporated into.ination o* contract3 Since M)'' is c+ar/ed 6it+ t+e .ent *or t+e develop.e .o3 (P)'T. protested alle/in/ t+at pre*erence 6as /iven to Paircar/o.entation o* t+e P)'T. and the service providers (oined them. it +as a contract 6it+ several service providers3 The wor7ers filed the petition for prohibition claiming that they would lose their (ob. *ees and c+ar/es.er/in/ Cra/on .e in 1 J.ontracts3 T+ey stand to lose t+eir source o* liveli+ood.ent o* *acilities and proceeds.

portant constitutional /rounds.pel /overn. contrary to t+e .B on t6o i.0ers o* t+e 9ouse o* Representatives.inated 0y t+e operation o* t+e >')' )PT ))) under t+e P)'T.0ers o* t+e )nter2'/ency .ost co.inistrative ?rder >o3 JI" entitled B'doption o* a >ational .ittee.porary restrainin/ order en1oinin/ its i. are c+ar/ed 6it+ t+e i.ply 6it+ t+e provisions t+erein3 T+ey cite provisions o* t+e P)'T.oordinatin/ .pre+ensive o* ri/+ts and t+e ri/+t.ontracts 6+ic+ co. 1 %.onstitution t+at -LnMo .onstitution3 Moreover. t+ey are especially interested in t+e P)'T.ounts in co.ents 0et6een M)'' and petitioners2 intervenors and service contracts 0et6een international airlines and petitioners2intervenors stand to 0e nulli*ied or ter.ent o0li/ations in t+e P)'T.. t+e requisite standin/ to *ile t+e instant petitions3 )n G3R3 >o3 1HHH&%.? .ontracts on petitioners and petitioners2 intervenors in t+ese cases are le/iti.ent a/encies.ent3 T+ey alle/e t+at t+e Govern.entation3 )ssue$ 8?> t+e petitioner +as t+e stand to assail t+e validity o* '3?3 >o3 JI" .ent o* t+eir prero/atives as le/islators.ple.o.ent andKor t+e 9ouse o* Representatives to appropriate *unds necessary to co. citi=ens and taxpayers3 T+ey alle/e t+at as . petitioner *iled t+e instant petition a/ainst respondents.oney s+all 0e paid out o* t+e treasury except in pursuance o* an appropriation .issi0ly intrudes on our citi=enryDs protected =one o* privacy3 8e /rant t+e petition *or t+e ri/+ts sou/+t to 0e vindicated 0y t+e petitioner need stron/er 0arriers a/ainst *urt+er erosion3 '3?3 >o3 JI" 6as pu0lis+ed in *our ne6spapers o* /eneral circulation on .enda0le e**ort on t+e part o* Senator <las #3 ?ple to prevent t+e s+rin@in/ o* t+e ri/+t to privacy.ent expenditure 6it+out appropriation is a curtail.? . t+en Executive Secretary Ru0en Torres and t+e +eads o* t+e /overn.ate interests su**icient to con*er on t+e. 6+o as . 6e issued a te.? .. 0ecause t+e contracts co.pliance 6it+ t+e contractual o0li/ations o* t+e Govern.? .per. su0sistin/ concession a/ree.pel t+e Govern.ontracts 6+ic+ require dis0urse.. vi=$ (1)it is a usurpation o* t+e po6er o* .e.0ers o* t+e 9ouse o* Representatives.ade 0y la6 ?ple v Torres #acts$ T+e petition at 0ar is a co.ustice <randeis considered as Bt+e . 1 % and .entation o* '3?3 >o3 JI"3 ?n 'pril ".anuary 5&.ple.ontracts.puteri=ed )denti*ication Re*erence Syste.ent o* unappropriated a. 1 %.o.e. and(5)it i.anuary 55.e.? . 1 %3 ?n . 6+ic+ t+e revered Mr3 .on/ress to le/islate.en3B Petitioner ?ple prays t+at 6e invalidate 'd.andate o* t+e .anuary 5J. petitioners *iled t+e petition *or pro+i0ition as .ontracts3 T+e *inancial pre1udice 0rou/+t a0out 0y t+e P)'T.ost valued 0y civili=ed .

ul/ated3 Petitioner ?ple assails '3?3 >o3 JI" as invalid per se and as in*ir. respondents aver t+at petitioner +as no le/al interest to up+old and t+at t+e i. oil *acilities and .isuse o* GS)S *unds to i.ple.ul/ated3 T+ese su0.ent on its constitutionality3 )n t+is li/+t.anuary 1 . t+e respondents s+o6 t+eir uns6ervin/ 6ill to i. t+e GS)S and t+e SSS +ave co.entation o* '3?3 >o3 JI" 6it+out 6aitin/ *or t+e rules3 's early as .0er o* t+e Govern. ?il )ndustry Cere/ulation 'ct o* 1 !34 Ender t+e dere/ulated environ. su01ect only to .ent o* pu0lic *unds and t+e .e *or +is o6n require.ay i.0er o* our Senate3 's a Senator.pu/n t+e le/ality o* t+e .ent '3?3 >o3 JI" and 6e need not 6ait *or t+e *or. t+e respondents t+e.e. 1 %.enda0le stance as its result 6ould 0e to t+rottle an i.ent '3?3 >o3 JI"3 T+e ripeness *or ad1udication o* t+e Petition at 0ar is not a**ected 0y t+e *act t+at t+e i.ental ri/+t3 tatad vs secretary o* depart.ent Service )nsurance Syste. petitioner can also i.ature *or t+e rules yet to 0e pro.issions do not deserve our sy.estic source.Rulin/$ :ES Rationale$ 's is usual in constitutional liti/ation.selves +ave started t+e i.onitorin/ 0y t+e Cepart. (GS)S).port or purc+ase any quantity o* crude oil and petroleu.ent o* Ener/y3 )ssues$ (1) 8+et+er or not t+e petitions raise a 1usticia0le controversy (5) 8+et+er or not t+e petitioners +ave t+e standin/ to assail t+e validity o* t+e la6 .e.3 'll si/nals *ro. petitioner is possessed o* t+e requisite standin/ to 0rin/ suit raisin/ t+e issue t+at t+e issuance o* '3?3 >o3 JI" is a usurpation o* le/islative po6er3 & 's taxpayer and .ent o* ener/y #acts$ T+e petitions assail t+e constitutionality o* various provisions o* R' "1"I entitiled t+e -Co6nstrea.pleted t+e /uidelines *or t+e national identi*ication syste. respondent Social Security Syste. (SSS) caused t+e pu0lication o* a notice to 0id *or t+e .. any person or entity .ar@et suc+ crude oil or use t+e sa. respondents raise t+e t+res+old issues relatin/ to t+e standin/ to sue o* t+e petitioner and t+e 1usticia0ility o* t+e case at 0ar3 More speci*ically.ed on its *ace3 9is action is not pre.pat+etic ear3 Petitioner ?ple is a distin/uis+ed .entin/ rules o* '3?3 >o3 JI" +ave yet to 0e pro.isali/n.portant constitutional principle and a *unda.entin/ rules o* '3?3 >o3 JI" +ave yet to 0e pro. a *orei/n or do.ent.ple. lease or o6n and operate re*ineries and ot+er do6nstrea.ple.anu*acture o* t+e >ational )denti*ication ()C) card3 Respondent Executive Secretary Torres +as pu0licly announced t+at representatives *ro. products *ro.ent.ul/ated cannot cure its *atal de*ects3 Moreover.ple.ality o* t+e rules to pass 1ud/.ple. t+e dissenters insistence t+at 6e ti/+ten t+e rule on standin/ is not a co.

ported and stored 6it+ *acility.ports require ocean receivin/.ay 0e deter.onstitution. it is not only t+e ri/+t 0ut t+e duty o* t+e 1udiciary to declare suc+ act as unconstitutional and void3 T+e e**ort o* respondents to question t+e le/al standin/ o* petitioners also *ailed3 T+e .e on t+e second.onstrate t+at t+e unequal tari** does not violate t+e unequal protection clause o* t+e . +ave t+e in+erent aut+ority to deter.onstitution even as t+is 6as contended 0y petitioner Tatad3 " Rat+er.ini.e o* t+eir 0usiness 0eco. petitioners pose issues 6+ic+ are si/ni*icant to t+e people and 6+ic+ deserve t+e .onstitution.ent3 T+ey aver t+at t+e require.ade to de.inals are already very expensive.ent3 T+e courts.ar@et3 T+is consideration is 0asic in anti2trust suits and cannot 0e eroded 0y 0ela0orin/ t+e inapplica0le principle in taxation t+at di**erent t+in/s can 0e taxed di**erently3 T+e pu0lic respondents tenaciously de*end t+e validity o* t+e .o. t+e 6ron/ end o* t+e telescope3 ?ur Cecision did not +old t+at t+e &N tari** di**erential in*rin/ed t+e equal protection clause o* t+e .porter 1ust as t+ere is a di**erence 0et6een ra6 .u.anda0le and en*orcea0le.onopolistsD a0ility to ta.ined3 . *ourt+.entality o* t+e /overn. stora/e *acilities3 ?cean receivin/ ter.ost products 6+ic+ can 0e i. 0ut also t+e duty to deter. .posed 0y t+e *unda. 6+ic+ t+e required .9eld$ 's to t+e *irst issue. inventory .ec+anis. pu0lic respondents try to 1usti*y t+e &N tari** di**erential on t+e /round t+at t+ere is a su0stantial di**erence 0et6een a re*iner and an i.onstitution3 T+e e**ort only proves t+at t+e pu0lic respondents are still loo@in/ at t+e issue o* tari** di**erential *ro.es an ordinary and necessary 0usiness underta@in/ 1ust as t+e case o* i.ini.porters o* *inis+ed products in ot+er industries3B T+e contention is an old one alt+ou/+ it is purveyed 6it+ a ne6 lipstic@3 T+e contention cannot convince *or as 6ell articulated 0y petitioner Garcia. and to require ne6 players to put up . o* a *ree .ourt +as 0ri/+tlined its li0eral stance on a petitioner 7s locus standi 6+ere t+e petitioner is a0le to cra*t an issue o* transcendental si/ni*icance to t+e people3 )n t+e case. Bt+e pro+i0itive cost o* t+e required . inventory require. oil i.ini. 1udicial po6er includes not only t+e duty o* t+e courts to settle actual controversies involvin/ ri/+ts 6+ic+ are le/ally de.petition and to en+ance t+e .it i.per 6it+ t+e . and consequently t+eir /reat dis2advanta/e vis2a2vis t+e <i/ J3B 1I '/ain. oil industry3 8e *urt+er +eld t+at its inevita0le result is to exclude *air and e**ective co.u.u. as /uardians o* t+e .ountin/ to lac@ or excess o* 1urisdiction on t+e part o* any 0ranc+ or instru.pliance 6it+ suc+ require.ourt7s *ort+ri/+t resolution3 To /ive t+eir ar/u. 6e +eld t+at said tari** di**erential su0stantially occluded t+e entry point o* prospective players in t+e do6nstrea. t+ird.aterial and *inis+ed product3 ?0viously. etc3 years o* operations3 Enli@e .ine 6+et+er a statute enacted 0y t+e le/islature transcends t+e li.ent 6ill not pre1udice ne6 players B3 3 3 durin/ t+eir *irst year o* operation 0ecause t+ey do not +ave yet annual sales *ro. t+e e**ort is .ine 6+et+er or not t+ere +as 0een /rave a0use o* discretion a.ore t+an t+ey need is to co. inventory 6ill not 0e any less 0urdenso.pound and a//ravate t+eir costs.ent a ne6 spin.ent on t+eir second and succeedin/ years o* operation 6ill not 0e di**icult 0ecause t+e puttin/ up o* stora/e *acilities in proportion to t+e volu.ental la63 8+ere a statute violates t+e .

t+ey support t+e rulin/ o* t+is .es and contends t+at t+e /overn.ittee on t+e le/ality o* t+e . years later.inary )n1unction and Te.os to *or.er/ed areas o* Manila <ay to 'M'R)3 T+erea*ter..ed or a0out to 0e reclai.porary Restrainin/ ?rder3 )ssue$ 8?> t+e petitioner +as le/al standin/ . *iled t+e instant Petition *or Manda.t+e ar/u.(' 6it+ 'M'R) *or t+e develop. PE' 6as /ranted patent to t+e reclai.ed *ores+ore lands are concerned3 PE' sou/+t t+e trans*er to 'M'R).(' as t+e /rand. PE' entered into a .('3 T+is pro.selves3 )n t+eir . a private corporation.(' itsel* 6as ille/al3 investi/atory co.+ave= (BPetitionerB *or 0revity) as a taxpayer.ed t+at t+e +i/+ cost o* .s3 'n investi/ation 6as conducted and it 6as concluded t+at t+e lands t+at PE' 6as conveyin/ to 'M'R) 6ere lands o* t+e pu0lic do.plicitly con*ir. inventory require.entin/ a/ency tas@ed to underta@e recla.ourt stri@in/ it do6n as unconstitutional3 .eetin/ t+e inventory require.ple. o* t+e o6ners+ip o* %%3J& +ectares o* t+e #reedo.otion *or intervention.ini. )slands3 T+ese t6o entered into a 1oint venture in t+e a0sence o* any pu0lic 0iddin/3 Later. )slands3 PE' also sou/+t to +ave 5 I31H! +ectares o* su0.ation pro1ects nation6ide3 )t too@ over t+e leasin/ and sellin/ *unctions o* t+e CE>R inso*ar as reclai.u.+ave= vs Pu0lic Estates 'ut+ority and 'M'R) .ent +as an in+i0itin/ e**ect in t+eir operation and +ence.ent o* t+e #reedo. an Petitioner no6 co.ed areas o* land and t+en.pted Ra.orporation #acts$ T+e Pu0lic Estates 'ut+ority is t+e central i. a privile/e speec+ 6as /iven 0y Senator President Maceda denouncin/ t+e .ot+er o* all sca. t+ey i.ent stands to lose 0illions 0y t+e conveyance or sale o* t+e reclai.ainG t+e certi*icates o* title over t+e #reedo.us 6it+ Prayer *or t+e )ssuance o* a 8rit o* Preli.ent seriously +urts t+e ne6 players is 0est settled 0y +earin/ t+e ne6 players t+e.ed areas to 'M'R)3 9e also as@ed *or t+e *ull disclosure o* t+e rene/otiations +appenin/ 0et6een t+e parties3 Petitioner #ran@ )3 .ent on 6+et+er t+e . )slands 6ere voidG and t+e .

ine *ro. si..o. settle.inistrative .9eld$ T+e petitioner +as standin/ to 0rin/ t+is taxpayerDs suit 0ecause t+e petition see@s to co.plicity and e**iciency does not include t+e po6er to create an entirely ne6 pu0lic o**ice 6+ic+ 6as +it+erto inexistent li@e t+e -Trut+ .TS$ Pres3 'quino si/ned E3 ?3 >o3 1 esta0lis+in/ P+ilippine Trut+ . per*or.+apter 1I. acco.0uds. t+eir co2principals.it its *indin/ and reco.on/ #ilipino citi=ens..y. t+e petition raises .an3 PT. .portance to t+e pu0lic3 <)R'?G? (S PT. is a .on/ress and t+e ?.ission34 . or render a6ards in disputes 0et6een contendin/ parties3 'll it can do is /at+er.ation on .endations to t+e President.ission o* 5I1I (PT.inistration.o.atters o* transcendental i.ay +ave su0poena po6ers 0ut it +as no po6er to cite people in conte.) dated . ..ourt to declare it unconstitutional and to en1oin t+e PT. 5I1I3 PT. *ro.endations3 )t . #'. it cannot deter.ode o* 1 "% cannot le/iti..uc+ less order t+eir arrest3 'lt+ou/+ it is a *act2*indin/ 0ody.a@e reco. suc+ *acts i* pro0a0le cause exists as to 6arrant t+e *ilin/ o* an in*or. collect and assess evidence o* /ra*t and corruption and .ere ad +oc 0ody *or. +as all t+e po6ers o* an investi/ative 0ody3 <ut it is not a quasi21udicial 0ody as it cannot ad1udicate.on/ress to create a pu0lic o**ice and appropriate *unds *or its operation3 (0) T+e provision o* <oo@ ))).pt. ar0itrate.atters o* pu0lic concern3 Second is t+e application o* a constitutional provision intended to insure t+e equita0le distri0ution o* aliena0le lands o* t+e pu0lic do.ation in our courts o* la63 Petitioners as@ed t+e .pel PE' to co.ed under t+e ?**ice o* t+e President 6it+ t+e pri. resolve.ain a.ply 6it+ its constitutional duties3 T+ere are t6o constitutional issues involved +ere3 #irst is t+e ri/+t o* citi=ens to in*or. and to su0.plices and accessories durin/ t+e previous ad. .in/ its *unctions3 T+ey ar/ued t+at$ (a) E3?3 >o3 1 violates separation o* po6ers as it arro/ates t+e po6er o* t+e .i=e E3?3 >o3 1 0ecause t+e dele/ated aut+ority o* t+e President to structurally reor/ani=e t+e ?**ice o* t+e President to ac+ieve econo.itted 0y t+ird2level pu0lic o**icers and e.ary tas@ to investi/ate reports o* /ra*t and corruption co.uly JI.. Section J1 o* t+e 'd.ployees.

6+o .ode o* 1 "%. PC >o3 1&1!1! (as a.issionsG .onstitution and statutes 6+en it vested t+e -Trut+ ..0uds.ended). i* not supersedin/. R3'3 >o3 %I and settled 1urisprudence.ission does not violate t+e equal protection clause 0ecause it 6as validly created *or lauda0le purposes3 )SSEES$ 13 8?> t+e petitioners +ave le/al standin/ to *ile t+e petitions and question E3 ?3 >o3 1G 53 8?> E3 ?3 >o3 1 violates t+e principle o* separation o* po6ers 0y usurpin/ t+e po6ers o* .inistrations.o. t+rou/+ ?SG... past and present.ay 0e indicta0le3 Respondents.an and t+e C?.inistrative . t+e .onstitution.. 0ecause it is a *act2*indin/ 0ody and not a quasi21udicial 0ody and its *unctions do not duplicate.o.an created under t+e 1 "% .onstitution and t+e C?. a/encies and co..(c) E3?3 >o3 1 ille/ally a. supplant or erode t+e latter 7s 1urisdiction3 &M T+e Trut+ . t+ose o* t+e ?**ice o* t+e ?.on/ress to create and to appropriate *unds *or pu0lic o**ices. Revised 'd. created under t+e 'd. suc+ 0odies3 5M E3?3 >o3 1 does not usurp t+e po6er o* .on/ress 0ecause t+e President7s executive po6er and po6er o* control necessarily include t+e in+erent po6er to conduct investi/ations to ensure t+at la6s are *ait+*ully executed and t+at.on/ress3 JM T+e Trut+ .ission does not duplicate or supersede t+e *unctions o* t+e ?.ode o* 1 "%3 (d) E3?3 >o3 1 violates t+e equal protection clause as it selectively tar/ets *or investi/ation and prosecution o**icials and personnel o* t+e previous ad.o. aut+ori=e t+e President to create or *or.on/ress to appropriate *unds 0ecause t+ere is no appropriation 0ut a . in any event.inistration as i* corruption is t+eir peculiar species even as it excludes t+ose o* t+e ot+er ad.0uds.ission4 6it+ quasi21udicial po6ers duplicatin/.ended t+e .inistrative .ere allocation o* *unds already appropriated 0y . questioned t+e le/al standin/ o* petitioners and ar/ued t+at$ 1M E3?3 >o3 1 does not arro/ate t+e po6ers o* .

*inds reason in <irao/o7s assertion t+at t+e petition covers .ust +ave t+e standin/ to question t+e validity o* t+e su01ect act or issuanceG ot+er6ise stated.e. in*rin/es on t+eir prero/atives as le/islators3 8it+ re/ard to <irao/o. direct in1ury as a result o* its en*orce. or is in dan/er o* sustainin/.inin/ locus standi arises in pu0lic suits3 9ere.ent in t+e suit or t+e party entitled to t+e avails o* t+e suit34 Ci**iculty o* deter.0ers3 To t+e extent t+e po6ers o* .ota o* t+e case3 13 T+e petition pri.on/ress as a 0ody to 6+ic+ t+ey 0elon/ as .ust 0e raised at t+e earliest opportunityG and (&) t+e issue o* constitutionality . any personal and direct in1ury attri0uta0le to t+e i. +e .ourt in vie6 o* t+eir seriousness. t+e plainti** 6+o asserts a -pu0lic ri/+t4 in assailin/ an alle/edly ille/al o**icial action. or 6ill sustain.0er t+ereo*.arily invo@es usurpation o* t+e po6er o* t+e . po6ers and privile/es vested 0y t+e .e o* t+e real party in interest34 Real2party2in interest is -t+e party 6+o stands to 0e 0ene*ited or in1ured 0y t+e 1ud/.9eld$ +e po6er o* 1udicial revie6 is su01ect to li.ple. standin/ is /overned 0y t+e -real2parties2in interest4 rule3 )t provides t+at -every action . +e +as not s+o6n t+at +e sustained.ust 0e an actual case or controversy callin/ *or t+e exercise o* 1udicial po6erG (5) t+e person c+allen/in/ t+e act .paired.ust +ave a personal and su0stantial interest in t+e case suc+ t+at +e +as sustained.on/ress are i.entG (J) t+e question o* constitutionality .ind.pu/ns t+e validity o* a statute .portance to 1usti*y t+e exercise o* 1urisdiction 0y t+e .ourt.atters o* transcendental i.ust +ave -a personal and su0stantial interest in t+e case suc+ t+at +e +as sustained.entation o* E3 ?3 >o3 13 Locus standi is -a ri/+t o* appearance in a court o* 1ustice on a /iven question34 )n private suits.ain inviolate3 T+us.ourt3 T+ere are constitutional issues in t+e petition 6+ic+ deserve t+e attention o* t+is . t+ey are allo6ed to question t+e validity o* any o**icial action 6+ic+. does so as a representative o* t+e /eneral pu0lic3 9e +as to s+o6 t+at +e is entitled to see@ 1udicial protection3 9e +as to . to 6it$ (1) t+ere .ust 0e prosecuted or de*ended in t+e na.ust 0e t+e very lis .a@e out a su**icient interest in t+e vindication o* t+e pu0lic order and t+e securin/ o* relie* as a -citi=en4 or -taxpayer3 T+e person 6+o i.e.itations. novelty and 6ei/+t as precedents . or 6ill sustain direct in1ury as a result34 T+e . so is t+e po6er o* eac+ . to t+eir .onstitution in t+eir o**ice re. since +is o**ice con*ers a ri/+t to participate in t+e exercise o* t+e po6ers o* t+at institution3 Le/islators +ave a le/al standin/ to see to it t+at t+e prero/ative. +o6ever.

oney and valua0les +ad disappeared a*ter t+e operation3 T+e residents also reported incidents o* ..ES ST'>C) GE'>O?> (S3 CE ()LL' #acts$ T+e &1 petitioners alle/ed t+at t+e Bsaturation driveB or Baerial tar/et =onin/B t+at 6ere conducted in t+eir place (Tondo Manila) 6ere unconstitutional3 T+ey alle/ed t+at t+ere is no speci*ic tar/et +ouse to 0e searc+ and t+at t+ere is no searc+ 6arrant or 6arrant o* arrest served3 Most o* t+e police.aintenance o* peace in t+e state3 T+e aerial tar/et =onin/ 6ere intended to *lus+ out su0versives and cri. t+eir sleep 0y 0an/in/ on t+e 6alls and 6indo6s o* t+eir +ouses3 T+e residents 6ere at t+e point o* +i/+2po6ered /uns and +erded li@e co6s3 Men 6ere ordered to strip do6n to t+eir 0rie*s *or t+e police to exa.ent o* t+e la6s o* t+e land3 Petitioners 6+o are not even t+e in1ured parties are invo@in/ t+e equal protection clause3 T+eir standin/ to raise t+is issue is seriously contested in t+e Cissent o* ..ents coddled 0y t+e co.ations3 T+e respondents said t+at suc+ accusations 6ere all lies3 Respondents contends t+at t+e .es 6ere ransac@ed.ited to t+ose speci*ic po6ers under t+e .onstitution /rants to /overn.ental and p+ysical torture to extract con*essions and tactical in*or.altreat.ay not 0e perversely invo@ed4 to 1usti*y desistance 0y t+e aut+orities *ro. tossin/ t+eir 0elon/in/s and destroyin/ t+eir valua0les3 So.e o* t+eir . t+e prosecution o* a cri.ourts +ave 6arned t+at t+e ri/+t o* equal protection o* t+e la6 -.onstitution3 ?ne o* t+e reco/ni=ed po6ers o* t+e President /ranted pursuant to t+is constitutionally2.ent3 T+ose 6+o 6ere detained also su**ered .ustice .andated duty is t+e po6er to create ad +oc co.ents *or t+e .plained t+at t+eyDre +o.inal case.ittees3 T+is *lo6s *ro.unities 6ere t+e said drives 6ere conducted3 T+ey said t+at t+ey +ave intelli/ently and care*ully planned .ar@s3 T+e residents co.inal ele.ent t+e po6er to see@ and cripple su0versive .ove.eplates or identi*ication cards3 T+e residents 6ere rudely rouse *ro.T+e Executive is /iven .atters 6+ic+ t+e President is entitled to @no6 so t+at +e can 0e properly advised and /uided in t+e per*or.ance o* +is duties relative to t+e execution and en*orce.anner t+at t+ey are t+e su01ect o* E? 13 .ine t+eir tattoo .uc+ lee6ay in ensurin/ t+at our la6s are *ait+*ully executed3 T+e po6ers o* t+e President are not li.aulin/s.ine i* la6s +ave 0een *ait+*ully executed3 T+e purpose o* allo6in/ ad +oc investi/atin/ 0odies to exist is to allo6 an inquiry into . spot20eatin/s and .edia 1oined t+e operation to 6itness and record suc+ event3 .ont+s a+ead *or t+e actual operation and t+at local and *orei/n .en are in t+eir civilian clot+es and 6it+out na.arpio Morales3 T+ey do not clai. in any . 1ust 0ecause not all o* t+ose 6+o are pro0a0ly /uilty t+ereo* 6ere c+ar/ed3 T+is c+aracteri=ation 6ould apply especially i* t+e ones 6+o invo@e t+e equal protection clause are t+ose 6+o are not in1ured 0y t+e contested executive action3 >? L?. t+e o0vious need to ascertain *acts and deter.

t+is declaration. and Personal Cata S+eet3 )nitial +earin/ 6as set on 'u/ust 5H.'G.)ssue$ 8?> )<P +as le/al standin/ 9eld$ T+e )<P +as not su**iciently co..0er 5J. rules and re/ulations durin/ +is incu. 1 &. actin/ upon t+e reco. ?**ice3 ?n 'u/ust 5J.ission on 'nti2 Gra*t and .ere invocation 0y t+e )<P o* its duty to preserve t+e rule o* la6 and not+in/ . . +o6ever.is*easance and non*easance3 upon receipt o* t+e said con*idential . *or. 1 &3 ?n 'u/ust 1. 6it+ *or*eiture o* retire.'G. 1 & and Ma@ati.0ency as Re/ional Cirector.plaint a/ainst t+e latter to t+e Presidential .orruption (P. *or investi/ation3 Petitioner 6as duly in*or. t+e petitioner *iled +is required ans6er3 '*ter evaluatin/ t+e evidence on record. at t+e P. *indin/ a pri. is not su**icient to clot+e it 6it+ standin/ in t+is case3 E'RL)EST ?PPERTE>)T: E. copies o* +is State. t+e )<P asserts no ot+er 0asis in support o* its locus standi3 T+e . Marc+ 1!.issin/ petitioner *ro.onstitution3 'part *ro..ent o* 'ssets. to send in +is ans6er.os issued 'd.o. t+e )<P pri. 1 &.plied 6it+ t+e requisites o* standin/ in t+is case3 )n t+e case at 0ar.os received a con*idential .o.ore particularly t+e *ollo6in/ .inistrative ?rder >o3 1H5 dis.endation o* t+e P.. President Ra.ali t+e petitioner 6as appointed Re/ional Cirector o* t+e <ureau o* )nternal Revenue 0y Pres #idel (3 Ra. 6+ile undou0tedly true.arily anc+ors its standin/ on its alle/ed responsi0ility to up+old t+e rule o* la6 and t+e . 1 J to Marc+ 1H.3. >ove. a/ainst t+e petitioner *or alle/ed violations o* internal revenue la6s..e.'G..3 'nd 6as directed +i.undo E.ediately re*erred t+e . in Manila.os3 9e assi/ned +i.a *acie evidence to support six (!) o* t+e t6elve (15) c+ar/es a/ainst petitioner3 ?n ?cto0er !.e.ent and all 0ene*its under t+e la63 .ed o* t+e c+ar/es a/ainst +i.er President aut+ori=ed t+e issuance o* an ?rder *or t+e preventive suspension o* t+e petitioner and i.orandu.). 1 & to 'u/ust &. t+e service.ore.0er 5 . 1 &.ali v3 Guin/ona #acts$ ?s. and Lia0ilities *or t+e past t+ree years (J). issued its Resolution o* Septe. t+en President Ra. 1 &. at 5$II p3. t+e P. .al*easance.orandu.'G.

t+e ad. t+e .ode o* 1 "%.ourt o* 'ppeals ruled correctly on t+e *irst t+ree )ssue3 To 0e sure.ourt o* 'ppeals3 9o6ever.issal *ro.ourt. t+e petition is dis.issin/ t+e c+ar/es a/ainst t+e petitioner is still 0asis *or t+e petitionerDs dis.issal 6it+ *or*eiture o* 0ene*its as ruled in '? >o3 1H5 9eld$ Petitioner . +as decided to consider t+e .0uds.aintains t+at as a career executive service o**icer.inal c+ar/es 0e*ore t+e ?.0ent upon +i.otion *or reconsideration o* t+e trial courts decision3 (&) 8+et+er or >ot t+e o. 6e are o* t+e irresisti0le conclusion t+at t+e . petitioner 6as not denied t+e ri/+t to due process 0e*ore t+e P. to prove t+at +e is a .'G.3 Records s+o6 t+at t+e petitioner *iled +is ans6er and ot+er pleadin/s 6it+ respect to +is alle/ed violation o* internal revenue la6s and re/ulations.issa0le on t+e /round t+at t+e )ssue posited 0y t+e petitioner do not constitute a valid le/al 0asis *or overturnin/ t+e *indin/ and conclusion arrived at 0y t+e .)ssues$ (1) 8+et+er or >ot '? >o3 1H5 violated petitionerDs Ri/+t to Security o* Tenure3 (5) 8+et+er or >ot Petitioner 6as denied due process o* la6 (J) 8+et+er or >ot t+e P.ic o* evidentiary support3 )t 6as incu. petitionerDs clai.'G.inistrative .oval3 . in t+e exercise o* its equity po6ers.inal case3 T+e c+ar/es included in 'd.atter3 9is *ailure to do so is *atal3 's re/ards t+e issue o* constitutionality o* t+e P.'G. +is dis. ta@in/ into account t+e antecedent *acts and circu. +e is .entioned.ES? eli/i0ility is ane.onstituted /overn. and not on t+e cri.'G. it 6as only posed 0y petitioner in +is ...an3 )n su. o**ice on t+e /round o* loss con*idence violated +is ri/+t to security o* tenure. o* .stances a*ore. )t is 6ort+y to note t+at in t+e case under consideration. ! loss o* con*idence is not one o* t+e le/al causes or /rounds *or re. and +e attended t+e +earin/s 0e*ore t+e investi/atory 0ody3 )t is t+us decisively clear t+at +is protestation o* non2o0servance o* due process is devoid o* any *actual or le/al 0asis3 >eit+er can it 0e said t+at t+ere 6as a violation o* 6+at petitioner asserts as +is security o* tenure3 'ccordin/ to petitioner.0uds.e at suc+ late sta/e o* t+e proceedin/s3 's to last issue.otion *or reconsideration 0e*ore t+e Re/ional Trial . +e *ailed to adduce su**icient evidence on t+e .ES? eli/i0le 0ut un*ortunately.inistrative ?rder >o3 1H5 6ere 0ased on t+e results o* investi/ation conducted 0y t+e P.inistrative action a/ainst t+e petitioner 6as ta@en prior to t+e institution o* t+e cri.ES? eli/i0le entitled to security o* tenure3 9o6ever. petitioner t+eori=ed3 '*ter a care*ul study.onsequently. as a Re/ional Cirector o* <ureau o* )nternal Revenue.oved *or cause and under t+e 'd. is a validly .ent a/ency and 6+et+er t+e petitioner can raise t+e issue o* constitutionality 0elatedly in its .anDs resolution dis. +e can only 0e re.ourt o* Ma@ati3 )t 6as certainly too late to raise *or t+e *irst ti.

osta to o0tain *ro.udicial Reor/ani=ation La6..ent as 1ud/e o* *irst instance. 1 J!. 1 J%..o.une 5. appoint. as e**ective and su0stantive supervenin/ events t+at cannot 0e overloo@ed3 Oandueta v3 de la .on6ealt+ 'ct >o3 1&H.ission on 'ppoint.e o* t+e #ourt+ . petitioner received *ro.0ly on Septe. in possession t+ereo*3 #acts Prior to t+e pro.e o**ice. too@ e**ect. appoint.o.ent issued 0y t+e President o* t+e P+ilippines in +is *avor on .ission on 'ppoint.0er %.prisin/ solely o* t+e .ents o* t+e >ational 'sse. appoint.dis.. t+at t+ere is no . t+e date on 6+ic+ t+e .e year3 ?n >ove.udicial Cistrict. co. t+e Supre. actin/ as executive 1ud/e.ent o* t+e petitioner.ents disapproved t+e a*oresaid ad interi.0ly and as it ad1ourned on >ove. pro.ent o* t+e petitioner 6as not acted upon 0y t+e .o.e . per*or.o. t+is ti.ission on 'ppoint. and t+e position ta@en 0y t+e Solicitor General. >int+ . over 6+ic+ t+e petitioner too@ oat+ on >ove.ista@a0le .ed several executive acts 6+ic+ consist o* desi/nation o* several personnel to t+e .o.ation 0y t+e .an.ourts o* #irst )nstance o* Manila and Pala6an3 T+e ne6 appoint.o. 6it+ t+e correspondin/ con*ir. 1 J% and su0sequently disc+ar/ed t+e duties o* t+e said o**ice3 T+e petitioner.o. oustin/ +i. t+e President o* t+e ..e . t+e said o**ice and +oldin/ t+at t+e petitioner is entitled to continue occupyin/ t+e o**ice in question 0y placin/ +i. *ro.#) o* Manila.udicial Cistrict. ot+er6ise @no6n as t+e .ents o* t+e >ational 'sse.osta !! P+il3 !1H (1 J") )n re$ >ecessity o* decidin/ . 1 J!.issioner o* t+e <ureau o* )nternal Revenue t+at +is o**ice is no lon/er interested in pursuin/ t+e case. t+e petitioner 6as issued 6it+ a ne6 ad interi.ore 0asis *or 'd..#) o* t+e said city. petitioner.ani*estation 0y t+e . appoint.ud/e o* t+e #i*t+ <ranc+ o* t+e ..onstitutional Puestions T+e case is an ori/inal quo 6arranto action 6it+ t+e Supre.0uds.udicial Cistrict.ourt instituted 0y 9onora0le #rancisco Oandueta a/ainst 9onora0le Sixto de la . t+e 9onora0le #rancisco Oandueta 6as disc+ar/in/ t+e o**ice o* 1ud/e o* *irst instance..inistrative ?rder >o3 1H5.on6ealt+ a ne6 ad interi.0er 5I. 6it+ aut+ority to preside over t+e . t+e succinct and un.on6ealt+ 'ct >o3 1&H. 0y virtue o* an ad interi.ent declarin/ t+e respondent to 0e ille/ally occupyin/ t+e o**ice o* .ent to t+e sa.ourts over +is 1urisdiction3 ?n May 1 .ul/ation o* t+e .0er 55. #ourt+ .issal o* t+e c+ar/es a/ainst petitioner 0e*ore t+e ?.ourt a 1ud/.ity o* Manila and 6as presidin/ over t+e #i*t+ <ranc+ o* t+e .ptin/ t+e President o* t+e P+ilippines to appoint t+e 9onora0le . t+e .0er "t+ o* t+e sa. 1 J".

to continue occupyin/ t+e o**ice con*erred upon +i.ent +as 0een issuedG and said ne6 appoint. 0y said ne6 appoint.on6ealt+ 'ct >o3 1&H.osta to t+e sa.#) o* Manila and Pala6an. t+e petitioner a0andoned +is appoint.o.o.ent disapproved 0y t+e . 1 J! and quali*yin/ *or t+e exercise o* t+e *unctions o* t+e o**ice con*erred 0y it.an t+e petitioner i..ent 0y virtue o* t+e . 0y virtue t+ereo*3 T+e petitioner a0andons +is old o**ice and cannot clai.ance o* t+e duties appertainin/ to t+e o**ice con*erred t+erein3 )n acceptin/ t+e ne6 appoint.e o**ice.une 5.o.Sixto de la .pu/n t+e constitutionality o* t+e la6 0y virtue o* 6+ic+ +e 6as appointed3 T+e petitioner is estopped 0y +is o6n act proceedin/ to question t+e constitutionality o* .ando Tarrosa vs Ga0riel Sin/son Q Enrique= ))) #acts$ Ga0riel .o.ent. 6+o too@ t+e necessary oat+ and disc+ar/ed t+e duties o* t+e said o**ice.uly 5.0er 55.ents3 )ssues 13 . 1 J%. and 6as su0sequently con*ir.ed 0y t+e . and in disc+ar/in/ t+e sa.pu/n t+e constitutionality o* . and ceased to exercise o* t+e *unctions o* t+e o**ice occupied 0y +i.ents o* t+e >ational 'sse. 1 J!. 1 J3 .ando Tarrosa. *iled a petition *or pro+i0ition questionin/ t+e . disposin/ o* 0ot+ 1udicial and ad. +avin/ ipso 1ure ceased in t+e disc+ar/e o* t+e *unctions t+ereo*3 Petition denied and dis.0ly.ent o* .o.e. 0y ta@in/ t+e necessary oat+ on >ove.esus 'r.. to 0e entitled to repossess it or question t+e constitutionality o* t+e la6 0y virtue o* 6+ic+ +is ne6 appoint.on6ealt+ 'ct >o3 1&HF 53 )s t+e petitioner entitled to continue to disc+ar/e t+e duties o* t+e o**ice +e occupied prior to +is appoint.. as a BtaxpayerB.0er %.inistrative cases correspondin/ to t+e . 0y acceptin/ said appoint.on6ealt+ 'ct >o3 1&HF 9eld T+e petitioner cannot i. neit+er can +e clai.issed3 >ecessity o* decidin/ t+e constitutional question 'r.3 Sin/son 6as appointed Governor o* t+e <an/@o Sentral 0y President #idel (3 Ra...os on .ission on 'ppoint.ission on 'ppoint.ent on >ove.ent and enterin/ into t+e per*or. 0y virtue o* 6+ic+ +e 6as appointed.

ent o* t+e salaries and e. G3R3 >o3 1115&J.ere usurper3 Li@e6ise in Greene v3 Rnox.ission on 'ppoint.ourt o* 'ppeals. to 0e t+e one entitled to occupy t+e said o**ice3 9o6ever *or t+e in*or. citin/ Section 1! o* 'rticle () o* t+e . 5I" S.ents o* respondent Sin/son3 )n t+eir co.ent o* t+e Governor o* t+e <an/@o Sentral3 T+ey contend t+at an appoint.ent o* salary to t+e person +oldin/ suc+ o**ice.' o* t+e appoint.a0anatuan .on/ress exceeded its le/islative po6ers in requirin/ t+e con*ir.ation po6ers o* t+e .ation 0y t+e . 6e +eld t+at t+e petitioner t+erein.ent.o. . 6+ic+ esta0lis+ed t+e <an/@o Sentral as t+e .appoint. 6+ic+ .enced 0y t+e Solicitor General or 0y a Bperson clai. could not 0rin/ t+e action *or quo 6arranto to oust t+e respondent *ro. respondents clai..entral Monetary 'ut+ority o* t+e P+ilippines3 T+e Secretary o* <ud/et and Mana/e.R' 5H& (1 5).arale.ent o* Sin/son *or not +avin/ 0een con*ir.ined in a suit to restrain t+e pay.ents as required 0y t+e provisions o* Section ! o* R3'3 >o3 %!HJ. 0rou/+t 0y so.ents and require con*ir.onstitution3 9eld$ S.ents 6+ic+ +ave to 0e con*ir.. said o**ice as a .ent to t+e said position is not a. 6e call attention to our decision in . 6+ere 6e ruled t+at .alderon v3 .ed 0y t+e .on/ t+e appoint.on/ress cannot 0y la6 expand t+e con*ir. !% >3E3 1I.ent o* ot+er /overn.ation o* all concerned.ed 0y t+e . 1 &) .onstitution3 (Tarrosa vs3 Sin/son.R' !J% (1 5).ation o* appoint.o. 1%H >3:3 &J5 (1 IJ).issed t+e petition3 T+e instant petition is in t+e nature o* a quo 6arranto proceedin/ as it see@s t+e ouster o* respondent Sin/son and alle/es t+at t+e latter is unla6*ully +oldin/ or exercisin/ t+e po6ers o* Governor o* t+e <an/@o Sentral3 Suc+ a special civil action can only 0e co.olu. 6it+ ..'.ent o**icials not expressly .ent 6as i. 5I S.ay not 0e deter.ission on 'ppoint.ustice )sa/ani '3 .ru= dissentin/.entioned in t+e *irst sentence o* Section 1! o* 'rticle ()) o* t+e . it 6as +eld t+at t+e question o* title to an o**ice.ity En/ineer o* .pleaded *or dis0ursin/ pu0lic *unds in pay.eone 6+o does not clai.. dis. t+at .ity. 6+o did not aver t+at +e 6as entitled to t+e o**ice o* t+e .ust 0e resolved in a quo 6arranto proceedin/.in/ to 0e entitled to a pu0lic o**ice or position unla6*ully +eld or exercised 0y anot+er3B )n Sevilla v3 . May 5H.

E>'>'>.un3 court o* .#).oratoriu.ents 6Kc is due in Septe. pp3 "5".unicipal 1ud/e *or trial on t+e . t+e *ollo6in/ portion is quoted *ro.ount o* P 1.ay 0e construed to .stances3 't any rate.?3 )>. Manila Motors . ET 'L3.ont+s2 t+e 1I yr3 ter.ain contention. alt+ou/+ t+e /eneral rule is t+at an unconstitutional statute S Bcon*ers no ri/+t.ean t+at at t+eo* t+e decision t+e Moratoriu.unanan )> RE .plainant sued *or collection in 1 H&3 . "5 3) )n Re .e do6n a*ter +e +ad su0.3 .andidates o* 1 &! to 1 HJG 'L<)>? . la6s suspended t+e period o* prescription3 T+at 6as rendered a*ter t+e Rutter2Este0an decision3 )t s+ould 0e stated +o6ever.ercialJ 6e +eld t+at t+e . create no o**ice.anila to recover t+e a. petitioners3 .0er 1 &13 #lores pleaded *or prescription$ 1 &121 H& and t+e co.ed under it3B (11 '.I&%3 " *ro.itted +is 0rie*3 'nd in ans6er to +is . a**ords no protection and 1usti*ies no acts per*or. la6s did not +ave t+e e**ect o* suspendin/ t+e period due to unconstitutionality as declared in t+e Rutter vs3 Este0an case3 Rulin/$ )n Montilla vs3 Paci*ic .E>.issed3 ?n appeal 0e*ore t+e . +ad not yet elapsed 6+en t+e co.plaint 0e*ore t+e .o.ourt& Rutter vs3 Este0an ( J P+il3 !") .o3 )nc3 *iled a co.e durin/ 6+ic+ said la6s 6ere in operation2 J yrs3 'nd " . la6s +ad interrupted t+e runnin/ o* t+e prescriptive period Q t+at deductin/ t+e ti. M'>EEL T3 #L?RES as c+attel .E>'>'> L & P+il HJ&G ResolutionG 1" Mar 1 H&M )n t+e Matter o* t+e Petitions *or 'd.oratoriu.erits3 )SSEEKS$ 8+et+er or not t+e ..ort/a/e install.oratoriu.plaint 6as dis. in *airness to appellant.?>ST)TET)?>'L)T: M'>)L' M?T?RS .ur3. t+at t+e Montilla decision ca.ission to t+e <ar o* Ensuccess*ul . la6 could no lon/er 0e validly applied 0ecause o* t+e prevailin/ circu. a resolution o* t+is . t+e court sa6 t+e plainti** 7s sustainin/ contention t+at t+e .3 (S3 #L?RES #'.#) ordered t+e return o* t+e case to t+e .TS$ May 1 H&.

. insu**iciency o* readin/ .otions *or t+e revision o* t+eir exa.ents o* t+e /overn. irrespective o* 6+et+er or not t+ey +ad invo@ed Repu0lic 'ct >o3 %53 )ssue$ 8+et+er or >ot R' >o3 %5 is constitutional and valid3 9eld$ R' >o3 %5 +as *or its o01ect.on/ress on t+e .ent o* attorneys at la6 in t+e practice o* t+e pro*ession is concededly 1udicial3 ?n t+is .ission.. 6+ile ot+er .atter.ourt t+en passed and ad. dis0ar. suspension. accordin/ to its aut+or. 6+ic+ ours +as 0een evolved. conditions *or t+e license3 Repu0lic 'ct >u.ination papers 6ere still pendin/ also invo@ed t+e a*oresaid la6 as an additional /round *or ad.ission to t+e 0ar invo@in/ its provisions.ent and reinstate.ourt is a petition *or certiorari and pro+i0ition *iled 0y Ro. and t+e la6 passed 0y . t+ere is certainly a clear distinction 0et6een t+e *unctions o* t+e 1udicial and le/islative depart. see@in/ a declaration t+at certain provisions o* Repu0lic 'ct >o3 .TS$ <e*ore t+e . t+e court *irst revie6ed t+e .e . suspension.ourt. .Resoluti.ent3 )t is o0vious.itted to t+e 0ar t+ose candidates 6+o +ad o0tained an avera/e o* %5 per cent 0y raisin/ it to %H percent3 '*ter its approval. t+at t+e ulti.e.uly 1I 5IIJ #'. *ro.any o* t+e unsuccess*ul post6ar candidates *iled petitions *or ad. or as ot+er aut+orities . +o6ever.aterials and inadequate preparation3 )n t+e 1udicial syste. dis0ar.ent o* attorneys at la6 in t+e practice o* t+e pro*ession and t+eir supervision +ave 0een indisputa0ly a 1udicial *unction and responsi0ility3 8e +ave said t+at in t+e 1udicial syste.issive c+aracter.ission.ini. *ro.ission3 T+ere are also ot+ers 6+o +ave sou/+t si.atter is o* per.0er o* t+e P+ilippine <ar. invo@in/ t+e la6 in question3 To avoid in1ustice to individual petitioners.otions *or reconsideration.u.ay say.ply t+e reconsideration o* t+eir /rades 6it+out. 6+ic+ ours +as 0een derived.erely to *ix t+e . t+ere*ore.0er %5.ulo <3 Macalintal. t+e ad. G3R3 >o3 1H%I1J.on/ress passed Repu0lic 'ct >u.?MELE.'L)>T'L (S3 . 1 H&on Marc+ 1" #acts$ . a . t+e ad.only @no6n as t+e -<ar #lun@ers7 'ct o* 1 HJ34 )n accordance 6it+ t+e said la6. . co.0er %5 is +eld to 0e unconstitutional M'.it to t+e <ar. t+ose candidates 6+o su**ered *ro. t+e Supre.ent or reinstate. to ad.ate po6er to /rant license *or t+e practice o* la6 0elon/s exclusively to t+is .

o.i/rant or per.anent resident *ro.onstitution 6+ic+ requires t+e voter .e la6 violates t+e constitutional ..icile s+all re.ission declarin/ t+at +eKs+e s+all resu. an exception is provided i3e3 unless +eKs+e executes.s t+at t+is is violative o* t+e residency require. and t+at t+e .onstitution t+at t+e 6innin/ candidates *or President and t+e (ice2President s+all 0e proclai. revise.ed not to +ave lost +is do.icile 0y +is p+ysical a0sence *ro.ple. petitioner *iled t+e instant petition as a taxpayer and as a la6yer3 )SSEES$ (1) 8+et+er or not Section H(d) o* Repu0lic 'ct >o3 Section 1 o* 'rticle ( o* t+e . t+rou/+ t+e .erates t+ose 6+o are disquali*ied votin/ under t+is 'ct3 )t disquali*ies an i.ption o* a0andon.onstitution3 1" violates t+e residency require. ?SG +eld t+at rulin/ in said case does not +old 6ater at present.in/ t+at +e +as actual and .lai.ent in Section 1 'rticle ( o* t+e .anent residence in t+e P+ilippines not later .e o* t+e i.ediately precedin/ an election3 9o6ever.aterial le/al interest in t+e su01ect .ity3 .anent residence in t+e P+ilippines not later t+an J years *ro. upon re/istration. a.ay +ave to discard t+at particular rulin/3 Panacea o* t+e controversy$ '**idavit *or 6it+out it.ay. t+e >ational Re/istry o* '0sentee (oters and +isK+er per.ain3 T+e quali*ied #ilipino a0road 6+o executed an a**idavit is dee.. and a resident in t+e place 6+ere +e proposes to vote *or at least ! .ise to resu.ont+s i.ent o* P+il do.1" (T+e ?verseas '0sentee (otin/ 'ct o* 5IIJ) su**er *ro.ed to +ave retained +is do.oint . exercise t+e po6er to revie6.andate under Section &.ission on Elections.o. and approve t+e ).ittee created in Section 5H o* Rep3 'ct >o3 1" . pro.i/rant or a per.. under Section 1.e actual p+ysical per.ust 0e a resident in t+e P+ilippines *or at least one yr.ent in (5) 8+et+er or not Section 1"3H o* t+e sa. 'rticle ()) o* t+e .ed as 6inners 0y .?MELE.ourt . constitutional in*ir.on/ress3 (J) 8+et+er or not .on/ressional ?versi/+t ..atter o* t+is case in seein/ to it t+at pu0lic *unds are properly and la6*ully used and appropriated. approval o* re/istration3 Suc+ a**idavit s+all also state t+at +eKs+e +as not applied *or citi=ens+ip in anot+er country3 #ailure to return s+all 0e cause *or t+e re.onstitution3 9ELC$ (1) >o3 Section H o* R' >o3 1" enu.icile in t+e P+ilippines and presu.on/ress .e actual p+ysical per.ul/ate 6it+out violatin/ t+e independence o* t+e . t+is country3 Section H o* R' >o3 1" does not only require t+e pro.anent resident 6+o is reco/ni=ed as suc+ in t+e +ost country3 9o6ever.anent disquali*ication to vote in a0sentia3 Petitioner clai. t+e presu.entin/ Rules and Re/ulations t+at t+e .oval o* t+e na.o.end. 'rticle )A2' o* t+e ... an a**idavit prepared *or t+e purpose 0y t+e .

Political La6 – E**ect i* Title Coes >ot . .a@in/ it . as is evident in its statutory construction and intent o* t+e *ra.odi*y it i* suc+ la6 is *ound to 0e i.on/ress s+ould not +ave allo6ed . +as t+e aut+ority to proclai. revie6.end and revise t+e ).pled upon t+e constitutional .on/ress tra. to usurp a po6er t+at constitutionally 0elon/s to it3 T+e canvassin/ o* t+e votes and t+e procla.entin/ Rules Q Re/ulations *or R' >o3 1" . considerin/ t+at underlyin/ intent o* t+e .i/rants and per.3 Ender suc+ a situation. t+e .ourt *inds t+at Section H o* R' >o3 1" is not constitutionally de*ective3 (5) :es3 .practical3 9o6ever. .ust return to t+e P+ilippines ot+er6ise consequences 6ill 0e .pletely Express t+e Su01ect Lidasan is a resident o* Paran/.ust re. t+e votes +e cast s+all not 0e invalidated 0ecause +e 6as quali*ied to vote on t+e date o* t+e elections3 Expressu.ers.andate o* independence o* t+e . o* t+e la6 or to repeal or .ust declare t+at +eKs+e +as not applied *or citi=ens+ip in anot+er country3 T+us.t+an J years a*ter approval o* re/istration 0ut it also requires t+e #ilipino a0road. 8?> +e is a /reen card +older.ain in t+e +ands o* .onstitution.on/ress as its duty and po6er under Section & o* 'rticle ()) o* t+e .?MELE.on/ress 6ent 0eyond t+e scope o* its constitutional aut+ority3 .?MELE.?MELE.on/ress itsel* 6as conscious o* t+is pro0a0ility and provided *or deterrence 6+ic+ is t+at t+e #ilipino 6+o *ails to return as pro.ple.reatin/ t+e .ourt is le*t 6it+ no option 0ut to 6it+dra6 *ro. it can 0e said t+at t+e .ean 6+at t+e . a. 6+ic+ is entitled -'n 'ct . 6+ic+ is to /rant #ilipino i. t+e . its usual silence in declarin/ a provision o* la6 unconstitutional3 Lidasan vs .ised stands to lose +is ri/+t o* su**ra/e3 'ccordin/ly. +eKs+e . t+e 6innin/ candidates only *or Senators and Party2list Reps3 (J) >o3 <y vestin/ itsel* 6it+ t+e po6ers to approve.ation o* t+e 6innin/ candidates *or President and (ice President *or t+e entire nation .onstitution3 . . a te.o.ota0ato3 Later.ourt pleases3 )n *ine.ourt is not in a position to rule on t+e 6isdo.anent residents a0road t+e unquestiona0le ri/+t to exercise t+e ri/+t o* su**ra/e (Section 1 'rticle () t+e .eanin/. *acit cessare tacitu.ourt is prevented *ro.?MELE..$ 6+ere a la6 sets do6n plainly its 6+ole .porary visitor or even on 0usiness trip. .et accordin/ to R' >o3 1" 3 'lt+ou/+ t+ere is a possi0ility t+at t+e #ilipino 6ill not return a*ter +e +as exercised +is ri/+t to vote. t+e . R' &% I.

Municipality o* Cianaton in t+e Province o* Lanao del Sur,4 6as passed3 Lidasan ca.e to @no6 later on t+at 0arrios To/ai/ and Madalu. 1ust .entioned are 6it+in t+e .unicipality o* <uldon, Province o* ,ota0ato, and t+at <ayan/a, Lan/@on/, Sara@an, Rat20o, Ci/a@apan, Ma/a0o, Ta0an/ao, Tion/@o, ,olodan, and Ra0a.a@a6an are parts and parcel o* anot+er .unicipality, t+e .unicipality o* Paran/, also in t+e Province o* ,ota0ato and not o* Lanao del Sur3 LRe.ar@a0ly, even t+e ,on/ress.an o* ,ota0ato voted in *avor o* R' &% I3M Pursuant to t+is la6, ,?MELE, proceeded to esta0lis+ precints *or voter re/istration in t+e said territories o* Cianaton3 Lidasan t+en *iled t+at R' &% I 0e nulli*ied *or 0ein/ unconstitutional 0ecause it did not clearly indicate in its title t+at it in creatin/ Cianaton, it 6ould 0e includin/ in t+e territory t+ereo* 0arrios *ro. ,ota0ato3

)SSEE$ )s R' &% I, 6+ic+ created Cianaton 0ut 6+ic+ includes 0arrios located in anot+er province – ,ota0ato – to 0e spared *ro. attac@ planted upon t+e constitutional .andate t+at ->o 0ill 6+ic+ .ay 0e enacted into la6 s+all e.0race .ore t+an one su01ect 6+ic+ s+all 0e expressed in t+e title o* t+e 0illF

9ELC$ T+e 0ane*ul e**ect o* t+e de*ective title +ere presented is not so di**icult to perceive3 Suc+ title did not in*or. t+e .e.0ers o* ,on/ress as to t+e *ull i.pact o* t+e la6G it did not apprise t+e people in t+e to6ns o* <uldon and Paran/ in ,ota0ato and in t+e province o* ,ota0ato itsel* t+at part o* t+eir territory is 0ein/ ta@en a6ay *ro. t+eir to6ns and province and added to t+e ad1acent Province o* Lanao del SurG it @ept t+e pu0lic in t+e dar@ as to 6+at to6ns and provinces 6ere actually a**ected 0y t+e 0ill t+at even a ,on/ress.an *ro. ,ota0ato voted *or it only to *ind out later on t+at it is to t+e pre1udice o* +is o6n province3 T+ese are t+e pressures 6+ic+ +eavily 6ei/+ a/ainst t+e constitutionality o* R' &% I3

,entral <an@ E.ployees 'ssociation )nc3 vs3 <an/@o Sentral n/ Pilipinas LGR 1&"5I", 1H Cece.0er 5II&M En <anc, Puno (;)$ " concur, & dissent, 5 on leave #acts$ ?n J ;uly 1 J, R' %!HJ (t+e >e6 ,entral <an@ 'ct) too@ e**ect3 )t a0olis+ed t+e old ,entral <an@ o* t+e P+ilippines, and created a ne6 <SP3 ?n " ;une 5II1, al.ost " years a*ter t+e e**ectivity o* R' %!HJ, t+e ,entral <an@ (no6 <SP) E.ployees 'ssociation, )nc3, *iled a petition *or pro+i0ition a/ainst <SP and t+e Executive Secretary o* t+e ?**ice o* t+e President, to restrain t+e <an/@o Sentral n/ Pilipinas and t+e Executive Secretary *ro. *urt+er i.ple.entin/ t+e last proviso in Section 1H(c), 'rticle )) o* R' %!HJ, on t+e /round t+at it is unconstitutional3 'rticle )), Section 1H(c) o* R' %!HJ (Exercise o* 'ut+ority) provides t+at B)n t+e exercise o* its aut+ority, t+e Monetary <oard s+all 333 (c) esta0lis+ a +u.an resource .ana/e.ent syste. 6+ic+ s+all /overn t+e selection, +irin/, appoint.ent, trans*er, pro.otion, or dis.issal o* all personnel3 Suc+ syste. s+all ai. to esta0lis+ pro*essionalis. and excellence at all levels o* t+e <an/@o Sentral in accordance 6it+ sound principles o* .ana/e.ent3 ' co.pensation structure, 0ased on 1o0 evaluation studies and 6a/e surveys and su01ect to t+e <oard7s approval, s+all 0e instituted as an inte/ral co.ponent

o* t+e <an/@o Sentral7s +u.an resource develop.ent pro/ra.$ Provided, T+at t+e Monetary <oard s+all .a@e its o6n syste. con*or. as closely as possi0le 6it+ t+e principles provided *or under Repu0lic 'ct >o3 !%H" LSalary Standardi=ation 'ctM3 Provided, +o6ever, T+at co.pensation and 6a/e structure o* e.ployees 6+ose positions *all under salary /rade 1 and 0elo6 s+all 0e in accordance 6it+ t+e rates prescri0ed under Repu0lic 'ct >o3 !%H"3B T+e 'ssociation alle/es t+at t+e proviso .a@es an unconstitutional cut 0et6een t6o classes o* e.ployees in t+e <SP, vi=$ (1) t+e <SP o**icers or t+ose exe.pted *ro. t+e covera/e o* t+e Salary Standardi=ation La6 (SSL) (exe.pt class)G and (5) t+e ran@2and2*ile (Salary Grade LSGM 1 and 0elo6), or t+ose not exe.pted *ro. t+e covera/e o* t+e SSL (non2exe.pt class)3 )t is contended t+at t+is classi*ication is -a classic case o* class le/islation,4 alle/edly not 0ased on su0stantial distinctions 6+ic+ .a@e real di**erences, 0ut solely on t+e SG o* t+e <SP personnel7s position3 )ssue$ 8+et+er t+eran@2and2*ile e.ployees o* t+e <SP are unduly discri.inated upon 0y exe.ptin/ <SP o**icers (SG 5I and a0ove) *ro. t+e Salary Standardi=ation La63 9eld$ ,on/ress is allo6ed a 6ide lee6ay in providin/ *or a valid classi*ication3 T+e equal protection clause is not in*rin/ed 0y le/islation 6+ic+ applies only to t+ose persons *allin/ 6it+in a speci*ied class3 )* t+e /roupin/s are c+aracteri=ed 0y su0stantial distinctions t+at .a@e real di**erences, one class .ay 0e treated and re/ulated di**erently *ro. anot+er3 T+e classi*ication .ust also 0e /er.ane to t+e purpose o* t+e la6 and .ust apply to all t+ose 0elon/in/ to t+e sa.e class3 T+e exe.ption o* o**icers (SG 5I and a0ove) *ro. t+e SSL 6as intended to address t+e <SP7s lac@ o* co.petitiveness in ter.s o* attractin/ co.petent o**icers and executives3 )t 6as not intended to discri.inate a/ainst t+e ran@2and2*ile3 )* t+e end2result did in *act lead to a disparity o* treat.ent 0et6een t+e o**icers and t+e ran@2and2*ile in ter.s o* salaries and 0ene*its, t+e discri.ination or distinction +as a rational 0asis and is not palpa0ly, purely, and entirely ar0itrary in t+e le/islative sense3 9o6ever, 6+ile R' %!HJ started as a valid .easure 6ell 6it+in t+e le/islature7s po6er, t+e enact.ent o* su0sequent la6s exe.ptin/ all ran@2and2*ile e.ployees o* ot+er Govern.ent #inancial )nstitutions (G#)s) leec+ed all validity out o* t+e last proviso o* Section 1H(c), 'rticle )) o* R' %!HJ3 '*ter t+e ne6 <SP c+arter 6as enacted in 1 J, ,on/ress also undertoo@ t+e a.end.ent o* t+e c+arters o* t+e Land <an@ o* t+e P+ilippines (L<P, 6it+ R' % I% L1 HM), Social Security Syste. (SSS, 6it+ R' "5"5 L1 %M), S.all <usiness Guarantee and #inance ,orporation (S<G#,, 6it+ R' "5" L1 %M), Govern.ent Service )nsurance Syste. (GS)S, 6it+ R' "5 1 L1 %M), Cevelop.ent <an@ o* t+e P+ilippines (C<P, 6it+ R' "H5J L1 "M), 9o.e Guaranty ,orporation (9G,, 6it+ R' "%!J L5IIIM), and P+ilippine Ceposit )nsurance ,orporation (PC),, 6it+ R' JI5 L5II&M)3 T+us, 11 years a*ter t+e a.end.ent o* t+e <SP c+arter, t+e ran@2and2*ile o* % ot+er G#)s 6ere /ranted t+e exe.ption t+at 6as speci*ically denied to t+e ran@2and2*ile o* t+e <SP3 Even t+e Securities and Exc+an/e ,o..ission (SE,) 6as /ranted t+e sa.e 0lan@et exe.ption *ro. t+e SSL in 5III3 T+e prior vie6 on t+e constitutionality o* R' %!HJ 6as con*ined to an evaluation o* its classi*ication 0et6een t+e ran@2and2*ile and t+e o**icers o* t+e <SP, *ound reasona0le 0ecause t+ere 6ere su0stantial distinctions t+at .ade real di**erences 0et6een t+e t6o classes3 T+e su0sequent enact.ents, +o6ever, constitute si/ni*icant c+an/es in circu.stance t+at considera0ly alter t+e reasona0ility o* t+e continued operation o* t+e last proviso o* Section 1H(c), 'rticle )) o* R' %!HJ, t+ere0y exposin/ t+e proviso to .ore serious scrutiny3 T+is ti.e, t+e scrutiny relates to t+e constitutionality o* t+e classi*ication 2 al0eit .ade indirectly as a consequence o* t+e passa/e o*

ei/+t ot+er la6s 2 0et6een t+e ran@2and2*ile o* t+e <SP and t+e seven ot+er G#)s3 T+e classi*ication .ust not only 0e reasona0le, 0ut .ust also apply equally to all .e.0ers o* t+e class3 T+e proviso .ay 0e *air on its *ace and i.partial in appearance 0ut it cannot 0e /rossly discri.inatory in its operation, so as practically to .a@e un1ust distinctions 0et6een persons 6+o are 6it+out di**erences3 T+e disparity o* treat.ent 0et6een <SP ran@2and2*ile and t+e ran@2and2*ile o* t+e ot+er seven G#)s de*initely 0ears t+e un.ista@a0le 0ad/e o* invidious discri.ination 2 no one can, 6it+ candor and *airness, deny t+e discri.inatory c+aracter o* t+e su0sequent 0lan@et and total exe.ption o* t+e seven ot+er G#)s *ro. t+e SSL 6+en suc+ 6as 6it++eld *ro. t+e <SP3 'li@es are 0ein/ treated as unali@es 6it+out any rational 0asis3 T+e equal protection clause does not de.and a0solute equality 0ut it requires t+at all persons s+all 0e treated ali@e, under li@e circu.stances and conditions 0ot+ as to privile/es con*erred and lia0ilities en*orced3 #avoritis. and undue pre*erence cannot 0e allo6ed3 #or t+e principle is t+at equal protection and security s+all 0e /iven to every person under circu.stances 6+ic+, i* not identical, are analo/ous3 )* la6 0e loo@ed upon in ter.s o* 0urden or c+ar/es, t+ose t+at *all 6it+in a class s+ould 0e treated in t+e sa.e *as+ionG 6+atever restrictions cast on so.e in t+e /roup is equally 0indin/ on t+e rest3 )n li/+t o* t+e lac@ o* real and su0stantial distinctions t+at 6ould 1usti*y t+e unequal treat.ent 0et6een t+e ran@2and2*ile o* <SP *ro. t+e seven ot+er G#)s, it is clear t+at t+e enact.ent o* t+e seven su0sequent c+arters +as rendered t+e continued application o* t+e c+allen/ed proviso anat+e.a to t+e equal protection o* t+e la6, and t+e sa.e s+ould 0e declared as an outla63 t+e t6o2tier analysis .ade in t+e case, and its conclusion o* unconstitutionality 0y su0sequent operation, are in cadence and in consonance 6it+ t+e pro/ressive trend o* ot+er 1urisdictions and in international la63 T+ere s+ould 0e no +esitation in usin/ t+e equal protection clause as a .a1or cuttin/ ed/e to eli.inate every conceiva0le irrational discri.ination in our society3 )ndeed, t+e social 1ustice i.peratives in t+e ,onstitution, coupled 6it+ t+e special status and protection a**orded to la0or, co.pel t+is approac+3 'propos t+e special protection a**orded to la0or under our ,onstitution and international la6, it +as 0een +eld in )nternational Sc+ool 'lliance o* Educators v3 Puisu.0in/ t+at -pu0lic policy a0+ors inequality and discri.ination is 0eyond contention3 ?ur ,onstitution and la6s re*lect t+e policy a/ainst t+ese evils3 T+e ,onstitution in t+e 'rticle on Social ;ustice and 9u.an Ri/+ts ex+orts ,on/ress to T/ive +i/+est priority to t+e enact.ent o* .easures t+at protect and en+ance t+e ri/+t o* all people to +u.an di/nity, reduce social, econo.ic, and political inequalities37 T+e very 0road 'rticle 1 o* t+e ,ivil ,ode requires every person, Tin t+e exercise o* +is ri/+ts and in t+e per*or.ance o* +is duties, LtoM act 6it+ 1ustice, /ive everyone +is due, and o0serve +onesty and /ood *ait+37B )nternational la6, 6+ic+ sprin/s *ro. /eneral principles o* la6, li@e6ise proscri0es discri.ination3 General principles o* la6 include principles o* equity, i3e3, t+e /eneral principles o* *airness and 1ustice, 0ased on t+e test o* 6+at is reasona0le3 T+e Eniversal Ceclaration o* 9u.an Ri/+ts, t+e )nternational ,ovenant on Econo.ic, Social, and ,ultural Ri/+ts, t+e )nternational ,onvention on t+e Eli.ination o* 'll #or.s o* Racial Ciscri.ination, t+e ,onvention a/ainst Ciscri.ination in Education, t+e ,onvention (>o3 111) ,oncernin/ Ciscri.ination in Respect o* E.ploy.ent and ?ccupation 2 all e.0ody t+e /eneral principle a/ainst discri.ination, t+e very antit+esis o* *airness and 1ustice3 T+e P+ilippines, t+rou/+ its ,onstitution, +as incorporated t+is principle as part o* its national la6s3 T+e <SP ran@2and2*ile e.ployees .erit /reater concern *ro. t+e Supre.e ,ourt3 T+ey represent t+e .ore i.potent ran@2and2*ile /overn.ent e.ployees 6+o, unli@e e.ployees in t+e private sector, +ave no speci*ic ri/+t to or/ani=e as a collective 0ar/ainin/ unit and ne/otiate *or 0etter ter.s and conditions o* e.ploy.ent, nor t+e po6er to +old a stri@e to protest un*air la0or practices3 >ot only

+inese 0usiness. as a .ers as 6ould prevent +i.porarily stays and . or o* t+at spirit o* re/ard. 0ut t+eir e**icacy to lo00y in . t+e continued operation and i. Lao )c+on/.ination cannot 0e /iven any 6aitin/ ti. *ro. 'rticle )) o* Repu0lic 'ct %!HJ 6as declared unconstitutional3 UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU UUUUUUUUU )c+on/ vs 9ernande= #acts$ .ination3 T+us.en en1oyed a -.an. sy.onstitution is a .ent3 )ndeed. it is t+e . *or t+is country 6+ere +e te. +e s+ould 0e /iven equal opportunity3 )SSEE$ 8+et+er or >ot Repu0lic 'ct >o3 11"I violates equal protection clause3 9ELC$ >o3 T+e .ore *or discri.onopoly4 in t+e local . *ro.+inese 0usiness.ployees represent t+e politically po6erless and t+ey s+ould not 0e co. *ro. t+e ot+er G#) ran@2and2*ile in co.e .are t+ey i.ourt7s duty to save t+e.pensation3 T+ese <SP ran@2and2 *ile e.ple.ost nil as R' %!HJ e**ectively isolated t+e.pat+y and consideration *or +is #ilipino custo.ere platitude.une 1 H&.e3 Enless t+e equal protection clause o* t+e .e /eneration o* t+e country.ar@et in Pasay3 <ut in .on/ress passed t+e Repu0lic 'ct >o3 11"I or t+e Retail Trade >ationali=ation 'ct3 T+is act is to reserve to #ilipinos t+e ri/+t to en/a/e in t+e retail 0usiness3 )c+on/ t+en petitioned *or t+e nulli*ication o* t+e said 'ct on t+e /round t+at it contravened several treaties concluded 0y t+e P+ilippines3 9e said it violates t+e equal protection clause (pacta sund servanda) and.+inese 0usiness.on/ress is al.pelled to see@ a political solution to t+eir unequal and iniquitous treat.ere *act o* aliena/e is t+e root and cause o* t+e distinction 0et6een t+e alien and t+e national as a trader3 T+e alien resident o6es alle/iance to t+e country o* +is 0irt+ or +is adopted countryG +is stay +ere is *or personal convenienceG +e is attracted 0y t+e lure o* /ain and pro*it3 9e is naturally lac@in/ in t+at spirit o* loyalty and ent+usias.potent as a la0or unit.any years *or t+e le/islature to act3 T+ey cannot 0e as@ed to 6ait so.an en/a/ed in t+e 0usiness +ere in t+e country 6+o +elps in t+e inco. ta@in/ advanta/e o* t+eir 6ea@ness and exploitin/ t+e.entation o* t+e last proviso o* Section 1H(c). reasonless discri.3 . . entered t+e country to ta@e advanta/e o* 0usiness opportunities +erein a0ound3 9is type o* 0usiness particularly is a retail 0usiness3 9e and +is *ello6 . t+ey +ave 6aited *or .a@es +is livin/.

ate prero/ative and it can not declare t+at t+e act transcends t+e li.a . entered into separate a/ree.ourt *inds t+at t+e classi*ication is actual.a@in/ po6er3 Since t+e .pletion o* pay. positive and *unda. 1 % ?RT)G'S Q .ents (o* sale on install. it is in duty 0ound to declare t+at t+e le/islature acted 6it+in its le/iti.ent o* t+e purc+ase price.TS$ Plainti** is en/a/ed in real estate 0usiness.itation only 6+en t+e classi*ication is 6it+out reasona0le 0asis3 G3R3 >o3 L25&!%I Cece. 1 !5...+ave=3 <ot+ t+e a/ree.s and purposes su**icient 0asis *or distinction3 T+e a0ove o01ectiona0le c+aracteristics o* t+e exercise o* t+e retail trade 0y t+e aliens. t+at t+is is t+e prero/ative o* t+e la62. developin/ and sellin/ lots to t+e pu0lic.+ave=3 Epon co. and 'u/usto Padilla and >atividad 'n/eles. L)M)TEC P'RT>ERS9)P vs3 #E'T) <'>R '>C TREST .on/ persons is not curtailed or denied 0y t+e equal protection o* t+e la6s clause3 T+e le/islative po6er ad. plainti**. t+e po6er o* t+e le/islature to .easure Ci**erence in alien ai. o* t+e le/islatureDs classi*ication3 To t+is 6e ans6er.e and 6ealt+3 T+e alienDs interest in t+is country 0ein/ .onstitution3 <roadly spea@in/. particularly t+e 9i/+6ay 9ills Su0division alon/ ECS'3 ?n Marc+ &. and as it cannot 0e said t+at t+e classi*ication is patently unreasona0le and un*ounded.e .ay disa/ree 6it+ t+e 6isdo. t+e said vendees trans*erred t+eir ri/+ts and interests over t+e a*oresaid lots in *avor o* one E. 6+ic+ are actual and real.erely transient and te.?3.its o* a 6ide scope o* discretion.portant *unction o* retail distri0ution to +is +ands3 T+e practices resorted to 0y aliens in t+e control o* distri0ution s+o6 t+e existence o* real and actual.ents over t6o parcels o* land o* t+e Su0division3 ?n .a . it 6ould indeed 0e ill2advised to continue entrustin/ t+e very i.ental di**erences 0et6een an alien and a national 6+ic+ *ully 1usti*y t+e le/islative classi*ication adopted in t+e retail trade .a@es a /enuine contri0ution to national inco.a@e distinctions and classi*ications a.?3 #'.ents o* sale on install.ent) and t+e deeds o* sale contained t+e .porary. as vendor. real and reasona0le. *urnis+ su**icient /rounds *or le/islative classi*ication o* retail traders into nationals and aliens3 So.it o* equal protection esta0lis+ed 0y t+e . and a la6 can 0e violative o* t+e constitutional li. t+e plainti** executed t+e correspondin/ deeds o* sale in *avor o* E. and all persons o* one class are treated ali@e.'not+er o01ection to t+e alien retailer in t+is country is t+at +e never really . as vendees.uly 1 . 1 H5.0er 1&.

) and ?0stetrics and Gynecolo/y (?<2Gyne). <ioc+e.inees scored 1IIN in <io2.s t+at restriction is *or t+e 0eauti*ication o* t+e su0division3 Ce*endant clai.olle/e o* Medicine.+e.ate exercise o* police po6er3 PR. stones or /ravel *ro. #ati.ust 0e. . 6it+ sa.ain tra**ic artery 6+ic+ runs t+rou/+ several cities and . vs3 Ce Gu=. peace.pair.odern sanitary installations connected eit+er to t+e pu0lic se6er or to an approved septic tan@.. o* tra**ic and t+e resultin/ activity.ents (except t+e *ence) 6+ic+ . (0) provided 6it+ .ed o* t+e co.and to stop it. sa*ety..stipulations or restrictions t+at$ 13 T+e parcel o* land s+all 0e used exclusively *or residential purposes.prove.. it or any ot+er lots 0elon/in/ to t+e Seller3 53 'll 0uildin/s and ot+er i. Metro Manila3 T+ey passed t+e P+ysician Licensure Exa.ercial 0an@ 0uildin/3 Plainti** de.edical licensure exa. t+e rule is not a0solute.a exa. 6+ic+ *orced +i.+e.aterials and properly painted.ination conducted in #e0ruary 1 J 0y t+e <oard o* Medicine (<oard)3 Petitioner Pro*essional Re/ulation . anot+er eleven /ot N in <io2. Repu0lic #lour Mills 0y deed o* exc+an/e.ove soil.an #acts$ T+e respondents are all /raduates o* t+e #ati.issed.inees *ro.eters *ro. up+oldin/ police po6er3 Motion *or recon 6as denied. since it +as to 0e reconciled 6it+ t+e le/iti. (alen=uela .erciali=ation o* 6estern part o* ECS'3 Ce*endant 0e/an constructin/ a co. to *ile a case. and ten /ot 1IIN in ?<2Gyne. t+e <oard o0served t+at t+e /rades o* t+e seventy2nine success*ul exa.ission (PR.+ave= and Lot ! *ro.inees in t+e . 6ere unusually and exceptionally +i/+3 Eleven #ati.es as success*ul exa.istry (<io2..olle/e in t+e t6o . 6+ic+ 6as later dis.ay 0e constructed at any ti.ent o* contracts is constitutionally /uaranteed.+e. t+at 6+ile non2i.a .ity. and s+e s+all not 0e entitled to ta@e or re. and (c) s+all not 0e at a distance o* less t+an t6o (5) . supports an endless strea. /ood order and /eneral 6el*are o* t+e people in t+e locality are 1usti*ications *or t+is3 )t s+ould 0e stressed.edical licensure exa. and . (a) o* stron/ .a .unicipalities in t+e Metro Manila area.e in said lot .) t+en released t+eir na. a . its 0oundary lines3 Eventually said lots 6ere 0ou/+t 0y de*endant3 Lot H directly *ro. sa*ety or 6el*are o* t+e residents in its route3 9ealt+.ost di**icult su01ects in t+e .o.. +ence t+e appeal3 )SSEE$ 8?> Resolution >o3 5% is a valid exercise o* police po6er 9ELC$ :es3 Resolution is a valid exercise o* police po6er3 ECS'. noise and pollution are +ardly conducive to t+e +ealt+.e restrictions3 Plainti** clai.ination3 S+ortly t+erea*ter.

ediate reply *ro. 5IIH MMC' vs3 G'R)> #'.ination leads to t+e conclusion t+at t+e #ati.ay 0e so re/ulated pursuant to t+e police po6er o* t+e State to sa*e/uard +ealt+. t+e ><) *ound t+at -t+e questiona0le passin/ rate o* #ati. t+e c+air. allo6in/ MMC' to *ix and i.pose unspeci*ied and unli. it is true t+at t+is .t6enty2one scored N in ?<2Gyne3 #or its part.ent unit o* a pu0lic corporation endo6ed 6it+ le/islative po6er and it +as no po6er to enact ordinances *or t+e 6el*are o* t+e co.a exa.inees /ained early access to t+e test questions34 )ssue$ 8as t+e act pursuant to R3'3 5J"5 a valid exercise o* police po6er Rulin/$ :es.+air. t+eir exercise . Garin *iled *or a preli.ents3 <ut li@e all ri/+ts and *reedo.orals.ent o* tra**ic rules and re/ulations constitutionalF 9ELC$ T+e MMC' is not vested 6it+ police po6er3 )t 6as concluded t+at MMC' is not a local /overn.ay 0e required to ta@e an exa. con*iscatin/ driver 7s license 6it+out *irst /ivin/ t+e driver t+e opportunity to 0e +eard in an appropriate proceedin/3 T+us t+is petition3 )SSEE$ 8?> Sec H(*) o* R' % 5& 6+ic+ aut+ori=es MMC' to con*iscate and suspend or revo@e driver 7s license in t+e en*orce. and equita0le ad. education.on/ ot+ers t+at Sec H (*) o* R' % 5& violates t+e constitutional pro+i0ition a/ainst undue dele/ation o* le/islative aut+ority.ission and acade.ourt +as up+eld t+e constitutional ri/+t o* every citi=en to select a pro*ession or course o* study su01ect to a *air. persons 6+o desire to en/a/e in t+e learned pro*essions requirin/ scienti*ic or tec+nical @no6led/e . and /eneral 6el*are o* t+e people3 T+us. 'pril 1H.ourt3 8it+out an i.s /uaranteed 0y t+e .an. order.ited *ines and penalties3 RT.unity3 . directin/ MMC' to return +is license and *or t+e aut+ority to desist *ro.inees in t+e L1 JM P+ysician Exa.an Prospero ?reta requestin/ t+e return o* +is license and expressed +is pre*erence *or +is case to 0e *ile in .ic require.+arter..TS$ Respondent Garin 6as issued a tra**ic violation receipt (T(R) and +is driver 7s license 6as con*iscated *or par@in/ ille/ally3 Garin 6rote to t+en MMC' .a exa. sa*ety.. rule in +is *avor.ination as a prerequisite to en/a/in/ in t+eir c+osen careers GR >o3 1JI5J . peace. reasona0le.inary in1unction assailin/ a. .

R' H %. includin/ its .orporation and #elicisi. as t+ey s+all 1ud/e to 0e *or /ood and 6el*are o* t+e co.0er 1 "1 to ena0le t+e.entin/ . esta0lis+ all . prayin/ *or an early +earin/ o* t+eir petition3 T+e case 6as +eard on 5I #e0ruary 1 "13 ?n 5" >ove.inary in1unction and te. et3 al3 *iled 0e*ore t+e <T a -Mani*estation and Er/ent Motion4.ple. in 1 "IG and t+ose o* . 1 "5 T'A). see@in/ to nulli*y Me. et3 al3.orandu.a@e. )nc3 (T?MM)). instructin/ t+e Re/ional Cirector. instituted a petition *or certiorari.'< ?PER'T?RS ?# METR? M'>)L' (S3 <?T #'. in 1 "13 ?n 5% . alle/edly ..po6ers MMC' or its council to -enact ordinance.ay +ave under t+e la6 *or t+e protection o* t+eir interests 0e*ore t+eir 1 %H .e . dated 1H 'u/ust 1 "I. and *or. ordain.ircular %%2&5 or to stop its i. provided t+at.e and reasona0le la6s.entationG to allo6 t+e re/istration and operation in 1 "1 and su0sequent years o* taxica0s o* .R).odels 6+ic+ 6ere p+ased2 out. to avail o* 6+atever re.ple.e.anuary 1 "1.anda.a0i/ao. T?MM).anner o* 6+oleso.orandu.0er 1 "1. Taxica0 ?perators o* Metro Manila.e o* re/istration. as 6ell as t+ose o* earlier . t+e <oard o* Transportation (<T) issued Me.anuary 1 "53 T?MM).e <oard a -Mani*estation and Er/ent Motion to Resolve or Cecide Main Petition4 prayin/ t+at t+e case 0e resolved or decided not later t+an 1I Cece.ple. People7s ?r/ani=ations.odel ca0s are p+ased2out on 1 . statutes and ordinances eit+er 6it+ penalties o* 6it+out.TS$ ?n 1I ?cto0er 1 %%. *iled a petition 6it+ t+e <T (. at t+e ti. in 1 % G t+ose o* . et3 al3.apitol Re/ion +avin/ year .odel 1 %&. >G?s and private sector *or t+e e**icient and expeditious delivery o* services3 'll its *unctions are ad.e3 T+ere is no provision in R' % 5& t+at e.ircular.Police po6er. T?MM). t+rou/+ its President. et3 al3 *iled 0e*ore t+e sa.ourt3 .0er 1 "1.. all 6it+in t+e >ational .ulatin/ a sc+edule o* p+ase2out o* ve+icles to 0e allo6ed and accepted *or re/istration as pu0lic conveyances3 )n accordance t+ere6it+. 0ut 6as later in*or. .odel 1 %J.edy t+ey . t+e Cirector o* t+e <ureau o* Land Transportation (<LT) issued ). in case o* denial.porary restrainin/ order 6it+ t+e Supre.odels over ! years old3 Pursuant to t+e a0ove <?T circular.odel 1 %1 6ere p+ased2out in re/istration year 1 %"G t+ose o* . pro+i0ition and . T?MM).ircular H5. not repu/nant to t+e constitution.apital Re/ion (>. as an in+erent attri0ute o* soverei/nty is t+e po6er vested in t+e le/islature to .ent a/encies.ent said .odel 1 %5.ade personal *ollo62ups o* t+e case. to i.ase "I2%HHJ). approve resolutions and appropriate *unds *or t+e /eneral 6el*are o* t+e in+a0itants o* Metro Manila34 )t is an a/ency created *or t+e purpose o* layin/ do6n policies and coordinatin/ 6it+ t+e various national /overn.o .us 6it+ preli.0ers 'ce Transportation .on6ealt+ and *or su01ects o* t+e sa.inistrative in nature3 11 S.odel 1 %&.ircular %%2&5 p+asin/ out old and dilapidated taxisG re*usin/ re/istration to taxi units 6it+in t+e >ational . ca0s o* .ed t+at t+e records o* t+e case could not 0e located3 ?n 5 Cece. . t+ey are road6ort+y and *it *or operation3 ?n 1! #e0ruary 1 "1. t+e M( Re/istrars and ot+er personnel o* <LT.

practical to su01ect every taxica0 to constant and recurrin/ evaluation to deter.ple.entation outside Metro Manila is also envisioned in Me.ultiple standards. in t+e exercise o* its police po6er. . o* its police po6er. re/ulations. Presidential Cecree 1I1 /rants to t+e <oard o* Transportation t+e po6er to *ix 1ust and reasona0le standards. *airly.onsiderin/ t+at tra**ic conditions are not t+e sa. and *ollo6ed 0y operators o* pu0lic utility .ent o* t+e equal protection clause can +ardly 0e success*ully clai.orandu.ay also re/ulate property ri/+ts t+e lan/ua/e o* .e is 0ein/ en*orced in Metro Manila only and is directed solely to6ards t+e taxi industry3 't t+e outset it s+ould 0e pointed out t+at i.ly.entation and en*orce.ent o* Me.ented in .ote t+e +ealt+. unless t+e la6 provides ot+er6ise3 )t is i.e0u . sa*ety and /eneral 6el*are o* t+e people3 )t can pro+i0it all t+in/s +urt*ul to co. t+e dan/ers posed 0y old and dilapidated taxis3 T+e State.ircular in question violates t+eir ri/+t to equal protection o* t+e la6 0ecause t+e sa.orals.ity3 T+e <oardDs reason *or en*orcin/ t+e . and a *air return on invest.orals.*ort o* t+e ridin/ pu0lic *ro. . i.easure. .*ort. in t+e exercise. o0served. t+e require. or service to 0e *urnis+ed. /ood order.ircular %%2&5 is t+e sa*ety and co. classi*ication.ote t+e +ealt+. can prescri0e re/ulations to pro.posed 0y . peace. practices.irculars is not violative o* procedural due process3 Previous notice and +earin/ are not essential to t+e validity o* /eneral rules or re/ulations pro. and 1ustly3 T+e span o* six years supplies t+at reasona0le standard3 T+e product o* experience s+o6s t+at 0y t+at ti.ustice Enrique M3 #ernando Bt+e necessities i. .ed3 T+e overridin/ consideration is t+e sa*ety and co. .posed..)SSEE$ 8?> t+e i. are su01ected to +eavier tra**ic pressure and .*ort. /ood order.ircular >o3 %%2&53 )n *act.ental aut+ority to re/ulate even i* t+ere0y certain /roups .e in every city. possi0le collusion.et3 alle/ed t+at t+e .e is also i.ay plausi0ly assert t+at t+eir interests are disre/arded3 Cispensin/ 6it+ a pu0lic +earin/ prior to t+e issuance o* t+e .posed 0y pu0lic 6el*are . co.orandu. and even /ra*t and corruption3 ' reasona0le standard .orandu.*ort o* t+e ridin/ pu0lic *ro.pared to t+ose o* ot+er places. t+e sa.*orta0le service to t+e pu0lic specially considerin/ t+at t+ey are in continuous operation practically 5& +ours everyday in t+ree s+i*ts o* ei/+t +ours per s+i*t3 8it+ t+at standard o* reasona0leness and a0sence o* ar0itrariness. can prescri0e re/ulations to pro.ent o0tained3 T+ey are also /enerally dilapidated and no lon/er *it *or sa*e and co.ent o* due process +as 0een . sa*ety and 6el*are o* society3 )t . not to spea@ o* t+e *act t+at it can open t+e door to t+e adoption o* .ple.ore constant use3 T+is is o* co.ircular %%2&5 violates t+e petioner 7s constitutional ri/+ts to (1) Equal protection o* t+e la6G (5) Su0stantive due processG and (J) Protection a/ainst ar0itrary and unreasona0le classi*ication and standard3 9ELC$ Re/ardin/ t+e and Su0stantive Cue Process. t+eir cost recovered.ul/ated to /overn *uture conduct o* a class or persons or enterprises. sa*ety and /eneral 6el*are o* t+e people3 )t can pro+i0it all t+in/s +urt*ul to co.ine its road26ort+iness.ay 1usti*y t+e exercise o* /overn.on @no6led/e3 . peace.ple.+ie* .ay also re/ulate property ri/+ts3 T+e necessities i.ents. t+e dan/ers posed 0y old and dilapidated taxis3 T+e State. .ircular initially in Metro Manila is t+at taxica0s in t+is city.otor ve+icles3 T+e overridin/ consideration in t+e issuance o* Me. sa*ety and 6el*are o* society .e taxis +ave *ully depreciated.ust 0e adopted to apply to all ve+icles a**ected uni*or. a su0stantial distinction exists so t+at in*rin/e.

no taxes. t+ree percent (JN) o* t+e /ross inco.anuary 5I.' G3R3 15%&1I V .ic Oone.ent 'ut+ority *or t+is Purpose.' decision and resolution t+at up+eld t+e constitutionality and validity o* E? %2'. s+all 0e i.e privile/es and required to *ollo6 t+e sa.ent *und o* one percent (1N) o* t+e /ross inco. 1 V .ental aut+ority to re/ulate even i* t+ere0y certain /roups .e o0li/ations3 )n s+ort. Section 15 o* R' %55% provides t+at.e earned 0y all 0usinesses and enterprises 6it+in t+e Su0ic Special Econo.e s+all 0e resolved in *avor o* t+e latterG4 .ay 1usti*y t+e exercise o* /overn. t+e sa.unicipalities conti/uous to t+e 0ase areas xxx )n case o* con*lict 0et6een national and local la6s 6it+ respect to tax exe.ent units a**ected 0y t+e declaration o* t+e =one in proportion to t+eir population area. to t+ose 6+o live 6it+in t+e Oone 0ut outside suc+ -*enced2in4 territory3 T+e .ption privile/es in t+e Su0ic Special Econo. issued pursuant to la6. and ot+er .onstitution does not require a0solute equality a.unicipalities outside t+e .ent o* t+e tax and duty incentives aut+ori=ed under R' %55% (-'n 'ct 'cceleratin/ t+e . local and national. t+ere is +ere0y esta0lis+ed a develop. one percent (1N) eac+ to t+e local /overn.e earned 0y all 0usinesses and enterprises 6it+in t+e Su0ic Special Econo.onversion o* Military Reservations )nto ?t+er Productive Eses.stances or conditions are /iven t+e sa.on/ residents3 )t is enou/+ t+at all persons under li@e circu. and ot+er *actors3 )n addition.pu0lic 6el*are .itted to t+e >ational Govern.onversion and Cevelop.on/ ot+ers. -T+e provision o* existin/ la6s.ay plausi0ly assert t+at t+eir interests are disre/ardedB3 .ic Oone s+all 0e re.ent.ic Oone and denyin/ t+e. .posed 6it+in t+e Su0ic Special Econo.ent o* .?>R'C? T)E ( .ic Oone3 )n lieu o* payin/ taxes.reatin/ t+e <ases .3 Pan/ani0an Coctrine$ T+e constitutional ri/+ts to equal protection o* t+e la6 is not violated 0y an executive order. a classi*ication 0ased on valid and reasona0le standards does not violate t+e equal protection clause3 #acts$ Petitioners assail t+e .ity o* ?lon/apo and t+e Municipality o* Su0ic. rules and re/ulations to t+e contrary not6it+standin/.ic Oone (SSEO)3 '. Providin/ #unds T+ere*or and *or ?t+er Purposes4) 6ere li. /rantin/ tax and duty incentives only to t+e 0usiness and residents 6it+in t+e -secured area4 o* t+e Su0ic Special Econo.ited to t+e 0usiness enterprises and residents 6it+in t+e *enced2in area o* t+e Su0ic Special Econo.ic Oone to 0e utili=ed *or t+e develop. accordin/ to 6+ic+ t+e /rant and en1oy.

ourt o* 'ppeals *urt+er 1usti*ied t+e li.s. petitioners could not clai.entioned in Section 15 o* t+e la634 T+e .port taxes and duties). as a. petitioners no6 see@ 0e*ore us a revie6 o* t+e a*orecited .ended 3 3 374 T+e appellate court concluded t+at suc+ 0ein/ t+e case. i.ents t+e le/islative purpose o* LR' %55%M34 Cisa/reein/. t+e territory o* t+e SSEO to ot+er parts o* t+e P+ilippine territory s+all 0e su01ect to duties and taxes under relevant P+ilippine la6s3 Sec3 53 ?n 'll ?t+er Taxes3 S )n lieu o* all local and national taxes (except i. capital /oods and equip.aterials.portations o* ot+er /oods into t+e SSEO. t+e TSecured 'rea7 is precise and 6ell2de*ined as T3 3 3 t+e lands occupied 0y t+e Su0ic >aval <ase and its conti/uous extensions as e. pursuant to its -avo6ed purpose Lo* servin/M so.oval o* tax and duty2*ree /oods *ro. t+at E? %2' is unconstitutional.e .e ti.E? %. 6+ic+ clari*ied t+e application o* t+e incentives provided t+us$ Sec3 13 ?n ).portations s+all apply only to ra6 .ited application o* t+e tax incentives as 0ein/ 6it+in t+e prero/ative o* t+e le/islature.erica.ent 0rou/+t in 0y 0usiness enterprises into t+e SSEO3 Except *or t+ese ite.ourt +eld t+at -t+ere is no su0stantial di**erence 0et6een t+e provisions o* E? %2' and Section 15 o* R' %55%3 )n 0ot+.erely i.ple. covered and de*ined 0y t+e 1 &% Military <ases '/ree. 6+et+er 0y 0usiness enterprises or resident individuals. all 0usiness enterprises in t+e SSEO s+all 0e required to pay t+e tax speci*ied in Section 15(c) o* R3'3 >o3 %55%3 Respondent . are su01ect to taxes and duties under relevant P+ilippine la6s3 T+e exportation or re. 6+ile at t+e sa.0raced.on/ress 6as to con*ine t+e covera/e o* t+e SSEO to t+e -secured area4 and not to include t+e -entire ?lon/apo .ent 0et6een t+e P+ilippines and t+e Enited States o* '.e pu0lic 0ene*it or interest34 )t ruled t+at -E? %2' .aintainin/ t+e validity o* R' %55%3 T+e court a quo also explained t+at t+e intention o* .ourt o* 'ppeals Cecision and Resolution3 )ssue$ .port Taxes and Cuties3 S Tax and duty2*ree i.ity and ot+er areas .

ane to t+e purpose o* t+e la6.ited to existin/ conditions only.stances o0tainin/ inside and t+ose outside t+e Su0ic >aval <ase. possessin/ t+e requisite invest. /er.inatory3 T+ere are real and su0stantive distinctions 0et6een t+e circu. 6e are tal@in/ o* 0illion2peso invest.ents and t+ousands o* ne6.er Su0ic .. includin/ t+e petitioners.0ers o* t+e sa. are not cate/ori=ed *urt+er3 )nstead. t+e classi*ication applies equally to all t+e resident individuals and 0usinesses 6it+in t+e -secured area34 T+e residents. de*initely none o* suc+ . t+ere are su0stantial di**erences 0et6een t+e 0i/ investors 6+o are 0ein/ lured to esta0lis+ and operate t+eir industries in t+e so2called -secured area4 and t+e present 0usiness operators outside t+e area3 ?n t+e one +and. t+ere is no violation o* t+e constitutional clause3 'nd o* course.ity o* la6s3's lon/ as t+ere are actual and . and (&) apply equally to all .ic i.pact 6ill 0e nationalG in t+e second.ent intends to trans*or. t+ere*ore. (5) 0e /er. and develop *ro.aterial di**erences 0et6een territories.ertainly.e incentives to t+e con*ines o* t+e *or. 0ot+ in privile/es /ranted and in o0li/ations required3 Petition CE>)EC .8K> E? J%2' is constitutional 9eld$ :ES3 Said ?rder is not violative o* t+e equal protection clauseG neit+er is it discri. its status quo ante as an a0andoned naval *acility into a sel*2 sustainin/ industrial and co.ent o* t+e end purpose o* t+e la6. particularly *or 0i/ *orei/n and local investors to use as operational 0ases *or t+eir 0usinesses and industries3 T+e classi*ication is. only local3 )t is 6ell2settled t+at t+e equal2protection /uarantee does not require territorial uni*or. t+e econo.ercial =one. 0ein/ in li@e circu.lassi*ication.a/nitude3 )n t+e *irst. t+ere0y 1usti*yin/ a valid and reasona0le classi*ication3 .ited t+e application o* so.e class3 8e 0elieve it 6as reasona0le *or t+e President to +ave deli.e. .ilitary 0ase3 )t is t+is speci*ic area 6+ic+ t+e /overn.ust (1) rest on su0stantial distinctions.ent capital can al6ays avail o* t+e sa.ilarly treated. 1o0s3 ?n t+e ot+er +and. (J) not 0e li.ane to t+e purposes o* t+e la63 . anyone. to 0e valid.e 0ene*its 0y c+annellin/ +is or +er resources or 0usiness operations into t+e *enced2o** *ree port =one3 Lastly. t+ey are all si.stances or contri0utin/ directly to t+e ac+ieve.

ployed 0y t+e c+allen/ed re/ulation is not irrelevant to t+e purpose o* t+e la6 nor is it ar0itrary or oppressive3 T+e t+ree2 *lun@ rule is intended to insulate t+e .ission rule i. t+e intrusion o* t+ose not quali*ied to 0e doctors3 T+e State needs to i.petents to 6+o.ented 0y petitioner an ar0itrary exercise o* police po6er3 9eld$ T+e court +eld t+at police po6er is validly exercised i* (a) t+e interests o* t+e pu0lic /enerally.edical pro*ession is not in*iltrated 0y inco. deprivin/ respondent o* +is ri/+t to pursue .plis+ed and not unduly oppressive upon individuals3 T+e proper exercise o* t+e police po6er requires t+e concurrence o* a la6*ul su01ect and a la6*ul .TS$ <el2'ir (illa/e is located nort+ o* <uendia 'venue extension (no6 Sen3 Gil . #'.edical pro*ession *ro.ent decisive steps to re/ulate syste.edical education t+us t+is petition *or revie6 0e*ore t+e +i/+er court3 )ssue$ 8+et+er or not t+e ad.us 0e*ore t+e court3 Respondent 1ud/e rendered decision citin/ t+e ad.S v San Cie/o 1"I S.et+od3 T+e su01ect o* t+e c+allen/ed re/ulation is certainly 6it+in t+e a.eans e.R' HJJ (Cece.es and +e 6as denied ad.ple. patients . require t+e inter*erence o* t+e State.edical sc+ools and ulti.ately t+e .0er 55. as distin/uis+ed *ro.ployed are reasona0ly necessary to t+e attain..0it o* t+e police po6er3 )t is t+e ri/+t and indeed t+e responsi0ility o* t+e State to insure t+at t+e .ay un6arily entrust t+eir lives and +ealt+3 T+e .es and a*ter J consecutive *ailures a student s+all not 0e allo6ed to ta@e >M'T t+e &t+ ti. t+ose o* a particular class.ic *reedo. o* education 0y directin/ students to t+e course 6+ere +e is 0est suited t+rou/+ initial tests and evaluation3 T+e decision o* t+e respondent 1ud/e 6as reversed G3R3 >o3 %11! Cece.0er 51.e3 Respondent invo@e +is constitutional ri/+ts on acade.CE.ission Test (>M'T) J ti.et+od e. and quality education in +is petition *or .ent o* t+e o01ect sou/+t to 0e acco. and (0) t+e .ple. 1 " ) #acts$ T+e respondent *ailed to pass t+e >ational Medical 'd.e 0y t+e petitioner under its rule t+at a student is allo6ed only to ta@e t+e >M'T J ti.anda.ercial 0loc@ <el2'ir (illa/e 6as o6ned and developed into a residential su0division in t+e 1 HIs 0y Ma@ati .ission rule o* t+e petitioner as an ar0itrary exercise o* police po6er.ission to ta@e t+e test *or anot+er ti.3 Puyat 've3) across a stretc+ o* co. 1 "" S'>G'L'>G (S )'.

security and t+e /eneral 6el*are ?n 'pril &. 6+ic+.upiter Street T+ere is a peri.ate exercise o* police po6er3 T+e petitioners +ave not s+o6n 6+y 6e s+ould +old ot+er6ise ot+er t+an *or t+e supposed Bnon2i. 6+ic+ in 1 !" 6as .ent . 1 %H.0er 51.inistrative ?rder >o3 !53 T+e la6 speci*ically pr5ovides t+at -'ll /overn.pellin/ interests o* /eneral 6el*are3 T+e ?rdinance +as not 0een s+o6n to 0e capricious or ar0itrary or unreasona0le to 6arrant t+e reversal o* t+e 1ud/. respectively.ain ar/u.edicines3 )t also includes .0er o* t+e <el2'ir 'ssociation and .inolo/y or /eneric na.upiter Street t+e destruction o* 6+ic+ opened t+e street to t+e pu0lic3 )SSEE$ 8+et+er or not t+e MM. and ad.ent is t+e alle/ed unequal treat.lass ' Residential Oone.pair.edical. <el2'ir (illa/e 6as classi*ied as a .ust a0ide 0y suc+ rules and re/ulations laid do6n 0y t+e 'ssociation in t+e interest o* t+e sanitation. dispensin/. private practitioners s+all 6rite prescriptions usin/ t+e /eneric na. is secondary to t+e .entation o* 'd.e3 T+e petitioner 7s .ate exercise o* police po6erF 9ELC $ Endou0tedly. 6ere all sold 0y MC.atically a .unicipal council o* Ma@ati enacted its ordinance >o3 "1. su01ect to certain conditions and ease. 6it+ its 0oundary in t+e sout+ extendin/ to t+e center line o* . ?rdinance represents a le/iti.edical doctors in t+e P+ilippines3 T+ey assail t+e constitutionality o* so.es in all transactions related to purc+asin/.ent practitioners and .ple. providin/ *or t+e =oni*ication o* Ma@ati 3 Ender t+is ?rdinance.e o* t+e provisions o* Generics 'ct o* 1 "" (Rep3 'ct !!%H) and t+e i..er/ed 6it+ appellant 'yala T+e lots 6+ic+ 6ere acquired 0y appellees San/alan/ and spouse Gaston and spouse and <riones and spouse in 1 !I.orporation (+ereina*ter re*erred to as MC.ent +ealt+ a/encies s+all use /eneric ter.ore co. t+e MM. prescri0in/. as 6e +ave declared. dental and veterinary.ed a part o* eac+ deed o* sale T+e o6ner o* t+is lotKs or +is successors in interest is required to 0e and is auto.ercial side o* .Cevelop. t+e .ents so appealed3 Cel Rosario vs3 <en/=on (Cece. 1 " ) #acts$ P+ilippine Medical 'ssociation is t+e national or/ani=ation o* .).e.ents contained in Ceed Restrictions 6+ic+ *or.entB /uaranty o* t+e . 1 H% and 1 H".ent o* /overn.inisterin/ o* dru/s and .eter 6all t+en standin/ on t+e co.onstitution. ?rdinance represents a le/it.

ity in t+e Generics 'ct3 )t i.ine all t+e ot+er dru/ products or 0rands t+at +ave t+e sa.erely in*or.ay 6rite t+e 0rand na.e3 )t is alle/edly a specie o* invalid class le/islation3 )n addition.e and t+eir prices3 )ssue$ 8+et+er or not t+e Generics 'ct is constitutional as to t+e exercise o* police po6er 0y t+e /overn..ple.inistrative orders o* t+e Secretary o* 9ealt+ are constitutional3 T+e purpose o* t+e Generics 'ct is to -pro. 0ut does not deter.andate *or t+e State -to protect and pro.ple.s t+e custo. +ealt+ and ot+er social services availa0le to all t+e people at a**orda0le cost43 T+e alle/ed unequal treat.er o* all availa0le products.ents t+e constitutional .e and t+eir correspondin/ process3 T+e penal sanction in violation o* t+e la6 is indispensa0le 0ecause t+ey are t+e teet+ o* t+e la63 8it+out t+e. t+e petitioners /ave a distorted interpretation on R' !!%H and 'd.e counterparts43 T+e e**ect o* t+e dru/ does not depend .s t+e custo.ent p+ysicians.ent3 9eld$ Petition Cis.e /eneric na. 0ut does not deter.e o* t+e dru/ 0elo6 t+e /eneric na. t+e la6 6ould 0e toot+less3 T+e Generics 'ct and t+e i.t+ose on t+e private practice3 )t is 0ecause t+e *or.er.ote t+e ri/+t to +ealt+ o* t+e people4 and -to .a@e essential /oods.inolo/y in t+e prescription 6+ile t+e latter .e /eneric na.ent o* /overn.ine all t+e ot+er dru/ products or 0rands t+at +ave t+e sa.in ?rder >o3 !5 sayin/ t+at t+e sales/irl and or dru//ist +ave t+e discretion to su0stitute t+e doctor 7s prescription3 T+e court says t+at t+e sales/irl at t+e dru/store counter . is a .erely in*or. dentists and veterinarians on one +and and t+ose in t+e private practice in t+e ot+er.ote and require t+e use o* /eneric dru/ products t+at are t+erapeutically equivalent to t+eir 0rand na.entin/ ad.er are required to use only /eneric ter.isinterpretation o* t+e la63 T+e sales/irl at t+e dru/store counter .issed3 T+e court +as 0een una0le to *ind any constitutional in*ir.

?MELE. actual or t+reatened in1ury as a result o* t+e su01ect la63 Petitioner GM' >et6or@.H!I3II in providin/ *ree air ti.7s require.a/a=ines 6it+ pay.e *or one +our eac+ day and.on/ t+e candidates 6it+in t+e area o* covera/e o* all radio and television stations3 #or t+is purpose. +ad t+e requisite standin/ to 0rin/ t+e constitutional c+allen/e3 Petitioner operates radio and television 0roadcast stations in t+e P+ilippines a**ected 0y t+e en*orce. t+at t+e pri.?MELE. )nc3 (TELE<'P) is an or/ani=ation o* la6yers o* radio and television 0roadcastin/ co.illion pesos in providin/ .e s+all 0e procured 0y .ent t+at it provide at least JI .on its 0rand 0ut on t+e active in/redients 6+ic+ it contains TELE.?MELE.o.elec Ti.e3 Petitioner clai.?MELE.partially a.e is to aut+ori=e un1ust ta@in/ o* private property3 'ccordin/ to petitioners.?MME>).'ST 'TT?R>E:S ?# T9E P9)LS3 (S3 . <3P3 >o3 ""1 6+ic+ provides$ -.ission s+all procure radio and television ti.o.e daily *or suc+3 . in t+is year 7s elections. it 6as not a0le to s+o6 t+at it 6as to su**er *ro.s t+at it su**ered losses runnin/ to several . Ti.ended so as to provide radio or television ti.ent o* Section 5.e2 T+e .e4 6+ic+ s+all 0e allocated equally and i.?MELE."HI3II in vie6 o* .e to advertisers and to require t+ese stations to provide *ree air ti.. a.ore s+ould it 0e required to do so a/ain t+is year3 Petitioners clai.o.'T)?>S '>C <R?'C.e in connection 6it+ t+e 1 5 presidential election and 1 H senatorial election and t+at it stands to su**er even . L5" S.panies3 )t 6as declared to 0e 6it+out le/al standin/ to sue in t+is case as. "I. durin/ t+e period o* ca. on t+e ot+er +and. *ree o* c+ar/e3 T+us it contends t+at Section 5 sin/les out radio and television stations to provide *ree air ti.ent.inutes o* pri. to procure print space in ne6spapers and .R' JJ%G G3R3 >?3 1J5 55G 51 'PR 1 "M #acts$ Petitioner Teleco.pai/n34 Petitioner contends t+at 6+ile Section I o* t+e sa.& "..e. Section 5 provides t+at air ti.ary source o* revenue o* t+e radio and television stations is t+e sale o* air ti. t+e *ranc+ise o* all radio 0roadcastin/ and television stations are +ere0y a.e la6 requires .e ti.elec Ti.unications and <roadcast 'ttorneys o* t+e P+ilippines. in 1 5 it lost P55.on/ ot+er reasons. *ree o* c+ar/e.e to 0e @no6n as t+e -. it stands to lost PH". <3P3 >o3 ""13 Petitioners c+allen/e t+e validity o* Section 5.

erit3 'll 0roadcastin/.3 3 ?PLE (S3 T?RRES.ance 0y t+e /rantee o* so.e to t+e .erit3 Re/ulation o* t+e 0roadcast industry requires spendin/ o* pu0lic *unds 6+ic+ it does not do in t+e case o* print .panies t+e equal protection o* t+e la6s3 (5) 8+et+er or not Section 5 o* <3P3 >o3 ""1 constitutes ta@in/ o* property 6it+out due process o* la6 and 6it+out 1ust co.?MELE.e as a/ainst ne6spapers and .3 T+us.a/a=ines 6+ic+ require pay.)ssues$ (1) 8+et+er o* not Section 5 o* <3P3 >o3 ""1 denies radio and television 0roadcast co.panies.erely /iven t+e te.edia3 To require t+e 0roadcast industry to provide *ree air ti.a/es3 T+ey are . is licensed 0y t+e /overn. .ay provide is li@e6ise 6it+out . 6+et+er radio or 0y television stations.e *or.uly 5J.porary privile/e to use t+e. 1 " Puno.ent t+at t+e su01ect la6 sin/les out radio and television stations to provide *ree air ti.3 T+e ar/u. t+e state spends considera0le pu0lic *unds in licensin/ and supervisin/ t+e.ent o* 1ust co. .ent t+at t+ey provide air ti.3 #acts$ .ay reasona0ly 0e 0urdened 6it+ t+e per*or. o* pu0lic service3 )n /rantin/ t+e privile/e to operate 0roadcast stations and supervisin/ radio and television stations. no private property is ta@en 0y t+e require.pensation3 9eld$ Petitioner 7s ar/u.ore individuals 6+o 6ant to 0roadcast t+at t+ere are *requencies to assi/n3 Radio and television 0roadcastin/ co.it 0roadcast si/nals and i.?MELE.ent is 6it+out .e *or .pensation *or t+e print space t+ey . do not o6n t+e air6aves and *requencies t+rou/+ 6+ic+ t+ey trans. suc+ exercise o* t+e privile/e .ent3 'ir6ave *requencies +ave to 0e allocated as t+ere are . is a *air exc+an/e *or 6+at t+e industry /ets3 's radio and television 0roadcast stations do not o6n t+e air6aves. 6+ic+ are /iven *ranc+ises.

t+en President #)CEL (3 R'M?S issued 'd.ined 0y proper /overn.ent o* t+e PR> 6it+out any la6 is an unconstitutional usurpation o* t+e le/islative po6ers o* t+e .ental or/ans3 )t ena0les t+e President to *ix a uni*or.ple. a**ects t+e li*e and li0erty o* every #ilipino citi=ens and *orei/n residents and t+ere*ore.ust 0e in +ar.ents it. it is supposed to 0e a la6 passed 0y .on/ress +as t+e exclusive aut+ority to appropriate *unds *or suc+ expenditureG and J3 T+e '? violates t+e citi=en7s ri/+t to privacy protected 0y t+e <ill o* Ri/+ts o* t+e .inistrative e**iciency and c+ec@ t+e o**icial conduct o* +is a/ents3 Prescindin/ *ro.inistrative ?rder3 'n ad.E S:STEM43 T+e '? see@s to +ave all #ilipino citi=ens and *orei/n residents to +ave a Population Re*erence >u.inistrative ?rder >o3 JI" entitled -'C?PT)?> ?# ' >'T)?>'L .onstitution3 9eld$ 13 T+e '? esta0lis+es a syste.inistrative ?rder issued 0y t+e President3 'd.ple.9>?L?G: 3 T+e '? 6as questioned 0y Senator ?ple on t+e *ollo6in/ /rounds$ 13 T+e esta0lis+.?MPETER)OEC )CE>T)#). t+e *ore/oin/ precepts.entin/ t+e la6 and carryin/ out t+e le/islative policy3 T+e su01ect o* '? JI" t+ere*ore is 0eyond t+e po6er o* t+e President to issue and it is a usurpation o* le/islative po6er3 .entation o* t+e said '? is unconstitutional since .on/ress o* t+e P+ilippinesG 53 T+e appropriation o* pu0lic *unds *or t+e i.0er 15.inistrative operation o* t+e /overn.passin/ in scope. standard o* ad.0er (PR>) /enerated 0y t+e >ational Statistics ?**ice (>S?) t+rou/+ t+e use o* <)?METR). is concerned 6it+ t+e 6or@ o* applyin/ policies and en*orcin/ orders as deter. not 0y an 'd. '? JI" involves a su01ect t+at is not appropriate to 0e covered 0y an 'd. o* identi*ication t+at is all2enco.'T)?> RE#ERE>.on/ress t+at i. 6+ic+ is supposed to 0e exercised 0y t+e President. 1 !.ony 6it+ t+e la6 and s+ould 0e *or t+e sole purpose o* i.?n Cece.ent3 )t .S TE.inistrative order is an ordinance issued 0y t+e President 6+ic+ relates to speci*ic aspects in t+e ad.ple.inistrative Po6er.

at+e.?>TR?LS T? GE'RC 'G')>ST LE'R'GE ?# )>#?RM'T)?>S3 89E> T9E '. M'>)PEL'TE T9E C'T' ST?REC 8)T9)> T9E S:STEM3 '? >o3 JI" is unconstitutional since it *alls s+ort o* assurin/ t+at personal in*or. revise. on appeal or certiorari. c+allen/in/ t+e consitutionality o* t+e E?3 T+e trial court sustained t+e con*iscation o* t+e ani.ents o* lo6er courtsB in all cases involvin/ t+e constitutionality o* certain .ation3 :ET. t+e '? does not even tells us in clear and unequivocal ter. 8)T9?ET #E'R ?# S'>.ESS .odi*y or a**ir. . .ay 0e /at+ered *or /ain*ul and use*ul /overn.on/ concerned a/encies t+rou/+ t+e use o* <)?METR).atical analysis o* a 0iolo/ical data3 )t is t+e con*ir.s +o6 t+ese in*or.als and declined to rule on t+e validity o* t+e la6 on t+e /round t+at it lac@ed aut+ority to do so3 )ts decision 6as a**ir.e o* our aut+orities to resist3 #urt+er. as t+e la6 or rules o* court .ent a/encies access to t+e in*or.ations /at+ered s+all 0e +andled3 )t does not provide 6+o s+all control and access t+e data and under 6+at circu.0er to esta0lis+ a lin@a/e a.on re*erence nu.easures.3 9ence t+is petition *or revie63 9ELC$ (1) Ender t+e provision /rantin/ t+e S.et+ods to 0iolo/ical *actsG a .isuse.ation o* an individual7s identity t+rou/+ a *in/erprint.T)?> ?R PE>'LT:.ation constitutes a covert invitation to . a te. . retinal scan.53 T+e '? li@e6ise violates t+e ri/+t to privacy since its . +and /eo. T9ERE 'RE >? .R' !H (1 "%) #$ PetitionersD ! cara0aos 6ere con*iscated 0y t+e police *or +avin/ 0een transported *ro.ourt 1&" S.etry or *acial *eatures3 T+rou/+ t+e PR>.S TE.stances and *or 6+at purpose3 T+ese *actors are essential to sa*e/uard t+e privacy and /uaranty t+e inte/rity o* t+e in*or.?>TR?L PR?GR'MS ?# T9E P'RT).ay 0e too /reat *or so.ay provide *inal 1ud/.ida0le in*or.9>?L?G:3 <io. 1urisdiction to Brevie6.?CE ?# T9E .puter lin@a/e /ives ot+er /overn.als (except 6+ere t+ere at . ?R 8?RSE.ediate 'ppellate .etry is t+e science o* t+e application o* statistical . t+e /overn.ation 0ase t+rou/+ t+e electronic lin@a/e o* t+e *iles o* every citi=en3 T+e data.ain purpose is to provide a -co.ent purposesG 0ut t+e existence o* t+is vast reservoir o* personal in*or..'> M'RE ESE ?# T9E C'T' #?R 89'TE(ER PERP?SE. lo6er courts can pass upon t+e validity o* a statute in t+e *irst instance3 (5) T+ere is no dou0t t+at 0y 0annin/ t+e slau/+ter o* t+ese ani.?MPETER S:STEM )S <R?RE>.. reverse.ptation t+at . Mas0ate to )loilo in violation o* E? !5!2'3 9e 0rou/+t an action *or replevin. +o6ever.ent o**ices +as t+e c+ance o* 0uildin/ a +u/e and *or.EL'R .ation3 T+e co. '> )>TRECER.ed 0y t+e )'.ation /at+ered a0out our people 6ill 0e used only *or speci*ied purposes t+ere0y violatin/ t+e citi=en7s ri/+t to privacy3 :not v )nter.

o. t+e li.ust o0serve 6+en t+ey .. ele.ay see *it.al )ndustry .ove. a. not to 0e *lippant. to . t+eir stand on pu0lic )ssue and t+eir plat*or.easures struc@ +i. retainin/ t+e cara0ao in one province 6ill not prevent t+eir slau/+ter t+ere. any .ent o* t+e live ani.a/a=ine pu0lis+ers.ale and 11 yrs old i* *e. +o6 t+e pro+i0ition o* t+e interprovincial transport o* cara0aos can prevent t+eir indiscri.ade to apply to it as ot+er6ise.al3 Per+aps so3 9o6ever. 6K no less di**iculty in on province t+an in anot+er3 ?0viously. it could 0e easily circu. a non2pro*it or/ani=ation o* ne6spaper and .R' 5%5G G3R3 >o3 11 ! &G 55 May 1 HM #acts$ Respondent . *ree o* c+ar/e.plaint *or recovery and /iven a supersedeas 0ond 6Kc 6as ordered con*iscated upon +is *ailure to produce t+e cara0aos 6+en ordered 0y t+e trial court3 T+e E? de*ined t+e pro+i0ition.e unconstitutional and void on t+e /round t+at upon t+e /overn.o.least % yrs3 old i* .ent.ander.?MELE. as@s t+e Supre.ission.s o* /overn. i* t+e .inate slau/+ter.a@e @no6n t+eir quali*ications... to anot+er province 6ill .ply @illin/ t+e ani.an o* t+e >ational Meat )nspection .o.o.a@e t+eir distri0ution3 P9)L)PP)>E PRESS )>ST)TETE (S3 .o.ilar institutions as t+e . in t+e case o* cara0ee*. t+ere3 's *or t+e cara0ee*.ers t+rou/+ dispersal as t+e Cirector o* 'ni. convicted t+e petitioner and i..on/ all candidates to ena0le t+e.elec space s+all also 0e used 0y t+e .ay see *it is an extre.ore t+an . t+e pro+i0ition is . 6Kc 6as carried out *ort+ri/+t3 T+e .ent3 T+e .onstitution o* private property *or pu0lic use 6it+out 1ust .als *or t+e purpose o* preventin/ t+eir slau/+ter cannot 0e pro+i0ited.eat3 (J) )n t+e instant case. it s+ould *ollo6 t+at t+ere is no reason eit+er to pro+i0it t+eir trans*er as.o. so says t+e E?. t+us denyin/ +i. 6or@ or 0reedin/ and preventin/ t+eir i. L5&& S..it) t+e E? 6ill 0e conservin/ t+ose still *it *or *ar.. +o6ever.ovin/ t+e.elec pro. a c+ance to 0e +eard. at once and pounced upon t+e petitioner 6Ko /ivin/ +i. or 0etter still. considerin/ t+at t+ey can 0e @illed any 6+ere.elec Resolution >o3 5%%5 it violates t+e pro+i0ition i.posed 0y t+e .ent a/ainst t+e ta@in/ (PP)).ay see *it in t+e case o* cara0aos3B T+e p+rase .ely /enerous and dan/erous condition.posed punis+. )nc3 . i* condition it is3 )t is laden 6K perilous opportunities *or partiality and a0use. and even corruption3 ?ne searc+es in vain *or t+e usual standard and t+e reasona0le /uidelines.o. dead .provident depletion3 8e do not see.o. 6ere returned to t+e petitioner only a*ter +e +ad *iled a co.+air.s0cri0ed 0y si.on use o* political parties and candidates3 T+e .ul/ated Resolution >o3 5%%5 directin/ ne6spapers to provide *ree .itations t+at t+e said o**icers .ission .elec space s+all 0e allocated 0y t+e . t+e cara0aos 6ere ar0itrarily con*iscated 0y t+e police station co.ale upon t+e issuance o* t+e necessary per.ission *or disse.ation3 Petitioner P+ilippine Press )nstitute. and to deservin/ *ar.entary *air play3 (&) )t is t+ere aut+ori=ed t+at t+e sei=ed prop3 s+all B0e distri0uted to c+arita0le institutions and ot+er si.elec space o* not less t+an one2+al* pa/e *or t+e co.ination o* vital election in*or.a@e it easier to @ill t+e.ediately i.ourt to declare .

0ut not 6it+out pay.plaint.ourt declared t+e Resolution as unconstitutional3 )t +eld t+at to co..uc+ less expense and 6it+out distur0in/ t+e restin/ places o* t+e dead3 T+e trial court decided t+at t+ere 6as no necessity *or t+e expropriation o* t+e particular strip o* land in question.pensation3 'lso Resolution >o3 5%%5 does not constitute a valid exercise o* t+e police po6er o* t+e state3 )n t+e case at 0enc+.o.o. ?cto0er J1.+inese ce.+inese .elec Resolution >o3 5%%5 is unconstitutional3 9eld$ T+e Supre. t+ere is no s+o6in/ o* existence o* a national e.ent na.unidad de .elec over o* print .ent o* necessity *or t+e ta@in/ +as not 0een esta0lis+ed 0y respondent . and a0solved eac+ and all o* t+e de*endants *ro. 1 1 T9E .unity o* ManilaM opposed t+e expropriation alle/in/ t+at t+e .ed t+at t+e exercise o* t+e po6er o* supervision (police po6er) o* t+e .ourt o* #irst )nstance o* said city.+inos de Manila L.o.9)>ESE .edia enterprises durin/ t+e election period to sa*e/uard and credi0le election3 )ssue$ 8+et+er or not .)T: ?# M'>)L' vs3 .e . i.ity o* Manila t+en appealed t+e trial court7s decision3 .er/ency to ta@e private property o* ne6spaper or .pensation required in expropriation cases3 Moreover. in *act.o.o. t+e .a/a=ine pu0lis+ers G3R3 >o3 L21&JHH.o. considerin/ t+at t+e ne6spapers 6ere not un6illin/ to sell advertisin/ space3 T+e ta@in/ o* private property *or pu0lic use is aut+ori=ed 0y t+e constitution.?MME>)T: ?# M'>)L'. all lia0ility under t+e co..elec.o.ely.edia co.issi0le t+e in*or. 6as not necessary as a pu0lic i.co.pel print . ET 'L3 #'.pensation3 ?n 0e+al* Resolution is a per. 1 1!. 6it+out any *indin/ as to costs3 T+e .0er. Manila3 T+e de*endant.unity o* t+e .ent o* t+e 1ust co. at . t+e city o* Manila presented a petition in t+e .elec space4 a.ent *or ot+er routes 6ere availa0le 6+ic+ 6ould *ully satis*y t+e plainti**Ds purposes.ity o* Manila and t+at t+e expropriation. prayin/ t+at certain lands 0e expropriated *or t+e purpose o* constructin/ a pu0lic i. t+e extension o* Ri=al 'venue.TS$ ?n t+e 11t+ day o* Cece.prove.ation operations ensure a *air.elec.o. t+e ele.ounts to -ta@in/4 o* private personal property 6it+out pay.+inese .prove.partial and o* t+e respondent . t+e Solicitor General clai.ent o* 1ust co.panies to donate -.etery +as *or its purpose t+e 0ene*it and /eneral 6el*are o* t+e .

etery3 T+e record s+o6s t+at ad1oinin/ and ad1acent lands +ave 0een o**ered to t+e city *ree o* c+ar/e. or nei/+0or+ood.ust only *ind (a) t+at a la6 or aut+ority exists *or t+e exercise o* t+e ri/+t o* e.unity o* . t+ey .ine t+e question.e to deter.ily. 6+ile t+e latter is used only 0y a *a. or c+urc+. *or /reater pu0lic purposes. and 0e*ore it can exercise t+e ri/+t so. 6it+ costs a/ainst t+e appellant3 G3R3 >o3 L21""&1.anuary 5%.eteries .etery used 0y t+e /eneral co. t+e land . *or t+e reason t+at t+e city o* Manila +as no aut+ority or ri/+t under t+e la6 to expropriate pu0lic property3 )n t+e present case...e t+rou/+ t+e ce. or 0y its aut+ori=ed a/ents.+inese.E TELEP9?>E .posed upon t+e aut+ority conceded to t+e .unity.er is a ce.unity extends to t+e uni.?MP'>: .etery. t+e plain . t+e 1ud/.proved and unoccupied parts 6+ic+ are +eld in /ood *ait+ *or *uture use3 T+e ce.+inese . 0ut (0) also t+at t+e ri/+t or aut+ority is 0ein/ exercised in accordance 6it+ t+e la63 )n t+e present case t+ere are t6o conditions i. t+e purpose .ent o* t+e lo6er court s+ould 0e and is +ere0y a**ir.e.ust 0e privateG and. 6+ic+ 6ill ans6er every purpose o* t+e plainti**3 #or all o* t+e *ore/oin/. t+e record contains no proo* o* t+e necessity o* openin/ t+e sa.ity o* Manila$ #irst. 1 ! RP vs3 P9)L)PP)>E L?>G C)ST'>.a@e t+e ce. 6ould .unicipal corporation. or a s.ity o* Manila3 9ELC$ T+e exercise o* t+e ri/+t o* e.ain.inent do. and t+e rule in t+at case is t+at t+e aut+ority . appropriates t+e land o* an individual 6it+out +is consent.ust exist con*errin/ t+e po6er upon it3 8+en t+e courts co.etery in question pu0lic property3 T+e petition o* t+e plainti** .ed.. is necessarily in dero/ation o* private ri/+ts. in t+e /eneral acceptation o* t+e de*inition o* a pu0lic ce. t+an t+e ri/+t to t+e *ree+old o* in+a0itants3 8+en t+e le/islature inter*eres 6it+ t+at ri/+t. even /rantin/ t+at a necessity exists *or t+e openin/ o* t+e street in question. second.)SSEE$ 8?> t+e .inent do.unity or nei/+0our+ood3 8+ere a ce. 6+ic+ *act.ust 0e strictly construed3 >o species o* property is +eld 0y individuals 6it+ /reater tenacity. it is a pu0lic use and no part o* t+e /round can 0e ta@en *or ot+er pu0lic uses under a /eneral aut+ority3 'nd t+is i.all portion o* t+e co.ust 0e pu0lic3 )t is a 6ell @no6n *act t+at ce..ore sedulously. 6+et+er directly 0y t+e State.etery in question is used 0y t+e /eneral co.ay 0e validly expropriated 0y t+e .etery . and none is /uarded 0y t+e constitution and la6s . and.ust 0e denied.etery is open to pu0lic.e la6 .ay 0e pu0lic or private3 T+e *or.ain. .eanin/ o* t+e la6 s+ould not 0e enlar/ed 0y dou0tly interpretation3 T+e ri/+t o* expropriation is not an in+erent po6er in a .

ent and 0y rentin/ trun@ lines o* t+e PLCT to ena0le /overn.inate it on a 5&2.' to ter. )nc3. *or t+e use o* t+e *acilities o* de*endantDs telep+one syste. *ro. t+rou/+ t+e <ureau. a Govern. could auto.anuary 1 H" t+at 0ot+ enter into an interconnectin/ a/ree.ent. 0y utili=in/ its o6n appropriation and equip...TS$ So. co.a@e a call to a PLCT su0scri0er in t+e sa. *or t+e <ureau +ad used t+e trun@ lines not only *or t+e use o* /overn.ourt o* #irst )nstance o* Manila (. t+e rest o* t+e 6orld. PLCT /ave notice to R. entered into an a/ree.. t+e de*endant. usin/ t+e sa.ont+ notice to t+e ot+er3 ?n 5 #e0ruary 1 H!.s and conditions as t+e court .ent 6+ere0y telep+one . t+rou/+out t+e P+ilippines under suc+ ter.'Ds station to and *ro.unications t+at said 0ureau 6as violatin/ t+e conditions under 6+ic+ t+eir Private <ranc+ Exc+an/e (P<A) is inter2connected 6it+ t+e PLCTDs *acilities.andin/ t+e PLCT to execute a contract 6it+ plainti**.it to t+e 1urisdiction and re/ulations o* t+e Pu0lic Service .in/ *ro.ent Telep+one Syste.ent Telep+one Syste.er3 ?n H Marc+ 1 H". to t+e PLCT3 T+e PLCT replied t+at it 6as 6illin/ to enter into an a/ree..atically 0e trans*erred to t+e lines o* PLCTG and vice2versa. t+e P+ilippines to t+e Enited States3 T+e arran/e. PLCT.ent 6it+ R.inary in1unction a/ainst t+e de*endant .i/+t consider reasona0le.pany.ivil . 6it+ t+e /overn.eti.idni/+t on 15 'pril 1 H"3 T+e result 6as t+e isolation o* t+e P+ilippines.essa/es to and *ro.ase >o3 JH"IH).ission *ro. t+e plainti**.unications.' .ent o**ices to call private parties3 T+e <ureau +as extended its services to t+e /eneral pu0lic since 1 &". t+e de*endant P+ilippine Lon/ Cistance Telep+one .plained to t+e <ureau o* Teleco. )nc3. in co. European and 'siatic countries3 T+eir contract contained a stipulation t+at eit+er party could ter.inate t+eir contract on 5 #e0ruary 1 H"3 Soon a*ter its creation in 1 &%.ent 6as later extended to radio2telep+one ..ission3 ?n 15 'pril 1 H".e in 1 JJ.o. in t+e . t+e PLCT 6ould sever t+e telep+one connections3 8+en t+e PLCT received no reply. *or a 1oint overseas telep+one service 6+ere0y t+e <ureau 6ould convey radio2telep+one overseas calls received 0y R. on telep+one services.unications.ent payin/ (on a call 0asis) *or all calls passin/ t+rou/+ t+e interconnectin/ *acilities *ro.o.plaint *or 1ud/. *or calls collected 0y t+e PLCT *or trans. t+rou/+ t+e Cirector o* Teleco..idni/+t o* 15 'pril 1 H". and rented *ro. local residents3 ?n % 'pril 1 H"..'Ds do.ent co.ent Telep+one Syste.petition 6it+ t+e 0usiness o* t+e PLCTG and /ave notice t+at i* said violations 6ere not stopped 0y . it disconnected t+e trun@ lines 0ein/ rented 0y t+e <ureau at .ent o**ices 0ut even to serve private persons or t+e /eneral pu0lic.. t+e Govern. t+e PLCT. and prescri0in/ its (t+e <ureauDs) o6n sc+edule o* rates3 T+rou/+ t+ese trun@ lines. and t+e R. plainti** Repu0lic co. co.unications +ad proposed to t+e PLCT on " .unications set up its o6n Govern. except t+e Enited States3 T+e <ureau o* Teleco. entered into an a/ree.o.e trun@ lines o6ned 0y. prayin/ in its co.essa/es.a@e a call to t+e *or.estic station. t+e Enited States and received 0y R.ent on overseas telep+one service to Europe and 'sian countries provided t+at t+e <ureau 6ould su0..#'. re*errin/ to t+e rented trun@ lines.unications.enced suit a/ainst t+e de*endant.' .o.e 6ay t+at t+e latter could . (GTS) su0scri0er could . t+e <ureau o* Teleco. and *or a 6rit o* preli..

said <ureau 6as not li.ent telep+one syste.pany to per.ent t+at it could not co. usin/ de*endants o6n telep+one poles.pulsory renderin/ t+e co.idation. or .ited to servicin/ /overn.. t+e Repu0lic .entG t+at under Executive ?rder &.ent 6it+ t+e <ureau 0ecause t+e parties 6ere not in a/ree. a contract . or ou/+t to +ave @no6n.ent 0ecause its *acilities 6ere 0ein/ used in *raud o* its ri/+ts3 PLCT *urt+er clai. alt+ou/+ it dis. 1JJ%.ourt a/reed 6it+ t+e court 0elo6 t+at parties cannot 0e coerced to enter into a contract 6+ere no a/ree. on t+e ot+er +and denied any o0li/ation on its part to execute a contrary o* services 6it+ t+e <ureau o* Teleco. inti. 6it+out proper accountin/ o* revenues3 '*ter trial.ent o**ices alone.pel t+e PLCT to cele0rate a contract 6it+ it.ay require.pany to restrain t+e severance o* t+e existin/ telep+one connections andKor restore t+ose severed3 PLCT. .petition 6it+.plaint and t+e counterclai..inent do. +ence t+e <ureau 6as neit+er /uilty o* *raud. in co. 1JJ!..ent service .. or undue in*luence ('rticles 1JI!.e .unications under t+e existin/ a/ree.ission (Sec3 1J.ay not co.isuse o* t+e poles o* t+e PLCTG and.pelled to enter into a contract co.s and conditions o* t+e contract3 #reedo.s and conditions is o* t+e essence o* our contractual syste.o. require t+e telep+one co.issed 0ot+ t+e co.pel t+e PLCT to enter into an a/ree. and t+at o* t+e PLCT.pel it to enter into interconnectin/ a/ree. in t+e exercise o* t+e soverei/n po6er o* e. t+e lo6er court rendered 1ud/. to stipulate suc+ ter. and averred t+at it 6as 1usti*ied to disconnect t+e trun@ lines +ereto*ore leased to t+e <ureau o* Teleco.ay.. nor 6as t+ere any in t+e contract o* lease o* t+e trun@ lines.ents. despite its o01ection3 9ELC$ T+e Supre.ercial telep+one operations in excess o* aut+ority. equip.pany to provide inter2connectivity services.ent is +ad 0et6een t+e.ourt o* #irst )nstance to co. as t+e needs o* t+e /overn.unications net6or@ is a ..it interconnection o* t+e /overn.ode o* t+e P+ilippines)3 <ut t+e court a quo+as apparently overloo@ed t+at 6+ile t+e Repu0lic . since t+e PLCT @ne6. t+e PLCT..e t+at t+eir use 0y t+e <ureau 6as to 0e pu0lic t+rou/+out t+e )slands. in vie6 o* serious pu0lic pre1udice t+at 6ould result *ro.s3 <ot+ parties appealed3 )SSEE$ 8?> PLCT is co.ent and ot+er properties are under t+e 1urisdiction. supervision and control o* t+e Pu0lic Service . and to t+e pre1udice o*.unicationsG contested t+e 1urisdiction o* t+e . declared t+e preli. su01ect to t+e pay.inary in1unction per.pany is a pu0lic utility corporation 6+ose *ranc+ise. yet t+e plainti**Ds teleco.ay 0e annulled i* tainted 0y violence.co.pensation to 0e deter. at t+e ti.ined 0y t+e court3 8+ile t+e de*endant telep+one co.ent o* 1ust co. as to t+e principal ter.anent. t+e disconnection o* t+e trun@ lines. Pu0lic Service 'ct).ivil .ed t+at t+e <ureau 6as en/a/in/ in co. and 0y express provision o* t+e statute.ain. a0use.unications. esta0lis+in/ t+e <ureau o* Teleco.

. 1 H"G t+at in 1 "%. or 6+et+er t+e ri/+t to en1oy suc+ privile/e +as 0een *or*eited 0y non2user. *or any violation o* t+e *ranc+ise.o.pt. t+e 'l0ertos.ore t+an &IN o* t+e s+ares o* stoc@s is not tanta. and *or a co.o. a. )nc (#'.pel t+e P+ilippine Lon/ Cistance Telep+one . t+e records are ordered returned to t+e court o* ori/in *or *urt+er +earin/s and ot+er proceedin/s not inconsistent 6it+ t+is opinion3 >o costs3 PLCT (S >T. trans*erred said stoc@s to t+e ne6 stoc@+olders (.unications .ourt o* #irst )nstance. )nc3 (ET.isses t+e petition o* t+e Repu0lic o* t+e P+ilippines to co.. includin/ t+e period elapsed *ro. denied PLCT3 PLCT t+en *iled a petition *or certiorari and pro+i0ition a/ainst t+e >T.) later c+an/ed its na.ine to 0e 1ust.ination o* t+e ri/+t to t+e exercise o* a *ranc+ise. ET. #elix 'l0erto Q . t+e *ilin/ o* t+e ori/inal co.ent telep+one syste.ent. *ro. is .pensation. except in so *ar as it dis.ent 6+o s+ould 0e *ilin/ a quo 6arranto proceedin/ 0ecause it 6as t+e /overn.on/ ot+ers. t+at t+e trial court .. supervision and control3 89ERE#?RE. )nc3F – not speci*ied in t+e case)G t+at suc+ trans*er involvin/ . it s+ould 0e t+e /overn. is a**ir.3 )SSEE$ 8+et+er or not PLCT7s petition s+ould prosper3 9ELC$ >o3 PLCT cannot attac@ ET.o3.)) 6as /ranted 0y .)7s s+ares o* stoc@s. under Section 1& o* t+e Pu0lic Service 'ct.pu0lic service o6ned 0y t+e Repu0lic and operated 0y an instru.ent 6+o /ranted it in t+e *irst place3 T+e trans*er o* .e parts o* Manila3 P+ilippine Lon/ Cistance Telep+one . +ence exe.ission a provisional aut+ority to 0uild a telep+one syste. t+at ET.ed. )n 1 H".pany to continue servicin/ t+e Govern.e to Express Teleco.plaint or petition3 'nd *or t+is purpose.unications . upon suc+ ter..ay deter.) is not quali*ied 0ecause its *ranc+ise +as already 0een invalidated 6+en it *ailed to exercise it 6it+in 1I years *ro. t+e decision o* t+e .ore t+an &IN s+ares o* stoc@s a.on/ress 6as not o0tained3 T+e >T. no6 under appeal.entality o* t+e >ational Govern.o3. o6ners o* .ounted to a trans*er o* *ranc+ise 6+ic+ is void 0ecause t+e aut+ori=ation o* .ount to a trans*er o* *ranc+ise3 .) 6as /ranted 0y t+e >ational Teleco.))3 )n 1 "%.ore t+an &IN o* ET.on/ress a *ranc+ise to 0uild radio stations (later construed as to include telep+ony)3 #'.ore properly t+e su01ect o* t+e prero/ative 6rit o* quo 6arranto3 #urt+er.)7s *ranc+ise in a petition *or certiorari3 )t cannot 0e collaterally attac@ed3 )t s+ould 0e directly attac@ed t+rou/+ a petition *or quo 6arranto 6+ic+ is t+e correct procedure3 ' *ranc+ise is a property ri/+t and cannot 0e revo@ed or *or*eited 6it+out due process o* la63 T+e deter. suc+ 1urisdiction.ellco.s. in so.o3 (PLCT) opposed t+e said /rant as it avers.

e 0ut . . 6it+ t+e annual contracts entered into *ro. and t+at.ises in vie6 o* t+e per. includin/ t+e dateD.e condition as 0e*ore occupancy 3?n . on .ises 0e returned in su0stantially t+e sa.. '#P.'STEL() #'. t+e Repu0lic . and t+at t+e pre.uly 11.astellvi and t+e Repu0lic o* t+e P+ilippines3 )t is undisputed.astellvi.ilar in ter.une JI. 1 H!. sayin/ t+at it 6as di**icult *or t+e ar.ere trans*er o* s+ares o* stoc@s3 S+are+olders can trans*er t+eir s+ares to anyone3 T+e only li.astellvi t+en 0rou/+t suit in t+e .ore t+an &IN o* t+e corporation7s stoc@s. t+e sale o* 6+ic+ requires only >T.ises a*ter t+e ter.ay not.+ie* o* Sta**. and t+e *ranc+ise itsel* 6+ic+ is o6ned 0y t+e corporation as t+e /rantee t+ereo*.ent case 6as pendin/.ourt o* #irst )nstance o* Pa.3 T+e trans*er in t+is case 6as s+o6n to +ave 0een approved 0y t+e >T.3 8+at requires aut+ori=ation *ro. even i* t+e ori/inal stoc@+olders +ad trans*erred t+eir s+ares to anot+er /roup o* s+are+olders.on/ress *or t+e .T+ere is a distinction +ere3 T+ere is no need to o0tain aut+ori=ation o* . 0y virtue o* t+e a0ove2. .anent installations and ot+er *acilities 6ort+ al.entioned contract. .pan/a to e1ect t+e P+ilippine 'ir #orce *ro. ans6ered t+e letter o* . trans*er or assi/n t+e property o* a corporation. in*or. t+e sale or trans*er o* 6+ic+ requires . year to year 0et6een de*endant . t+e land3 8+ile t+is e1ect. 1 %& RP vs3 .e as t+ey see *it3 T+ey . . +o6ever. 1 &%.uly 1.ended to t+e President3 Ce*endant . 1 H%. t+at Bt+e *ore/oin/ contract o* lease is Dsi.ost PHII.III3II t+at 6ere erected and already esta0lis+ed on t+e property.+ie* o* Sta**.on/ress is t+e trans*er o* *ranc+iseG and t+e person 6+o s+all o0tain t+e aut+ori=ation is t+e /rantee (ET. Lieutenant General 'l*onso 'rellano.astellviDs land *ro. on a year to year 0asis (*ro.in/ t+e latter t+at t+e +eirs o* t+e property +ad decided not to continue leasin/ t+e property in question 0ecause t+ey +ad decided to su0divide t+e land *or sale to t+e /eneral pu0lic. t+ey . t+at o* eac+ stoc@+older3 )t +as t+e ri/+t o* continuity or perpetual succession3 G3R3 >o3 L25I!5I 'u/ust 1H. t+ere*ore.astellvi re*used3 8+en t+e '#P re*used to vacate t+e leased pre.s and conditions.itation is t+at i* t+e trans*er involves .ade 0et6een s+ares o* stoc@.astellvi 6rote to t+e . as an entity.y to vacate t+e pre. 6+ic+ are o6ned 0y stoc@+olders.ay dispose o* t+e sa.anuary JI. 1 H! t+e Repu0lic sou/+t to rene6 t+e sa. t+e *ranc+ise /ranted to t+e corporation su0sists as lon/ as t+e corporation. continues to exist3 T+e *ranc+ise is not t+ere0y invalidated 0y t+e trans*er o* t+e s+ares3 ' corporation +as a personality separate and distinct *ro. t+ere 0ein/ no ot+er recourse. t+e acquisition o* t+e property 0y . li@e its *ranc+ise3 )n ot+er 6ords.ination o* t+e contract.uly 1 o* eac+ year to .on/ressional sanction3 Since stoc@+olders o6n t+e s+ares o* stoc@.TS$ T+e .))3 ' distinction s+ould 0e . receipt o* t+e letter.eans o* expropriation proceedin/s 6ould 0e reco. . t+at t+e Repu0lic occupied .astellvi property +ad 0een occupied 0y t+e P+ilippine 'ir #orce since 1 &% under a contract o* lease3 )t 6as stipulated 0y t+e parties.andin/ t+at t+e property 0e vacated 6it+in JI days *ro. de.une JI o* t+e succeedin/ year)3 <e*ore t+e expiration o* t+e contract o* lease on . it s+ould 0e approved 0y t+e >T. approval.

ents in t+e Bta@in/B o* property under t+e po6er o* e.ore t+an a . not. 6ere not present 6+en t+e Repu0lic entered and occupied t+e .ises to 0e expropriated (Rule !%.er/ed as an inte/ral part o* t+e lease relations+ip 333 so . t+at t+e contract o* lease does not /rant t+e Repu0lic t+e Bri/+t and privile/eB to 0uy t+e pre.. to 6it$ (1) entrance and occupation 0y conde.ain requires t6o essential ele.inate ti.uc+ so t+at t+e *air .inate t+e lease3 .e o* occupancy3B )SSEE$ 8?> t+e -Ta@in/4 o* properties under expropriation co. t+e *or.ents.astellvi.ely$ (1) t+at t+e entrance and occupation 0y t+e conde.anent ri/+t to occupy t+e pre.ises under t+e /uise o* lease 6it+ t+e Dri/+t and privile/eD to 0uy t+e property s+ould t+e lessor 6is+ to ter.ain .ply leasin/ t+e pre. year to yearG t+at t+e second ele. it 6as Bin reality a .ode)3 >eit+er can it 0e said t+at t+e ri/+t o* e. . Rules o* .ited period. Section 1.enced to occupy t+e property as lessee t+ereo*3 8e *ind . . *or t+e contract o* lease relied upon provides *or a lease *ro. or inde*inite period.ain cannot 0e considered to +ave ta@en place in 1 &% 6+en t+e Repu0lic co.ent is 6antin/.atellviDs property *or purposes o* e.n or upon t+e private property *or . t+e year 1 &% 6+en 0y virtue o* a special lease a/ree. as 6as t+e lease o* . o* all 0ene*icial en1oy.ust 0e *or a per.o. 6it+out need o* a de.ay 0e exercised 0y si.inent do.erit in t+e contention o* . t+e property and deprived o* its 0ene*icial use.e 6+en t+e lease is a0out to ter.er 6as /ranted t+e Bri/+t and privile/eB to 0uy t+e property s+ould t+e lessor 6is+ to ter.ore or less per.ivil .inent do.nor .ourt)3 To sustain t+e contention o* t+e Repu0lic is to sanction a practice 6+ere0y in order to secure a lo6 price *or a land 6+ic+ t+e /overn.e o* occupancyB3 8e cannot accept t+e Repu0licDs contention t+at a lease on a year to year 0asis can /ive rise to a per.inent do..astellvi t+at t6o essential ele.ar@et value +as 0een a/reed upon.ainF) 9ELC$ )t is clear t+at t+e Bta@in/B o* .instituted t+ese expropriation proceedin/s3 T+e Repu0lic ar/ues t+at t+e Bta@in/B s+ould 0e rec@oned *ro.entary or li.and ('rticle 1!! .ises Bat t+e value at t+e ti. on t+e ot+er +and.ent is also 6antin/.astellvi.ent intends to expropriate (or 6ould eventually expropriate) it 6ould *irst ne/otiate 6it+ t+e o6ner o* t+e land to lease t+e land (*or say ten or t6enty years) t+en expropriate t+e sa.inent do.ain.aintains t+at t+e Bta@in/B o* property under t+e po6er o* e.ade *or a deter.inate t+e lease.inent do. and (5) devotin/ it to a pu0lic use in suc+ a 6ay as to oust t+e o6ner and deprive +i. ceases upon t+e day *ixed.ent 0et6een t+e Repu0lic and appellee .astellvi property in 1 &%3 Entena0le also is t+e Repu0licDs contention t+at alt+ou/+ t+e contract 0et6een t+e parties 6as one o* lease on a year to year 0asis.anent. t+at t+e Bta@in/B o* t+e .enced 6it+ t+e *ilin/ o* t+e action3 (8+at are t+e requisites o* -Ta@in/4 o* property o* e.anent ri/+t to occupy.ent o* t+e property3 T+is appellee ar/ues t+at in t+e instant case t+e *irst ele.B and Bt+e ri/+t to 0uy t+e property is .inate. na.e o* purc+ase. t+en clai.astellviDs land in t+e instant case. and (5) t+at in devotin/ t+e property to pu0lic use t+e o6ner 6as ousted *ro. as o* t+e ti.e. since 0y express le/al provision a lease . 0ut as o* t+e ti.

0er o* t+e . provided /uidelines *or t+e +oldin/ o* t+e /eneral elections *or t+e SR on Sept3 JI.ent . t+e *ort+co.any /ood reasons.anda.anuary 1.s o* t+ose elected 6ould 0e extended to coincide 6it+ t+e ter.end t+e resolutions .e increased durin/ t+e period o* t+e lease3 T+e lo6er court did not co.ouncil o* Manila.plaint *or e. % . 6it+ t+e tec+nical assistance o* .uly J1. 1 5 – T+e C)LG. .ity . +ad in t+e .ouncil passed t+e necessary appropriations *or t+e elections3 Septe. actin/ President o* t+e R< (Ra0ataan/ <aran/ay) . 1 H 6+en t+e co. t+ey 6ere +eld Cece..plaint in t+is case3 )n t+e instant case. 1 53 T+e *irst elections under t+e code 6ere +eld May o* 1 53 'u/ust 1 5. 1 " to . o* 1 1 provided *or an SR in every 0aran/ay to 0e co.astellvi property *or t+e purposes o* deter.ain 6as *iled3 'lunan vs Mirasol GR >o3 1I"J .3 '*ter postpone.?MELE.in/ SR elections3 T+e ter. 1 I 6ere to 0e considered t+e *irst SR elections under t+e ne6 LG.3 C)LG acted on a letter 0y Santia/o. +oldin/ SR elections 0ecause t+e elections previously +eld on May 5!.pensation to 0e paid . 1 H 3 T+e Bta@in/B o* t+e .enced 6it+ t+e *ilin/ o* t+e co. 6+ic+ stated t+at elections *or t+e Ra0ataan/ <aran/ay 6ere +eld on May 5!.an. and provided t+at t+e *irst SR elections 6ere to 0e +eld JI days a*ter t+e next local elections3 T+e Local Govern.eanti.e.ust. 0y aut+ority o* t+e court.une 5!.0er &. in spite o* t+e *act t+at t+e value o* t+e property.astellvi property.anuary 1. 0e rec@oned as o* .III .0ers. clai. it is undisputed t+at t+e Repu0lic 6as placed in possession o* t+e .s o* t+ose elected in t+e SR elections Private respondents.ents.property *or t+e purposes o* t+e expropriation 0e rec@oned as o* t+e date 6+en t+e Govern.inin/ t+e 1ust co. *ilin/ certi*icated o* candidacy3 T+e .e. . 1 5. *or .anuary 1.0er 1".%& o* t+e.J!J people a/ed 1H251 re/istered. intended to exe.0ers o* t+e Ratipunan n/ Ra0ataan. on 'u/ust 1I.ent started to occupy t+e property under t+e lease. 6+ic+ also placed t+e SR elections under t+e direct control and supervision o* C)LG.ode 6as enacted . C)LG stated t+at t+e LG. issued a letter2resolution exe..it an error 6+en it +eld t+at t+e Bta@in/B o* t+e property under expropriation co. 1 5 *ro. ar/uin/ t+at t+e C)LG +ad no po6er to a.e. 1 I3 )n t+is resolution.posed o* a c+air. a secretary and a treasurer. 1 % #acts$ LG. t+ere*ore.?MELE.ity . 1 53 Re/istration in ! districts o* Manila 6as conducted3 1H5.pt t+ose 0aran/ay c+apters 6+ic+ conducted t+eir R< elections *ro.in/ to represent 5&.ptin/ Manila *ro. 1H. and t+en assert t+at t+e value o* t+e property 0ein/ expropriated 0e rec@oned as o* t+e start o* t+e lease.inent do.us.ity #ederation o* Manila and a . *iled a petition *or certiorari and . t+rou/+ 'lunan.

?MELE. stated t+at t+e provision in t+e ?.o* t+e .e6or@ o* detailed and co.?MELE. and t+at .?MELE.?MELE.3 'lt+ou/+ it is ar/ued t+at no 0aran/ays 6ere na. t+e LG.ere s+o6in/ t+at t+ere 6ere ot+er 0aran/ays t+at +eld R< elections durin/ t+e set period 0ut 6ere not exe.in/ tas@s in accordance to t+e *ra.e 6ay t+at contests involvin/ elections o* SR o**icials do not *all 6it+in t+e 1urisdiction o* .3 . t+e records o* t+is case3 T+e .ed in t+e resolution. – issued an in1unction and ordered petitioners to desist *ro. o* 1 1 6as +eld to 0e curative. +oldin/ SR elections.e t+e .?MELE. 8+et+er C)LG can exe. /ivin/ t+e .?MELE. t+e speci*ied pre2election activities in order to i.pt an LGE *ro. s+all +ave exclusive appellate 1urisdiction over contest involvin/ elective 0aran/ay o**icials only re*er to elective 0aran/ay o**icials under t+e la6s in *orce at t+e ti. yet C)LG +ad t+e aut+ority to deter. C)LG 6as only actin/ or per*or. 6ere t+ere no elections3 )ssue$ 8+et+er .?MELE.ayor t+e aut+ority to call electionsG t+us.ined *ro.pt Manila *ro.ple. and ordered t+e. to per*or.ustice Cavide. +oldin/ SR elections 9eld$ Cespite t+e +oldin/ o* SR elections in 1 evadin/ revie63 !. already deter. equal protection o* la6s3 RT.pted *ro.?MELE. as a re*erence in desi/natin/ exe. t+e 1 I R< elections 6ere not null and void *or 0ein/ conducted 6it+out aut+ority3 T+e contention o* violation o* t+e equal protection clause could not 0e deter.?MELE. and t+us s+ould 0e /iven retroactive e**ect.ootG it is capa0le o* repetition.ent t+e /eneral elections3 T+e case 6as rera**led to a di**erent 0ranc+ o* t+e sa. 0ecause t+at po6er rests solely in . C)LG 6as not /iven discretionary po6ers 0ecause t+ey . and t+e ne6 1ud/e +eld t+at C)LG +ad no po6er to exe.e court.erely used t+e ti.III 0aran/ays t+at previously +eld elections.0odied in a resolution o* . and t+at t+e exe. t+e case is not .?MELE.ption o* Manila violated t+e equal protection clause 0ecause o* t+e H.ined t+at Manila +as not previously +eld elections *or R< 0y callin/ *or a /eneral election.entin/ t+e order o* t+e C)LG Secretary. and t+at C)LG denied t+e.ni0us Election . " % 0aran/ay. vestin/ C)LG 6it+ suc+ po6ers is not unconstitutional3 Election *or SR o**icers are not su01ect to t+e supervision o* .?MELE. t+e 1 5 SR elections is not su**icient to prove t+at violation3 . i.ode t+at states t+at .3 Moreover.e period set 0y . can validly vest t+e C)LG 6it+ t+e po6er o* direct control and supervision over t+e SR elections 6it+ t+e tec+nical assistance o* . only in Manila. 6+ic+ 6as t+e old LG. callin/ *or /eneral elections *or SRs. in Mercado vs <oard o* Election Supervisors.pre+ensive rules e.ine 6+et+er Manila 6ould 0e required to +old SR elections3 . in t+e sa.ple.ode 6as enacted..pted 0aran/ays3 Li@e6ise.

a petition to a.ourt /ranted t+e Motions *or )ntervention3 Iss$%s# (1) 8+et+er or not Sec3 5.anuary 1.o@rati@on/ Pilipino appeared as intervenors2oppositors3 Senator Roco *iled a .onstitution.onstitution. 127325 .s.enter.'n article in .e .March 19 1997! Fac"s# Private respondent 'tty3 .ents to t+e . t+e )<P. t+ere*ore it is outside t+e po6er o* people7s initiative 3 T+e Supre.ple.end. considerin/ t+e a0sence in t+e la6 o* speci*ic provisions on t+e conduct o* suc+ initiative3 . Pu0lic )nterest La6 . 'lexander Padilla. *iled 6it+ . president o* People7s )nitiative *or Re*or.end t+e constitution can only 0e i.ents. Moderni=ation and 'ction (P)RM').onstitution is valid.end.ented 0y la6 to 0e passed 0y . Sec3 5 o* t+e 1 "% .ourt a/ainst .its constitutes a revision. li.its o* elective o**icials.ited to a. No. suc+ as t+e *ollo6in/$ (1) T+e constitutional provision on people7s initiative to a.iss t+e Cel*in petition on t+e /round t+at one 6+ic+ is co/ni=a0le 0y t+e . 6+ic+ provides *or t+e ri/+t o* t+e people to exercise t+e po6er to directly propose a. li.?MELE.on/ress3 >o suc+ la6 +as 0een passedG (5) T+e people7s initiative is li.end t+e constitution to li*t t+e ter.onstitution is a sel*2executin/ provision3 (5) 8+et+er or not . and La0an n/ Ce.o@rasya2)pa/tan//ol an/ Ronstitusyon. COMELEC (G.?MELE.3 T+e petitioners +erein Senator Santia/o. Senator Roco.esus Cel*in. Ce. t+rou/+ People7s )nitiative 3 9e 0ased t+is petition on 'rticle A()).end.ents to t+e .otion to dis. Resolution >o3 5JII re/ardin/ t+e conduct o* initiative on a.R.ents to t+e .?MELE. and t+e Cel*in petition risin/ t+e several ar/u. issued an order directin/ t+e pu0lication o* t+e petition and o* t+e notice o* +earin/ and t+erea*ter set t+e case *or +earin/3 't t+e +earin/.?MELE. and )sa0el ?n/pin *iled t+is civil action *or pro+i0ition under Rule !H o* t+e Rules o* .onstitution3 Su0sequently t+e .?MELE.anila <ulletin stated t+at 0aran/ays in <ulacan did not +ave elections in 1 0ecause t+ey +eld elections on . 'rt3 A()) o* t+e 1 "% . not to revision t+ereo*3 Li*tin/ o* t+e ter. 1 ""3 5 DEFENSOR-SANTIAGO vs.

ple.e cannot operate3 'lt+ou/+ t+e . t+e constitutional /uarantee o* equal access to opportunities *or pu0lic service.ffice after -eing =% Cu. o* o**ice o* t+e elected o**icials. o**ice3 )n /eneral.e acade. "212 >+qual )rotection? @ +ligibility to .?MELE.E# 8+et+er or not t+e t+ere is cause o* action3 .end.ent +as 0eco. t+e people cannot exercise it i* .lao 6as t+e *or.ay not run *or pu0lic o**ice and t+at t+e *ilin/ o* co.end. and a*ter preli.on/ress does not provide *or its i. Cu.its o* elective o**icials 6ould constitute a revision or an a.r3 T+ese t6o +o6ever +ave di**erent issues3 T+e suits o* )/ot and Salapantan are . li.entin/ le/islation t+e sa.lao invo@ed equal protection in t+e eye o* t+e la63 ISS. Resolution >o3 5JII 6+ic+ prescri0es rules and re/ulations on t+e conduct o* initiative on a. <P H5 6as passed (par 1 t+ereo*) providin/ disquali*ication *or t+e li@es o* Cu.ic3 )a"r*c*o D$+'ao %" a' vs COMELEC .lao assailed t+e <P averrin/ t+at it is class le/islation +ence unconstitutional3 9is petition 6as 1oined 0y 'tty3 )/ot and Salapantan .entation3 T+e portion o* .lao3 Cu.end.onstitution +as reco/ni=ed or /ranted t+e ri/+t. is void3 )t +as 0een an esta0lis+ed rule t+at 6+at +as 0een dele/ated. li.ent 0ene*its t+ere*ro.onstitution3 &%'(# Sec3 5.plaints a/ainst t+e. t+us. as it 6ould a**ect ot+er provisions o* t+e .(J) 8+et+er t+e li*tin/ o* ter. t+e latter cannot validly pro.its 6as +eld to 0e t+at o* a revision.onstitution.ple.e o**ice *or t+e 1 "I local elections3 ?n t+e ot+er +and.3 9e *iled *or reelection to t+e sa.pai/n and t+e provision 0arrin/ persons c+ar/ed *or cri.ourt7s decision in t+e a0ove )ssue. +is o**ice and +e +as 0een receivin/ retire.?MELE. *ro. cannot 0e dele/ated (potestas dele/ata non dele/ari potest)3 T+e dele/ation o* t+e po6er to t+e . t+e issue o* 6+et+er or not t+e petition is a revision or a.es .onstitution is not sel* executory.onstitution suc+ as t+e sync+roni=ation o* elections.ents to t+e .er /overnor o* >ueva (i=caya3 9e +as retired *ro. and pro+i0itin/ political dynasties3 ' revision cannot 0e done 0y initiative3 9o6ever. 0ein/ invalid.inary investi/ation 6ould already disquali*y t+e. 'rt A()) o* t+e . t+e len/t+ o* t+e ca. 6it+out i.n <ovember =.ent t+e exercise o* t+e ri/+t to people7s initiative3 T+e li*tin/ o* t+e ter.ul/ate rules and re/ulations to i.ple. considerin/ t+e .ent o* t+e .ore o* a taxpayer 7s suit assailin/ t+e ot+er provisions o* <P H5 re/ardin/ t+e ter.

et3 T+e S.ay neit+er 0e reasona0le to disquali*y retirees.0er not . or . .i/+t 0e t+at persons . as t+e Solicitor General +as inti. youn/er e. a provincial. *ro.ote t+e e.er/ence o* youn/er 0lood in our political elective ec+elons3 ?n t+e ot+er +and. t+ere can also 0e retirees *ro. runnin/ *or t+e sa.entel *iled 6it+ t+e Senate Electoral Tri0unal (SET) an election protest a/ainst Sen3 . and a*ter preli.&ELD# T+e S. o**ice as null and void3 T+e assertion t+at Sec & o* <P H5 is contrary to t+e sa*e/uard o* equal protection is neit+er 6ell ta@en3 T+e constitutional /uarantee o* equal protection o* t+e la6s is su01ect to rational classi*ication3 )* t+e /roupin/s are 0ased on reasona0le and real di**erentiations.ay or .uan Ponce Enrile and ot+er senatorial candidates 6+o 6on in t+e May 1 H senatorial elections3 ?n . 6+ile t+ose o* youn/er a/es are not so co. *iled +is ans6er in counter2protest3 )ssues +avin/ 1oined. one class can 0e treated and re/ulated di**erently *ro.ely$ (1) t+e existence o* an appropriate caseG (5) an interest personal and su0stantial 0y t+e party raisin/ t+e constitutional questionG (J) t+e plea t+at t+e *unction 0e exercised at t+e earliest opportunityG and (&) t+e necessity t+at t+e constitutional question 0e passed upon in order to decide t+e case3 )n t+is case. a /ood policy o* t+e la6 s+ould 0e to pro. na. S%-a"% E'%c"ora' Tr*. anot+er class3 #or purposes o* pu0lic service.e t+ey assu.ore t+an 5HN o* t+e total precints involved3 .i/+t not 0e a reasona0le classi*ication alt+ou/+.une JI. ruled +o6ever t+at t+e provision 0arrin/ persons c+ar/ed *or cri. Sen3 'quilino Pi. 6+ic+ +e +ad retired.$-a' #acts$ ?n .ent service . 6+o is not a retiree3 <ut. t+e SET required t+e parties to su0. 6+o +as retired *ro. t+ere is reason to disquali*y +i.i/+t or . pointed out t+e procedural lapses o* t+is case *or t+is case 6ould never +ave 0een .er/ed3 Cu. )/ot7s3 T+ey +ave separate issues3 #urt+er.it t+e list o* pilot precincts nu.pulsorily retira0le3 )n respect o* election to provincial. *ro.ay also 0e /ood elective local o**icials3 Retire.ay not run *or pu0lic o**ice and t+at t+e *ilin/ o* co. as provided *or in t+e c+allen/ed provision3 E-r*'% vs. a/ed !H.e o**ice.eet all t+e requisites so t+at it7d 0e eli/i0le *or 1udicial revie63 T+ere are standards t+at +ave to 0e *ollo6ed in t+e exercise o* t+e *unction o* 1udicial revie6. t+e petitioner. /overn.es . 1 H.ay not 0e a reasona0le disquali*ication *or elective local o**icials3 #or one t+in/.ployees attainin/ t+at a/e are su01ect to co.ated. i* applica0le to everyone.unicipal positions. 1 H.ent service at a/es.anuary 5I. city. city or .ent *ro. say 0elo6 !H3 )t . to require t+at candidates s+ould not 0e . in t+e case o* a !H2year old elective local o**icial (Cu.pulsory retire. /overn. only t+e J r d requisite 6as . a/ed !H. *or a !H2year old retiree could 0e a /ood local o**icial 1ust li@e one. t+is case does not .alo). Sen3 Enrile.ployees !H years o* a/e.lao7s cause is di**erent *ro.ore t+an !H years o* a/e at t+e ti.ent.unicipal o**ice.inary investi/ation 6ould already disquali*y t+e.plaints a/ainst t+e. e. it . +ave 0een validly classi*ied di**erently *ro.e o**ice *ro.ore t+an !H years old .ployees3 E.

NAGMAMALASA3IT NA MGA MANANANGGOL NG MGA MANGGAGA4ANG )ILI)INO INC.onduct 'not+er 'ppreciation o* <allots in t+e Presence o* 'll Parties3 Respondent and Sen3 .ents alle/in/ petitioner 7s .oot considerin/ t+ere is no . FRANCISCO 2R.?n 'u/3 51.R. 1 "3 T+e case 0eca.ourt Session 9all announcin/ t+e partial and tentative results o* t+e revision o* 0allots in t+e pilot precincts 6it+out resolvin/ t+e protest3 )n t+e ta0ulation presented.otion +oldin/ no su**icient 0asis to discard t+e partial ta0ulation3 T+e SET also denied petitioner 7s . 1/02/1 Nov%+.in/ .)REME CO.e dropped to t+e 1H t + position in t+e senatorial race3 ?n Septe. t+ere0y renderin/ t+e resolution o* no practical use or value3 T+e petition is dis.oseten/ *iled separate co. SET +eld a press con*erence at t+e Supre.ourt *inds t+e petition 0eco. 1 %.entel7s Protest and to . 1 %. petitioner *iled a Motion to Set 'side Partial Results in Sen3 Pi.0er 5&.oot and acade. petitioner.ore actual controversy 0et6een t+e parties and +as no use*ul purpose t+at can serve in passin/ upon any .e .issed3 Repu0lic o* t+e P+ilippines S. ITS OFFICERS AND MEM1ERS petitioner2in2intervention. 1usticia0le controversies are lost.onduct anot+er 'ppreciation o* <allots in t+e Presence o* 'll Parties3 )ssue$ 8+et+er or not t+ere is still use*ul purpose t+at can serve in passin/ upon . . G.ertiorari assailed *or +avin/ 0een issued 6it+ /rave a0use o* discretion t+e resolution t+at denied petitioner 7s Motion to 'nnulKSet 'side Partial Results in Pi.une JI.otion is pre.oot and acade.otion *or reconsideration3 ' petition *or . t+e SET denied petitioner 7s .ature considerin/ t+e SET +as not resolved respondent7s election protest3 >evert+eless.RT Manila E> <'>.entel7s Protest and to . t+e petitioner 7s na.erits o* said petition3 9eld$ T+e .erit3 8+ere issues +ave 0eco.e .ic3 T+e tenure o* t+e contested senatorial position su01ect to respondent7s protest expired on .%r 10 2003 ERNESTO 1. No.ic.e ..

)IMENTEL respondent2in2intervention3 x222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222x G.ENTE1ELLA respondents3 2AIME N. DRILON respondents. IN &IS CA)ACIT6 AS S)EA3ER OF T&E &O. vs3 T&E &O. petitioner2in2 intervention. TEODORO 2R. No. SENATOR A8. vs3 FRAN3LIN M. No.SE OF RE)RESENTATI5ES RE)RESENTED 16 S)EA3ER 2OSE G. CANDELARIA CARLOS ). DE CASTRO AND SOLEDAD M.IRINO 8.ILINO 8. )IMENTEL respondent2in2intervention3 x222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222x G. MEDINA 2R. F.R. DE 5ENECIA 2R.ENTE1ELLA T&E SENATE OF T&E )&ILI))INES T&RO.R. )IMENTEL respondent2in2intervention3 x222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222x G. No. 4ORLD 4AR II 5ETERANS LEGIONARIES OF T&E )&ILI))INES INC. petitioners2in2 intervention. AND RE)RESENTATI5E FELI7 4ILLIAM 1. vs3 T&E &O.%r 10 2003 FRANCISCO I. ROM.R. DE 5ENECIA RE)RESENTATI5E GIL1ERTO G. SORIANO respondent2in2)ntervention. ATT6S.SE OF RE)RESENTATI5ES T&RO.%r 10 2003 SEDFRE6 M. DRILON RE)RESENTATI5E GIL1ERTO C. SORIANO respondent2in2intervention.LO 1. .4ORLD 4AR II 5ETERANS LEGIONARIES OF T&E )&ILI))INES INC.SE OF RE)RESENTATI5ES respondents. CAGAM)ANG petitioners. 1/02/2 Nov%+. SENATOR A8.ILINO 8. RE)RESENTA-TI5E FELI7 4ILLIAM 1. F. DRILON IN &IS CA)ACIT6 AS SENATE )RESIDENT AND 2OSE G.G& ITS )RESIDENT SENATE )RESIDENT FRAN3LIN M. 2AIME N. MACALINTAL AND )ETE 8. petitioner2in2 intervention.G& T&E S)EA3ER OR ACTING S)EA3ER OR )RESIDING OFFICER S)EA3ER 2OSE G. 2AIME N. SENATOR A8. C&A5E9 petitioner. 1/0277 Nov%+.%r 10 2003 ART.RO M. DE 5ENECIA T&E SENATE RE)RESENTED 16 SENATE )RESIDENT FRAN3LIN M. AND &ENEDINA RA9ON-A1AD petitioners.ILINO 8. SORIANO respondent2in2intervention. 4ORLD 4AR II 5ETERANS LEGIONARIES OF T&E )&ILI))INES INC. 1/02/3 Nov%+. TEODORO 2R.ADRA petitioners2in2 intervention.

RANO 2ESLI LA).4ORLD 4AR II 5ETERANS LEGIONARIES OF T&E )&ILI))INES INC.9MAN 9ENAIDA CR. SORIANO respondent2in2intervention.ILINO 8.TISTA DEL DE G.E 2R.O 6LAGAN MIC&AEL D. 2OSEFINA 2OSON MAR3 CO2.FINO 1IA9ON LEO5IGILDO 1ANAAG ERIC SINGSON 2ACINTO )ARAS 2OSE SOLIS RENATO MAT. AND R.CENO CONRADO ESTRELLA III ELIAS 1.T A. CECILIA CARREON-2ALOS2OS AGA)ITO A8.M. )IMENTEL respondent2in2intervention3 .AN )A1LO 1ONDOC GENEROSO T.A8.IN SORA6A 2AAFAR 4IL&ELMINO S6-AL5ARADO CLA. vs3 2OSE G. AND RO1ERTO ).G. SENATOR A8. SERRANO AND GAR6 S. ALFREDO C.SE OF RE)RESENTATI5ES AND T&E &O. RE6ES ANTONIO &. S)EA3ER 2OSE G.)LICO CELIA LA6.RDIN ROM.EL ORTEGA .SE OF RE)RESENTATI5ES respondents.S CARLOS CO2.RICIO DOMOGAN RONALDO 9AMORA ANGELO MONTILLA ROSELLER 1ARINAGA 2ESNAR FALCON RE6LINA NICOLAS RODOLFO AL1ANO 2OA8. 2AIME N.1IRI 1ENASING MACARAM1ON 2R. SENATOR A8.R.STODIO ALETA S. 2. GEORGIL.6AN MA.9-D.CO RO99ANO R. A1AD 2R.LLA ROLE7 S. FELI7 4ILLIAM F. LIGON 2OAN ). RO8.ILINO 8.R )INGO6 2R.AN MIG. NERISSA SOON-R.IN C&I)ECO 2R. No.ANGCO GIORGIDI AGGA1AO FRANCIS ESC. DE 5ENECIA 2R. 1/0292 Nov%+. FRANCIS NE)OM.1LIC OF T&E )&ILI))INES GIL1ERT TEODORO 2R.ENTE1ELLA 2.6 ELIAS LO)E9 respondents.STINO D6 III A.ALDO 2.STO S62.ARE9 RODOLF )LA9A 25 1A.DERRO RENE 5ELARDE CELSO LO1REGAT ALI)IO 1ADELLES DIDAGEN DILANGALEN A1RA&AM MITRA 2OSE)& SANTIAGO DARLENE ANTONIO-C.LIRAN 2. petitioner2in2 intervention.T 2R. 2OEL R. )IMENTEL respondent2in2intervention3 x222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222x G.I9 1.ANGCO MA.EL DANG4A ALFREDO MARA:ON 2R. NA9ARENO IN &IS CA)ACIT6 AS SECRETAR6 GENERAL OF T&E &O. 2AIME N.L-&ERMIDA 2OSE CARLOS LACSON MAN. vs3 &ON. DRILON IN &IS CA)ACIT6 AS )RESIDENT OF T&E SENATE OF T&E RE).STO SEAC&ON 2R.INO FA.IS 1ERSAMIN 2R.C.TISTA GREGORIO I)ONG GIL1ERT REM.S 2.1O &ERMINO TE5ES AMADO ES)INO 2R.T.GLAS CAGAS S&ER4IN GATC&ALIAN L. CECILIA )A)A NA)OLEON C. EMILIO MACIAS ART&. MALLARI petitioners. SORIANO respondent2in2intervention.L.%r 10 2003 &ERMINIO &ARR6 L.SE OF RE)RESENTATI5ES FRAN3LIN M.A5IT 2OSE)& D.LAGAN )ER)ET.G. 6.LIO FA.STO 1AC. petitioner2in2 intervention.EL 9.DE 1A.LIO LEDESMA I5 &ENR6 LANOT 3IM 1ERNARDOLO3IN MARCELINO LI1ANAN EMM6LO. TALI:O-SANTOS DO. DE 5ENECIA IN &IS CA)ACIT6 AS S)EA3ER OF T&E &O. 4ORLD 4AR II 5ETERANS LEGIONARIES OF T&E )&ILI))INES INC.I9 ERNESTO NIE5A EDGAR ERICE ISMAEL MAT&A6 SAM.

A8. RE6ES petitioners.ILLERMO CASTAS.%r 10 2003 ).STO 1.STRE AND NOEL ISORENA MA. 1ATERINA AND DE).R. LO6OLA 4ILFREDO 1ELLO 2R.EL D.9 &OMER CALI1AG DR. G.EL DOCTOR MEL5IN MATI1AG RAMON MI8. CRIS)IN T. vs3 T&E &O.. vs3 T&E &O. No. EL DELLE ARCE 4ILLIE RI5ERO DANTE DIA9 AL1ERTO 1. 1/0310 Nov%+. 1/0295 Nov%+. TEODORO 2R.ENTE1ELLA T&E SENATE OF T&E )&ILI))INES T&RO. RONNIE TO8.%r 10 2003 SALACNI1 F. petitioner2in2 intervention.ENA5ISTA FA.LO MAN. GON9ALES petitioners. DE 5ENECIA 2R.G& ITS )RESIDENT SENATE )RESIDENT FRAN3LIN M. COMIA 2. petitioner2in2 intervention.L M. RE)RESENTATI5E FELI7 4ILLIAM 1.INA LITA A. 2AIME 1OA8. 4ORLD 4AR II 5ETERANS LEGIONARIES OF T&E )&ILI))INES INC.x222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222x G.INO MILA ).R.LITO . No. DRILON respondents. SENATE )RESIDENT FRAN3LIN DRILON &ON. DE 5ENECIA RE)RESENTATI5E GIL1ERTO G.ARDO MALASAGA ED.ILLO 3ATE ANN 5ITAL ANGELITA 8. F.I1AS RODOLFO MAGSINO ED. 4ORLD 4AR II 5ETERANS LEGIONARIES OF T&E )&ILI))INES INC. )IMENTEL respondent2in2intervention3 x222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222x G.1LIC INTEREST CENTER INC.ENTE1ELLA ET AL.R.SE OF RE)RESENTATI5ES RE)RESENTED 16 &ON.ENA5ISTA EMIL6 SENERIS ANNA CLARISSA LO6OLA SAL5ACION LO6OLA RAINIER 8.ILINO 8. T&E SENATE RE)RESENTED 16 &ON. 2AIME N. respondents3 x222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222x G.SE OF RE)RESEN-TATI5ES T&RO.IROLGICO 2OSE)& LEANDRO LO6OLA ANTONIO LI1REA FILEMON SI1. vs3 . S)EA3ER 2OSE C. 1/031.9MAN MONICO )A1LES 2R. ALFONSO )ETER AL5ARE9 SAM. No. GA1ITO 2ANETTE ARRO6O RI9ALD6 EM)IG ERNA LA&. Nov%+.S NELSON A. SORIANO respondent2in2intervention. FELI7 F.G& T&E S)EA3ER OR ACTING S)EA3ER OR )RESIDING OFFICER S)EA3ER 2OSE G.T6 S)EA3ER RA. SENATOR A8. SOON 5IRGILIO L. 1ING ARCE SIMEON ARCE 2R.ARDO SARMIENTO EDGARDO NAOE LEONARDO GARCIA EDGARD SMIT& EMETERIO MENDIOLA MARIO TORE2A G. RESTRI5ERA MA7 5ILLAESTER AND EDIL1ERTO GALLOR petitioners.%r 10 2003 LEONILO R.

R. DRILON AND ALL MEM1ERS )&ILI))INE SENATE respondents3 x222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222x G. S)EA3ER 2OSE G. RE)RESENTATI5E FELI7 4ILLIAM 1.ENTE1ELLA T&E SENATE OF T&E )&ILI))INES T&RO. TEODORO 2R.%r 10 2003 ATT6.NDATION INC.%r 10 2003 INTEGRATED 1AR OF T&E )&ILI))INES petitioner. ORTI9 GLORIA C. DE 5ENECIA RE)RESENTATI5E GIL1ERTO G. MA7IMO N.R. )ADERANGA DANILO 5. RALLON ROLANDO ).SE OF RE)RESENTA-TI5ES T&RO.1LIC OF T&E )&ILI))INES petitioners. No. FO.R. MENE9 2R. RE)RESENTATI5E 4ILLIAM F. AG.%r 10 2003 CLARO 1.C. 1EN2AMIN S. DI5INAGRACIA 3AREN 1.MNI CE1.IS 5. 1/03<3 Nov%+.R.IRRE-)ADERANGA FOR T&EMSEL5ES AND IN 1E&ALF OF OT&ER CITI9ENS OF T&E RE).&ON. )ERITO IN &IS CA)ACIT6 AS A MEM1ER OF T&E INTEGRATED 1AR OF T&E )&ILI))INES MANILA III AND ENGR.ILLANO S6L5A G.). vs3 T&E &O. CA)ARROS-AR8. 1/03/0 Nov%+. 1/03<2 Nov%+. DRILON respondents3 x222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222x G. vs3 T&E &O.SE OF RE)RESENTA-TI5ES RE)RESENTED 16 T&E .ENTE1ELLA respondents3 x222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222x G. FERNANDO ). DE 5ENECIA ALL MEM1ERS &O. GOERING G.SE OF RE)RESENTATI5ES &ON.. CORRO L. SENATE )RESIDENT FRAN3LIN M. ESTEN9O-RAMOS LI9A D.R. NONATO DANTE T.G& T&E S)EA3ER OR ACTING S)EA3ER OR )RESIDING OFFICER S)EA3ER 2OSE G. No.3 &ONORA1LE MEM1ERS OF T&E &O.SE LED 16 &ON. RAMOS ELSA R. No. vs3 T&E &O. LA4 AL.%r 10 2003 . vs3 . IN &IS CA)ACIT6 AS A TA7)A6ER AND MEM1ER OF T&E ENGINEERING )ROFESSION petitioners.G& T&E SENATE )RESIDENT respondents3 x222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222x G. FLORES petitioner.G& ITS )RESIDENT SENATE )RESIDENT FRAN3LIN M.SE OF RE)RESENTATI5ES T&RO. DIORES SR. No. 1/03/5 Nov%+. F.G& T&E S)EA3ER AND T&E SENATE OF T&E )&ILI))INES T&RO.

vs3 &ON. vs3 T&E &ONORA1LE )RESIDENT OF T&E SENATE T&E &ONORA1LE S)EA3ER OF T&E &O. No.INO petitioner.T&E &O.R. 1/037/ Nov%+. DE 5ENECIA AND T&E SENATE OF T&E )&ILI))INES T&RO. No.0 &O.SE OF RE)RESENTA-TI5ES S)EA3ER 2OSE G..SE RE)RESENTATI5ES FELI7 F. petitioner3 x222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222x G. DA5IDE 2R. No.%r 10 2003 5ENICIO S. 1/0397 Nov%+. FELI7 4ILLIAM F. DIOSCORO .G& SENATE )RESIDENT FRAN3LIN DRILON respondents3 x222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222x G. vs3 . &OFILE:A petitioners.STICE &ILARIO G. 5ALLE2OS 2R.ENTE1ELLA AND GIL1ERT TEODORO IN RE)RESENTATION OF T&E .STICE &ILARIO G.)REME CO.R. No.%r 10 2003 NILO A.SE RE)RESENTATI5ES 4&O SIGNED AND FILED T&E IM)EAC&MENT COM)LAINT AGAINST S.R.SE OF RE)RESENTATI5ES T&RO.R.%r 10 2003 )&ILI))INE 1AR ASSOCIATION petitioner. ATT6.%r 10 2003 IN T&E MATTER OF T&E IM)EAC&MENT COM)LAINT AGAINST C&IEF 2.G& S)EA3ER 2OSE G.%r 10 2003 FR. FLORES AND &ECTOR L./ SIGNATORIES OF T&E ARTICLES OF IM)EAC&MENT AGAINST C&IEF 2. 1/0<03 Nov%+. DE 5ENECIA respondents3 x222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222x G. No. 1/0392 Nov%+. DE 5ENECIA T&E SENATE OF T&E )&ILI))INES SENATE )RESIDENT FRAN3LIN DRILON &O. MALAN6AON petitioner.SE OF RE)RESENTATI5ES CONGRESS OF T&E )&ILI))INES RE)RESENTED 16 ITS S)EA3ER &ON. 1/0370 Nov%+.STICE &ILARIO G.) OF MORE T&AN . 2OSE G.SE OF RE)RESENTATI5ES respondents3 x222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222x G. respondents3 x222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222x G.R. vs3 T&E &O. DA5IDE 2R. AND T&E &O.ENTE1ELLA AND GIL1ERTO TEODORO 16 T&EMSEL5ES AND AS RE)RESENTATI5ES OF T&E GRO. RAN&ILIO CALLANGAN A8. DA5IDE 2R.RT C&IEF 2.

FRAN3LIN DRILON respondents3 x222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222x G.plaint a/ainst .ore trut+ to t+e vie6 t+at it 6as 0rou/+t upon 0y a political crisis o* conscience3 )n any event. )RO5INCE 5ICTOR A.ENTE1ELA T&E SENATE OF T&E )&ILI))INES T&RO. =CAM) INC> RE)RESENTED 16 RODERIC R.+ie* . No. 6O. C&A)TER petitioners.acy to t+e c+aracteri=ation t+at t+e present controversy su01ect o* t+e instant petitions – 6+et+er t+e *ilin/ o* t+e second i.ay appear to 0e. a con*lict.onstitution itsel* provides *or t+e .ay indeed 0e so.ent o* t+e nature.atter +o6 passionate and see.G& SENATE )RESIDENT &ON. MAN. MON9ON )RESIDING OF I1) CE1. =6LAC> RE)RSEENTED 16 ATT6.onstitution. F. 1ARCENAS )RESIDENT OF I1) CE1. vs3 T&E &O. =CELLA INC. 2OSE G.STR6 AND CE1. at ti. .NG LA46ERS ASSOCAITION OF CE1. DE 5ENECIA AS &O.G& T&E S)EA3ER OR )RESIDING OFFICER &ON.es tur0ulent.ourt is con*ronted 6it+ one suc+ today involvin/ t+e le/islature and t+e 1udiciary 6+ic+ +as dra6n le/al lu.ents t+ereon3 T+ere . and 6+et+er t+e resolution t+ereo* is a political question – +as resulted in a political crisis3 Per+aps even . LAD6 LA46ERS ASSOCIATION INC. no . CIT6 C&A)TER MAN.ent co. TEODORO 2R.SE OF RE)RESENTA-TI5ES RE)RESENTED 16 RE). MAAM1ONG )RO5INCIAL 1OARD MEM1ER ADELINO 1. 2OSE G. )OCA MANDA.T&E &O.ination 0y t+e independent 0ranc+es o* /overn.on/ t+ese co2equal 0ranc+es3 T+is . # T+ere can 0e no constitutional crisis arisin/ *ro.r3 6it+ t+e 9ouse o* Representatives *alls 6it+in t+e one year 0ar provided in t+e . INC.onstitution is su**icient to address all t+e .SE OF RE)RESENTATI5ES T&RO. 1/0<05 Nov%+. CO )RESIENT OF CE1. SITO6 DEAN OF T&E COLLEG EOF LA4 .in/ly irreconcila0le it .EL LEGAS)I CONFEDERATION OF ACCREDITED MEDIATORS OF T&E )&ILI))INES INC. DE 5ENECIA RE)RESENTATI5E GIL1ERTO G.ustice 9ilario G3 Cavide. it is 6it+ t+e a0solute certainty t+at our .peac+.EL M. RE)RESENTATI5E FELI7 4ILLIAM 1.> MARI1ELLE NA5ARRO AND 1ERNARDITO FLORIDO )AST )RESIDENT CE1.ics o* t+e relations+ip a.inaries to c+art antipodal courses and not a *e6 o* our country.eans and 0ases *or its resolution3 ?ur nationDs +istory is replete 6it+ vivid illustrations o* t+e o*ten *rictional.R. 2ORDAN CARLOS G. dyna.en to vent cacop+onous senti. C&AM1ER OF COMMERCE AND INTEGRATED 1AR OF T&E )&ILI))INES CE1.E LA46ERS ASSOCIATION =MANLA4> RE)RESENTED 16 FELI)E 5ELAS8. C&AM1ER OF COMMERCE AND IND.e le/iti.NI5ERSIT6 OF CE1.SE S)EA3ER AND T&E SENATE RE)RESENTED 16 SENATOR FRAN3LIN DRILON AS SENATE )RESIDENT respondents3 CAR)IO MORALES J. over t+e deter.E9 FEDERACION INTERNACIONAL DE A1OGADAS =FIDA> RE)RESENTED 16 T&ELMA L. scope and extent o* t+eir respective constitutional po6ers 6+ere t+e .%r 10 2003 DEMOCRITO C.

'rticle A) o* our present 1 "% . salus populi est suprema lex. t+e Me.e .ent3 (5) ' veri*ied co. serve t+e.ourt is ever . receipt t+ereo*3 (J) ' vote o* at least one2t+ird o* all t+e Me.es 0e accounta0le to t+e people.per t+e o**icial acts o* eac+ o* t+ese t+ree 0ranc+es .on/ t+ese 0ranc+es 6+ere t+e delicate *unctions o* enactin/.'*c O@@*c%rs SE.ent3 SE.issues 6+ic+ t+is controversy spa6ns t+at t+is .an . treason. act 6it+ patriotis. and t+e ?.ourt unequivocally pronounces. and conviction o*. not departure *ro. t+e controversy.on/ t+e le/islative.oved *ro.ployees .0uds.plex issues arisin/ *ro. t+ese t6o *unda.onstitution3 )n passin/ over t+e co..ental po6er is 6ielded only *or t+e /ood o* t+e people.T)?> 13 Pu0lic o**ice is a pu0lic trust3 Pu0lic o**icers and e. culpa0le violation o* t+e .ittee.issions.oved *ro.e. /ra*t and corruption.ployees .o. /uided only 0y 6+at is in t+e /reater interest and 6ell20ein/ o* t+e people3 (erily.0ers o* t+e Supre. ot+er +i/+ cri.ent 0y any Me. 0ut not 0y i..ourt.0er o* t+e 9ouse o* Representatives or 0y any citi=en upon a resolution o* endorse.e ti. . 6+ic+ s+all 0e included in t+e ?rder o* <usiness 6it+in ten session days. to/et+er 6it+ t+e correspondin/ resolution3 T+e resolution s+all 0e calendared *or consideration 0y t+e 9ouse 6it+in ten session days *ro.. s+all su0. or override its contrary . t+e corollary doctrine o* c+ec@s and 0alances 6+ic+ +as 0een care*ully cali0rated 0y t+e . intended as t+ey are to insure t+at /overn. t+is .onstitution to te. 0ri0ery.ust 0e /iven e**ect 6it+out destroyin/ t+eir indispensa0le co2equality3 Ta@en to/et+er.andate a relations+ip o* interdependence and coordination a.0ers o* t+e 9ouse s+all 0e necessary eit+er to a**ir.ittee.ent o* t+e .peac+. interpretin/ and en*orcin/ la6s are +ar.0er t+ereo*.ay 0e *iled 0y any Me.ust at all ti.odest lives3 SE.ent 0y no . t+at t+e *eared resort to extra2constitutional .ittee 6it+in t+ree session days t+erea*ter3 T+e .0ers o* t+e . and e**iciency.ent *or. loyalty.o. and 1ustice.T)?> J3 (1) T+e 9ouse o* Representatives s+all +ave t+e %Ac'$s*v% po6er to *-*"*a"% all cases o* i.oni=ed to ac+ieve a unity o* /overnance.peac+. suc+ re*erral.ind*ul o* t+e essential trut+ t+at t+e inviolate doctrine o* separation o* po6ers a.y in t+e disc+ar/e 0y eac+ o* t+at part o* t+e /overn. a*ter +earin/. o**ice as provided 0y la6. t+e Me. at t+e *irst instance.a1ority vote o* all its Me. o**ice.ay 0e re. t+e .o.peac+. 6it+ ut..es.onstitution.ay 0e re. and 0y a . t+e (ice2President.ost responsi0ility..ent. and re*erred to t+e proper .et+ods o* resolvin/ it is neit+er necessary nor le/ally per.ent . executive or 1udicial 0ranc+es o* /overn.onstitutional .eans prescri0es *or a0solute autono. or 0etrayal o* pu0lic trust3 'll ot+er pu0lic o**icers and e.o. inte/rity. and lead .*'*"? o@ )$.0ers.issi0le3 <ot+ its resolution and protection o* t+e pu0lic interest lie in ad+erence to.T)?> 53 T+e President. on i.onstitution provides$ ARTICLE 7I Acco$-"a. a *avora0le resolution 6it+ t+e 'rticles o* ).peac+.ental po6er assi/ned to it 0y t+e soverei/n people3 't t+e sa.ental doctrines o* repu0lican /overn.plaint *or i.peac+.it its report to t+e 9ouse 6it+in sixty session days *ro.

resolution3 T+e vote o* eac+ Me.0er s+all 0e recorded3 (&) )n case t+e veri*ied co.plaint or resolution o* i.peac+.ent is *iled 0y at least one2t+ird o* all t+e Me.0ers o* t+e 9ouse, t+e sa.e s+all constitute t+e 'rticles o* ).peac+.ent, and trial 0y t+e Senate s+all *ort+6it+ proceed3 (H) No i.peac+.ent proceedin/s sha'' 0e *-*"*a"%( a/ainst t+e sa.e o**icial .ore t+an once 6it+in a period o* one year3 (!) T+e Senate s+all +ave t+e so'% po6er to try and decide all cases o* i.peac+.ent3 8+en sittin/ *or t+at purpose, t+e Senators s+all 0e on oat+ or a**ir.ation3 8+en t+e President o* t+e P+ilippines is on trial, t+e ,+ie* ;ustice o* t+e Supre.e ,ourt s+all preside, 0ut s+all not vote3 >o person s+all 0e convicted 6it+out t+e concurrence o* t6o2t+irds o* all t+e Me.0ers o* t+e Senate3 (%) ;ud/.ent in cases o* i.peac+.ent s+all not extend *urt+er t+an re.oval *ro. o**ice and disquali*ication to +old any o**ice under t+e Repu0lic o* t+e P+ilippines, 0ut t+e party convicted s+all nevert+eless 0e lia0le and su01ect to prosecution, trial, and punis+.ent accordin/ to la63 (") T+e ,on/ress s+all pro.ul/ate its rules on i.peac+.ent "o %@@%c"*v%'? carr? o$" "h% B$rBos% o@ "h*s s%c"*o- 3 (E.p+asis and underscorin/ supplied) #ollo6in/ t+e a0ove2quoted Section " o* 'rticle A) o* t+e ,onstitution, t+e 15t+ ,on/ress o* t+e 9ouse o* Representatives adopted and approved t+e Rules o* Procedure in ).peac+.ent Proceedin/s (9ouse ).peac+.ent Rules) on >ove.0er 5", 5II1, supersedin/ t+e previous 9ouse ).peac+.ent Rules 1 approved 0y t+e 11t+ ,on/ress3 T+e r%'%va-" distinctions 0et6een t+ese t6o ,on/ressesD 9ouse ).peac+.ent Rules are s+o6n in t+e *ollo6in/ ta0ulation$ 11T& CONGRESS R,LES 12T& CONGRESS R,LES R,LE 5 NE4

R,LE II INITIATING IM)EAC&MENT

1AR AGAINST INITIATION OF IM)EAC&MENT S%c"*o- 2. Mode of Initiating )ROCEEDINGS AGAINST Impeachment. – ).peac+.ent T&E SAME OFFICIAL s+all 0e initiated only 0y a veri*ied co.plaint *or S%c"*o- 1/. C Impeachment i.peac+.ent *iled 0y any Proceedings Deemed Initiated. Me.0er o* t+e 9ouse o* – )n cases 6+ere a Me.0er o* Representatives or 0y any citi=en t+e 9ouse *iles a veri*ied upon a resolution o* endorse.ent co.plaint o* i.peac+.ent or a 0y any Me.0er t+ereo* or 0y a citi=en *iles a veri*ied veri*ied co.plaint or resolution co.plaint t+at is endorsed 0y a o* i.peac+.ent *iled 0y at least Me.0er o* t+e 9ouse t+rou/+ a one2t+ird (1KJ) o* all t+e resolution o* endorse.ent Me.0ers o* t+e 9ouse3 a/ainst an i.peac+a0le o**icer,

i.peac+.ent proceedin/s a/ainst suc+ o**icial are dee.ed initiated on t+e day t+e ,o..ittee on ;ustice *inds t+at t+e veri*ied co.plaint andKor resolution a/ainst suc+ o**icial, as t+e case .ay 0e, is su**icient in su0stance, or on t+e date t+e 9ouse votes to overturn or a**ir. t+e *indin/ o* t+e said ,o..ittee t+at t+e veri*ied co.plaint andKor resolution, as t+e case .ay 0e, is not su**icient in su0stance3 )n cases 6+ere a veri*ied co.plaint or a resolution o* i.peac+.ent is *iled or endorsed, as t+e case .ay 0e, 0y at least one2t+ird (1KJ) o* t+e Me.0ers o* t+e 9ouse, *+B%ach+%-" Broc%%(*-Ds ar% (%%+%( *-*"*a"%( a" "h% "*+% o@ "h% @*'*-D o@ s$ch v%r*@*%( co+B'a*-" or r%so'$"*o- o@ *+B%ach+%-" E*"h "h% S%cr%"ar? G%-%ra'.

R,LE 5 1AR IM)EAC&MENT AGAINST

S%c"*o- 1<. Scope of Bar. – >o i.peac+.ent proceedin/s s+all 0e initiated a/ainst t+e sa.e o**icial .ore t+an once 6it+in t+e period o* one (1) year3

S%c"*o17. Bar Against Initiation Of Impeachment Proceedings. – 8it+in a period o* one (1) year *ro. t+e date i.peac+.ent proceedin/s are dee.ed initiated as provided in Section 1! +ereo*, no i.peac+.ent proceedin/s, as suc+, can 0e initiated a/ainst t+e sa.e o**icial3 ()talics in t+e ori/inalG e.p+asis and underscorin/ supplied)

?n ;uly 55, 5II5, t+e 9ouse o* Representatives adopted a Resolution, 5 sponsored 0y Representative #elix 8illia. C3 #uente0ella, 6+ic+ directed t+e ,o..ittee on ;ustice Bto conduct an investi/ation,

in aid o* le/islation, on t+e .anner o* dis0urse.ents and expenditures 0y t+e ,+ie* ;ustice o* t+e Supre.e ,ourt o* t+e ;udiciary Cevelop.ent #und (;C#)3B J ?n ;une 5, 5IIJ, *or.er President ;osep+ E3 Estrada *iled an i.peac+.ent co.plaint & (*irst i.peac+.ent co.plaint) a/ainst ,+ie* ;ustice 9ilario G3 Cavide ;r3 and seven 'ssociate ;ustices H o* t+is ,ourt *or Bculpa0le violation o* t+e ,onstitution, 0etrayal o* t+e pu0lic trust and ot+er +i/+ cri.es3B ! T+e co.plaint 6as endorsed 0y Representatives Rolex T3 Suplico, Ronaldo <3 Oa.ora and Cida/en Pian/ Cilan/alen, % and 6as re*erred to t+e 9ouse ,o..ittee on ;ustice on 'u/ust H, 5IIJ " in accordance 6it+ Section J(5) o* 'rticle A) o* t+e ,onstitution 6+ic+ reads$ Section J(5) ' veri*ied co.plaint *or i.peac+.ent .ay 0e *iled 0y any Me.0er o* t+e 9ouse o* Representatives or 0y any citi=en upon a resolution o* endorse.ent 0y any Me.0er t+ereo*, 6+ic+ s+all 0e included in t+e ?rder o* <usiness 6it+in ten session days, and re*erred to t+e proper ,o..ittee 6it+in t+ree session days t+erea*ter3 T+e ,o..ittee, a*ter +earin/, and 0y a .a1ority vote o* all its Me.0ers, s+all su0.it its report to t+e 9ouse 6it+in sixty session days *ro. suc+ re*erral, to/et+er 6it+ t+e correspondin/ resolution3 T+e resolution s+all 0e calendared *or consideration 0y t+e 9ouse 6it+in ten session days *ro. receipt t+ereo*3 T+e 9ouse ,o..ittee on ;ustice ruled on ?cto0er 1J, 5IIJ t+at t+e *irst i.peac+.ent co.plaint 6as Bsu**icient in *or.,B 0ut voted to dis.iss t+e sa.e on ?cto0er 55, 5IIJ *or 0ein/ insu**icient in su0stance3 1 I To date, t+e ,o..ittee Report to t+is e**ect +as not yet 0een sent to t+e 9ouse in plenary in accordance 6it+ t+e said Section J(5) o* 'rticle A) o* t+e ,onstitution3 #our .ont+s and t+ree 6ee@s since t+e *ilin/ on ;une 5, 5IIJ o* t+e *irst co.plaint or on ?cto0er 5J, 5IIJ, a day a*ter t+e 9ouse ,o..ittee on ;ustice voted to dis.iss it, t+e second i.peac+.ent co.plaint 11 6as *iled 6it+ t+e Secretary General o* t+e 9ouse 1 5 0y Representatives Gil0erto ,3 Teodoro, ;r3 (#irst Cistrict, Tarlac) and #elix 8illia. <3 #uente0ella (T+ird Cistrict, ,a.arines Sur) a/ainst ,+ie* ;ustice 9ilario G3 Cavide, ;r3, *ounded on t+e alle/ed results o* t+e le/islative inquiry initiated 0y a0ove2.entioned 9ouse Resolution3 T+is second i.peac+.ent co.plaint 6as acco.panied 0y a BResolution o* Endorse.entK).peac+.entB si/ned 0y at least one2t+ird (1KJ) o* all t+e Me.0ers o* t+e 9ouse o* Representatives3 1 J T+us arose t+e instant petitions a/ainst t+e 9ouse o* Representatives, et. al., .ost o* 6+ic+ petitions contend t+at t+e *ilin/ o* t+e second i.peac+.ent co.plaint is unconstitutional as it violates t+e provision o* Section H o* 'rticle A) o* t+e ,onstitution t+at BLnMo i.peac+.ent proceedin/s s+all 0e initiated a/ainst t+e sa.e o**icial .ore t+an once 6it+in a period o* one year3B )n G.R. No. 1/02/1 , petitioner 'tty3 Ernesto <3 #rancisco, ;r3, alle/in/ t+at +e +as a duty as a .e.0er o* t+e )nte/rated <ar o* t+e P+ilippines to use all availa0le le/al re.edies to stop an unconstitutional i.peac+.ent, t+at t+e issues raised in +is petition *or ,ertiorari, Pro+i0ition and Manda.us are o* transcendental i.portance, and t+at +e B+i.sel* 6as a victi. o* t+e capricious and ar0itrary c+an/es in t+e Rules o* Procedure in ).peac+.ent Proceedin/s introduced 0y t+e 15t+ ,on/ress,B 1 & posits t+at +is ri/+t to 0rin/ an i.peac+.ent co.plaint a/ainst t+en ?.0uds.an 'niano Cesierto +ad 0een violated due to t+e capricious and ar0itrary c+an/es in t+e 9ouse ).peac+.ent Rules adopted and approved on >ove.0er 5", 5II1 0y t+e 9ouse o* Representatives and prays t+at (1) Rule (, Sections 1! and 1% and Rule ))), Sections H, !, %, ", and t+ereo* 0e

adoptin/. to return t+e second i. al.ustice. +earin/.in/ t+at t+ey +ave a ri/+t to 0e protected a/ainst all *or. and t+e inte/rity o* t+e .R. 1/02/3 . t+e issuance o* a 6rit BperpetuallyB pro+i0itin/ respondent 9ouse o* Representatives *ro.peac+.ertiorariKPro+i0ition.. to co. 1/02/2 . alle/in/ t+at t+is .ent a/ainst t+e .andelaria.R.ent . 1/0295 petitioners Representatives Salacni0 #3 <aterina and Ceputy Spea@er Raul M3 Gon=ale=. Section J (5). No.plaint andKor stri@e it o** t+e records o* t+e 9ouse o* Representatives.declared unconstitutionalG (5) t+is .peac+. in t+e event t+at t+e Senate +as accepted t+e sa. trans.pan/.peac+. as citi=ens and taxpayers. taxpayers.ent proceedin/s are initiated.e .+ie* .plaint.peac+. clai.mari &oastal -ay Aevelopment &orporation .e.0ers o* t+e le/al pro*ession.ent trial on t+e second i. and respondents Ce (enecia and >a=areno *ro.ent trial3 )n G.on/ress *ro. pray.e.ent co.peac+.e. 1/0310 petitioners Leonilo R3 'l*onso et al.. *ro.us directin/ respondents 9ouse o* Representatives et.onstitution. la6yers and . 0e declared null and voidG and (5) t+is . petitioner #rancisco )3 .ent co. et.plaint 0e declared unconstitutional3 )n G. alle/in/ t+at t+e issues o* t+e case are o* transcendental i.udiciary.R. in t+eir petition *or .ent to t+e Senate3 )n G. 1/0292 .ourt issue a 6rit o* . petitioners 'tty3 9arry L3 Roque.peac+.peac+. pray *or t+e issuance o* a 6rit o* pro+i0ition en1oinin/ .ertiorari and Pro+i0ition t+at it is instituted as Ba class suitB and pray t+at (1) t+e 9ouse Resolution endorsin/ t+e second i. No.ustice or.+ave=.ul/ate rules 6+ic+ are consistent 6it+ t+e .peac+.0ers o* t+e 9ouse o* Representatives. dra*tin/.ent co.+ie* .ent co. (J) and (H) o* t+e . and to pro. al. No. as .ustice 6it+ t+e SenateG and *or t+e issuance o* a 6rit BperpetuallyB pro+i0itin/ respondents Senate and Senate President #ran@lin Crilon *ro. t+ey +ave a le/al interest in ensurin/ t+at only constitutional i. ta@in/ co/ni=ance o*. alle/in/ t+at. alle/e in t+eir petition *or . al.anatin/ t+ere*ro.ent co. conductin/ *urt+er proceedin/s on said second i. pray in t+eir petition *or Pro+i0ition *or an order pro+i0itin/ respondent 9ouse o* Representatives *ro.anda. petitioners 'rturo M3 de .s o* senseless spendin/ o* taxpayersD .+ie* . 1 ! prays in +is petition *or )n1unction t+at t+e second i.ittin/ t+e 'rticles o* ).peac+. acceptin/ any 'rticles o* ).R. No. as citi=ens.. proceedin/ 6it+ t+e second i.ourt.R.ourt +as reco/ni=ed t+at +e +as locus standi to 0rin/ petitions o* t+is nature in t+e cases o* &havez v. as taxpayers and .ittin/ to t+e Senate t+e second i.plaint as 6ell as all issuances e.anently en1oin respondent 9ouse o* Representatives *ro.peac+.plaint and any act proceedin/ t+ere*ro.oney and t+at t+ey +ave an o0li/ation to protect t+e Supre.e. No. pray in t+eir petition *or .ent co.peac+.plaint.ent co.peac+. proceedin/ 6it+ t+e i.ent co. )&00 1 H and &havez v.ply 6it+ 'rticle )A. 0e declared null and void3 )n G.a/a.0ers o* t+e )nte/rated <ar o* t+e P+ilippines. )+.plaint3 )n G. *ilin/ any 'rticles o* ).astro and Soledad .peac+. t+e .R.peac+. tryin/ and decidin/ t+e second i.peac+. petitioners Sed*rey M3 . 1/0277 .ent a/ainst t+e .ourt en1oin t+e Senate and t+e Senate President *ro.onstitutionG and (J) t+is .plaint3 )n G. alle/in/ t+at t+eir petition *or Pro+i0ition involves pu0lic interest as it involves t+e use o* pu0lic *unds necessary to conduct t+e i.ertiorariKPro+i0ition t+at t+e second i. approvin/ and trans. et.ourt per. No.portance.'.

o >3 Mene=.+ie* .peac+.e t+ey *iled t+e second i.udiciary3 )n G. and its co2petitioner .e .plaint3 )n G.ertiorari and Pro+i0ition t+at Sections 1! and 1% o* Rule ( and Sections H.peac+.peac+.onstitution.ent co. alle/in/ t+at it is . as a taxpayer.ourt declare as unconstitutional t+e second i. petitioner Pu0lic )nterest . pray *or t+e issuance o* a 6rit pro+i0itin/ respondents 9ouse o* Representatives and t+e Senate *ro. 0ot+ alle/e in t+eir petition.rispin T3 Reyes.R.plaint and t+at t+is . prays *or t+e issuance o* a 6rit pro+i0itin/ t+e 9ouse o* Representatives *ro.ustice to dis0urse t+e (.ent Rules 0e declared unconstitutional and t+at t+e 9ouse o* Representatives 0e per.R.peac+.ent co. 3actoran 1 % 6+ic+ 6as *iled in 0e+al* o* succeedin/ /enerations o* #ilipinos.plaint. conductin/ *urt+er proceedin/s on t+e second i.ent co.ent co.ent Rules and t+e second i. No.e.plaint3 )n G.anently en1oined *ro. 1/0370 petitioner2taxpayer #at+er Ran+ilio .plaint and t+e acts o* respondent 9ouse o* Representatives in inter*erin/ 6it+ t+e *iscal .laro #lores prays in +is petition *or .peac+.C#)3B . prays in its petition *or .porary Restrainin/ ?rder and Per.atters o* t+e .andated 0y t+e . its prosecutors and a/ents to desist *ro. conductin/ any proceedin/s or to act on t+e i.ertiorari and Pro+i0ition t+at t+e 9ouse ). +e +as a direct and su0stantial interest in t+e un+a. receivin/ t+e sa. as a taxpayer.ent co.peac+.plaint involves para. is a class suit *iled in 0e+al* o* all citi=ens.peac+.pered operation o* t+e Supre.peac+. in t+eir petition *or Pro+i0ition and )n1unction 6+ic+ t+ey clai. ". and petitioner En/r3 Maxi. 6ere Ba0solutely 6it+out any le/al po6er to do so.ent to t+e Senate and t+e Senate *ro.0er o* t+e P+ilippine <ar 'ssociation and o* t+e )nte/rated <ar o* t+e P+ilippines. trans.ni .ent 0e declared null and void3 )n G. 1/03/0 petitioner2taxpayer 'tty3 . as t+ey acted 6it+out 1urisdiction as *ar as t+e 'rticles o* ). 6+ose . taxpayer and a . pray in t+eir petition *or t+e issuance o* a Te.e or /ivin/ t+e i.e.ourt and its o**icials in disc+ar/in/ t+eir duties in accordance 6it+ t+e .0er o* t+e P+ilippine <ar.ent co.plaintK'rticles o* ).ent co. 1/03/5 petitioners E3P3 La6 'lu. 1/03<3 petitioner )nte/rated <ar o* t+e P+ilippines. alle/es in +is petition *or Pro+i0ition t+at respondents #uente0ella and Teodoro at t+e ti. No. 1/037/ petitioner >ilo '3 Malanyaon. as a citi=en and a .plaint3 )n G. o* Rule ))) o* t+e 9ouse ).R. No. citin/ . 1/03<2 petitioner 'tty3 #ernando P3 R3 Perito.peac+.ent co.ount pu0lic interest and pray t+at Sections 1! and 1% o* t+e 9ouse ).plaint due course3 )n G.udicial 'cade. !.R.ode o* Pro*essional Responsi0ility to up+old t+e .. and issue a 6rit o* pro+i0ition co.peac+.ittin/ t+e 'rticles o* ). et3 al3.andin/ t+e Senate.ent assail t+e alle/ed a0use o* po6ers o* t+e . %. No.co.e.y. 6+ic+ does not state 6+at its nature is. No.r3.peac+. a citi=en.peac+.onstitution.posa v.peac+.allan/an 'quino.R. . alle/in/ t+at t+e issues in +is petition *or Pro+i0ition are o* national and transcendental si/ni*icance and t+at as an o**icial o* t+e P+ilippine .ent co.0ers are citi=ens and taxpayers. No.e0u #oundation )nc3.peac+. proceedin/ 6it+ t+e second i.R.peac+.enter. 1/031. No.anent )n1unction to en1oin t+e 9ouse o* Representatives *ro. )nc3.R.plaint.ent Rules 0e declared unconstitutional3 )n G. proceedin/ 6it+ t+e second i. t+at t+e *ilin/ o* t+e second i.

durin/ t+e plenary session o* t+e 9ouse o* Representatives.ause o* 'ction and . No.ent co. 1/0<03 petitioner P+ilippine <ar 'ssociation.plaint and all proceedin/s arisin/ t+ere*ro.ally trans. al.0er G3R3 >o3 1!I5 5 alle/ed t+at 9ouse Resolution >o3 5!I (callin/ *or a le/islative inquiry into t+e ad.C#) 6as spent in accordance 6it+ la6 and t+at t+e 9ouse o* Representatives does not +ave exclusive 1urisdiction in t+e exa. petition 0earin/ doc@et nu.ent 0y t+e respondent 9ouse o* Representatives 0e declared null and void and (5) respondents Senate and Senate President #ran@lin Crilon 0e pro+i0ited *ro. proceedin/ 6it+ t+e i. pray in t+eir petition *or .ent to t+e SenateG and (J) respondent Senate 0e pro+i0ited *ro.peac+.)n G. No. alle/in/ t+at t+e issues raised in t+e *ilin/ o* t+e second i. acceptin/ t+e 'rticles o* ).ent trial3 Petitions 0earin/ doc@et nu.urisdictionB t+at t+e second i.plaint involve .peac+. No.plaint to t+e Senate3 Petition 0earin/ doc@et nu. 0ut it 6as not carried 0ecause t+e 9ouse o* Representatives ad1ourned *or lac@ o* quoru.3 <arcenas et.ent co. trans. t+e 'rticles o* ). 5IIJ. prays in its petition *or .ustice or.plaint >ull and (oid *or Lac@ o* . t+e second i.+ie* . a .R.ertiorariKPro+i0ition t+at (1) t+e second i. acceptin/ any 'rticles o* ).ent co.peac+. 5II1 9ouse ).plaint 0e *or. 0e declared null and voidG (5) respondent 9ouse o* Representatives 0e pro+i0ited *ro.0er 5".+ie* .ent co.inds o* t+eir students.C#) in*rin/es on t+e constitutional doctrine o* separation o* po6ers and is a direct violation o* t+e constitutional principle o* *iscal autono.ittin/ t+e 'rticles o* ). t+at t+ey 0e pro+i0ited *ro.plaint 0e declared null and void3 )n G.ent +ave yet to 0e *or6arded to t+e Senate3 .peac+.ent a/ainst t+e .otion 6as put *ort+ t+at t+e second i.peac+.ent and *ro. .ination and audit t+ereo*. No.ourt.udicial Cevelop.ent co.peac+. 1!I5!5 and 1!I5!J.ertiorariKPro+i0ition t+at (1) t+e second i.ent co.plaint is *ounded on t+e issue o* 6+et+er or not t+e . 6it+out alle/in/ +is locus standi .peac+.peac+.peac+. 1/0<05 petitioners Ce.peac+.peac+. 5IIJ.peac+. 0ut alle/in/ t+at t+e second i.ent co.peac+.R.ent co. 1 " prayed *or t+e issuance o* a Te.y o* t+e 1udiciary3 ?n ?cto0er 5". trans. to date.. in t+e event t+at t+ey +ave accepted t+e sa.peac+.ocrit .porary Restrainin/ ?rder andKor preli.ent Rules as null and void *or 0ein/ unconstitutional3 Petitions 0earin/ doc@et nu.ent and t+at t+e second i. t+e *irst t+ree o* t+e ei/+teen 6+ic+ 6ere *iled 0e*ore t+is . 1/0397 petitioner 'tty3 Cioscoro (alle1os.ent #und (. tryin/ t+e 'rticles o* ).B pray t+at t+e 9ouse o* Representatives 0e en1oined *ro.ertiorari and Pro+i0ition as it pertains to a constitutional issue B6+ic+ t+ey are tryin/ to inculcate in t+e .ent and i. as citi=ens and taxpayers. sou/+t si. 6+ic+ 6ere *iled on ?cto0er 5".e.R.ent arisin/ *ro.r3. 1!I5 5 and 1!I5 H.0ers G3R3 >os3 1!I5!1.ustice o* t+e .atters o* transcendental i.inary in1unction to prevent t+e 9ouse o* Representatives *ro.portance.plaint 0e declared null and void3 )n G.0ers G3R3 >os3 1!I5%%.0er G3R3 >o3 1!I5!1 li@e6ise prayed *or t+e declaration o* t+e >ove.itted to t+e Senate.peac+. conductin/ any proceedin/s t+ereon3 )n G. 1 and as re*lected a0ove.atter o* t+eir petition *or .peac+.o. alle/in/ t+at as pro*essors o* la6 t+ey +ave an a0idin/ interest in t+e su01ect .peac+.inistration 0y t+e . prays in +is petition BTo Ceclare .plaint as 6ell as t+e resolution o* endorse. 1/0392 petitioners 'ttorneys (enicio S3 #lores and 9ector L3 9o*ileWa. endorsin/ and t+e Senate *ro.ittin/ t+e 'rticles o* ).R..ilar relie*3 )n addition.

o. su0.ature and +ave no 0asis in la6 or in *act.ittin/ acts t+at 6ould render t+e petitions .ent court to try and decide i. and 1!I5 H. *iled a Mani*estation statin/ t+at inso*ar as it is concerned.ent cases. *or oral ar/u. . *ro. t+e Senate o* t+e P+ilippines.ent proceedin/s and t+at t+e sole po6er.0er J. co. aut+ority and 1urisdiction o* t+e Senate as t+e i.ination3 ?n >ove.inary in1unction 6+ic+ 6ere *iled on or 0e*ore ?cto0er 5". 'ttorneys Ro.0er J.uc+ less pro+i0it or en1oin t+e 9ouse o* Representatives.ose . 5IIJ3 ?n ?cto0er 5 ..ourt +as no 1urisdiction to +ear. 6+ic+ it +ad not..ent not later t+an &$JI p3. 'tty3 .peac+. en1oinin/ all t+e parties and ot+ers actin/ *or and in t+eir 0e+al* to re*rain *ro.+ie* .r3 andKor its co2respondents. t+is .ences only upon its receipt o* t+e 'rticles o* ).3G and (d) appointed distin/uis+ed le/al experts as amici curiae. 6it+ t+e earlier consolidated petitionsG (0) require respondents to *ile t+eir co. 0ut t+e .porary restrainin/ order andKor 6rit o* preli.entel.0er H. questionin/ t+e status quo Resolution issued 0y t+is .ent. 0ut t+e .r3.ents on >ove. 5IIJ. 5IIJ. 1!I5!J.onstitution3B 5 5 'ctin/ on t+e ot+er petitions 6+ic+ 6ere su0sequently *iled.e Soriano *iled a BPetition *or Leave to )nterveneB in G3R3 >os3 1!I5!1.ulo <3 Macalintal and Pete Puirino Puadra *iled in G3R3 >o3 1!I5!5 a BMotion *or Leave o* .ourt directed +i. to co.ourt in its Resolution o* ?cto0er 5".issed *or lac@ o* 1urisdiction o* t+e . t+rou/+ Senate President #ran@lin M3 Crilon.ents on >ove. t+is .0er H. 5IIJ.. as 6ell as t+e Solicitor General. and (5) t+e principal issues raised 0y t+e petitions pertain exclusively to t+e proceedin/s in t+e 9ouse o* Representatives3 ?n ?cto0er JI. 6+ic+ is an independent and co2equal 0ranc+ o* /overn. 0y 6ay o* special appearance.issal o* all t+e petitions as t+e .ustice Pan/ani0an in+i0ited +i.ent on t+e petitions not later t+an &$JI p3.itted a Mani*estation assertin/ t+at t+is .oot3 'lso on ?cto0er 5". prayin/ t+at Bt+e consolidated petitions 0e dis.e o* t+e *ilin/ o* t+e petitions.it t+e 9erein )ncorporated Petition in )ntervention3B .ent under t+e . 5 I )n addition. 5IIJG (c) set t+e petitions *or oral ar/u.ourt to )ntervene and to 'd.<e*ore actin/ on t+e petitions 6it+ prayers *or te. 5IIJ..ourt in a Bconstitutional deadloc@B and prayin/ *or t+e dis.peac+. t+e per*or. . . no 1usticia0le issue 6as presented 0e*ore it since (1) its constitutional duty to constitute itsel* as an i. 1!I5 5. *iled a Motion to )ntervene ( +x .onstitution.peac+. 1!I5%%.peac+.0er J.on/ress and t+is . 5IIJ. 5IIJ.ent cases3 ?n even date.andated duty to initiate i.ance o* its constitutionally . to participate3 8it+out necessarily /ivin/ t+e petitions due course. 5IIJ.ourt re1ected t+eir o**er3 .ent court co. 5IIJ on t+e /round t+at it 6ould unnecessarily put .ent. at 1I$II a3.ourt over t+e issues a**ectin/ t+e i.peac+.ourt resolved to (a) consolidate t+e.3 Ce (enecia. 6+en respondent 9ouse o* Representatives t+rou/+ Spea@er . t+e petitions are plainly pre.ai.ourt on ?cto0er 5". t+is . resolved to (a) consolidate t+e petitionsG (0) require respondent 9ouse o* Representatives and t+e Senate.budante &autela ) 5 1 and .peac+. 0e reco/ni=ed and up+eld pursuant to t+e provisions o* 'rticle A) o* t+e . Senator 'quilino P3 Pi. in +is o6n 0e+al*..atter in question is not yet ripe *or 1udicial deter.ourt called on petitioners and respondents to .ustices Puno and (itu/ o**ered to recuse t+e.sel*.aintain t+e status quo. addin/ t+at as o* t+e ti.3 o* >ove. includin/ t+e one 6+ere t+e . 5IIJG and (c) include t+e. 1!I5!5.selves.3 o* >ove. .ustice is t+e respondent.

?n >ove.0er &, 5IIJ , <agmamalasa7it na mga 1anananggol ng mga 1anggagawang )ilipino, :nc. *iled a Motion *or )ntervention in G3R3 >o3 1!I5!13 ?n >ove.0er H, 5IIJ, 8orld 8ar )) (eterans Le/ionnaires o* t+e P+ilippines, )nc3 also *iled a BPetition2in2)ntervention 6it+ Leave to )nterveneB in G3R3 >os3 1!I5!1, 1!I5!5, 1!I5!J, 1!I5%%, 1!I5 5, 1!I5 H, and 1!IJ1I3 T+e .otions *or intervention 6ere /ranted and 0ot+ Senator Pi.entelDs ,o..ent and 'ttorneys Macalintal and PuadraDs Petition in )ntervention 6ere ad.itted3 ?n >ove.0er H2!, 5IIJ, t+is ,ourt +eard t+e vie6s o* t+e amici curiae and t+e ar/u.ents o* petitioners, intervenors Senator Pi.entel and 'ttorney Ma@alintal, and Solicitor General 'l*redo <enipayo on t+e principal issues outlined in an 'dvisory issued 0y t+is ,ourt on >ove.0er J, 5IIJ, to 6it$ 8+et+er t+e certiorari 1urisdiction o* t+e Supre.e ,ourt .ay 0e invo@edG 6+o can invo@e itG on 6+at issues and at 6+at ti.eG and 6+et+er it s+ould 0e exercised 0y t+is ,ourt at t+is ti.e3 )n discussin/ t+ese issues, t+e *ollo6in/ .ay 0e ta@en up$ a) locus standi o* petitionersG 0) ripeness(pre.aturityG .ootness)G c) political questionK1usticia0ilityG d) 9ouseDs BexclusiveB po6er to initiate all cases o* i.peac+.entG e) SenateDs BsoleB po6er to try and decide all cases o* i.peac+.entG *) constitutionality o* t+e 9ouse Rules on ).peac+.ent vis'a'vis Section J(H) o* 'rticle A) o* t+e ,onstitutionG and /) 1udicial restraint ()talics in t+e ori/inal) )n resolvin/ t+e intricate con*lux o* preli.inary and su0stantive issues arisin/ *ro. t+e instant petitions as 6ell as t+e .yriad ar/u.ents and opinions presented *or and a/ainst t+e /rant o* t+e relie*s prayed *or, t+is ,ourt +as si*ted and deter.ined t+e. to 0e as *ollo6s$ (1) t+e t+res+old and novel issue o* 6+et+er or not t+e po6er o* 1udicial revie6 extends to t+ose arisin/ *ro. i.peac+.ent proceedin/sG (5) 6+et+er or not t+e essential pre2requisites *or t+e exercise o* t+e po6er o* 1udicial revie6 +ave 0een *ul*illedG and (J) t+e su0stantive issues yet re.ainin/3 T+ese .atters s+all no6 0e discussed in seriatim 3 Judicial Review 's re*lected a0ove, petitioners plead *or t+is ,ourt to exercise t+e po6er o* 1udicial revie6 to deter.ine t+e validity o* t+e second i.peac+.ent co.plaint3 T+is ,ourtDs po6er o* 1udicial revie6 is con*erred on t+e 1udicial 0ranc+ o* t+e /overn.ent in Section 1, 'rticle ())) o* our present 1 "% ,onstitution$ SE,T)?> 13 T+e 1udicial po6er s+all 0e vested in one Supre.e ,ourt and in suc+ lo6er courts as .ay 0e esta0lis+ed 0y la63

2$(*c*a' BoE%r *-c'$(%s "h% ($"? o* t+e courts o* 1ustice to settle actual controversies involvin/ ri/+ts 6+ic+ are le/ally de.anda0le and en*orcea0le, and "o (%"%r+*-% Eh%"h%r or -o" "h%r% has .%%- a Drav% a.$s% o@ (*scr%"*o- a+o$-"*-D "o 'acF or %Ac%ss o@ G$r*s(*c"*o- o- "h% Bar" o@ a-? .ra-ch or *-s"r$+%-"a'*"? o@ "h% Dov%r-+%-" 3 (E.p+asis supplied) Suc+ po6er o* 1udicial revie6 6as early on ex+austively expounded upon 0y ;ustice ;ose P3 Laurel in t+e de*initive 1 J! case o* .ngara v. +lectoral &ommission 5 J a*ter t+e e**ectivity o* t+e 1 JH ,onstitution 6+ose provisions, unli@e t+e present ,onstitution, did not contain t+e present provision in 'rticle ())), Section 1, par3 5 on 6+at 1udicial po6er includes3 T+us, ;ustice Laurel discoursed$ x x x )n ti.es o* social disquietude or political excite.ent, t+e /reat land.ar@s o* t+e ,onstitution are apt to 0e *or/otten or .arred, i* not entirely o0literated . I- cas%s o@ co-@'*c" "h% G$(*c*a' (%Bar"+%-" *s "h% o-'? co-s"*"$"*o-a' orDa- Eh*ch ca- .% ca''%( $Bo- "o (%"%r+*-% "h% BroB%r a''oca"*o- o@ BoE%rs .%"E%%- "h% s%v%ra' (%Bar"+%-"s a-( a+o-D "h% *-"%Dra' or co-s"*"$%-" $-*"s "h%r%o@ . 's any +u.an production, our ,onstitution is o* course lac@in/ per*ection and per*ecti0ility, 0ut as .uc+ as it 6as 6it+in t+e po6er o* our people, actin/ t+rou/+ t+eir dele/ates to so provide, t+at instru.ent 6+ic+ is t+e expression o* t+eir soverei/nty +o6ever li.ited, +as esta0lis+ed a repu0lican /overn.ent intended to operate and *unction as a +ar.onious 6+ole, under a syste. o* c+ec@s and 0alances, and su01ect to speci*ic li.itations and restrictions provided in t+e said instru.ent3 Th% Co-s"*"$"*o- s%"s @or"h *- -o $-c%r"a*- 'a-D$aD% "h% r%s"r*c"*o-s a-( '*+*"a"*o-s $Bo- Dov%r-+%-"a' BoE%rs a-( aD%-c*%s. I@ "h%s% r%s"r*c"*o-s a-( '*+*"a"*o-s ar% "ra-sc%-(%( *" Eo$'( .% *-co-c%*va.'% *@ "h% Co-s"*"$"*o- ha( -o" Brov*(%( @or a +%cha-*s+ .? Eh*ch "o (*r%c" "h% co$rs% o@ Dov%r-+%-" a'o-D co-s"*"$"*o-a' cha--%'s *or t+en t+e distri0ution o* po6ers 6ould 0e .ere ver0ia/e, t+e 0ill o* ri/+ts .ere expressions o* senti.ent, and t+e principles o* /ood /overn.ent .ere political apot+e/.s3 ,ertainly, t+e li.itations and restrictions e.0odied in our ,onstitution are real as t+ey s+ould 0e in any livin/ constitution3 )n t+e Enited States 6+ere no express constitutional /rant is *ound in t+eir constitution, "h% Boss%ss*o- o@ "h*s +o(%ra"*-D BoE%r o@ "h% co$r"s not to spea@ o* its +istorical ori/in and develop.ent t+ere, +as 0een set at rest 0y popular acquiescence *or a period o* .ore t+an one and a +al* centuries3 )n our case, t+is .oderatin/ po6er *s Dra-"%( *@ -o" %ABr%ss'? .? c'%ar *+B'*ca"*o- @ro+ s%c"*o- 2 o@ ar"*c'% 5III o@ o$r Co-s"*"$"*o- 3 T+e ,onstitution is a de*inition o* t+e po6ers o* /overn.ent3 4ho *s "o (%"%r+*-% "h% -a"$r% scoB% a-( %A"%-" o@ s$ch BoE%rsH Th% Co-s"*"$"*o- *"s%'@ has Brov*(%( @or "h% *-s"r$+%-"a'*"? o@ "h% G$(*c*ar? as "h% ra"*o-a' Ea?. A-( Eh%- "h% G$(*c*ar? +%(*a"%s "o a''oca"% co-s"*"$"*o-a' .o$-(ar*%s *" does not assert any superiority over t+e ot+er depart.entsG it does not in reality nulli*y or invalidate an act o* t+e le/islature, 0ut o-'? ass%r"s "h% so'%+- a-( sacr%( o.'*Da"*oass*D-%( "o *" .? "h% Co-s"*"$"*o- "o (%"%r+*-% co-@'*c"*-D c'a*+s o@ a$"hor*"? $-(%r "h% Co-s"*"$"*o- a-( "o %s"a.'*sh @or "h% Bar"*%s *- a- ac"$a' co-"rov%rs? "h% r*Dh"s Eh*ch "ha" *-s"r$+%-" s%c$r%s a-( D$ara-"%%s "o "h%+. Th*s *s *- "r$"h a'' "ha" *s *-vo'v%( *- 6+at is ter.ed B1udicial supre.acyB 6+ic+ properly *s "h% BoE%r o@ G$(*c*a' r%v*%E $-(%r "h% Co-s"*"$"*o- 3 Even t+en, t+is po6er o* 1udicial revie6 is li.ited to actual cases and controversies to 0e exercised a*ter *ull opportunity o* ar/u.ent 0y t+e parties, and li.ited *urt+er to t+e

constitutional question raised or t+e very lis mota presented3 'ny atte.pt at a0straction could only lead to dialectics and 0arren le/al questions and to sterile conclusions unrelated to actualities3 >arro6ed as its *unction is in t+is .anner, t+e 1udiciary does not pass upon questions o* 6isdo., 1ustice or expediency o* le/islation3 More t+an t+at, courts accord t+e presu.ption o* constitutionality to le/islative enact.ents, not only 0ecause t+e le/islature is presu.ed to a0ide 0y t+e ,onstitution 0ut also 0ecause t+e 1udiciary in t+e deter.ination o* actual cases and controversies .ust re*lect t+e 6isdo. and 1ustice o* t+e people as expressed t+rou/+ t+eir representatives in t+e executive and le/islative depart.ents o* t+e /overn.ent3 5 & ()talics in t+e ori/inalG e.p+asis and underscorin/ supplied) 's pointed out 0y ;ustice Laurel, t+is B.oderatin/ po6erB to Bdeter.ine t+e proper allocation o* po6ersB o* t+e di**erent 0ranc+es o* /overn.ent and Bto direct t+e course o* /overn.ent alon/ constitutional c+annelsB is in+erent in all courts 5 H as a necessary consequence o* t+e 1udicial po6er itsel*, 6+ic+ is Bt+e po6er o* t+e court to settle actual controversies involvin/ ri/+ts 6+ic+ are le/ally de.anda0le and en*orcea0le3B 5 ! T+us, even in t+e Enited States 6+ere t+e po6er o* 1udicial revie6 is not explicitly con*erred upon t+e courts 0y its ,onstitution, suc+ po6er +as B0een set at rest 0y popular acquiescence *or a period o* .ore t+an one and a +al* centuries3B To 0e sure, it 6as in t+e 1"IJ leadin/ case o* 1arbury v. 1adison 5 % t+at t+e po6er o* 1udicial revie6 6as *irst articulated 0y ,+ie* ;ustice Mars+all, to 6it$ )t is also not entirely un6ort+y o* o0servation, t+at in declarin/ 6+at s+all 0e t+e supre.e la6 o* t+e land, t+e constitution itsel* is *irst .entionedG and not t+e la6s o* t+e Enited States /enerally, 0ut t+ose only 6+ic+ s+all 0e .ade in pursuance o* t+e constitution, +ave t+at ran@3 Th$s "h% Bar"*c$'ar Bhras%o'oD? o@ "h% co-s"*"$"*o- o* t+e Enited States con*ir.s and stren/t+ens "h% Br*-c*B'% s$BBos%( "o .% %ss%-"*a' "o a'' Er*""%- co-s"*"$"*o-s "ha" a 'aE r%B$D-a-" "o "h% co-s"*"$"*o- *s vo*(I a-( "ha" courts as E%'' as o"h%r (%Bar"+%-"s ar% .o$-( .? "ha" *-s"r$+%-". 5 " ()talics in t+e ori/inalG e.p+asis supplied) )n our o6n 1urisdiction, as early as 1 I5, decades 0e*ore its express /rant in t+e 1 JH ,onstitution, t+e po6er o* 1udicial revie6 6as exercised 0y our courts to invalidate constitutionally in*ir. acts3 5 'nd as pointed out 0y noted political la6 pro*essor and *or.er Supre.e ,ourt ;ustice (icente (3 Mendo=a, J I t+e executive and le/islative 0ranc+es o* our /overn.ent in *act e**ectively ac@no6led/ed t+is po6er o* 1udicial revie6 in 'rticle % o* t+e ,ivil ,ode, to 6it$ 'rticle %3 La6s are repealed only 0y su0sequent ones, and t+eir violation or non2o0servance s+all not 0e excused 0y disuse, or custo. or practice to t+e contrary3 4h%- "h% co$r"s (%c'ar% a 'aE "o .% *-co-s*s"%-" E*"h "h% Co-s"*"$"*o- "h% @or+%r sha'' .% vo*( a-( "h% 'a""%r sha'' Dov%r-. A(+*-*s"ra"*v% or %A%c$"*v% ac"s or(%rs a-( r%D$'a"*o-s sha'' .% va'*( o-'? Eh%- "h%? ar% -o" co-"rar? "o "h% 'aEs or "h% Co-s"*"$"*o-. (E.p+asis supplied) 's indicated in .ngara v. +lectoral &ommission , J 1 1udicial revie6 is indeed an inte/ral co.ponent o* t+e delicate syste. o* c+ec@s and 0alances 6+ic+, to/et+er 6it+ t+e corollary principle o* separation o* po6ers, *or.s t+e 0edroc@ o* our repu0lican *or. o* /overn.ent and insures t+at its

o* participation – or instru.issioner Ro0erto .onstitution en/raves.e . it +as so.on/ t+e t+ree /reat depart. certain principles .atter o* *act. t+e nature o* and rationale *or 6+ic+ are .er .ora"% s?s"%+ o@ ch%cFs a-( .ustice #lorentino #eliciano.0ers o* t+is .ustice . *or.? "h% c*rc$+s"a-c% "ha" *. to 0e a0solutely unrestrained and independent o* eac+ ot+er3 Th% Co-s"*"$"*o. t+e sponsors+ip speec+ o* its proponent.p+asis and underscorin/ supplied) )n t+e sc+olarly esti.ourt and in suc+ lo6er courts as .ent o* intervention – o* t+e 1udiciary in t+at 0alancin/ operation3B J & To ensure t+e potency o* t+e po6er o* 1udicial revie6 to cur0 /rave a0use o* discretion 0y B a-? . x x x A-( "h% G$(*c*ar? *.ay 0e esta0lis+ed 0y la63 ) suppose no0ody can question it3 T+e next provision is ne6 in our constitutional la63 ) 6ill read it *irst and explain3 .oncepcion$ xxx T+e *irst section starts 6it+ a sentence copied *ro.aintenance and en*orce.vast po6ers are utili=ed only *or t+e 0ene*it o* t+e people *or 6+ic+ it serves3 Th% s%Bara"*o.o. 'rticle ())) o* t+e .+ie* .o. "h*s *s ac"$a''? a Bro($c" o@ o$r %AB%r*%-c% ($r*-D +ar"*a' 'aE 3 's a .onstitutions3 )t says$ T+e 1udicial po6er s+all 0e vested in one Supre. and is supre.ourt .ation o* *or.er Supre.*..udicial po6er includes t+e duty o* courts o* 1ustice to settle actual controversies involvin/ ri/+ts 6+ic+ are le/ally de.ent t+rou/+ t+e de*inition and . into 0loc@ letter la6 t+e so2called Bexpanded certiorari 1urisdictionB o* t+is .aintenance o* t+e 0oundaries o* aut+ority and control 0et6een t+e.ountin/ to lac@ or excess o* 1urisdiction on t+e part or instru.entality o* t+e /overn.e . *or t+e *irst ti.has Brov*(%( @or a.e into its +istory.e antecedents in t+e past.onstitution3 Eac+ depart.ent +as exclusive co/ni=ance o* .o@ BoE%rs *s a @$-(a+%-"a' Br*-c*B'% *.onstitution intended t+e."$r. . *or."h% %A%rc*s% o@ *"s BoE%r "o (%"%r+*-% "h% 'aE a-( h%-c% "o (%c'ar% %A%c$"*v% a-( '%D*s'a"*v% ac"s vo*( *@ v*o'a"*v% o@ "h% Co-s"*"$"*o..o$r s?s"%+ o@ Dov%r-+%-" 3 )t o0tains not t+rou/+ express provision 0ut 0y actual division in our .ourt. indeed t+e only.ent o* t+e /overn. t+e *act t+at t+e t+ree po6ers are to 0e @ept separate and distinct t+at t+e . BL1Mudicial revie6 is t+e c+ie*.irrored in t+e *ollo6in/ excerpt *ro.a -$+.anda0le and en*orcea0le and to deter.er .ha( -o '%Da' (%@%-s% a" a'' "h% so'*c*"or D%-%ra' s%" $B "h% (%@%-s% o@ Bo'*"*ca' J$%s"*o-s a-( Do" aEa? E*"h *" 3 's a consequence.*"%r %@@%c"*v%'? ch%cFs "h% o"h%r (%Bar"+%-"s *.ra-ch or *-s"r$+%-"a'*"*%s o@ Dov%r-+%-" . J 5 (E.e 6it+in its o6n sp+ere3 <ut it does not *ollo6 *ro..B t+e a*ore2quoted Section 1.3B J J To +i. 0ut "h% ro'% o@ "h% G$(*c*ar? ($r*-D "h% (%Bos%( r%D*+% Eas +arr%( co-s*(%ra.ine 6+et+er or not t+ere +as 0een a /rave a0use o* discretion a.'? .ission.ediu.E*"h "h% S$Br%+% Co$r" as "h% @*-a' ar.onstitutional .%r o@ cas%s aDa*-s" "h% Dov%r-+%-" Eh*ch "h%.%'a. Bx x x 1udicial revie6 is essential *or t+e .a'a-c%s "o s%c$r% coor(*-a"*o.ent3 #ello6 Me.ent o* t+e separation o* po6ers and t+e 0alancin/ o* po6ers a."h% EorF*-Ds o@ "h% var*o$s (%Bar"+%-"s o@ "h% Dov%r-+%-".ents o* /overn.atters 6it+in its 1urisdiction..

"h%*r or(*-ar? +%a-*-D %Ac%B" Eh%r% "%ch-*ca' "%r+s ar% %+B'o?%( *. declared$ 4% 'ooF "o "h% 'a-D$aD% o@ "h% (oc$+%-" *"s%'@ *.on use 3 4ha" *" sa?s accor(*-D "o "h% "%A" o@ "h% Brov*s*o.onstitution itsel* 6+ic+ e. t+e 6ords used in t+e . J ! t+is .Eh*ch co-s"*"$"*o-a' Brov*s*o-s ar% co$ch%( %ABr%ss "h% o.%D*-.% co-s"r$%( co+B%'s acc%B"a-c% and ne/ates t+e po6er o* t+e courts to alter it.atters related to t+e operation and e**ect o* . Th*s *s -o" o-'? a G$(*c*a' BoE%r .ourt said$ B8ell.ourt apply t+is principle in &ivil 9iberties Cnion v.or so caBr*c*o$s'? as "o co-s"*"$"% a.ust 0e /iven t+eir ordinary .arily a la6yerDs docu.*"%r o"h% J$%s"*o.3 J H ()talics in t+e ori/inalG e.? c'a*+*-D "ha" s$ch +a""%rs co-s"*"$"% a Bo'*"*ca' J$%s"*o. t+is . it +as 0een +eld t+at t+e .$" "ha" *s Eh%r% E% .eans t+at "h% co$r"s ca--o" h%r%a@"%r %va(% "h% ($"? "o s%""'% +a""%rs o@ "h*s -a"$r% .ind . t+at is.onstitution s+ould 0e interpreted in accordance 6it+ t+e intent o* its *ra.+ie* .Eh%"h%r or -o" a .ra-ch o@ Dov%r-+%-" or a-? o@ *"s o@@*c*a's has ac"%( E*"ho$" G$r*s(*c"*o. 6+ere t+ere is a.ean 6+at t+ey say3 T+us t+ese are t+e cases 6+ere t+e need *or construction is reduced to a . I" *s "o .a.ers3 'nd so did t+is .ployed3 T+us.p+asis and underscorin/ supplied) Second. and ot+er .ent set up t+e de*ense o* political question3 'nd t+e Supre. 9and Tenure .onstitution s+ould 0ear in .a+o$-"*-D "o %Ac%ss o@ G$r*s(*c"*o.$" a ($"? "o Bass G$(D+%-" o. it 0ein/ essential *or t+e rule o* la6 to o0tain t+at it s+ould ever 0e present in t+e peopleDs consciousness.G%c"*v% so$Dh" "o .ers and t+e people . 0ased on t+e postulate t+at t+e *ra."o .ustice Enrique #ernando.%Ac%ss o@ G$r*s(*c"*o. ratio legis est anima 3 T+e 6ords o* t+e . :nc. 6+ic+ .1. spea@in/ t+rou/+ .% a""a*-%(.0i/uity. T+is is t+e 0ac@/round o* para/rap+ 5 o* Section 1."h% r*Dh"s o@ "h% B%oB'% . t+e aut+ority o* courts to order t+e release o* political detainees.ploys t+e 6ell2settled principles o* constitutional construction3 #irst. Th%? ar% "o . 's t+e .eanin/ except 6+ere tec+nical ter. v.ine t+e .o$r s%arch @or *"s +%a-*-D.uc+ as possi0le s+ould 0e understood in t+e sense t+ey +ave in co. since it is political.$s% o@ (*scr%"*o..or 'acF o@ G$r*s(*c"*o-.ourt.artial la6 *ailed 0ecause t+e /overn. 6e +ave no aut+ority to pass upon it3B Th% Co++*""%% o.% D*v%. t+at is.ust necessarily turn to t+e ."h% 2$(*c*ar? @%%'s "ha" "h*s Eas -o" a BroB%r so'$"*o.erits o* t+e issues raised in t+e instant petitions.onstitution is not pri.ent .ourt in construin/ a .Eh*ch cas% "h% s*D-*@*ca-c% "h$s a""ach%( "o "h%+ Br%va*'s.e .ourt .$" *" *.or *. verba legis . its lan/ua/e as . in 4.concernin/ particularly t+e 6rit o* +a0eas corpus. 4% (o -o" o@ co$rs% s"oB "h%r% . I.onstitution .o"h%r Eor(s "h% G$(*c*ar? *s "h% @*-a' ar.u.dministration .%@@%c" %-co$raD%( @$r"h%r v*o'a"*o-s "h%r%o@ ($r*-D "h% +ar"*a' 'aE r%D*+%.% ass$+%( "ha" "h% Eor(s *.o@ "h% J$%s"*o-s *-vo'v%(. Tuason B &o. 6+erever possi0le. I" (*( -o" +%r%'? r%J$%s" a%-croach+%-" $Bo.p+asis and underscorin/ supplied) To deter.. +xecutive *ecretary J " in t+is 6ise$ ' *oolproo* yardstic@ in constitutional construction is t+e intention underlyin/ t+e provision under consideration3 T+us.s are e.ini.+a""%rs o@ "h*s -a"$r%. x x x xxx 1r*%@'? s"a"%( co$r"s o@ G$s"*c% (%"%r+*-% "h% '*+*"s o@ BoE%r o@ "h% aD%-c*%s a-( o@@*c%s o@ "h% Dov%r-+%-" as E%'' as "hos% o@ *"s o@@*c%rs.3 J % (E.

and . t+rou/+ .ed t+at$ I" *s a E%''-%s"a. it declared$ x x x Th% asc%r"a*-+%-" o@ "ha" *-"%-" *s ."h%? a(oB"%( s$.%rs o@ "h% Co-s"*"$"*o-a' Co-v%-"*o.% D*v%.onstitution.a@e t+e 6ords idle and nu/atory3 & H (E.p+asis and underscorin/ supplied) Li@e6ise.+%r%'? @or "h% . and t+e condition and circu..es.%ar*-D $Bo.o@@%r%( .onstitution3 I" +a? a'so .*s -o" "o .G%c" ar% "o .t+e o01ect sou/+t to 0e acco.? "h% %AB'a-a"*o.? *"s%'@ a'o-% .% acco+B'*sh%( "h%r%. and t+e evils.% sa@%'? ass$+%( "ha" "h% B%oB'% *.ers and o* t+e people in t+e adoption o* t+e .ary tas@ in constitutional construction is to ascertain and t+erea*ter assure t+e reali=ation o* t+e purpose o* t+e *ra.s%c"*o.$" *.G%c" *s "o asc%r"a*"h% r%aso.% a''oE%( "o (%@%a" a-o"h%r *@ .$" *co-G$-c"*o.edied3 ' dou0t*ul provision 6ill 0e exa.ourt a**ir.p+asis supplied) )*.a"%s a-( Broc%%(*-Ds o* t+e constitutional convention in order to arrive at t+e reason and purpose o* t+e resultin/ .a-( "h% B$rBos% so$Dh" "o .ourt.o@ "h% Co-s"*"$"*o. t+e plain .? *."ha" "h% *-"%-" o@ "h% @ra+%rs o@ "h% orDa-*c 'aE a-( o@ "h% B%oB'% a(oB"*-D *" sho$'( .co-s"*"$"*o-a' co-s"r$c"*o. 4h%. &ommissioner on :nternal /evenue & I 6+ere. in &hiongbian v.uer*ina '3 Melencio29errera.ay . +o6ever.ust lean in *avor o* a construction 6+ic+ 6ill render every 6ord operative.ustice Manuel Moran declared$ A A A =T>h% +%+. +xecutive *ecretary .e .ed3 Th% o.$" "ha" a'' "h% Brov*s*o-s .+ie* .%-%@*" o@ o-% B%rso.2 "h%? B%r+*""%( *@ -o" E*''%( "ha" sa*( Brov*s*osho$'( @$-c"*o.Eh*ch *-($c%( "h% @ra+%rs o@ "h% Co-s"*"$"*o.e case o* &ivil 9iberties Cnion v.onstitution 6as *ra. T+e pri.a-( ca'c$'a"%( "o %@@%c" "ha" B$rBos%. t+is .%@@%c".ra"*@?*-D "h% Co-s"*"$"*oE%r% D$*(%( +a*-'? .p+asis and underscorin/ supplied) 's it did in <itafan v.G%c" sho$'( .'% co-s"r$c"*o.ourt expounded$ 8+ile it is per. still in &ivil 9iberties Cnion v.issi0le in t+is 1urisdiction to consult t+e (%. ut magis valeat quam pereat 3 T+e .oni=e t+e. & & t+is .E*"h a'' o"h%r Brov*s*o-s o@ "ha" Dr%a" (oc$+%-".. spea@in/ t+rou/+ Mada.F%%B*-D E*"h "h% @$-(a+%-"a' Br*-c*B'% o@ co-s"*"$"*o-a' co-s"r$c"*o.% +a(% "o s"a-( "oD%"h%r. & 5 t+is .'*sh%( r$'% *.a Bar"*c$'ar s$.onstitution is to 0e interpreted as a 6+ole3 T+us.s"a-c% a-( *"s "%r+s -o" .E*"ho$" co-s*(%r*-D "ha" *" co$'( a'so a@@%c" o"h%rs.a Bar"*c$'ar s$. J (E.ro$Dh" *-"o v*%E a-( "o . +xecutive *ecretary. t+e court . ."ha" -o o-% Brov*s*o. sou/+t to 0e prevented or re.*s "o . i* practica0le.% co-s*(%r%( a-( *-"%rBr%"%( "oD%"h%r as "o %@@%c"$a"% "h% Eho'% B$rBos% o@ "h% Co-s"*"$"*o. S%c"*o-s .% . resort to ot+er aids is availa0le3 )n still t+e sa. i* any.ined in t+e li/+t o* t+e +istory o* t+e ti.% s%Bara"%( @ro+ a'' "h% o"h%rs "o .ust +ar.? "h% @ra+%rs ."h% "Eo ca.? a-? r%aso-a. Ae 9eon .%ar*-D o. )n ot+er 6ords.co$'( -o" hav% (%(*ca"%( a Brov*s*o.o@ o$r Co-s"*"$"*o. & 1 (E.stances under 6+ic+ t+e ."o %-ac" "h% Bar"*c$'ar Brov*s*o.plis+ed 0y its adoption.% co-s*(%r%( a'o-% .% so *-"%rBr%"%( as "o %@@%c"$a"% "h% Dr%a" B$rBos%s o@ "h% *-s"r$+%-"."o "h% @$'' %A"%-" o@ *"s s$.a-( o-% s%c"*o. rat+er t+an one 6+ic+ .eanin/ o* t+e 6ord is not *ound to 0e clear.p+asis and underscorin/ supplied) #inally. & J (E.or(%r "o co-s"r$% "h% Eho'% as "o +aF% "h% Eor(s co-so-a-" "o "ha" r%aso.ustice '.

a1ority 6+o did not tal@. . et. t+e covera/e o* 1udicial revie63 <rie*ly stated. Cnited *tates 3 H I T+us. & ! (E.erican .ent proceedin/ is 0eyond t+e reac+ o* 1udicial revie63 & % #or +is part.e a 1udicial c+aracter3 9ence."h% @ra+%rsLs $-(%rs"a-(*-D "h%r%o@.ent3 RespondentsD and intervenorsD reliance upon '.peac+. issue or incident arisin/ at any sta/e o* t+e i. and intervenor Senator Pi.ent proceedin/s3 & )n *urt+erin/ t+eir ar/u.@ro+ Eha" aBB%ars $Bo. and intervenor Senator Pi.? "h% B%oB'% a(oB"*-D *" "ha. under 6+ic+ i.peac+.erican 1urisprudence.*"s @ac%.peac+.*.e.entel rely +eavily on '.ent proceedin/s *ro.peac+.ent t+e *orce o* *unda.onstitution. .. principally t+e .peac+.ent proceedin/s3 Said '.ent o* all issues pertainin/ to i.ent process3 >or can it reasona0ly support t+e interpretation t+at it necessarily con*ers upon t+e Senate t+e in+erently 1udicial po6er to deter.ents and to try cri. o* c+ec@s and 0alances.erican .0ers. t+e '.Eh%.ent proceedin/s are outside t+e scope o* 1udicial revie6. is a textually de. et. t+ey contend t+at t+e exercise o* 1udicial revie6 over i.onstitution and '.peac+.ent is a political action 6+ic+ cannot assu.it.ent is t+e only le/islative c+ec@ on t+e 1udiciaryG and it 6ould create a lac@ o* *inality and di**iculty in *as+ionin/ relie*3 H 1 Respondents li@e6ise point to deli0erations on t+e ES .r%sor" "h%r%"o +a? .peac+.ass o* our *ello6 citi=ens 6+ose votes at t+e polls /ave t+at instru.entel contends t+at t+e SenateDs B sole po6er to try B i. it is t+e position o* respondents Spea@er Ce (enecia et.B as provided *or under 'rt3 A).hoE *" Eas $-(%rs"oo( .% ha( o-'? Eh%. intervenor Senator Pi.erican aut+orities.onstitution to s+o6 t+e intent to isolate 1udicial po6er o* revie6 in cases o* i.ental la63 4% "h*-F *" sa@%r "o co-s"r$% "h% co-s"*"$"*o. al.K Th% BroB%r *-"%rBr%"a"*o.erican 1urisprudence and aut+orities.onstra0le constitutional co.peac+.erit inso*ar as P+ilippine constitutional la6 is concerned3 's +eld in t+e case o* 0arcia .ent cases & " (1) entirely excludes t+e application o* 1udicial revie6 over itG and (5) necessarily includes t+e SenateDs po6er to deter. respondents Spea@er Ce (enecia.ent t+at t+e .peac+.ersD decision to allocate to di**erent *ora t+e po6ers to try i.ent and 1urisprudential application o* t+e po6er o* 1udicial revie6 t+at respondents Spea@er Ce (enecia.ent cases.ine constitutional questions relative to i. are o* du0ious application *or t+ese are no lon/er controllin/ 6it+in our 1urisdiction and +ave only li.esG it distur0s t+e syste.p+asis and underscorin/ supplied) )t is in t+e context o* t+e *ore/oin/ 0ac@drop o* constitutional re*ine.ited persuasive .uc+ less t+e '. 0ut t+ey /ive us no li/+t as to t+e vie6s o* t+e lar/e .peac+.peac+. al.entel raise t+e novel ar/u. Sec3 J(!) o* t+e . any question.peac+.erican aut+orities ca--o" 0e credited to support t+e proposition t+at t+e SenateDs Bsole po6er to try and decide i. to t+e total exclusion o* t+e po6er o* 1udicial revie6 to c+ec@ and restrain any /rave a0use o* t+e i.uc+ less o* t+e . and as indicatin/ t+e reasons *or t+eir votes.peac+.ent proceedin/s is inappropriate since it runs counter to t+e *ra.ents on t+e proposition t+at i.a1ority opinion in t+e case o* <ixon v."h% +%a-*-D *s c'%ar 3 Ce0ates in t+e constitutional convention Bare o* value as s+o6in/ t+e vie6s o* t+e individual .ine constitutional questions incident to i. al.onstitution.o"h%r D$*(%s @a*' as sa*( Broc%%(*-Ds ar% BoE%r'%ss "o var? "h% "%r+s o@ "h% Co-s"*"$"*o."h%r%@or% (%B%-(s +or% o.ent to t+e le/islature. t+at i.onstitution +as excluded i.peac+.

! 1 in see@in/ to nulli*y an act o* t+e P+ilippine Senate on t+e /round t+at it contravened t+e .onstitution and t+e P+ilippine . non2.ngara.ourt exercised t+e po6er o* 1udicial revie6 over con/ressional action3 T+us.itations to t+e exercise o* suc+ po6er as e.ent t+at t+e i.entioned sa*e/uards in t+e .ents under.ans+ip on t+e principle t+at B6+enever possi0le.peac+.ourt to exercise 1udicial states.entality3 T+ere are also /larin/ distinctions 0et6een t+e E3S3 . 0uingona. or in t+e lan/ua/e o* -a7er v.e . Euezon . and do not concern t+e exercise o* t+e po6er o* 1udicial revie63 T+ere is indeed a plet+ora o* cases in 6+ic+ t+is . H 5 BLiMn resolvin/ constitutional disputes.ent 0ranc+ or instru.onstitution. Lt+is .onstitutionF T+is s+o6s t+at t+e .e . are not in point3 T+ese cases concern t+e denial o* petitions *or 6rits o* . t+rou/+ t+e po6er o* 1udicial revie63 T+e cases o* /omulo v.peac+.itted a violation o* t+e .anner o* *ilin/.peac+. t+ou/+ vestin/ in t+e 9ouse o* Representatives t+e exclusive po6er to initiate i. and it 6as D*v%.ent cases. .on/ress3 )nstead.onstitution.ourt and is discretionary in nature. &arr .e .peac+.itations include t+e .ourtM s+ould not 0e 0e/uiled 0y *orei/n 1urisprudence so. t+at /ranted to t+e P+ilippine Supre. H H provides *or several li. &.ourt and t+at o* t+e E3S3 Supre.0ilical cord3B T+e . (J). and t+e one year 0ar on t+e i.onstitution can trace its ori/ins to t+at o* t+e Enited States. t+e .le(andrino v.0odied in Section J(5). t+eir pat+s o* develop.inisterial acts.onstitution 0esto6s sole po6er o* i.peac+.us to co. H % B1udicially discovera0le standardsB *or deter.ent proceedin/s3 8+ile t+e E3S3 . it +eld t+at t+e petition raises a 1usticia0le controversy and t+at 6+en an action o* t+e le/islative 0ranc+ is seriously alle/ed to +ave in*rin/ed t+e .ent po6er is 0eyond t+e scope o* 1udicial revie6.anda. 'rticle A) t+ereo*3 T+ese li.atter o* i. (&) and (H).ourt and lo6er courts.%ABa-(%( (%@*-*"*o. in *antiago v.to include t+e po6er to correct any /rave a0use o* discretion on t+e part o* any /overn. Dniguez H " and . is not 1ust a po6er 0ut also a ($"? . required vote to i.ent +ave lon/ since diver/ed3 )n t+e color*ul 6ords o* #at+er <ernas. H cited 0y respondents in support o* t+e ar/u..onstitution did not intend to leave t+e . 4r.a.its..ent to t+e 9ouse o* Representatives 6it+out li.ourt ruled t+at it is 6ell 6it+in t+e po6er and 1urisdiction o* t+e .pel t+e le/islature to per*or. as expressly provided for in the &onstitution . BL6Me +ave cut t+e u.inin/ t+e validity o* t+e exercise o* suc+ discretion.ent o* one and t+e sa.e .onstitution 6it+ respect to t+e po6er o* t+e 9ouse o* Representatives over i. ! I t+is .itation.ay also lead to con*licts 0et6een . reco/ni=in/ *ull 6ell t+e perils o* 1udicial 6ill*ulness and pride3B H ! <ut did not t+e people also express t+eir 6ill 6+en t+ey instituted t+e a0ove2.on/ress and t+e 1udiciary3 T+us. t+ey call upon t+is .ines t+eir *inality and .peac+.ourt s+ould de*er to t+e 1ud/.e o**icial3 Respondents are also o* t+e vie6 t+at 1udicial revie6 o* i.peac+.1+9+& .vs. alt+ou/+ t+e P+ilippine .ourt to inquire 6+et+er t+e Senate or its o**icials co.peac+.ourt is t+at 6+ile t+e po6er o* 1udicial revie6 is only impliedly /ranted to t+e E3S3 Supre.onstitution or /rave a0use o* discretion in t+e exercise o* t+eir *unctions and prero/atives3 )n Tanada v. it provided *or certain 6ell2de*ined li.e o* 6+ic+ are +ardly applica0le 0ecause t+ey +ave 0een dictated 0y di**erent constitutional settin/s and needs3B H J )ndeed.ent to t+e sole discretion o* .a1or di**erence 0et6een t+e 1udicial po6er o* t+e P+ilippine Supre.ent o* t+e people expressed le/islatively. H & our .

0ly3 #inally..anner. li@e al. courts accord t+e presu.onstitution3 )n &oseteng v. t+is po6er o* 1udicial revie6 is li.e. o* c+ec@s and 0alances3 (erily. not only 0ecause t+e le/islature is presu. ! ! it ruled t+at con*ir..an as a .ust +ave a personal and su0stantial interest in t+e case suc+ t+at +e +as sustained.ust re*lect t+e 6isdo. ! 5 t+is .ely$ (1) an actual case or controversy callin/ *or t+e exercise o* 1udicial po6erG (5) t+e person c+allen/in/ t+e act . na.0er o* t+e 9ouse Electoral Tri0unal *or 0ein/ violative o* Section 1%.e.onstitution 0ut also 0ecause t+e 1udiciary in t+e deter.ation 0y t+e >ational 'sse. t+e .ay disc+ar/e t+e duties and en1oy t+e privile/es o* a .ovin/ t+e petitioner *ro.ent3 ! " ()talics in t+e ori/inal) Standing ..ent 0y t+e parties. t+e courtsD po6er o* 1udicial revie6. t+e 1udiciary does not pass upon questions o* 6isdo.ourt declared null and void a resolution o* t+e 9ouse o* Representatives 6it+dra6in/ t+e no.ents o* t+e /overn.ents. )ineda .on/ress3 )n . it 0eco.onstitution3 ssential Re!uisites for Judicial Review 's clearly stated in .entG (J) t+e question o* constitutionality .onstitution. +lectoral &ommission.o.onstitution. t+ere exists no constitutional 0asis *or t+e contention t+at t+e exercise o* 1udicial revie6 over i.ents 6as 0ased on proportional representation o* t+e political parties as provided in Section 1".ngara v.ust +ave Bstandin/B to c+allen/eG +e .ust 0e raised at t+e earliest possi0le opportunityG and (&) t+e issue o* constitutionality .ission on 'ppoint.o.ost all po6ers con*erred 0y t+e .ent act 0eyond t+e po6ers assi/ned to it 0y t+e .ination.on/ress. 'rticle () o* t+e .es not only t+e ri/+t 0ut in *act t+e duty o* t+e 1udiciary to settle t+e dispute3 )n -ondoc v.0ly o* t+e election o* any . *ingson. &uenco. +lectoral &ommission .itations.0er2elect .ents is su01ect to 1udicial revie63 )n Tanada v. o* a con/ress. is su01ect to several li. or 6ill sustain. ! & it +eld t+at t+e act o* t+e 9ouse o* Representatives in re.ination o* actual cases and controversies .onstitution is su01ect to 1udicial revie63 )n Aaza v. and 1ustice o* t+e people as expressed t+rou/+ t+eir representatives in t+e executive and le/islative depart.ponents o* t+e cali0rated syste.ited *urt+er to t+e constitutional question raised or t+e very lis mota presented3 'ny atte. t+e .e.onstitution.0er o* t+e >ational 'sse.ption o* constitutionality to le/islative enact.pt at a0straction could only lead to dialectics and 0arren le/al questions and to sterile conclusions unrelated to actualities3 >arro6ed as its *unction is in t+is . ! H it +eld t+at alt+ou/+ under t+e ..ited to actual cases and controversies to 0e exercised a*ter *ull opportunity o* ar/u.ust 0e t+e very lis mota o* t+e case3 x x x Even t+en. irrespective o* 6+et+er +is election is contested.ission on 'ppoint. t+e le/islative po6er is vested exclusively in . t+e po6er o* t+e courts to pass upon t+e constitutionality o* acts o* . is not essential 0e*ore suc+ .peac+.e. 'rticle () o* t+e . o* independence and interdependence t+at insures t+at no 0ranc+ o* /overn. ! J it +eld t+at t+e resolution o* 6+et+er t+e 9ouse representation in t+e .0er. and rescindin/ t+e election.ed to a0ide 0y t+e . 1itra . direct in1ury as a result o* its en*orce. t+is does not detract *ro.onstitution is to 0e interpreted as a 6+ole and Bone section is not to 0e allo6ed to de*eat anot+er3B ! % <ot+ are inte/ral co.ent proceedin/s 6ould upset t+e syste. 1ustice or expediency o* le/islation3 More t+an t+at. and li.ngara v.

ination o* di**icult constitutional questions3 ! :ntervenor Soriano.3 % 5 .issal o* t+e petitions.ustice +as sustained and 6ill sustain direct personal in1ury3 .ount pu0lic interest % I and transcendental i.edies. 0ut 0y concerned citi=ens.sel* invo@e t+e 1urisdiction o* t+is . t+e question as to Breal party in interestB is 6+et+er +e is Bt+e party 6+o 6ould 0e 0ene*ited or in1ured 0y t+e 1ud/.ents set *ort+ re/ardin/ standin/. cannot +i.portance and t+e 6ell2entrenc+ed rule exception t+at. t+e Solicitor General asserts t+at petitioners +ave standin/ since t+is .micus curiae Cean Raul Pan/alan/an o* t+e E3P3 . is very di**erent *ro. % 1 and t+at procedural . *or et+ical reasons.e cases suits are 0rou/+t not 0y parties 6+o +ave 0een personally in1ured 0y t+e operation o* a la6 or 0y o**icial action ta@en.ourt to reiterate t+e rulin/ in Filosbayan.e o* t+e controversy as to assure t+at concrete adverseness 6+ic+ s+arpens t+e presentation o* issues upon 6+ic+ t+e court so lar/ely depends *or illu.ent. v.erits.olle/e o* La6 is o* t+e sa.e re.ine 6+et+er or not t+e ot+er 0ranc+es o* t+e /overn. 6+en t+e real party in interest is una0le to vindicate +is ri/+ts 0y see@in/ t+e sa.+ie* . taxpayers or voters 6+o actually sue in t+e pu0lic interest3 9ence t+e question in standin/ is 6+et+er suc+ parties +ave Balle/ed suc+ a personal sta@e in t+e outco.ents are directed to6ards ensurin/ t+at only certain parties can . in prayin/ *or t+e dis.ourt. real party2in2interest3 T+e di**erence 0et6een t+e rule on standin/ and real party in interest +as 0een noted 0y aut+orities t+us$ B)t is i.aintain an action. concerned citi=ens.micus curiae *or.selves 6it+in t+e li.e opinion.its o* t+e . t+e courts 6ill /rant petitioners standin/3 T+ere is.ustice 6+o. +o6ever. in t+e past.ination o* di**icult constitutional questions3B xxx ?n t+e ot+er +and. standin/ restrictions require a partial consideration o* t+e .ourt +ad. contends t+at petitioners do not +ave standin/ since only t+e .er is a concept o* civil procedure % J 6+ile t+e latter +as constitutional underpinnin/s3 % & )n vie6 o* t+e ar/u. voters.+ie* . *or t+e *or.9ocus standi or le/al standin/ or +as 0een de*ined as a personal and su0stantial interest in t+e case suc+ t+at t+e party +as sustained or 6ill sustain direct in1ury as a result o* t+e /overn.itations . a di**erence 0et6een t+e rule on real2party2in2interest and t+e rule on standin/.er .portant to note 3 3 3 t+at standin/ 0ecause o* its constitutional and pu0lic policy underpinnin/s. or t+e Dparty entitled to t+e avails o* t+e suit3DB % ! (. as 6ell as 0roader policy concerns relatin/ to t+e proper role o* t+e 1udiciary in certain areas3 Standin/ is a special concern in constitutional la6 0ecause in so.ent +ave @ept t+e. as in t+e case o* t+e .atters are su0ordinate to t+e need to deter.ilarly contends3 Epon t+e ot+er +and.eant 0y locus standi and to distin/uis+ it *ro. le/islators in cases involvin/ para. citin/ transcendental i.onstitution and t+e la6s and t+at t+ey +ave not a0used t+e discretion /iven to t+e.ustice Minister and Solicitor General Estelito Mendo=a si. accorded standin/ to taxpayers.portance. 1orato % H to clari*y 6+at is . it 0e+ooves t+e . questions relatin/ to 6+et+er a particular plainti** is t+e real party in interest or +as capacity to sue3 'lt+ou/+ all t+ree require.ental act t+at is 0ein/ c+allen/ed3 T+e /ist o* t+e question o* standin/ is 6+et+er a party alle/es suc+ personal sta@e in t+e outco. :nc.e o* t+e controversy as to assure t+at concrete adverseness 6+ic+ s+arpens t+e presentation o* issues upon 6+ic+ t+e court depends *or illu.

ents +ave 0een .e.e. novelty and 6ei/+t as precedents3 " ! )t.+ie* .ere *act t+at +e is a citi=en satis*ies t+e require.on to all . 0e+ooves t+is .aintain inviolate t+e prero/atives. 0ut also t+at +e sustained or is in i.ent act is invalid. and not .ust appear t+at t+e person co.e.0ers.e 0urdens or penalties 0y reason o* t+e statute or act co.ourt opts to /rant standin/ to .erely t+at +e su**ers t+ere0y in so.ust 0e a0le to s+o6. t+at pu0lic *unds are ille/ally dis0ursed. % " t+e .ourt in vie6 o* t+eir seriousness.et +ave 0een /iven standin/ 0y t+is . concerned citi=ens. +e is allo6ed to sue 6+ere t+ere is a clai.ourt to relax t+e rules on standin/ and to resolve t+e issues presented ..ent o* an invalid or unconstitutional la63 % <e*ore +e can invo@e t+e po6er o* 1udicial revie6. taxpayers and le/islators 6+en speci*ic require.ustice 6ill necessarily involve t+e expenditure o* pu0lic *unds3 's *or a legislator .ustice3 ?n t+e contrary. po6ers and privile/es vested 0y t+e . +e is allo6ed to sue to question t+e validity o* any o**icial action 6+ic+ +e clai.e ri/+t or privile/e to 6+ic+ +e is la6*ully entitled or t+at +e is a0out to 0e su01ected to so.ustice . or t+at t+ere is a 6asta/e o* pu0lic *unds t+rou/+ t+e en*orce.proper purpose. " H t+e . a .e direct in1ury as a result o* its en*orce.0ers o* .0ers o* t+e pu0lic3 " I 't all events. t+e interest o* t+e petitioner assailin/ t+e constitutionality o* a statute . or t+at pu0lic . " & especially 6+en it is co.ust 0e direct and personal3 9e .inent dan/er o* sustainin/ so. +o6ever.ore.onstitution in +is o**ice3 " J 8+ile an association +as le/al personality to represent its . none o* t+e petitioners 0e*ore us asserts a violation o* t+e personal ri/+ts o* t+e .ay +ave 0een in1ured 0y t+e alle/ed unconstitutional acts o* t+e 9ouse o* Representatives.plainin/ +as 0een or is a0out to 0e denied so.e.0er o* t+e 9ouse o* Representatives +as standin/ to .ent. +e .ust speci*ically prove t+at +e +as su**icient interest in preventin/ t+e ille/al expenditure o* .peac+. /iven t+eir alle/ation t+at any i.ittal to t+e Senate o* t+e 'rticles o* ). individually or in a class suitG and . does not su**ice to clot+e it 6it+ standin/3 )ts interest is too /eneral3 )t is s+ared 0y ot+er /roups and t+e 6+ole citi=enry3 9o6ever.ent o* personal interest3 )n t+e case o* a taxpayer . t+ere*ore. 6+en t+e proceedin/ involves t+e assertion o* a pu0lic ri/+t..ost o* t+e petitioners.posed o* su0stantial taxpayers and t+e outco.plained o*3 % % )n *ine.on/ressG citi=ens.oney is 0ein/ de*lected to any i.+ie* . courts are vested 6it+ discretion as to 6+et+er or not a taxpayerDs suit s+ould 0e entertained3 " 1 T+is .erely a /eneral interest co. alt+ou/+ undou0tedly true.s in*rin/es +is prero/atives as a le/islator3 " 5 )ndeed.e 6ill a**ect t+eir vital interests.+ie* .ourt3 8+en suin/ as a citizen .ent o* t+e questioned statute or contract3 )t is not su**icient t+at +e +as . +o6ever.o. a readin/ o* t+e petitions s+o6s t+at it +as advanced constitutional issues 6+ic+ deserve t+e attention o* t+is .pendin/ trans.e.0ers o* t+e 0ar and o* t+e le/al pro*ession – 6+ic+ 6ere supposedly violated 0y t+e alle/ed unconstitutional acts o* t+e 9ouse o* Representatives3 )n a lon/ line o* cases.ent and t+e ensuin/ trial o* t+e . not only t+at t+e la6 or any /overn.e inde*inite 6ay3 )t .ere invocation 0y t+e :ntegrated -ar of the )hilippines or any member of the legal profession o* t+e duty to preserve t+e rule o* la6 and not+in/ .itted) 8+ile ri/+ts personal to t+e . t+ey invaria0ly invo@e t+e vindication o* t+eir o6n ri/+ts – as taxpayersG .oney raised 0y taxation and t+at +e 6ould sustain a direct in1ury as a result o* t+e en*orce.

Rule 1 . still plead t+e existence o* suc+ interest. or is so situated as to 0e adversely a**ected 0y a distri0ution or ot+er disposition o* property in t+e custody o* t+e court or o* an o**icer t+ereo*3 8+ile intervention is not a .e . alle/in/ t+at Bt+ey 6ill su**er i* t+is insidious sc+e. +o6ever.ourt is satis*ied t+at t+e issues raised +erein are indeed o* transcendental i. sou/+t to 1oin petitioner #rancisco in G3R3 >o3 1!I5!13 )nvo@in/ t+eir ri/+t as citi=ens to intervene. . +o6ever. /ranted t+e Motion *or Leave o* .entality o* t+e /overn. in G3R3 >o3 1!I5!53 Since.0ers o* t+e 9ouse o* Representatives is success*ul.e. t+is .ourt to )ntervene and Petition2in2)ntervention3 >a/. t+ey see@ to 1oin petitioners . as 6+en t+e issues raised are o* para.B t+is .ay 0e per.ourt.0ers o* t+e class 6+et+er or not t+ey 6ere 0e*ore t+e court3 " 8+ere it clearly appears t+at not all interests can 0e su**iciently represented as s+o6n 0y t+e diver/ent issues raised in t+e nu. on +is standin/3 T+ere 0ein/ no doctrinal de*inition o* transcendental i.ent t+at a party s+ould +ave an interest in t+e . it not 0ein/ one o* 6+ic+ courts can ta@e 1udicial notice3 )n petitioner (alle1osD case.ourt requires an intervenor to possess a le/al interest in t+e . save *or one additional issue.e standin/.andelaria. 6+en dealin/ 6it+ class suits *iled in 0e+al* o* all citi=ens.ourt +as in *act adopted a li0eral attitude on t+e locus standi o* a petitioner 6+ere t+e petitioner is a0le to cra*t an issue o* transcendental si/ni*icance to t+e people.ustice #lorentino P3 #eliciano are instructive$ (1) t+e c+aracter o* t+e *unds or ot+er assets involved in t+e caseG (5) t+e presence o* a clear case o* disre/ard o* a constitutional or statutory pro+i0ition 0y t+e pu0lic respondent a/ency or instru. at t+e very least. or an interest a/ainst 0ot+./a Man//a/a6an/ Pilipino. et.ore direct and speci*ic interest in raisin/ t+e questions 0ein/ raised3 I 'pplyin/ t+ese deter. t+eir petition 6ill stand3 T+e )hilippine -ar .e vein.erous to *ully protect t+e interests o* all concerned " % to ena0le t+e court to deal properly 6it+ all interests involved in t+e suit. 6+et+er *avora0le or un*avora0le to t+e class.inants *or.ust 0e su**iciently nu.portance.itted 0y t+e courts 6+en t+e applicant s+o6s *acts 6+ic+ satis*y t+e require. is .plied 6it+3 . et3 al3 +as 0een interposed.inated3 ' party .erous petitions 0e*ore t+is .ourt *ound t+e requisites *or intervention +ad 0een co. al. )nc3.ents o* t+e la6 aut+ori=in/ intervention3 5 )n )ntervenors 'ttorneys Ro. under t+e res (udicata principle.atter o* ri/+t.andelaria. " " *or a 1ud/. t+ey raise t+e sa.e.portance./a Mananan//ol n/ .ourt . Section 5 o* t+e Rules o* . +e *ailed to alle/e any interest in t+e case3 9e does not t+us +ave standin/3 8it+ respect to t+e .ean t+at t+e require.ulated 0y *or. invo@es t+e sole /round o* transcendental i. persons intervenin/ .e o* t+e . or in t+e success o* eit+er o* t+e parties. is.portance to t+e pu0lic3 1 Suc+ li0erality does not.a. in G3R3 >o3 1!IJ %.entG and (J) t+e lac@ o* any ot+er party 6it+ a .inority .atter in liti/ation. 6+ile 'tty3 Cioscoro E3 (alle1os.portance3 )n not a *e6 cases. it .ssociation . t+is .inants. t+is .ust.ent in a class suit.0y it3 )n t+e sa. 0indin/ on all . al.e issues and t+e sa. t+e *ollo6in/ instructive deter.ount i.alasa@it na .ourt as earlier stated. G3R3 >o3 1!IJ!H as a class suit ou/+t to *ail3 Since petitioners additionally alle/e standin/ as citi=ens and taxpayers.ulo Macalintal and Pete Puirino PuadraDs case. et.u. and no o01ection on t+e part o* petitioners .otions *or intervention.er Supre.atter is totally eli. in G3R3 >o3 1!I&IJ.

t+e second i.atter in liti/ation. 6+ile +e asserts an interest as a taxpayer.oney is 0ein/ de*lected to any i.entel possesses a le/al interest in t+e .otion to intervene. sou/+t to intervene *or t+e li. i3e3.atter at +and.plis+ed or per*or.e. 1!I5 H.ent o* an invalid or unconstitutional la63 & (. 6it+ standin/3 Ripeness and Prematurit" )n Tan v.ent *or 0rin/in/ taxpayerDs suits as set *ort+ in Aumlao v.isapplication o* suc+ *unds 0y respondent . )nc3 *iled a BPetition2in2)ntervention 6it+ Leave to )nterveneB to raise t+e additional issue o* 6+et+er or not t+e second i.e into t+e picture3B ! ?nly t+en .e .ustice is valid and 0ased on any o* t+e /rounds prescri0ed 0y t+e .itted to it *ro. +e 0ein/ a .ent Rules adopted 0y t+e 15t+ .alasa@it na .0er o* t+e <ar does not su**ice to clot+e +i.'lle/in/ t+at t+e issues raised in t+e petitions in G3R3 >os3 1!I5!1. on t+e ot+er +and./a Man//a/a6an/ Pilipino.onstitution3 #indin/ t+at >a/.ent co. no6+ere in t+eir Petition do said petitioners alle/e t+at t+eir tax .ai. 1!I5%%. allo6ed to ar/ue3 Lastly.itted) )n prayin/ *or t+e dis.issal o* t+e petitions. i* and 6+en t+e latter is c+allen/ed in an appropriate le/al proceedin/3 T+e instant petitions raise in t+e .peac+.plaint a/ainst t+e .proper purpose3 'dditionally./a Mananan//ol n/ .portance.a.e.ust 0e denied *or.peac+. +eld t+at *or a case to 0e considered ripe *or ad1udication. and 8orld 8ar )) (eterans Le/ionnaires o* t+e P+ilippines.ent are trans.atter in liti/ation t+e respective .ay t+e courts pass on t+e validity o* 6+at 6as done.B or t+at t+ere is a .ent co.ittin/ to t+is .oneys. H t+is .et+in/ +ad 0y t+en 0een acco.ustice in accordance 6it+ t+e 9ouse ). t+e sa. t+e elections to 0e +eld involve t+e expenditure o* pu0lic .ain t+e issue o* t+e validity o* t+e *ilin/ o* t+e second i. as earlier stated.on/ress. t+rou/+ .learly.?MELE.ourtDs 1urisdiction as t+e Senate President does 6ill under. J to wit $ x x x 8+ile. +is .ere interest as a . 1acapagal . )nc3.ourt.ited purpose o* .+ie* .itations o.plaint a/ainst t+e .peac+. +e *ailed to . t+e 9ouse o* Representatives3 . 1!I5!J. 1!I5!5. +is Motion to )ntervene 6as /ranted and +e 6as.0er o* . concededly.proper purpose3 >eit+er do petitioners see@ to restrain respondent *ro. 1!I5 5.a@in/ o* record and ar/uin/ a point o* vie6 t+at di**ers 6it+ Senate President CrilonDs3 9e alle/es t+at su0.otions to intervene 6ere +ere0y /ranted3 Senator 'quilino Pi. as to . t+e constitutionality o* 6+ic+ is questioned3 T+e questioned acts +avin/ 0een carried out.peac+.on/ress a/ainst 6+ic+ t+e +erein petitions are directed3 #or t+is reason. et al. Senator Pi.oney is B0ein/ extracted and spent in violation o* speci*ic constitutional protection a/ainst a0uses o* le/islative po6er.ent o* pu0lic *unds or in pu0lic .eet t+e standin/ require. 8orld 8ar )) (eterans Le/ionnaires o* t+e P+ilippines. Soriano *ailed even to alle/e t+at t+e act o* petitioners 6ill result in ille/al dis0urse.ine t+e independence o* t+e Senate 6+ic+ 6ill sit as an i.ed 0y eit+er 0ranc+ 0e*ore a court .e >3 SorianoDs ..ustice #ernando.ent court once t+e 'rticles o* ).peac+.ent co.peac+. or t+at pu0lic .ay co.plaint +ad 0een *iled 6it+ t+e 9ouse o* . &omelec . and 1!IJ1I 6ere o* transcendental i. 6astin/ pu0lic *unds t+rou/+ t+e en*orce. Bit is a prerequisite t+at so.entel.+ie* . and to *ully ventilate all su0stantial issues relatin/ to t+e .oney 0ein/ de*lected to any i. )nc3 possess a le/al interest in t+e .+ie* .

in le/al parlance.selves 6+en t+e 'rticles o* ). t+e . t+e *utility o* see@in/ re.peac+.it to t+e sa.ity3 >eit+er 6ould suc+ a 6it+dra6al. a question o* policy3 )n ot+er 6ords.itted to t+e Senate. 0y itsel*.ent proceedin/s or ot+er6ise. 0y itsel*. 'rticle ())) o* t+e .+ie* .+ie* .orpus .ent Rules o* t+eir constitutional in*ir.ourt to render a decision at t+is ti.ent are presented on a .ity 0y 6ay o* a .ent3B )t is concerned 6it+ issues dependent upon t+e wisdom . 6it+out consistency and see.in/ to t+is .ent Rules provide *or an opportunity *or .aintains t+at even assu.er Senate President .portantly.ilar stand is Cean Raul Pan/alan/an o* t+e E3P3 .. 1acapagal +olds.onstitution % and.ost i.e.ourt +id 0e+ind t+e cover o* t+e political question doctrine and re*used to exercise its po6er o* 1udicial revie63 1 I I )n ot+er cases.ely.e or reason.plied 6it+3 Related to t+e issue o* ripeness is t+e question o* 6+et+er t+e instant petitions are pre. a 0ody 6+ic+ is 0ere*t o* po6er to /rant it3 Justicia#ilit" )n t+e leadin/ case o* Tanada v. as previously discussed.edies in t+e 9ouse and Senate s+ould *irst 0e ex+austed3 Ta@in/ a si.plis+ed and per*or. eit+er or 0ot+ 9ouses o* . not le/ality.. neit+er t+e 9ouse o* Representatives nor t+e Senate is clot+ed 6it+ t+e po6er to rule 6it+ de*initiveness on t+e issue o* constitutionality.plaint since it 6ould only place it under t+e a.peac+.in/ t+at t+e 'rticles are trans.oncepcion de*ined t+e ter. o* a particular .0it o* Sections J(5) and (J) o* 'rticle A) o* t+e .ent co. it 0ein/ t+e *inal ar0iter on questions o* constitutionality any6ay3 9e t+us reco. t+ere*ore.pts to encoura/e si/natories to t+e second i.olle/e o* La6 6+o su//ests to t+is .peac+.onstitution.otion to trans. petitioners 6ould continue to su**er t+eir in1uries3 Second and .on/ress 0e*ore co.ourt vacillated on its stance o* ta@in/ co/ni=ance o* cases 6+ic+ involved political questions3 )n so. t+e 6it+dra6al 0y t+e Representatives o* t+eir si/natures 6ould not.onstitution3 Re. as said po6er is exclusively vested in t+e 1udiciary 0y t+e earlier quoted Section ). LTM+e ter. t+is . 6+et+er concernin/ i. or in re/ard to 6+ic+ full discretionary authority +as 0een dele/ated to t+e Le/islature or executive 0ranc+ o* t+e Govern.e cases.ustice Ro0erto .plaint to 6it+dra6 t+eir si/natures and opines t+at t+e 9ouse ). 6+at it . in t+e lan/ua/e o* .ovito R3 Salon/a opines t+at t+ere .peac+.e.ourt to ta@e 1udicial notice o* on2/oin/ atte. o0literate t+e questioned second i. Bpolitical question.micus curiae *or. cure t+e 9ouse ).ustice can raise t+e issue o* t+eir constitutional in*ir.uris Secundu.ourt is s+o6n 0y t+e *act t+at. despite t+e see.ends t+at all re. &uenco .peac+.iss3 T+e deanDs position does not persuade3 #irst. na. under t+e .ed 0e*ore suit.Representatives and t+e 5II1 Rules +ave already 0een already pro.edy cannot 0e sou/+t *ro.peac+. it re*ers to Bt+ose questions 6+ic+.in/ political nature o* t+e .onstitution. are to 0e decided by the people in t+eir soverei/n capacity.eans in ordinary parlance. +o6ever.ay 0e no ur/ent need *or t+is .ature3 . as Tan v.e to t+e Senate3 T+e dean . Bpolitical questionB connotes.ul/ated and en*orced.ent co.easure3 ()talics in t+e ori/inal) Prior to t+e 1 %J .otion to dis. t+is . +as 0een co. t+e prerequisite t+at t+e alle/ed unconstitutional act s+ould 0e acco.in/ly 6it+out any r+y.edies *ro.B viz $ " .0ers to raise constitutional questions t+e.

ission 6+o are not la6yers.oncepcion.o@ "h% J$%s"*o-s *-vo'v%(. t+e usual co.Br*-c*B'%s co-c%r-*-D Bar"*c$'ar'? "h% Er*" o@ ha#eas corpus "ha" *s "h% a$"hor*"? o@ co$r"s "o or(%r "h% r%'%as% o@ Bo'*"*ca' (%"a*-%%s a-( o"h%r +a""%rs r%'a"%( "o "h% oB%ra"*o. t+e 1udiciary +as not+in/ 6it+ 6+ic+ to en*orce its decisions or co.o.ands except t+e po6er o* reason and appeal to conscience 6+ic+. 6+en +e 0eca.. it 0ein/ a question decided 0y t+e people in t+eir soverei/n capacity3 T+e *requency 6it+ 6+ic+ t+is .artial la63 's a .ine 6+et+er or not t+ere +as 0een a /rave a0use o* discretion a. allo6 .o.0ers o* t+e <ar are *a.0ers o* t+e .ustice .ourtDs po6er o* 1udicial revie6 and its application on issues involvin/ political questions.e ..e .EP.o.e antecedents in t+e past.%@@%c" %-co$raD%( @$r"h%r v*o'a"*o-s "h%r%o@ ($r*-D "h% +ar"*a' 'aE r%D*+%.0ers o* t+is . 6it+ t+e 0odyDs indul/ence.. t+is .a1or 0ranc+es o* t+e service3 Since t+e le/islature +olds t+e purse and t+e executive t+e s6ord.onstitutional .ar@ 1 "" case o* 4avellana v.%r o@ cas%s aDa*-s" "h% Dov%r-+%-" Eh*ch "h%.ourt s+unted t+e political question doctrine and too@ co/ni=ance t+ereo*3 Rati*ication 0y t+e people o* a .e a . every0ody +as . in *orce. I" (*( -o" +%r%'? r%J$%s" a%-croach+%-" $Bo. 6e +ave no aut+ority to pass upon it3B Th% Co++*""%% o.issioner.ha( -o '%Da' (%@%-s% a" a'' "h% so'*c*"or D%-%ra' s%" $B "h% (%@%-s% o@ Bo'*"*ca' J$%s"*o-s a-( Do" aEa? E*"h *"."h% 2$(*c*ar? @%%'s "ha" "h*s Eas -o" a BroB%r so'$"*o.onstitution 6as rati*ied.a -$+. +ence.ourt invo@ed t+e political question doctrine to re*use to ta@e 1urisdiction over certain cases durin/ t+e Marcos re/i.ade.udiciary3 T+e *irst section starts 6it+ a sentence copied *ro..e.'? . ) 6ill proceed to read t+e provisions dra*ted 0y t+e .e .anda0le and en*orcea0le and to deter.ittee on t+e ."h% r*Dh"s o@ "h% B%oB'% .on/ t+e t+ree .udicial po6er includes t+e duty o* courts o* 1ustice to settle actual controversies involvin/ ri/+ts 6+ic+ are le/ally de.its on po6ers or *unctions con*erred upon political 0odies3 1 I 1 Even in t+e land. it +as so. to clari*y t+is . a*ter all.ed 1urisdiction 6+enever it *ound constitutionally i.o. ) a.ourt said$ B8ell.%ca$s% "h% Dov%r-+%-" s%" $B "h% (%@%-s% o@ Bo'*"*ca' J$%s"*o-. t+is is actually a product o* our experience durin/ .? "h% c*rc$+s"a-c% "ha" *.er .?>.+ie* . and is t+e .ost po6er*ul o* all ot+er po6ers 6it+out exception3 x x x 'nd so.posed li. ) suppose.otivated . since it is political.e to . re*lects t+e 6ill o* God.entality o* t+e /overn. t+is .ission. viz $ MR3 .ent3 #ello6 Me.ay 0e esta0lis+ed 0y la63 ) suppose no0ody can question it3 T+e next provision is ne6 in our constitutional la63 ) 6ill read it *irst and explain3 .ourt and in suc+ lo6er courts as . sure t+e .iliar 6it+ t+is situation3 <ut *or t+e 0ene*it o* t+e Me.atter o* *act. +xecutive *ecretary 1 I 5 6+ic+ raised t+e issue o* 6+et+er t+e 1 %J .ent t+at t+e 1udiciary is t+e 6ea@est a.onstitution is a political question. As a co-s%J$%-c% c%r"a*. Mr3 Presidin/ ?**icer3 ) 6ill spea@ on t+e 1udiciary3 Practically..a-( %@@%c" o@ +ar"*a' 'aE @a*'%( .$" *" *. 'nd t+e Supre. *or.onstitutions3 )t says$ T+e 1udicial po6er s+all 0e vested in one Supre.ourt assu.t+erein issues involved.. 0ut t+e ro'% o@ "h% G$(*c*ar? ($r*-D "h% (%Bos%( r%D*+% Eas +arr%( co-s*(%ra.ountin/ to lac@ or excess o* 1urisdiction on t+e part or instru.)?>3 T+an@ you.

0er 55. .ista@en3 Martial la6 6as announced on Septe. 6+ereupon t+e President issued a decree callin/ a ple0iscite 6+ic+ suspended t+e operation o* so.ortal t+reat o* 0ein/ t+e o01ect o* 6rat+ o* t+e rulin/ party3 T+e 1 %1 . 6as our very o6n collea/ue.0er 513 T+e o0vious reason *or t+e delay in its pu0lication 6as t+at t+e ad. so.onstitution 6as already in *orce 0ecause t+e over6+el.eti.ain 6riters 6ere already incarcerated.e in . to 0e +eld *ro.onstitution 6as analy=ed and critici=ed 6it+ suc+ a tellin/ e**ect t+at MalacaWan/ *elt t+e dan/er o* its approval3 So.ation declarin/ t+at t+e 1 %J .atters o* pu0lic concern3 T+e purpose 6as presu.e provisions in t+e .in/ . a .issioner .o.onstitutional .e into existence3 T+e questions to 0e propounded 6ere released 6it+ proposed ans6ers t+ereto.. t+e Minister o* .ation null and void3 T+e . 6+ere t+e case 6as 0ein/ +eard3 ) t+en in*or. t+e dra*t o* t+e .e.ustice delivered to t+e .onvention +ad 0een una0le to acco. .onstitution on 6+ic+ a ple0iscite 6as to 0e +eld so.anuary 1 %J3 )* ) .ourt 6ere residents o* .entals o* t+e .e dele/ates to t+at 1 %1 . *avored t+e .en on Septe.anuary 1I to .ous 0y our collea/ue.onvention +ad 0e/un on .inent ne6s..onstitutional . 0e suspended3 8+en t+e .ed t+e . 0ut o* 6+at 6as t+en desi/nated as Bciti=ens asse.ay use a 6ord *a. alt+ou/+ t+e procla. t+ey *inis+ed 6+at t+e dele/ates to t+e 1 %1 .ission on Elections.e .ation o* . t+e vast .ourt in 1 %J on t+e case o* 4avellana vs.ourt and t+e parties t+e presidential procla.anuary 1H. 6ere pic@ed up3 ?ne o* t+e.onstitution 6as ta@en over 0y representatives o* MalacaWan/3 )n 1% days. t+e .plis+ *or a0out 1& .e .itted in t+e re*erendu.ent 6as t+at t+e issue 6as a political question and t+at t+e court +ad no 1urisdiction to entertain t+e case3 xxx T+e /overn. i* ) a. .a0ly to allo6 a *ree discussion on t+e dra*t o* t+e .0ers o* t+e Supre. s+ould 0e re/arded as t+e votes cast in t+e ple0iscite3 T+ereupon.0er 51 or 55 +ad not *inis+ed t+e .ation 6as dated Septe.0er 1.onstitution3 ) *or/ot to say t+at upon t+e procla.0lies or 0aran/ays3B T+us t+e 0aran/ays ca. 1 %5.ont+s3 T+e dra*t o* t+e 1 %J . t+e . not . 6ere not announced until t+e eve o* its sc+eduled 0e/innin/.alderon3 So.issioner ?ple.inistration +ad appre+ended and detained pro. +eld *ro.0er 55. +o6ever.onstitution3 >ote t+at all . 0ut also 0ecause t+ose 6+o succeeded t+e.artial la6 decree 6+ic+ pro+i0ited discussions.onvention.o. t+e un*inis+ed dra*t o* t+e .ourt a procla. in t+eir 1o0s 6ere under .e . 1 %1 and 0y Septe.ain de*ense put up 0y t+e /overn.0er 513 So t+at 6+en .edia could not pu0lis+ any story not only 0ecause our .uc+ less pu0lic discussions o* certain . t+e President suspended inde*initely t+e +oldin/ o* t+e ple0iscite and announced t+at +e 6ould consult t+e people in a re*erendu.a1ority o* t+e votes cast in t+e re*erendu.edia +ardly pu0lis+ed anyt+in/ a0out it3 )n *act.otion 6as 0ein/ +eard 0e*ore t+e Supre.onstitution3 ). .ation o* t+e President declarin/ t+at t+e ne6 .onstitution 6as presented to t+e President around Cece. ) proceeded to t+e session roo.une 1.ustice.anuary 1H3 <ut t+e questions to 0e su0. the *ecretary of 4ustice .onstitution +ad 0een rati*ied 0y t+e people and is no6 in *orce3 ' nu.explain3 ) 6ill start 6it+ a decision o* t+e Supre. under t+e supposed supervision not o* t+e .. durin/ t+e interre/nu.ediately a*ter t+e departure o* t+e Minister o* . do=ens o* t+e..o.ourt..0er o* ot+er cases 6ere *iled to declare t+e presidential procla.a1ority rati*ied t+e dra*t o* t+e .otion 6as *iled 6it+ t+e Supre.onstitutional ..artial la6 6as announced on Septe.artial la6.ent said t+at in a re*erendu.onstitutionG it +ad 0arely a/reed in t+e *unda. su//estin/ t+at it 6as unnecessary to +old a ple0iscite 0ecause t+e ans6ers /iven in t+e re*erendu.e .anuary 1I to .ourt prayin/ t+at t+e +oldin/ o* t+e re*erendu. .

0ers o* t+e . cannot entertain. sa6 any re*erendu. 1%ca$s% o@ "ha" s$Br%+ac? BoE%r "o (%"%r+*-% Eh%"h%r a D*v%. 0y actual co.$s% o@ (*scr%"*o.or so caBr*c*o$s'? as "o co-s"*"$"% a.e .or *.*D (*@@%r%-c% .%%. xxx x x x 8+en your . +ypot+etical questions3 I. 1r*%@'? s"a"%( co$r"s o@ G$s"*c% (%"%r+*-% "h% '*+*"s o@ BoE%r o@ "h% aD%-c*%s a-( o@@*c%s o@ "h% Dov%r-+%-" as E%'' as "hos% o@ *"s o@@*c%rs.ittee on t+e .ourt *elt t+at t+ere +ad 0een no re*erendu.a+o$-"*-D "o %Ac%ss o@ G$r*s(*c"*o.udiciary 0e/an to per*or. its *unctions. a +us0and co.ain *unction$ to settle actual controversies involvin/ con*licts o* ri/+ts 6+ic+ are de.uc+ less decide.a1ority o* t+e .uc+ less did t+ey participate in t+e alle/ed re*erendu."h%? (*s+*ss%( "h% cas%. +er duties as a 6i*e3 T+e . cannot su0stitute *or a ple0iscite3 Th%r% *s a .a r%@%r%-($+ a-( a B'%. Each o-% *s s$Br%+% E*"h*. li@e all ot+er courts.a. it *aced t+e *ollo6in/ questions$ 8+at is 1udicial po6erF 8+at is a political questionF T+e Supre. x x x Th% (%@%-s% o@ "h% Bo'*"*ca' J$%s"*o. t+ere*ore.o.*"s oE.ain .Eas r%G%c"%( . a .%"E%%.a -$+.a Br%s*(%-"*a' s?s"%+ o@ Dov%r-+%-" "h% S$Br%+% Co$r" has a'so a-o"h%r *+Bor"a-" @$-c"*o-. Th% BoE%rs o@ Dov%r-+%-" ar% D%-%ra''? co-s*(%r%( (*v*(%( *-"o "hr%% .co$r"s o@ G$s"*c%. .'%.*sc*"%.or 'acF o@ G$r*s(*c"*o-.o"h%r Eor(s "h% G$(*c*ar? *s "h% @*-a' ar.arital duty to +er +us0and3 T+ere are so..Eh%"h%r or -o" a . proceedin/3 )n t+e P+ilippines.*"%r o"h% J$%s"*o. Th*s *s -o" o-'? a G$(*c*a' BoE%r .$" a ($"? "o Bass G$(D+%-" o. +ad 0een noti*ied o* any re*erendu.sBh%r% a-( *-(%B%-(%-" o@ "h% o"h%rs.e ri/+ts /uaranteed 0y la6.%r o@ o"h%r cas%s *"h% Bas".anda0le or en*orcea0le 3 3 3 T+e courts. +as one .Manila.'aE *s va'*( or -o" *s v%s"%( *. 0ut none o* t+e.ourt said$ B8e can tell your 6i*e 6+at +er duties as suc+ are and t+at s+e is 0ound to co.pulsion 6ould 0e +i/+ly dero/atory to +u.3 >one o* t+e.an di/nity3B T+is is 6+y t+e *irst part o* t+e second para/rap+ o* Section ) provides t+at$ .ply 6it+ t+e. 1$" a-o"h%r Dro$B o@ G$s"*c%s $Bh%'( "h% (%@%-s% "ha" "h% *ss$% Eas a Bo'*"*ca' J$%s"*o-. 0ut 6e cannot *orce +er p+ysically to disc+ar/e +er . even local /ossips spread li@e 6ild *ire3 So.ra-ch o@ Dov%r-+%-" or a-? o@ *"s o@@*c*a's has ac"%( E*"ho$" G$r*s(*c"*o. 4h%r%$Bo.ourt. 0ut t+ey are so personal t+at to en*orce t+e.%Ac%ss o@ G$r*s(*c"*o. Th*s *s -o" "h% o-'? +aGor cas% *Eh*ch "h% B'%a o@ KBo'*"*ca' J$%s"*o-K Eas s%" $B. Th%r% hav% . a re*erendu. in t+eir respective places o* residence.ra-ch%s# "h% L%D*s'a"*v% "h% EA%c$"*v% a-( "h% 2$(*c*ar?.udicial po6er includes t+e duty o* courts to settle actual controversies involvin/ ri/+ts 6+ic+ are le/ally de. .plained t+at +is 6i*e 6as un6illin/ to per*or.. . I.%ca$s% "h% *ss$% Eas c'%ar'? G$s"*c*a.anda0le and en*orcea0le3 T+ere are ri/+ts 6+ic+ are /uaranteed 0y la6 0ut cannot 0e en*orced 0y a 1udiciary party3 )n a decided case.3 Second.e.+a""%rs o@ "h*s -a"$r%.

$s% o@ (*scr%"*o.ately. Th%r%@or% "h% co$r" has "h% ($"? "o (%c*(%. CONCE)CION. .$" a'so *. 1$" "h% G%-"'%+a. A-( so *s "h*s o-'? a. t+ere*ore.? 'aE.or %Ac%ss o@ G$r*s(*c"*o.oncepcion *urt+er clari*ied t+e concept o* 1udicial po6er. t+us$ MR. No."ha" E% +*Dh" +aF% +a? -o" cov%r a'' Boss*.o.Eas or*D*-a''? (ra@"%( *" so$Dh" "o (%@*-% Eha" *s G$(*c*a' BoE%r. .%ca$s% Eh%-%v%r "h%r% *s a.(oc"r*-%H MR. No . 6%s.E*'' -o"*c% *" sa?s KG$(*c*a' BoE%r *-c'$(%sK a-( "h% r%aso.ission.'% ar%as. .% cr%a"%( . No..a""%+B" "o so'v% "h% Bro.'%+s ar*s*-D @ro+ "h% Bo'*"*ca' J$%s"*o. ) +ave . No I F-oE "h*s *s -o". 1ERNAS.p+asis supplied) Curin/ t+e deli0erations o* t+e .o."h% S$Br%+% Co$r" a'o-% . . No c%r"a*-'? -o". xxx #R3 <ER>'S3 Elti. CONCE)CION.. NOLLEDO.ar@s to t+e end t+at t+e .1 "o (o aEa? E*"h "h% Bo'*"*ca' J$%s"*o.o@ S%c"*o. 2$(*c*a' BoE%r as I sa*( r%@%rs "o or(*-ar? cas%s . it 6ill al6ays +ave to 0e decided 0y t+e Supre."ha" *s -o" a Bo'*"*ca' J$%s"*o-. MR. CONCE)CION. So "h*s *s -o" a.KG$(*c*a' BoE%rKH MR.erical need *or votes3 ?n anot+er point.$s%( "h% "%r+ KG$(*c*a' BoE%rK . FR.(oc"r*-%.s%%+s "o *(%-"*@? Bo'*"*ca' J$%s"*o-s E*"h G$r*s(*c"*o-a' J$%s"*o-s.a+o$-"*-D "o a 'acF o@ G$r*s(*c"*o-.? c'a*+*-D "ha" s$ch +a""%rs co-s"*"$"% a Bo'*"*ca' J$%s"*o-.%*-D "ha" "h% (%@*-*"*o. MR. MR.%Aa+B'%H MR. *s *" "h% *-"%-"*o.ay +ave an initial *ood *or t+ou/+t on t+e su01ect o* t+e 1udiciary3 1 I J ()talics in t+e ori/inalG e. 4h%. NOLLEDO.a.+ie* .issioners ..$" G$(*c*a' BoE%r *s -o" v%s"%( *.1 Eh*ch +%a-s "ha" "h% co$r"s ca--o" h%r%a@"%r %va(% "h% ($"? "o s%""'% +a""%rs o@ "h*s -a"$r% .$s%( *"s a$"hor*"? "o "h% %A"%-" o@ 'acF*-D G$r*s(*c"*o.o"h%r 'oE%r co$r"s as +a? .onstitutional . CONCE)CION. 1$" "h%r% *s a (*@@%r%-c%. MR.e .ourt accordin/ to t+e ne6 nu. FR."h*s Brov*s*o. 1%ca$s% o@ "h% %ABr%ss*o.as "o Eh%"h%r "h% Dov%r-+%-" ha( a$"hor*"? or ha( a.$" Eh%r% "h%r% *s a J$%s"*o. So I a+ sa"*s@*%( E*"h "h% a-sE%r "ha" *" *s -o" *-"%-(%( "o (o aEa? E*"h "h% Bo'*"*ca' J$%s"*o. FR. CONCE)CION. MR. I" *s -o". NOLLEDO. 1ERNAS.acFDro$-( o@ BaraDraBh 2 o@ S%c"*o.(oc"r*-%.ustice .Th*s *s "h% .ade t+ese extended re. 1ERNAS. Th% G%-"'%+a. CONCE)CION. Th% G%-"'%+a.

ourt does not de*ine 6+at are 1usticia0le political questions and non2 1usticia0le political questions. 6ould +ave nor. +o6ever3 )denti*ication o* t+ese t6o species o* political questions .ere specter o* t+is creature called t+e political question doctrine3 . t+is clari*ication it is /at+ered t+at t+ere are t6o species o* political questions$ (1) Btruly political questionsB and (5) t+ose 6+ic+ Bare not truly political questions3B Truly political questions are t+us 0eyond 1udicial revie6.K 1 I " (E. spea@in/ t+rou/+ Mada.onstitution3 Moreover.%?o-( "h% Ba'% o@ G$(*c*a' BoE%r.ust per*or. 1 I spea@in/ t+rou/+ . o* t+e .olle/e o* La6. courts can revie6 questions 6+ic+ are not truly political in nature3 's pointed out 0y a.ent o* t+e issue to a coordinate political depart.ents to decide3 1 I ! x x x )n -engzon v.it.o@ "h% r*va' c'a*+s.'*Da"*o+a-(a"%( .inent on t+e sur*ace o* any case +eld to involve a political question is *ound a textually de.e$ x x x Pro. +eld$ T+e present .ustice Teodoro Padilla.its resort to t+e political question doctrine and 0roadens t+e scope o* 1udicial inquiry into areas 6+ic+ t+e . t+at Section 1.. even t+e political question3 11 I x x x (E.%%.onstra0le constitutional co. a ($"? 6+ic+ cannot 0e a0dicated 0y t+e .ourt ruled$ )n t+e case no6 0e*ore us. CONCE)CION.ortes. 6e 6ould still not 0e precluded *ro.ourt declared$ T+e Ballocation o* constitutional 0oundariesB is a tas@ t+at t+is . t+is .D*v%. t+e *ore/oin/ record o* t+e proceedin/s o* t+e 1 "! .(*ca"% "ha" o. 1 I H t+is . 'rticle ())). 1 I & (E. even i* 6e 6ere to assu.p+asis supplied) #ro.o.p+asis and underscorin/ supplied) 'nd in Aaza v.onstitutional ."o (%'*+*" co-s"*"$"*o-a' .ally le*t to t+e political depart.p+asis and underscorin/ supplied3) Section 1. 1 I % t+rou/+ .o.7 Co-s"*"$"*o. 0y virtue o* Section 1.e .ission.ent G or a lac@ .onstitution.MR. I" (%@*-*"%'? (o%s -o" %'*+*-a"% "h% @ac" "ha" "r$'? Bo'*"*ca' J$%s"*o-s ar% ..aBBroBr*a"% cas%s. as +eld in a recent case. 'rticle ())) o* t+e .onstitution3 )n 1arcos v.a'"ho$Dh sa*( Brov*s*o..ay 0e pro0le.+ie* . resolvin/ it under t+e %ABa-(%( 1urisdiction con*erred upon us t+at no6 covers.oncepcion +astened to clari*y. &arr 111 atte.ourt . Th% G$r*s(*c"*o.ustice )rene .ourt.er dean Paci*ico '/a0in o* t+e EP . t+e 1urisdictional o01ection 0eco. it is clear t+at 1udicial po6er is not only a po6erG it is also a duty.erican case o* -a7er v.0er o* cases ta@en 1urisdiction over questions 6+ic+ are not truly political *ollo6in/ t+e e**ectivity o* t+e present . 1anglapus.onstitution li.ourt +as in *act in a nu. t+e reason *or respect o* t+e doctrine o* separation o* po6ers to 0e .ru=. 'rticle ())) 6as not intended to do a6ay 6it+ Btruly political questions3B #ro.es even less tena0le and decisive3 T+e reason is t+at. under previous constitutions. +o6ever.atic3 T+ere +as 0een no clear standard3 T+e '. *enate -lue /ibbon &ommittee."o "h*s Co$r".? -o +%a-s (o%s aEa? E*"h "h% aBB'*ca.icus curiae *or. t+is .s"ac'% "o G$(*c*a' (%"%r+*-a"*o. under t+e . K("!h% Bo'*"*ca' J$%s"*o. in proper cases. t+is .aintained3 ?n t+e ot+er +and.ourt.ustice .? "h% 19.ustice )sa/ani .(oc"r*-% -%*"h%r *-"%rBos%s a.pts to provide so. I" ca--o" a. *ingson.e t+at t+e issue presented 0e*ore us 6as political in nature.*'*"? o@ "h% Br*-c*B'% *.o$-(ar*%s has .

inin/ 6+et+er t+ey s+ould pass upon a constitutional issue3 )n our 1urisdiction.ana/ea0le standards *or resolvin/ itG and (J) t+e i.ent *ro.ents 0y various depart.posed li.ana/ea0le standards *or resolvin/ it G or t+e i.ent co.ourt s+all t+us no6 apply t+is standard to t+e present controversy3 T+ese petitions raise *ive su0stantial issues$ )3 8+et+er t+e o**enses alle/ed in t+e Second i.ination o* 6+at constitutes an i. t+e .portantly.onstitution3 )))3 8+et+er t+e le/islative inquiry 0y t+e 9ouse .onstitution3 (3 8+et+er t+e second i. any discussion o* t+is issue 6ould require t+is .ent adopted 0y t+e 15t+ .onstitution3 ))3 8+et+er t+e second i.onstitution provides our courts 6it+ *ar less discretion in deter.it.plaint over 6+ic+ t+is .ent co.ulti*arious pronounce.ination o* a truly political question *ro.ent G or an unusual need *or questionin/ ad+erence to a political decision already .ent o* t+e constitutionally .its on po6ers or *unctions con*erred upon political 0odies3 )* t+ere are.ent co.possi0ility o* a courtDs underta@in/ independent resolution 6it+out expressin/ lac@ o* t+e respect due coordinate 0ranc+es o* /overn.ourt to .ination is a purely political question 6+ic+ t+e .onstitution +as le*t to t+e sound discretion o* t+e le/islation3 Suc+ an intent is . 'rticle A) o* t+e .a@e a deter.entG (5) t+e lac@ o* 1udicially discovera0le and ..peac+. *or Section 1.peac+. . our current concept. t+en our courts are duty20ound to exa. a non21usticia0le political question lies in t+e ans6er to t+e question o* 6+et+er t+ere are constitutionally i.peac+a0le o**enses under t+e .plaint is 0arred under Section J(H) o* 'rticle A) o* t+e .ents on one question 3 11 5 (Enderscorin/ supplied) ?* t+ese standards.onstra0le constitutional co.ination o* a @ind clearly *or non21udicial discretion G or t+e i.ent o* t+e issue to a coordinate political depart.y o* t+e 1udiciary3 )(3 8+et+er Sections 1H and 1! o* Rule ( o* t+e Rules on ).ent co. t+e deter.erits o* t+e second i.peac+.possi0ility o* decidin/ 6it+out an initial policy deter.possi0ility o* decidin/ 6it+out an initial policy deter.andated *iscal autono.onstitution3 T+e *irst issue /oes into t+e . 'rticle A) o* t+e . 'rticle ())) o* t+e .erican concept o* 1udicial revie6 is radically di**erent *ro.ent properly acted 6it+in suc+ li.peac+a0le o**ense3 Suc+ a deter.its3 T+is .entality o* t+e /overn.ination o* a @ind clearly *or non21udicial discretion3 T+ese standards are not separate and distinct concepts 0ut are interrelated to eac+ in t+at t+e presence o* one stren/t+ens t+e conclusion t+at t+e ot+ers are also present3 T+e pro0le.o..on/ress are unconstitutional *or violatin/ t+e provisions o* Section J.ourt +as no 1urisdiction3 More i.peac+.0arrass.ine 6+et+er t+e 0ranc+ or instru.o* 1udicially discovera0le and .ittee on .ore relia0le +ave 0een t+e *irst t+ree$ (1) a textually de.plaint 6as *iled in accordance 6it+ Section J(&).peac+.ade G or t+e potentiality o* e.ent #und is an unconstitutional in*rin/e.ustice into t+e . in applyin/ t+e *ore/oin/ standards is t+at t+e '.udicial Cevelop.plaint constitute valid i.

ourt invalidated Sections 1J and J5 o* Repu0lic 'ct >o3 !!H% *or 0ein/ con*iscatory and violative o* due process.'% 3 11 ! LE.on/ ot+er reasons. t+e constitutional question . in t+e case o* *otto v.e or all o* t+e re. petitioners Leonilo R3 'l*onso. to 6it$ )t +as 0een esta0lis+ed t+at "h*s Co$r" E*'' ass$+% G$r*s(*c"*o.o.$Bo.Eh*ch "h% co$r" +a? r%s" *"s G$(D+%-" "ha" co$rs% E*'' .ission3 11 J 'lt+ou/+ Section 5 o* 'rticle A) o* t+e .o@ "h% J$%s"*o. t+e deli0erations o* t+e .% $-avo*(a.grarian /eform .ade to rest3 )n deter.% '%@" @or co-s*(%ra"*o.ission s+o6s t+at t+e *ra.plaint. 6+ic+ Resolution and le/islative inquiry petitioners clai.es and 0etrayal o* pu0lic trust. an exa."ha" "h% %ss%-"*a' r%J$*s*"%s o@ a G$(*c*a' *-J$*r? *-"o s$ch a J$%s"*o.onstitution enu. 11 H t+is .ination. ar/ue t+at.*s $-avo*(a. a. ot+er +i/+ cri.E*'' . t+e second i.ent co.. na.clear *ro. and "h% r%so'$"*o. t+is .ples o* 0ot+. t6o o* t+ese.% a(oB"%( a-( "h% co-s"*"$"*o-a' J$%s"*o. *@ "h% r%cor( a'so Br%s%-"s so+% o"h%r Dro$-( $Bo.ainin/ su0stantial issues s+ould 0e passed upon.onstitutional .axi. to .es t+an 0y alludin/ to 0ot+ positive and ne/ative exa.p+asis and underscorin/ suppliedM T+e sa. 6it+out arrivin/ at t+eir clear cut de*inition or even a standard t+ere*or3 11 & .ent.learly.p+asis suppliedM Succinctly put.ov%r a co-s"*"$"*o-a' J$%s"*oo-'? *@ *" *s shoE.e o* t+is controversy could possi0ly 0e .ar% @*rs" sa"*s@*%( 3 T+us.onstitutional . a Resolution 1 5 I callin/ *or a le/islative inquiry into t+e .E*'' . collectively raise several constitutional issues upon 6+ic+ t+e outco. elude a precise de*inition3 )n *act.plaint is invalid since it directly resulted *ro.ourt +eld$ x x x )t is a 6ell2esta0lis+ed rule t+at a court s+ould not pass upon a constitutional question and decide a la6 to 0e unconstitutional or invalid. et al.peac+. o* ad1udication t+at an issue assailin/ t+e constitutionality o* a /overn.'? -%c%ssar? "o "h% (%c*s*oo@ "h% cas% *"s%'@ 3 11 " LE.ust 0e an actual case or controversy involvin/ a con*lict o* le/al ri/+ts suscepti0le o* 1udicial deter.inin/ 6+et+er one.ent co.$-"*' a cas% ar*s%s *.ely.peac+. unless suc+ question is raised 0y t+e parties and t+at 6+en it is raised. t+e issue calls upon t+is court to decide a non2 1usticia0le political question 6+ic+ is 0eyond t+e scope o* its 1udicial po6er under Section 1. so. courts 6ill not touc+ t+e issue o* constitutionality unless it is truly unavoida0le and is t+e very lis mota or crux o* t+e controversy3 's noted earlier.ers could *ind no 0etter 6ay to approxi. 'rticle ()))3 $is Mota )t is a 6ell2settled .C#. t+ere .s$ch J$%s"*o..ust +ave 0een opportunely raised 0y t+e proper party.ental act s+ould 0e avoided 6+enever possi0le3 T+us.ination o* t+e records o* t+e 1 "! .Eh*ch a (%c*s*o.e principle 6as applied in 9uz 3arms v. *ecretary of . 6+ile all see@in/ t+e invalidity o* t+e second i.peac+.o. t+e instant consolidated petitions.ourt is /uided 0y t+e related cannon o* ad1udication t+at Bt+e court s+ould not *or. &ommission on +lections .ate t+e 0oundaries o* 0etrayal o* pu0lic trust and ot+er +i/+ cri.erates six /rounds *or i. a rule o* constitutional la6 0roader t+an is required 0y t+e precise *acts to 6+ic+ it is applied 3B 11 )n G3R3 >o3 1!IJ1I. 11 % 6+ere t+is .

ourtDs opinion. Section 51.entioned section in t+at t+e Bveri*ied co. 4r. t+e sa.ourt notes t+at a standard *or t+e conduct o* le/islative inquiries +as already 0een enunciated 0y t+is . v. *enate -lue /ibbon &ommttee.erely as a .scri0ed 0y t+e a*ore2quoted provision o* t+e . includin/ t+e ri/+t to due process and t+e ri/+t not 0e co.0ers o* t+e 9ouse o* Representatives si/ned a Resolution o* Endorse. 'rticle () t+ereo* provides$ T+e Senate or t+e 9ouse o* Representatives or any o* its respective co.peac+.r3 and #elix 8illia.ent co.ay conduct inquiries in aid o* le/islation in accordance 6it+ its duly pu0lis+ed rules o* procedure3 T+e ri/+ts o* persons appearin/ in or a**ected 0y suc+ inquiries s+all 0e respected3 T+e po6er o* 0ot+ +ouses o* .peac+.ent is *iled 0y at least one2 t+ird o* all t+e Me.ulo <3 Macalintal and Pete Puirino Puadra. as provided t+erein. . et..e did not satis*y t+e requisites *or t+e application o* t+e a*ore2 . intervenors Ro.plaint 6as veri*ied and *iled only 0y Representatives Gil0erto Teodoro. it is t+e studied opinion o* t+is . t+e si/natories to said Resolution are alle/ed to +ave veri*ied t+e sa.plaint or resolution o* i. introduce t+e ne6 ar/u.onstitution3 T+us. t+e sa.ittees .0ers o* t+e 9ouse3B 8it+ t+e exception o* Representatives Teodoro and #uente0ella. Ds clai.e s+all constitute t+e 'rticles o* ).0ers o* t+e 9ouse. a rule o* constitutional la6 touc+in/ on t+e separate and distinct . t+e sa.onstitution expressly reco/ni=es t+e po6er o* 0ot+ +ouses o* .peac+. require it to *or.ourt t+at t+e issue o* t+e constitutionality o* t+e said Resolution and resultin/ le/islative inquiry is too *ar re.entK).e does not *all under t+e provisions o* Section J (&). t+e issue o* t+e validity o* t+e second i.ent. t+e investi/ation .y o* t+e 1udiciaryG and (d) an assault on t+e independence o* t+e 1udiciary3 1 5 1 8it+out /oin/ into t+e .ent.erits o* petitioners 'l*onso. t+is .s..li@e6ise 0e unconstitutional *or 0ein/$ (a) a violation o* t+e rules and 1urisprudence on investi/ations in aid o* le/islationG (0) an open 0reac+ o* t+e doctrine o* separation o* po6ersG (c) a violation o* t+e constitutionally .ust 0e respected. t+ere*ore a0solute or unli. 6+ile 1oinin/ t+e ori/inal petition o* petitioners .peac+.pelled to testi*y a/ainst oneDs sel*3 1 5 J )n G3R3 >o3 1!I5!5.entB 6as not *iled B0y at least one2t+ird o* all t+e Me.ourt in -engzon.e.onstitution 6+ic+ reads$ Section J(&) )n case t+e veri*ied co. al. et. #uente0ella.on/ress to conduct inquiries in aid o* le/islation3 T+us. and trial 0y t+e Senate s+all *ort+6it+ proceed3 T+ey assert t+at 6+ile at least "1 .ent co.atter o* le/islative inquiries in /eneral. in t+e .oved *ro.e . 6+ic+ 6ould t+us 0e 0roader t+an is required 0y t+e *acts o* t+ese consolidated cases3 T+is opinion is *urt+er stren/t+ened 0y t+e *act t+at said petitioners +ave raised ot+er /rounds in support o* t+eir petition 6+ic+ 6ould not 0e adversely a**ected 0y t+e .on/ress to conduct inquiries in aid o* le/islation is not. t+e resolution o* said issue 6ould.ourtDs rulin/3 +n passant.plaint or resolution o* i. 'rticle A) o* t+e . al.peac+.ited3 )ts exercise is circu. 1 5 5 vi=$ T+e 1 "% .plaint3 Moreover.ent t+at since t+e second i.andelaria.ust 0e Bin aid o* le/islation in accordance 6it+ its duly pu0lis+ed rules o* procedureB and t+at Bt+e ri/+ts o* persons appearin/ in or a**ected 0y suc+ inquiries s+all 0e respected3B )t *ollo6s t+en t+at t+e ri/+t ri/+ts o* persons under t+e <ill o* Ri/+ts .andated *iscal autono.peac+.

peac+..ent.ent Rules adopted 0y t+e 15t+ .ittee 6it+in t+ree session days t+erea*ter3 T+e .plated 0y t+e . 'rticle A) o* t+e .peac+.ota o* t+e instant controversy$ (1) 6+et+er Sections 1H and 1! o* Rule ( o* t+e 9ouse ). suc+ re*erral.andelaria.peac+. 6+ic+ s+all 0e included in t+e ?rder o* <usiness 6it+in ten session days.+ie* a.. s+all su0.erely endorsed. as ar/ued 0y intervenors Macalintal and Puadra.ent3B )ntervenors point to t+e B(eri*icationB o* t+e Resolution o* Endorse.ustice under Section J(5).peac+.pellin/ considerations .BResolution o* Endorse.peac+.it t+e scope o* t+e constitutional issues to t+e provisions on i. at least one Me. suc+ resolution o* endorse. t+e decision to discard t+e resolution o* t+is issue as unnecessary *or t+e deter. intervenors in G3R3 >o3 1!I5!5.onstitution to apply.plaint o* Representatives Gil0erto Teodoro and #elix 8illia.0ers.plied 6it+ t+is require.ore co.ent 6+ic+ states t+at$ B8e are t+e proponentsKsponsors o* t+e Resolution o* Endorse.onstitution. adoptin/ t+e latterDs ar/u.0ers o* t+e 9ouse o* Representatives3 >ot +avin/ co.peac+. t+is .ustice Maa. et.o. . and re*erred to t+e proper .ay 0e *iled 0y any Me.plaint *or i.it its report to t+e 9ouse 6it+in sixty session days *ro.ore representatives 6+o si/ned and veri*ied t+e second i.ent3 .ent conte.ittee.peac+.0er o* t+e 9ouse o* Representatives or 0y any citi=en upon a resolution o* endorse. t+ere s+ould 0e %! or .0er 6+enever a citi=en *iles a veri*ied i. to/et+er 6it+ t+e correspondin/ resolution3 T+e resolution s+all 0e calendared *or consideration 0y t+e 9ouse 6it+in ten session days *ro.ent co. viz $ Section J(5) ' veri*ied co.a1ority vote o* all its Me.ent co.plaint3 8+ile t+e *ore/oin/ issue.ent co.o.ainin/ issues.onstitution requires in order *or said second i.ents and issues as t+eir o6n3 .plaint 0e B*iled .ent si/ned 0y at least one2t+ird o* t+e .o.entioned .ent 0y any Me.ade easier 0y t+e *act t+at said intervenors Macalintal and Puadra +ave 1oined in t+e petition o* .B not . si/ned and veri*ied t+e si/natories to a resolution o* i.ittee on .0ers o* t+e 9ouse o* Representatives as endorsers is not t+e resolution o* i.ent co.peac+.on/ t+is is t+e *act t+at only 'ttorneys Macalintal and Puadra. t+ey are not unduly pre1udiced 0y t+is .ent .plaint s+ould +ave 0een calendared and re*erred to t+e 9ouse .ent and *or trial in t+e Senate to 0e/in B*ort+6it+. 0y at least one2t+ird o* t+e Me.atically 0eco..ustice Maa.e t+e 'rticles o* )..ourtDs decision3 )n su.B is t+at t+e veri*ied co. 'rticle A) o* t+e .ent co. <3 #uente0ella x x xB 1 5 & )ntervenors Macalintal and Puadra *urt+er clai. and 0y a .peac+. receipt t+ereo*3 )ntervenorsD *ore/oin/ position is ec+oed 0y . constitute t+e very lis .e.peac+.onstitution.on/ress are unconstitutional *or violatin/ t+e provisions .plaint3 T+us. a*ter +earin/.plaint to auto.ination o* t+e instant cases is .o.ilitate a/ainst its adoption as t+e lis mota or crux o* t+e present controversy3 . al.peac+.peac+.ourt +olds t+at t+e t6o re.entK). t+at 6+at t+e . 0ut t+e e**orts presented 0y t+e ot+er petitioners as 6ell3 '/ain. t+ey concede t+at t+e second i.0on/ 6+o opined t+at *or Section J (&). inextrica0ly lin@ed as t+ey are.ent o* t+e a0ove.plaint as co.plainants . does indeed li.ent 0ein/ necessary only *ro. +ave raised t+is issue as a /round *or invalidatin/ t+e second i.ent.0on/ li@e6ise asserted t+at t+e Resolution o* Endorse.0er t+ereo*.onsequently.. to adopt t+is additional /round as t+e 0asis *or decidin/ t+e instant consolidated petitions 6ould not only render *or nau/+t t+e e**orts o* t+e ori/inal petitioners in G3R3 >o3 1!I5!5.

ent3 '/ain.ourt +ad 0een an interested party to t+e controversy 0e*ore it. t+e second i. 6ould 0e a dereliction o* duty3B Even in cases 6+ere it is an interested party.peac+.uc+ li@e sayin/ t+e Le/islature +as a .ent and *airness3B 1 5 '*ter all. t+e . respondents Spea@er Ce (enecia et3 al3 ar/ue t+at BLtM+ere is a . sittin/ as an i.ent proceedin/s3 ?n t+e ot+er +and.peac+.pulsion *or t+e .entally and .peac+. 0ecause t+is .ass disquali*ication.peac+. leavin/ t+e.ase >o3 II52"% on t+e /round t+at all o* t+e.petence.e 1urisdiction over t+e i. t+is ..peac+. its duty vested under 'rt3 ())).erits o* t+eir varied contentions3 #or t+is reason. t+e pu0lic +as laid on La .0er o* t+e 1udiciaryM t+eir con*idence t+at L+eM is . t+is . 0ut 6+ic+ .ent to t+e o**ice.0ers t+ereo* are su01ect to i.onstitutionG and (5) 6+et+er. B1urisdiction is not 1ust a po6erG it is a sole.orally *it to pass upon t+e . t+e petitioners *iled 6it+ t+e respondent Senate Electoral Tri0unal a Motion *or Cisquali*ication or )n+i0ition o* t+e Senators2Me.n duty 6+ic+ .bbas v. +as t+e sole po6er to try and decide all cases o* i. Sec3 1(5) o* t+e .pulsion not to pass la6s 6it+ penalty clauses 0ecause Me.ustices2Me.ust rule upon t+e c+allen/e 0ecause no ot+er o**ice +as t+e aut+ority to do so3 1 5 " ?n t+e occasion t+at t+is . it +as acted upon t+e .ourt under our syste.peac+.0ers t+ereo* *ro.ourt to exercise 1udicial restraint on t+e /round t+at t+e Senate. as al6ays.oral *i0er stron/ enou/+ to resist t+e te.onstitution3 Judicial Restraint Senator Pi. interest or po6er and to 0e equipped 6it+ a .ent 0ecause all t+e Me.ourt +eld$ 8+ere.ent court.e.entel ur/es t+is .oral co. even i* it is vexatious.ourt3 'd1udication . B0y L+isM appoint.ent cannot in+i0it itsel* and .atter Bnot 6it+ o**iciousness 0ut in t+e disc+ar/e o* an unavoida0le duty and.ent3B 1 5 H <ut t+is ar/u. *enate +lectoral Tribunal 3 1 J 1 )n t+at case. 6ould leave t+e Tri0unal no alternative 0ut to a0andon a duty t+at no ot+er court or 0ody can per*or. a situation is created 6+ic+ precludes t+e su0stitution o* any Senator sittin/ in t+e Tri0unal 0y any o* +is ot+er collea/ues in t+e Senate 6it+out invitin/ t+e sa.ourt is duty20ound to ta@e co/ni=ance o* t+e instant petitions3 1 5 % )n t+e au/ust 6ords o* amicus curiae #at+er <ernas. to 0e una*raid to displease any person.ourt is not le/ally disquali*ied3 >or can 1urisdiction 0e renounced as t+ere is no ot+er tri0unal to 6+ic+ t+e controversy .3 T+e exercise o* 1udicial restraint over 1usticia0le issues is not an option 0e*ore t+is .0ers o* t+e 9ouse o* Representatives are su01ect to t+e. t+ey expect L+i. t+e proposed .ay not 0e declined. t+is . as +ere.plaint is 0arred under Section J(H) o* 'rticle A) o* t+e .onstitution3 More t+an 0ein/ clot+ed 6it+ aut+ority t+us. to decide t+e .0ers 6+ose disquali*ication 6as not sou/+t.ay not 0e renounced3 To renounce it.ourt 6ould 0e s+ir@in/ *ro.atter3 T+is .ourt reiterates t+at t+e po6er o* 1udicial revie6 includes t+e po6er o* revie6 over 1usticia0le issues in i. 'rticle A) o* t+e . o* /overn. as a result t+ereo*.e o01ections to t+e su0stituteDs co.ent co. 6ere interested parties to said case as respondents t+erein3 T+is 6ould +ave reduced t+e Tri0unalDs .ent is very .0ers+ip to only its t+ree .o* Section J.ay 0e re*erred3B 1 5 ! ?t+er6ise.e.M to 0e *earless in L+isM pursuit to render 1ustice.ptations lur@in/ in L+isM o**ice3B 1 J I T+e duty to exercise t+e po6er o* ad1udication re/ardless o* interest +ad already 0een settled in t+e case o* .ourt to not assu. t+e +earin/ and resolution o* SET .oral co. i* sanctioned and ordered. 6it+ detac+.

lba. and as a .e .ourt.ent on any case 0e*ore said Tri0unal3 Every 1ember o* t+e Tri0unal .ustices o* t+is . 6ould inevita0ly +ave to sit in 1ud/. 1 J H as *ollo6s$ 13 T+e .ent t+ereon3 )ndeed.ass disquali*ication.0ers o* t+e .isunderstood as sayin/ t+at no Senator2Me.0er o* t+e Senate Electoral Tri0unal .ust si.ental la63 )t is aptly noted in t+e *irst o* t+e questioned Resolutions t+at t+e *ra. t+rou/+ .shwander v. is not+in/ s+ort o* pro tanto deprivin/ t+e .erely sayin/ is t+at in t+e li/+t o* t+e . t+e Senate Electoral Tri0unal cannot le/ally *unction as suc+.ourt 6+en it exercises its po6er o* 1udicial revie63 )n Aemetria v.it cannot la6*ully disc+ar/e i* s+orn o* t+e participation o* its entire . sin/ly and collectively3 Let us not 0e .itations o* t+e po6er o* 1udicial revie6.ply place t+eir trust and +opes o* vindication in t+e *airness and sense o* 1ustice o* t+e Me. to disquali*y any o* t+e .ay. 0ut *or t+e last ti. as +is conscience dictates. declinin/ 0ecause to decide suc+ questions Dis le/iti.ourt .onstitution to exercise t+e 1urisdiction o* +is court.onstitution.ers o* t+e .ent3 8+at 6e are . .ourt itsel* o* its 1urisdiction as esta0lis+ed 0y t+e *unda. suc+ possi0ility . sittin/ in 1ud/.0ers+ip o* Senators3 To our . 1 J & t+is .ustice <randeis in . TG.ind. enunciated 0y ES Supre. 1 J 5 it 6as +eld t+at$ Moreover. t+ere are speci*ic sa*e/uards already laid do6n 0y t+e .0ers+ip o* .ustice Marcelo #ernan cited t+e Bseven pillarsB o* li.ourt 6ill not pass upon t+e constitutionality o* le/islation in a *riendly.ustices2Me.0ers+ip o* Senators and t+at no a.e.ourt.ay in+i0it or disquali*y +i.ent o* its Rules can con*er on t+e t+ree .ore.ance o* 6+ic+ is in t+e +i/+est pu0lic interest as evidenced 0y its 0ein/ expressly i. disc+ar/in/ a duty 6+ic+ it alone +as t+e po6er to per*or.i/+t sur*ace a/ain in t+e 6a@e o* t+e 1 5 elections 6+en once .ental la63 Cisquali*ication o* a 1ud/e is a deprivation o* +is 1udicial po6er3 'nd i* t+at 1ud/e is t+e one desi/nated 0y t+e .ode *or settlin/ suc+ unusual situations or *or t+e su0stitution o* Senators desi/nated to t+e Tri0unal 6+ose disquali*ication .e. a0sent its entire .0ers o* t+e Tri0unal3 .e or ..ourt.e.ustices and Senators.0ers alone t+e po6er o* valid ad1udication o* a senatorial election contest3 More recently in t+e case o* +strada v. i* sanctioned and ordered.ustices3 1 J J ()talics in t+e ori/inal) <esides. six o* 6+o.partial 1ud/. particularly a .ay 0e sou/+t3 Liti/ants in suc+ situations .a1ority o* t+e.e. all 5& seats in t+e Senate 6ill 0e at sta@e3 :et t+e .onstitution could not +ave 0een una6are o* t+e possi0ility o* an election contest t+at 6ould involve all SenatorsS elect. 6ould leave t+e . t+is is t+e overridin/ consideration S t+at t+e Tri0unal 0e not prevented *ro. as is t+e case 6it+ t+e . t+e per*or.posed 0y no less t+an t+e *unda.onstitution provides no sc+e. participatin/ in t+e resolution o* a case 6+ere +e sincerely *eels t+at +is personal interests or 0iases 6ould stand in t+e 6ay o* an o01ective and i.end.ourt no alternative 0ut to a0andon a duty 6+ic+ it cannot la6*ully disc+ar/e i* s+orn o* t+e participation o* its entire .sel* *ro. t+e deprivation o* +is or t+eir 1udicial po6er is equivalent to t+e deprivation o* t+e 1udicial po6er o* t+e court itsel*3 )t a**ects t+e very +eart o* 1udicial independence3 T+e proposed .. non2adversary proceedin/. re*rain *ro. Aesierto .ate only in t+e last resort.e.

itation o* 1udicial revie6.issal o* a suit 0rou/+t 0y a citi=en 6+o sou/+t to +ave t+e >ineteent+ '.ourt to decide questions o* a constitutional nature unless a0solutely necessary to a decision o* t+e case3D J3 T+e .ulate a rule o* constitutional la6 0roader t+an is required 0y t+e precise *acts to 6+ic+ it is to 0e applied3D &3 T+e .on/ t+e .ourt.ost varied application3 T+us. a party 0eaten in t+e le/islature could trans*er to t+e courts an inquiry as to t+e constitutionality o* t+e le/islative act3D 53 T+e .ay not 0e sustained on so. 1ellon. t+e .onstitution are *requently dis.ent can 0e sustained on an independent state /round3 H3 T+e .ent declared unconstitutional3 )n 1assachusetts v.o.plaint o* one 6+o *ails to s+o6 t+at +e is in1ured 0y its operation3 '. earnest and vital controversy 0et6een individuals3 )t never 6as t+e t+ou/+t t+at.ed t+e dis.ourt 6ill *irst ascertain 6+et+er a construction o* t+e statute is *airly possi0le 0y 6+ic+ t+e question . and even i* a serious dou0t o* constitutionality is raised. t+e ot+er a question o* statutory construction or /eneral la6. one involvin/ a constitutional question. *ro.ari=ed in .ance o* +is o**icial duty 6ill not 0e entertained 3 3 3 )n 3airchild v.e ot+er /round &3 t+at t+ere 0e actual in1ury sustained 0y t+e party 0y reason o* t+e operation o* t+e statute H3 t+at t+e parties are not in estoppel . t+e c+allen/e 0y a pu0lic o**icial interested only in t+e per*or. TG. can 0e encapsulated into t+e *ollo6in/ cate/ories$ 13 t+at t+ere 0e a0solute necessity o* decidin/ a case 53 t+at rules o* constitutional la6 s+all 0e *or. di**erent decisions o* t+e Enited States Supre. 0y .eans o* a *riendly suit.necessity in t+e deter.shwander v.sel* o* its 0ene*its3 %3 8+en t+e validity o* an act o* t+e .ay 0e disposed o*3 T+is rule +as *ound . t+e .ent .e ot+er /round upon 6+ic+ t+e case .ade 0y t+e .on/ress is dra6n in question.ourt a**ir. su.ination o* real.on6ealt+ on 0e+al* o* all its citi=ens3 !3 T+e . t+e +i/+est court o* a state c+allen/in/ its decision o* a question under t+e #ederal .ourt 6ill not pass upon t+e constitutionality o* a statute at t+e instance o* one 6+o +as availed +i.ourt 6ill not D*or.ulated only as required 0y t+e *acts o* t+e case J3 t+at 1ud/.ay 0e avoided (citations o.ore stri@in/ t+an t+e denial o* t+e ri/+t o* c+allen/e to one 6+o lac@s a personal or property ri/+t3 T+us.ourt 6ill not pass upon t+e validity o* a statute upon co. i* a case can 0e decided on eit+er o* t6o /rounds. it is a cardinal principle t+at t+is . none is .end.any applications o* t+is rule. t+e c+allen/e o* t+e *ederal Maternity 'ct 6as not entertained alt+ou/+ ..issed 0ecause t+e 1ud/. i* t+ere is also present so.ourt 6ill not Danticipate a question o* constitutional la6 in advance o* t+e necessity o* decidin/ it3D 3 3 3 D)t is not t+e +a0it o* t+e .e . 8ughes..ourt 6ill not pass upon a constitutional question alt+ou/+ properly presented 0y t+e record.itted)3 T+e *ore/oin/ BpillarsB o* li.ourt 6ill decide only t+e latter3 'ppeals *ro.

or at least quasi2validation. *ailure to act explicitly.anner and ris@ social up+eaval.0arrassin/ con*licts 0et6een t+e .propriety or con*licts o* interest in 1udicial +earin/s.ourt to en*orce its Resolution a/ainst . +xecutive *ecretary 1 J 6+ere t+is .s. direct in1ury as a result o* its en*orce. itsel* constitutes a decision *or t+e respondent and validation.ent.i/+t also lead to e.peac+.ove an i.on/ress 6ould result in t+e di. *ollo6s3B 1 J " T+us.ustice #eliciano 6arned a/ainst t+e dan/ers 6+en t+is .ourt +as passed upon t+e constitutionality o* t+e act involved. to say t+e least3 's correctly stated 0y t+e Solicitor General.ourt to re*rain *ro.on/ress to re.peac+.ent 6ould 0e+ave in a la6less .Mudiciary3B T+ey stress t+e need to avoid t+e appearance o* i. parallel /uidelines +ave 0een adopted 0y t+is . raise anot+er ar/u.e .ay start.e3 Suc+ an ar/u.anner and not do t+eir duty under t+e la6 to up+old t+e . t+e *i/+t over a controversial le/islative or executive act is not re/arded as settled until t+e Supre.ourt 6as split and Bin t+e end t+ere 6ere not enou/+ votes eit+er to /rant t+e petitions. and t+e scenario t+at it 6ould 0e con*usin/ and +u.ent +as not only 1uridical e**ects 0ut also political consequences3 T+ose political consequences .ent 0y respondents and intervenor also presu. is specious.0er o* votes3 #requently.ust 0e raised at t+e earliest possi0le opportunity &3 t+e issue o* constitutionality .ourt re*uses to act3 x x x #requently.B 1 & I t+e pre2existin/ constitutional order 6as disrupted 6+ic+ paved t+e 6ay *or t+e esta0lis+.ent o* t+e .!3 t+at t+e . up+oldin/ t+e . or 6ill sustain.ent 0y alle/in/ t+at *ailure o* t+is .ust 0e t+e very lis mota o* t+e case3 1 J ! Respondents Spea@er de (enecia. al.onstitution in all i. i* not precipitate.ent 6ill 0e+ave in a precipitate .ourt up+olds t+e presu.peac+a0le o**icial3 1 J % )ntervenor Soriano ec+oes t+is ar/u.ourt *ails to /rant t+e petitionerDs prayer to nulli*y an act *or lac@ o* t+e necessary nu. c+aos and anarc+y 0y encoura/in/ disrespect *or t+e *unda. in 4avellana v.ent J3 t+e question o* constitutionality .onstitution and o0ey t+e la6s o* t+e land3 :et t+ere is no reason to 0elieve t+at any o* t+e 0ranc+es o* /overn. or to sustain respondentDs clai. one 6ay or t+e ot+er.on/ress and t+e L. a crisis3 .ust +ave a personal and su0stantial interest in t+e case suc+ t+at +e +as sustained. t+e possi0ility o* t+e occurrence o* a constitutional crisis is not a reason *or t+is . violence.ustices cannot a0andon t+eir constitutional duties 1ust 0ecause t+eir action . t+e 1ud/.ust +ave Bstandin/B to c+allen/eG +e .artial la6 re/i.ent *or 1udicial restraint t+e possi0ility t+at B1udicial revie6 o* i.inution o* its 1udicial aut+ority and erode pu0lic con*idence and *ait+ in t+e 1udiciary3 Suc+ an ar/u.es t+at t+e coordinate 0ranc+es o* t+e /overn.ental la6 o* t+e land3 . et.anded t+e vote o* .ourt in t+e exercise o* 1udicial revie6$ 13 actual case or controversy callin/ *or t+e exercise o* 1udicial po6er 53 t+e person c+allen/in/ t+e act .e and a0road i* t+e 1udiciary counter.ent cases3 .ay *ollo6 even 6+ere t+e .ption o* constitutionality3 's stated previously.ents . +o6ever.iliatin/ and ris@ serious political insta0ility at +o.

in order3 T+at t+e sponsor o* t+e provision o* Section J(H) o* t+e . 5IIJ in t+is 6ise$ . 6+o elucidated durin/ t+e oral ar/u.ents o* t+e instant petitions on >ove. political parties.o.eanin/less3 ' /overn.ence.B 6+ic+ 1i0es 6it+ . it .ent proceedin/s a/ainst t+e sa.plis+ed in J 6ays.e o**icials could not +ave 0een violated as t+e i. t+en la6 0eco. contendin/ t+at t+e ter.ustice Cavide and seven 'ssociate . Lpu0lic o**icersM are /uided 0y t+e Rule o* La6. . 6+ic+ +e (.ustice Re/aladoDs position. 'rticle A) o* t+e . t+is .peac+.0er o* t+e 9ouse o* RepresentativesG or (5) 0y any citi=en upon a resolution o* endorse.ent 0y any . as a collective 0ody. 6+o eventually 0eca.en excludes t+e exercise o* 0road discretionary po6ers 0y t+ose actin/ under its aut+ority3 Ender t+is syste. 5IIJ at 6+ic+ +e added t+at t+e act o* Binitiatin/B included t+e act o* ta@in/ initial action on t+e co. unrestricted 0eyond 0oundaries 6it+in 6+ic+ t+ey are required 0y la6 to exercise t+e duties o* t+eir o**ice. +as yet to act on it3 T+e resolution o* t+is issue t+us +in/es on t+e interpretation o* t+e ter.ents 0y /overn. to wit $ 1 & 1 ?0edience to t+e rule o* la6 *or. to 6it$ (1) 0y a veri*ied co.ent 0y any .onstitutional .Su0stitutin/ t+e 6ord pu0lic o**icers *or 1ud/es.ent Rules do not violate Section J (H) o* 'rticle A) o* our present . or even t+e inter*erence o* t+eir o6n personal 0elie*s3 1 & 5 %onstitutionalit" of the Rules of Procedure for Impeachment Proceedings adopted #" the &'th %ongress Respondent 9ouse o* Representatives.ean Bto *ileB 0ecause *ilin/ can.s t+e 0edroc@ o* our syste.ent o* la6s.onstitution provides.ent co. 6+ic+ +as t+e exclusive po6er to initiate all cases o* i.plaint.o. and ou/+t Bto protect and en*orce it 6it+out *ear or *avor.B resist encroac+. not o* .ed durin/ t+e oral ar/u.onstitution.entG t+at initiate could not possi0ly .0erG or (J) 0y at least 1KJ o* all t+e .o. Generacion .e an 'ssociate .ourt is 6ell /uided 0y t+e doctrine in )eople v. only 0e acco.peac+.en to .peac+.onstitution.peac+.ean Bto *ileGB t+at Section J (1) is clear in t+at it is t+e 9ouse o* Representatives.eanin/ o* BinitiateB as Bto *ile.issioner Re/alado) as amicus curiae a**ir.plaint a/ainst . o* 1ustice3 )* Lpu0lic o**icersM. actin/ as t+e collective 0ody . BinitiateB does not . a/reed on t+e .. to co. t+ere*ore..ustices +ad not 0een initiated as t+e 9ouse o* Representatives.eans Bto per*or.e. under t+e /uise o* reli/ious or political 0elie*s 6ere allo6ed to roa.onstitutional . ar/ues t+at Sections 1! and 1% o* Rule ( o* t+e 9ouse ).ean.0er H.peac+.plaint *or i. as dictionaries do.onstitution .ustice o* t+is . or *acilitate t+e *irst action .ission proceedin/s.issioner Maa.ents.e.ents on t+e instant petitions +eld on >ove.+ie* ... as Section J (5).B as pro**ered and explained 0y .o. t+rou/+ Spea@er Ce (enecia.eans to *ile t+e co.ourt.0er H.e. or set /oin/3 's 8e0sterDs T+ird >e6 )nternational Cictionary o* t+e En/lis+ Lan/ua/e concisely puts it. and t+at o* #at+er <ernas. dissipates any dou0t t+at indeed t+e 6ord BinitiateB as it t6ice appears in 'rticle A) (J) and (H) o* t+e ..0ers o* t+e 9ouse3 Respondent 9ouse o* Representatives concludes t+at t+e one year 0ar pro+i0itin/ t+e initiation o* i.es . to 0e/in.0on/ durin/ t+e .. Binitiate3B Resort to statutory construction is.plaint and ta@e initial action on it3 B)nitiateB o* course is understood 0y ordinary .issioner #loren= Re/alado.

) understand t+ere +ave 0een .. t+ese 6ould need so.e The /ules of the 8ouse of /epresentatives o* t+e E3S3 .endation.ers o* t+e 1 "% .y experience as a .y t+in@in/ t+at 6e do not really initiate t+e *ilin/ o* t+e 'rticles o* ). re/ardin/ t+e procedure and t+e su0stantive provisions on i.itted 0y .co-"a*-*-D "h% Ar"*c'%s o@ I+B%ach+%-" *s "h% o-% aBBrov%( .o.o.plaint and its re*erral to t+e ... ) a.itted to t+e . it s+ould 0e noted t+at t+e 9ouse Rule relied upon 0y Representatives .. and t+e 'rticles o* ). ) t+in@.o.peac+. a .? "h% S%-a"%. t+e resolution. 6+ic+ .itted .ent.ent proceedin/sB are initiated 0ut rat+er are Bdee.onstitution is loo@in/ into t+e intent o* t+e la63 #ortunately.o.0ansa3 For "h% *-@or+a"*o.ac"*o.o. So. xxx MR3 M''M<?>G3 Mr3 Presidin/ ?**icer..0ers o* t+is 0ody3 T+is is 0orne out o* .o@ "h% Co++*""%% "h% r%so'$"*o.ent or 6+en t+e 9ouse reverses a contrary vote o* t+e .ent proceedin/ is not a sin/le act3 )t is a co. ) 6ould 1ust li@e to indicate t+at ) su0.o.y proposal.o.on/ress3 T+e Senate Rules are 6it+ .iddle and an end3 T+e end is t+e trans. 0ut t+e .onstitution can 0e pried *ro.peac+.peac+.ples in t+e case o* t+e i.an Ri/+ts and Good Govern.ent su0.o(? Eh*ch *-*"*a"%s *".peac+. 0ut ) 6ill 1ust .ittal o* t+e articles o* i. an i.peac+.ent to t+e Senate3 T+e . it appears t+at t+e initiation starts on t+e *loor3 )* 6e only +ave ti..ent on t+e *loor3 Th% Broc%($r% as I hav% Bo*-"%( o$" %ar'*%r Eas "ha" "h% *-*"*a"*o.itted t+e reco.ittee on Style could +elp in rearran/in/ t+ese 6ords 0ecause 6e +ave to 0e very tec+nical a0out t+is3 ) +ave 0een 0rin/in/ 6it+ .o. copies o* 6+ic+ +ave 0een *urnis+ed t+e Me.ent3 T+e 0e/innin/ or t+e initiation is t+e *ilin/ o* t+e co.ent proceedin/s.p+asis and underscorin/ supplied) 's stated earlier.<rie*ly t+en.o(?.? "h% .ittee on t+e ..ent 6+ic+ too@ c+ar/e o* t+e last i.e3 T+e proceedin/s on t+e case o* Ric+ard >ixon are 6it+ .peac+. its records$ MR3 M''M<?>G3 8it+ re*erence to Section J. on t+at score. 's t+e p+raseolo/y no6 runs.peac+."h% @'oor *s "ha" "h% co++*""%% r%so'$"*o.e *or .ustice3 #inally. 9u. not . ) could cite exa.iddle consists o* t+ose deli0erative .ittee3 >ote t+at t+e Rule does not say Bi.cov%rs s%v%ra' s"%Bs *.ittee action3 9o6ever.any proposals and.ent is B (%%+%( *-*"*a"%( B 6+en t+e .o1uan/co and #uente0ella says t+at i.peac+.e.ent to t+e 0ody..ovin/ *or a reconsideration o* t+e approval o* t+e a.e3 ) +ave su0.peac+.e a*ter actual initiation3 (E.peac+.a@e o* record ..pt to postpone it to a ti.ay 0e corrected 0y t+e .e.e ti.peac+."h% r%Bor" "ra-s+*""a' r%@%rra' "o "h% S%-a"% "r*a' a-( G$(D+%-" .ittee on Style.ustice..ustice .lexus o* acts consistin/ o* a 0e/innin/..ent resolution *iled 0e*ore t+e #irst <atasan/ Pa.s"ar"s E*"h "h% @*'*-D o@ "h% co+B'a*-". A-( Eha" *s ac"$a''? (o-% o.o.ittee on . and it 6as t+e 0ody 6+o approved t+e resolution3 I" *s -o" "h% .eans o* interpretin/ t+e .end.o@ "h% SB%aF%r co++*""%% ac"*oca'%-(ar*-D o@ r%Bor" vo"*-D o. 0ut 0y le/al *iction t+ere is an atte.ittee a resolution on i."h% *+B%ach+%-" Broc%%(*-Ds s"ar"*-D E*"h *-*"*a"*o.ent proceedin/s o* President Ric+ard >ixon 6+erein t+e .o.peac+. one o* t+e . t+e intent o* t+e *ra. pro0a0ly t+e .udiciary su0.ulation o* t+e articles o* i. I" o-'? aBBrov%s or (*saBBrov%s "h% r%so'$"*o-.ittee on .0er o* t+e .o.ittee votes in *avor o* i.ed initiated3B T+e lan/ua/e is reco/nition t+at initiation +appened earlier.ents leadin/ to t+e *or.issioner Re/alado.

plaint3 )n +is amicus curiae 0rie*. procedure o* t+e 9ouse o* Representatives o* t+e Enited States . so t+at t+e 6+ole section 6ill no6 read$ B' vote o* at least one2t+ird o* all t+e Me..peac+.ent proceedin/s Eh*ch Eas a'r%a(? *-*"*a"%( .atter o* *act.peac+.ent3 ) a.a/e to any o* t+is provision.0ers o* t+e 9ouse s+all 0e necessary eit+er to a**ir.entB are .. t+at on pa/e 5.ourt. Mada.0er o* t+e 1 "! .B appearin/ in t+e constitutional provision on i. Mada.peac+. proposin/.peac+. t+at t+e 6ord BinitiateB as used in 'rticle A).0on/ explained t+at Bt+e o0vious reason in deletin/ t+e p+rase B "o *-*"*a"% *+B%ach+%-" Broc%%(*-Ds B as contained in t+e text o* t+e provision o* Section J (J) 6as "o s%""'% a-( +aF% *" $-(%rs"oo( o-c% a-( @or a'' "ha" "h% *-*"*a"*o.micus curiae .issioner Maa.p+asis and udnerscorin/ supplied) T+is a.peac+.? "h% @*'*-D o@ a v%r*@*%( co+B'a*-" $-(%r S%c"*o.pliant o* one2t+ird o* all t+e Me.as *ar as t+e 9ouse o* Representatives o* t+e Enited States is concerned.end.e vie6 as is #at+er <ernas.3B 1 & H .peac+. E% (%'%"% "h% Eor(s Eh*ch r%a(# K"o *-*"*a"% *+B%ach+%-" Broc%%(*-DsK and t+e co.ittee or to override its contrary resolution3 T+e vote o* eac+ Me.ent 6ill not vary t+e su0stance in any 6ay3 )t is only in @eepin/ 6it+ t+e uni*or.o. 0ot+ addin/.ittee +as already decided3 >evert+eless.peac+.ers intended BinitiationB to start 6it+ t+e *ilin/ o* t+e co...y a. President. and t+en capitali=e t+e letter BiB in Bi.ovin/3 Curin/ t+e oral ar/u.ents 0e*ore t+is .3 BaraDraBh (2! Ar"*c'% 7I o@ "h% Co-s"*"$"*o. President3 1 & J ()talics in t+e ori/inalG e. #at+er <ernas clari*ied t+at t+e 6ord Binitiate. t+e 6ords B'rticles o* ).ove *or a reconsideration o* t+e approval o* Section J (J)3 My reconsideration 6ill not at all a**ect t+e su0stance.. *ro.o.o..ent (o%s -o" *-*"*a"% t+e i.peac+... t+at t+e *ilin/ .entioned on line 5H in t+e case o* t+e direct *ilin/ o* a veri*ied co.0on/ 6as clari*ied and accepted 0y t+e .issioner Re/alado is o* t+e sa.o.issioner Maa.ent3 's a .peac+ al6ays carries 6it+ it t+e 'rticles o* ).e.onstitutional .) and insert on line 1 a*ter t+e 6ord BresolutionB t+e p+rase 8)T9 T9E 'RT).ust 0e acco. t+at .ittee on t+e 'ccounta0ility o* Pu0lic ?**icers3 1 & & )t is t+us clear t+at t+e *ra.ulation o* t+e Rules o* t+e 9ouse o* Representatives o* t+e Enited States re/ardin/ i.plaint .o@ *+B%ach+%-" Broc%%(*-Ds s"ar"s E*"h "h% @*'*-D o@ "h% co+B'a*-" and t+e vote o* one2t+ird o* t+e 9ouse in a resolution o* i. President.0er s+all 0e recorded3B I a'r%a(? +%-"*o-%( %ar'*%r ?%s"%r(a? "ha" "h% *-*"*a"*o.0ers o* t+e 9ouse3 ) 6ill .end.panied 0y an action to set t+e co.on/ress3 T+an@ you. Section J(H) .peac+. Section J (J).ent3 . . 0ut it is only in @eepin/ 6it+ t+e exact *or.o.ent proposed 0y .ent ?# t+e .eans to *ile.ention a/ain.LES o* ).o. a resolution 8)T9 T9E 'RT). +o6ever.onstitutional . 6it+out doin/ da. lines 1% to 1". Mada.ission. 6+o 6as also a .a (..entB and replace t+e 6ord B0yB 6it+ ?#. viz $ Section J (1) T+e 9ouse o* Representatives s+all +ave t+e exclusive po6er to initiate all cases o* i.LES.ent. r%a''? s"ar"s @ro+ "h% @*'*-D o@ "h% v%r*@*%( co+B'a*-" and every resolution to i. ) 1ust 6ant to indicate t+is on record3 xxx MR3 M''M<?>G3 ) 6ould 1ust li@e to .o.

e co.0er o* t+e 9ouse o* t+e RepresentativesG (5) t+ere is t+e processin/ o* t+is co.peac+ed3 T+at is. 0y a vote o* one2 t+ird o* all its ..plaint or up+old itG (J) 6+et+er t+e resolution o* t+e .xxx (H) >o i.ittee or overrides a contrary resolution 0y a vote o* one2t+ird o* all t+e .ent proceedin/s s+all 0e initiated a/ainst t+e sa.plaint eit+er 0y a Me. 6+ic+ co.ent court3 #at+er <ernas *urt+er explains$ T+e Bi.peac+.o.0ers o* t+e 9ouse s+all 0e necessaryX to initiate impeachment proceedings .ent cas% 3B )t is at t+is point t+at an i.ent are prepared and trans.ent caseB and Bi.et+in/ prior to t+at +as already 0een done3 T+e action o* t+e 9ouse is already a *urt+er step in t+e proceedin/.ust 0e *or6arded to t+e 9ouse *or *urt+er processin/G and (&) t+ere is t+e processin/ o* t+e sa. 0e*ore a decision is . t+e resolution .o.plaint is trans. t+e co.ay eit+er re1ect t+e co.peac+.es *ro.eanin/3 T+us 6+en a proposal reac+ed t+e *loor proposin/ t+at B' vote o* at least one2t+ird o* all t+e Me.peac+. Bproceedin/s3B 'n i.eans to 0e/in3 ?n t+e ot+er +and.plaint 0y t+e 9ouse o* Representatives 6+ic+ eit+er a**ir.ent proceedin/B initiated 6+en t+e 9ouse deli0erates on t+e resolution passed on to it 0y t+e . t+e ter.peac+a0le pu0lic o**icial is success*ully i.ent BcaseB 0e*ore t+e Senate as i.ent proceedin/3B #at+er <ernas explains t+at in t+ese t6o provisions. t+e Latin 6ord initium .ent proceedin/3B #ollo6in/ t+e principle o* reddendo singuala sinuilis .o..peac+.plaint does3 1 & ! T+us t+e line 6as deleted and is not *ound in t+e present . a Bproceedin/B .peac+.ustice *or action 3 T+is is t+e initiatin/ step 6+ic+ tri//ers t+e series o* steps t+at *ollo63 T+e *ra.onstitution3 .on ver0 is Bto initiate3B T+e o01ect in t+e *irst sentence is Bi.B t+is 6as .peac+..ittee.ely t+e trial3 >eit+er is t+e Bi.itted to t+e Senate *or trial 0ecause t+at is t+e end o* t+e 9ouse proceedin/ and t+e 0e/innin/ o* anot+er proceedin/.ent3 >o ot+er 0ody can do it3 9o6ever.et 0y a proposal to delete t+e line on t+e /round t+at t+e vote o* t+e 9ouse does not initiate i.s a *avora0le resolution o* t+e .. and an end3 )t ta@es place not in t+e Senate 0ut in t+e 9ouse and consists o* several steps$ (1) t+ere is t+e *ilin/ o* a veri*ied co.peac+. a .peac+. BcasesB . .. 6+en a veri*ied co. can 0rin/ a case to t+e Senate3 )t is in t+at sense t+at t+e 9ouse +as Bexclusive po6erB to initiate all cases o* i.ittee re1ects or up+olds t+e co.peac+. na.0ers3 )* at least one t+ird o* all t+e Me.p+asis supplied) re*ers to t6o o01ects.ust 0e *ollo6ed to arrive at a conclusion3 ' proceedin/ .peac+.ust 0e decided 0y t+e Senate3 '0ove2quoted *irst provision provides t+at t+e 9ouse.ust 0e Binitiated3B To initiate.ade to initiate a case in t+e Senate.e o**icial .plaint. 0ecause so.e.ent proceedin/ 0ut rat+er t+e *ilin/ o* a co. t+e proceedin/ is initiated or 0e/ins.ust 0e distin/uis+ed *ro. (E.o.o.plaint is *iled and re*erred to t+e . +e or s+e is success*ully c+ar/ed 6it+ an i.peac+.peac+.ittee on .ittee 6+ic+ .plaint 0y t+e proper .itted to t+e Senate3 )t is at t+is point t+at t+e 9ouse Binitiates an i.iddle. 'rticles o* )..0er o* t+e 9ouse o* Representatives or 0y a private citi=en endorsed 0y a Me.0ers up+olds t+e co.ent case3B T+e o01ect in t+e second sentence is Bi. t+e ter.onstitution also understood initiation in its ordinary .peac+. proceedin/ is a pro/ressive noun3 )t +as a 0e/innin/.0ers.ent proceedin/B is not initiated 6+en t+e co.ore t+an once 6it+in a period o* one year.peac+.e. Bi.ent case is t+e le/al controversy t+at .plaint. not its initiation or 0e/innin/3 Rat+er.ers o* t+e .

velino 1 & % 6+erein t+is .otional roles t+at intelli/ent spectators . t+e properly recorded utterances o* de0ates and proceedin/s3B #urt+er citin/ said case.peac+.peac+. t+e records o* t+e .peac+.peac+.ustice 9u/o Gutierre= posits t+at t+is .peac+. or (5) once t+e 9ouse itsel* a**ir.peac+.onstitution .onstitutional . t+ey rati*y 6ords as t+ey understand it and not as sop+isticated la6yers con*use it3 To t+e ar/u.e.on understandin/ o* t+e .peac+.eanin/ 0ecause o* t+e latterDs 0alanced perspectives and disinterestedness3 1 & " ..ed initiated (1) i* t+ere is a *indin/ 0y t+e 9ouse .peac+.onstitutional . 0ot+ ordinary and sop+isticated.e.e o**icial .eanin/ o* Bto initiateB 6+ic+ ..onvention) on t+e .ent co.peac+.plaint .ission.peac+. BinitiateB a . as t+ey understand itG and t+at ordinary people read ordinary .ent o* t+e i.ent proceedin/s 0ecause Section J (1) says BT+e 9ouse o* Representatives s+all +ave t+e exclusive po6er to initiate all cases o* i.ore a0out t+e real . to t+e amicus curiae 0rie*s o* t6o *or.eans to 0e/in3 9e re.ay 0e accepted and re*erred to t+e .ent proceedin/ s+all 0e initiated a/ainst t+e sa.peac+.ittee on .e o**icial 6it+in a one year period3 Ender Sections 1! and 1% o* Rule ( o* t+e 9ouse ).poraneous construction as an aid in t+e interpretation o* Sec3J (H) o* 'rticle A).ent co.ents +ave no application in t+e present petitions3 T+ere are at present only .ustice *or action3 <y +is explanation. citin/ Gera v. .ent co.inds t+at t+e .o.onvention to actors 6+o are so a0sor0ed in t+eir e.ittee on .0ers o* t+e 9ouse o* Representatives 6it+ t+e Secretary General o* t+e 9ouse. B>o i.es clear3 ?nce an i.ustices 6+o 6ere dele/ates to t+e . Bto initiateB re*ers to t+e *ilin/ o* t+e i.on/ressD ta@in/ initial action o* said co.ittee on .ent Rules.ent 0e*ore t+e Secretary2General o* t+e 9ouse o* Representatives o* a veri*ied co.plaint or a resolution o* i.eanin/ *ro.ourt stated t+at Bt+eir personal opinions (re*errin/ to . 0y t+e *ilin/ 0y at least one2t+ird o* t+e .plaint to t+e 9ouse .plaint andKor resolution is su**icient in su0stance.isreadin/ o* said provision and is contrary to t+e principle o* reddendo singula singulis 0y equatin/ Bi.onstitutional .ore t+an once 6it+in a period o* one year.ustice t+at t+e veri*ied co.ustice t+at t+e veri*ied co. +e states t+at t+is .e.plaint coupled 6it+ . it is 6it+out a dou0t t+at t+e ter.ent. t+is interpretation is *ounded on t+e co.eanin/.o.ustice Gutierre=Ds state.B it .ourtDs our deli0erations stand on a di**erent *ootin/ *ro..s or overturns t+e *indin/ o* t+e .o.issioners. anot+er i.atter at issue expressed durin/ t+is . .ent 0y at least 1KJ o* t+e .B T+is is a .eanin/ di**erent .ent casesB 6it+ Bi.ent co.er .ay not 0e *iled a/ainst t+e sa.eanin/ o* Section J (H) o* 'rticle A) 0eco.plaint3 9avin/ concluded t+at t+e initiation ta@es place 0y t+e act o* *ilin/ and re*erral or endorse.o.er .ourt could not use conte.eanin/ into ordinary 6ords and not a0struse .0ers o* t+e . t+e .ent t+at only t+e 9ouse o* Representatives as a 0ody can initiate i.o.0ers o* t+e 9ouse3 T+ese rules clearly contravene Section J (H) o* 'rticle A) since t+e rules /ive t+e ter.peac+.eans t+at no second veri*ied co.#at+er <ernas concludes t+at 6+en Section J (H) says.plaint . *ilin/ and re*erral3 )n +is a. i.ent proceedin/3B #ro.o.ent proceedin/s are dee.icus curiae 0rie*..ourt li@ened t+e *or.plaint +as 0een initiated.plaint andKor resolution is not su**icient in su0stance or (J) 0y t+e *ilin/ or endorse.onstitution is rati*ied 0y t+e people.ittee on .ustice or...ay @no6 ..

ustice 'dol* '=cuna3 . s+all su0.ittee 6it+in t+ree session days t+erea*ter3 T+e .peac+. +o6ever.0ers.onstitution 6+ic+ is t+e *unda.eanin/ o* t+e .e. and 0y a .a@e and interpret its rules /overnin/ i.smeHa v.isplaced3 Section J (") o* 'rticle A) provides t+at BT+e .ent3 )ts ar/u.peac+.o.ourt +eld t+at it is 6it+in t+e province o* eit+er 9ouse o* . t+e sa.peac+.e o**icial .0er o* t+e 9ouse o* Representatives or 0y any citi=en upon a resolution o* endorse.ent . and re*erred to t+e proper .peac+.ited 0y t+e p+rase B to e**ectively carry out t+e purpose o* t+is section 3B 9ence.learly.onstitutional .peac+.ption t+at .ourt +as not si..peac+. t+ese rules cannot contravene t+e very purpose o* t+e .itations on its po6er to .end t+e ..ission – .on/ress to interpret its rules and t+at it 6as t+e 0est 1ud/e o* 6+at constituted Bdisorderly 0e+aviorB o* its . a *avora0le resolution 6it+ t+e 'rticles o* ).onstitution 6+ic+ said rules 6ere intended to e**ectively carry out3 Moreover.peac+.ent is li.0ers o* t+e .plaint or resolution o* i.0ers o* t+e 9ouse s+all 0e necessary to eit+er a**ir. and trial 0y t+e Senate s+all *ort+6it+ proceed3 (H) >o i.ent is *iled 0y at least one2t+ird o* all t+e Me.ittee.ent 0y any Me. 6+ic+ s+all 0e included in t+e ?rder o* <usiness 6it+in ten session days. )endatun .ent proceedin/s s+all 0e initiated a/ainst t+e sa. t+en it 6ould 0y necessary i. Section J o* 'rticle A) clearly provides *or ot+er speci*ic li.ental la63 )* as alle/ed .plaint *or i.ul/ate its rules on i. viz $ Section J3 (1) x x x (5) ' veri*ied co.on/ress +as a0solute po6er to pro.a1ority vote o* all its Me.a@e rules.ustice) Enrique #ernando.o.ustice (later .ppointments .plication +ave t+e po6er to alter or a. is .ore t+an once 6it+in a period o* one year3 )t is 0asic t+at all rules .3 )n .e.it its report to t+e 9ouse 6it+in sixty session days *ro. it is clear and unequivocal t+at it and only it +as t+e po6er to .0er t+ereo*. *mith .ined t+e records o* t+e deli0erations and proceedin/s t+ereo*3 Respondent 9ouse o* Representatives counters t+at under Section J (") o* 'rticle A). receipt t+ereo*3 (J) ' vote o* at least one2t+ird o* all t+e Me.ent is pre.ent o* t+e . a*ter +earin/.ittee.+ie* .ourt 6+o participated in t+e 1 "! .ustice Cavide and .ustice Cavide +as not ta@en part in t+ese proceedin/s *or o0vious reasons3 Moreover.ay 0e *iled 0y any Me.a@in/ po6er. 1 H 1 declared t+at 6+ere t+e construction to 0e /iven to a rule a**ects persons ot+er .onstitutional .ul/ate its rules3 T+is assu..e s+all constitute t+e 'rticles o* ).0ers o* t+is .on/ress +ad a0solute rule .+ie* .ised on t+e assu. 1 H I .0ers3 9o6ever. its po6er to pro.ission.. or override its contrary resolution3 T+e vote o* eac+ Me.e. suc+ re*erral. spea@in/ *or t+is . in )aceta v.on/ress s+all pro.o.ent.ent to e**ectively carry out t+e purpose o* t+is section3B .peac+.o.ply relied on t+e personal opinions no6 /iven 0y .ul/ate its rules on i.t6o .ust not contravene t+e .ourt and quotin/ . 1 & t+is .ption. to/et+er 6it+ t+e correspondin/ resolution3 T+e resolution s+all 0e calendared *or consideration 0y t+e 9ouse 6it+in ten session days *ro. t+is .onstitution 6it+out need o* re*erendu.0er s+all 0e recorded3 (&) )n case t+e veri*ied co. *ecretary of the &ommission on ..o. 0ut +as exa.0ers o* t+e 9ouse.+ie* .ustice <randeis in Cnited *tates v.

-allin. t+e principle o* separation o* po6er is no lon/er an i.ental ri/+ts.and o* any .et+od are open to t+e deter.otion resort to *or deter.es o* .rroyo v.atters *or 1udicial consideration3 Iith the courts the question is only one of power.es 1udicial in nature3 )n .onstitution e. to do 0usiness3 (9ouse . or at t+e su//estion o* t+e Spea@er.onstitution.et+ods t+e Spea@er .peac+. (he %onstitution empowers each house to determine its rules of proceedings.. .p+atic as +e stressed t+at in t+e P+ilippine settin/ t+ere is even . provides. 6as even . prior to t+at day. Ae Genecia . nor 6+at .pliance 6it+ t+is rule3 Th% J$%s"*o.ore reason *or courts to inquire into t+e validity o* t+e Rules o* .0ers votin/. or *olly.ustice Reynato S3 Puno.atters t+e Spea@er or cler@ . it .inin/ t+e presence o* a quoru.e case o* .t+an ."h%r%@or% *s as "o "h% validit" of this rule and not 6+at .ay o* +is o6n . It ma" not #" its rules ignore constitutional restraints or violate fundamental rights) and there should #e a reasona#le relation #etween the mode or method of proceedings esta#lished #" the rule and the result which is sought to #e attained.ore accurate.e. and *urt+er t+at t+ere s+ould 0e a reasona0le relation 0et6een t+e .es o* t+e . .ay deter.o@ BoE%r *@ E% ass$+% G$r*s(*c"*oov%r h% cas% a" .'%. in t+e sa.ent o* t+e rule to say t+at so.? "h% B%"*"*o-%r ar% -o--G$s"*c*a. o* suc+ a rule present any .ourt. #e03 1&. t+e question 0eco. passed t+is as one o* its rules$ R$'% 75 J3 ?n t+e de..0ers o* t+e Le/islature .e ot+er 6ay 6ould 0e 0etter.oncurrin/ and Cissentin/ ?pinion. and 0e counted and announced in deter.e .ore e. or even .on/ress.e. 4oseph B &o. t+e 6isdo. spea@in/ *or t+is .e. in t+e +all o* t+e 9ouse 6+o do not vote s+all 0e noted 0y t+e cler@ and recorded in t+e 1ournal.e.itations all matters of method are open to t+e deter. t+e na. Nor (o I aDr%% "ha" E% E*'' "r*v*a'*M% "h% Br*-c*B'% o@ s%Bara"*o. and it is no i. t+at eac+ +ouse .ination o* t+e Le/islature3 )n t+e sa.pre/na0le i.et+od o* proceedin/ esta0lis+ed 0y t+e rule and t+e result 6+ic+ is sou/+t to 0e attained 3 )t is only 6it+in t+ese li. +eld t+at 6+ile t+e .e section. in +is . and reported to t+e Spea@er 6it+ t+e na.ournal. t+e ponencia uses t+e 1" 1 case o* C* v -allin (1&& ES 1) as a 6indo6 to vie6 t+e issues 0e*ore t+e . Even in t+e Enited States.ay o* t+eir o6n volition place upon t+e 1ournal3 >eit+er do t+e advanta/es or disadvanta/es. 1 H 5 quotin/ Cnited *tates v.ourt *irst de*ined t+e 0oundaries o* t+e po6er o* t+e 1udiciary to revie6 con/ressional rules3 )t +eld$ Bx x x BT+e . viz $ 4*"h ($% r%sB%c" I (o -o" aDr%% "ha" "h% *ss$%s Bos%( .0er.ay not 0y its rules i/nore constitutional restraints or violate *unda.ine t+e rules o* its proceedin/s3B )t appears t+at in pursuance o* t+is aut+ority t+e 9ouse +ad.a@e a quoru.inin/ t+e presence o* a quoru.ent a/ainst t+e interposition o* 1udicial po6er on cases involvin/ 0reac+ o* rules o* procedure 0y le/islators3 Ri/+tly.a@e rules is not .ode or .pedi.rroyo v. 1 H J . 5JI.ourt3 )t is in -allin 6+ere t+e ES Supre.ore 1ust3 )t is no o01ection to t+e validity o* a rule t+at a di**erent one +as 0een prescri0ed and in *orce *or a len/t+ o* ti.ine its rules o* proceedin/s. 1" I) T+e action ta@en 6as in direct co.ar.ination o* t+e 9ouse. <ut 6it+in t+ese li. Ae Genecia .itations t+at all .po6ers eac+ +ouse to deter.ustice (icente Mendo=a.atters o* .e3 T+e po6er to .0ers su**icient to .

$s% o@ BoE%r.? "h% +*s$s% o@ "h% Bo'*"*ca' J$%s"*o. Led 0y t+e e.s"a"% co-s"*"$"*o-.v*%E o@ o$r %AB%r*%-c% $-(%r +ar"*a' 'aE Eh%r% a.inin/ Rule A(.ustice Ro0erto . t+e .ental ri/+tG and (J) its . or e+cess of -urisdiction.ere invocation o* t+e principle o* separation o* po6ers3 1 H & xxx I.S Co-s"*"$"*o. /ightly or wrongly."h% va'*(*"? o@ co-Dr%ss*o-a' r$'%s *.a Drav% a.ore independent 1udiciary is needed to a0ort a0uses in /overn.?>.ine 6+et+er or not t+ere +as 0een a /rave a0use o* discretion a.E*'' cov%r $B a. the )resident and the legislators being elected by the people.ined 0y t+e .o. *hat it granted to this %ourt is not a mere power which it can decline to e+ercise.."h% Bar" o@ a-? .entD constitutes t+e capstone o* t+e e**orts o* t+e .artial la6 6+ic+ tau/+t us t+at a stron/er and .ission to up/rade t+e po6ers o* t+is court vis2Y2vis t+e ot+er 0ranc+es o* /overn.entality o* t+e Govern.onstitutional .'%( "o %+BoE%r co$r"s KA A A "o (%"%r+*-% Eh%"h%r or -o" "h%r% has .?M expanded and s+arpened t+e c+ec@in/ po6ers o* t+e 1udiciary vis2Y2vis t+e Executive and t+e Le/islative depart. al6ays su01ect to 0e exercised 0y t+e 9ouse..(%@%-s% Eh%.Eas intentionall" co.onstitutions3 I" Eas -o" a'so A%roA%( @ro+ "h% .1 Ar"*c'% 5III o@ o$r Co-s"*"$"*o.ourt and it 6as *ound to satis*y t+e test$ (1) t+at it did not i/nore any constitutional restraintG (5) it did not violate any *unda.oncepcion.ountin/ to lac@ or excess o* 1urisdiction on t+e part o* any 0ranc+ or instru.ent3 1 H H xxx The &onstitution cannot be any clearer.ent3 T+is provision 6as dictated 0y our experience under .$s% o@ (*scr%"*o.a+o$-"*-D "o 'acF or %Ac%ss o@ G$r*s(*c"*o.ra-ch or *-s"r$+%-"a'*"? o@ "h% Dov%r-+%-". the &onstitution has elongated the chec7ing powers of this &ourt against the other branches of government despite their more democratic character.K T+is po6er is ne6 and 6as not /ranted to our courts in t+e 1 JH and 1 %5 .inent *or. and 6it+in t+e li.et+od +ad a reasona0le relations+ip 6it+ t+e result sou/+t to 0e attained3 <y exa.*"s *-"%rBos*"*o.%%.$s*v% %A%rc*s%s o@ s"a"% BoE%r E%r% sh*%'(%( @ro+ G$(*c*a' scr$"*-? .er .ents o* /overn. For s%c"*o. Precisel" to deter this disinclination) the %onstitution imposed it as a dut" of this %ourt to stri.e down an" act of a #ranch or instrumentalit" of government or an" of its officials done with grave a#use of discretion amounting to lac."h% Philippine setting) "h%r% *s a more compelling reason @or co$r"s "o ca"%Dor*ca''? r%G%c" "h% Bo'*"*ca' J$%s"*o. a0solute and 0eyond t+e c+allen/e o* any ot+er 0ody or tri0unal3B Ballin) c'%ar'? co-@*r+%( "h% G$r*s(*c"*o. Th% CONCOM Dra-"%( "h*s %-or+o$s BoE%r "o o$r co$r"s *.+ie* . 1 H ! xxx T+e provision de*inin/ 1udicial po6er as includin/ t+e Dduty o* t+e courts o* 1ustice3 3 3 to deter.o@ co$r"s "o Bass $Bo.or a-? @or%*D.% Eh%"h%r "h%? ar% co-s"*"$"*o-a'.one 6+ic+ once exercised is ex+austed3 )t is a continuous po6er.itations su//ested. t+e .o.(oc"r*-%.ent3 x xx xxx . Rule A( 6as exa.ourt did not allo6 its 1urisdiction to 0e de*eated 0y t+e .

) su0.ittee on .ourt *ro. )endatun is not applica0le to t+e instant petitions3 9ere.ent o* a constitutional po6er to t+e 9ouse o* Representatives3 T+is reasonin/ does not +old 6it+ re/ard to i.ed initiated (1) i* t+ere is a *indin/ 0y t+e 9ouse .peac+.peac+.peac+.)n su.ent po6er o* t+e P+ilippine 9ouse o* Representatives since our . C* 1 H " as 0asis *or ar/uin/ t+at t+is .ay respondent 9ouse o* RepresentativesD rely on <ixon v.it t+at in i. or (5) once t+e 9ouse itsel* a**ir. T+e .ent3B )t adds not+in/ .peac+.ation. t+e ES Supre.p+asis and underscorin/ supplied) T+us.$'EarF aDa*-s" Dov%r-+%-" a.ourt t+e duty to annul acts o* /overn. *urnis+es several provisions articulatin/ +o6 t+at Bexclusive po6erB is to 0e exercised3 T+e provisions o* Sections 1! and 1% o* Rule ( o* t+e 9ouse ).erely evolutionary 0ut revolutionary3 Cnder the 1J#% and the 1JK# &onstitutions. passivity to activis.ourt . t+e ne6 .it.smena v.ust disc+ar/e t+is sole.ore calls us to de*ine t+e para.e . ) endorsed t+e vie6 o* *or.y 0ret+ren in t+e .ply provides t+at Bt+e 9ouse o* Representatives s+all +ave t+e sole po6er o* i. BinitiateB a .3 T+is trans*or.posin/ to t+is .. dictated 0y our distinct experience as nation.ra-ch%s o@ Dov%r-+%-" "o (%-*Dra"% *@ -o" (%@? or(%rs o@ o$r co$r"s.e.ent 0e*ore t+e Secretary2 General o* t+e 9ouse o* Representatives o* a veri*ied co..% s$r% *" *s "h*s %Ac%%(*-D "*+*(*"? "o $-sh%a"h% "h% G$(*c*a' sEor( "ha" has *-cr%as*-D'? %+.onstitution are involved3 >eit+er . t+e rulin/ in .ent 0y at least 1KJ o* t+e .itation 6+atsoever is /iven3 T+us.erated.ourt .itted 6it+ /rave a0use o* discretion.onstitution si. B*ilin/3B 2alidit" of the Second Impeachment %omplaint 9avin/ concluded t+at t+e initiation ta@es place 0y t+e act o* *ilin/ o* t+e i.s or overturns t+e *indin/ o* t+e ..plaint or a resolution o* i.ent Rules 6+ic+ state t+at i. t+e lessons o* our o6n +istory s+ould provide us t+e li/+t and not t+e experience o* *orei/ners3 1 H % ()talics in t+e ori/inal e. this &ourt approached constitutional violations by initially determining what it cannot do! under the &.peac+.ittee on .plaint .o.onstitution.ourt concluded t+at t+ere 6as a textually de./0 %onstitution) there is a shift in stress 1 this %ourt is mandated to approach constitutional violations not #" finding out what it should not do #ut what it must do .o. To .eters o* our po6er to revie6 violations o* t+e rules o* t+e 9ouse3 4% E*'' -o" .eanin/ di**erent *ro.ay not decide on t+e constitutionality o* Sections 1! and 1% o* t+e 9ouse ).ourt to /ive due and serious consideration to t+is ne6 constitutional provision as t+e case at 0ar once ..onstra0le constitutional co. )n Tolentino .n duty 0y not resuscitatin/ a past t+at petri*ies t+e present3 ) ur/e .0ers o* t+e 9ouse t+us clearly contravene Section J (H) o* 'rticle A) as t+ey /ive t+e ter..ent Rules3 's already o0served.$s%s *@ E% r%@$s% "o %A%rc*s% "h*s -%E BoE%r or *@ E% E*%'( *" E*"h "*+*(*"?.ustice t+at t+e veri*ied co.o'(%-%( o"h%r .peac+. is not . t+e E3S3 #ederal .% "r$% "o o$r "r$s" as "h% 'as" .ent proceedin/s are dee.plaint andKor resolution is su**icient in su0stance.ent co. t+e t+ird parties alle/in/ t+e violation o* private ri/+ts and t+e .ore3 )t /ives no clue 6+atsoever as to +o6 t+is Bsole po6erB is to 0e exercised3 >o li.peac+.onstitution trans*or.plaint andKor resolution is not su**icient in su0stance or (J) 0y t+e *ilin/ or endorse.ed t+is .ent co.er Senator Salon/a t+at t+is novel provision stretc+in/ t+e latitude o* 1udicial po6er is distinctly #ilipino and its interpretation s+ould not 0e depreciated 0y undue reliance on inapplica0le *orei/n 1urisprudence3 )n resolvin/ t+e case at 0ar. as earlier enu.ustice t+at t+e veri*ied co.

on . 5IIJ and re*erred to t+e 9ouse .plaint *iled 0y Representatives Gil0erto . o* /overn.e cla.ustice 9ilario G3 Cavide.o. 5IIJ. considerin/ t+at t+e *irst i.une 5. anot+er .ilitary. ur/ed and ar/ued to ta@e no action o* any @ind and *or.3 Teodoro.atter3 (arious sectors o* society 2 *ro.peac+.o.B Bnon21usticia0ility.alcy in t+e o**icial relations o* t+e /overn.plaint a/ainst t+e su01ect respondent pu0lic o**icial3 8+en t+e present petitions 6ere @noc@in/ so to spea@ at t+e doorsteps o* t+is . 6+et+er *or or a/ainst t+e i.or *or non2inter*erence 6as . t+e second i. 5IIJ violates t+e constitutional pro+i0ition a/ainst t+e initiation o* i. to t+e acade.ed 6it+ t+eir *a.ent co.peac+. any . #uente0ella a/ainst t+e . told.enon t+at ta@es t+e center sta/e o* our individual and collective consciousness as a people 6it+ our c+aracteristic *lair *or +u. t+e sa.ent co. too@ to t+e streets ar.inations o* *ait+ – o**ered su//estions *or a return to a state o* nor.ourt *ro.ourt *ound t+e existence in *ull o* all t+e requisite conditions *or its exercise o* its constitutionally vested po6er and duty o* 1udicial revie6 over an issue 6+ose resolution precisely called *or t+e construction or interpretation o* a provision o* t+e *unda.ent3 #ace2to2*ace t+us 6it+ a .atter or pro0le.+ie* .an dra.ent co.ourt did not +eed t+e call to adopt a +ands2o** stance as *ar as t+e question o* t+e constitutionality o* initiatin/ t+e i.peac+. no ot+er course o* action can 0e +ad 0ut *or it to pass upon t+at pro0le. t+e 0usiness.ean t+e seriousness o* t+e controversy over t+e Cavide i.ustice Cavide is concerned3 To reiterate 6+at +as 0een already explained.peac+a0le o**icer 6it+in a one2year period3 %onclusion )* t+ere is anyt+in/ constant a0out t+is country.entally and e.ed at +altin/ t+e .ent o* t+e .peac+.ittee on .ourt can properly and co.ittee on .B and B1udicial sel*2restraintB ai.ade t+rou/+ 6+at are no6 t+e ar/u.ental 0ranc+es a**ected to o0viate any perceived resultin/ insta0ility upon areas o* national li*e3 T+rou/+ all t+ese and as early as t+e ti.peac+.ourt 6as speci*ically as@ed.e 6+en t+e 'rticles o* ).a.otionally ex+austin/ experience3 <ot+ sides +ave *ou/+t 0itterly a dialectical stru//le to articulate 6+at t+ey respectively 0elieve to 0e t+e correct position or vie6 on t+e issues involved3 Passions +ad ran +i/+ as de. +ead on3 .+ie* . t+e . ..peac+.ustice.ent co.plaint +as 0een initiated in t+e *ore/oin/ .ent co.and re*erral to t+e 9ouse .ents o* Blac@ o* 1urisdiction.aterial 6+ic+ only t+is .plaint a/ainst .ustice on 'u/ust H.any o* us.e o**icial 6it+in a one year period *ollo6in/ 'rticle A).anner.ent proceedin/s3 T+is .ove t+at .ay +ave a 0earin/ on t+e i.petently address and ad1udicate in accordance 6it+ t+e clear2cut allocation o* po6ers under our syste.eanin/ o* Section J (H) o* 'rticle A) 0eco.ent proceedin/s a/ainst t+e sa. t+e past t6o 6ee@s +ave proven to 0e an exasperatin/.ent +ad 0een constituted. alon/ 6it+ seven associate 1ustices o* t+is .ay not 0e *iled a/ainst t+e sa. t+e . retired . .+ie* .ustice.onstitution3 )n *ine.ental la6 o* t+e land3 8+at lies in +ere is an issue o* a /enuine constitutional .onstrators.ent3 #or . t+e initial action ta@en t+ereon.plaint.es clear3 ?nce an i. t+is .ustice on ?cto0er 5J.r3.peac+.er President Estrada a/ainst .ourtDs 1urisdiction.iliar slo/ans and c+ants to air t+eir voice on t+e . 6it+ respect to t+e prosecution 0y t+e 9ouse o* Representatives o* t+e i.e i.+ie* . con*lict or tra/edy3 ?* course t+is is not to de. it is t+at t+ere is al6ays a p+eno.ourt.peac+. .. Section J(H) o* t+e . t+at squarely *alls under t+e .peac+.e and deno. 6as *iled 0y *or.r3 and #elix 8illia.ourt.peac+.

i* only to discover t+at it can resolve di**erences 6it+out t+e use o* *orce and .ourt +ave actually closed ran@s to protect a 0ret+ren3 T+at t+e ..0er o* t+e 1udiciary *ro. it is equally i. t+e trut+3 T+e institution t+at is t+e Supre.onstitution3 T+is is a 0asic precept in any le/al syste.ocratic institutions +ave no dou0t 0een put to test once a/ain 0y t+is i.ourt 6+ic+ +as discerned its real .ent 0ranc+ or instru.ustice does not i.ourt +as resorted to no ot+er t+an t+e .a/istrate 6+o is involved 6+en it is an incontroverti0le *act t+at t+e *unda.uc+ at sta@e as is t+at o* t+e .ply t+at +e /ets to +ave less in la6 t+an any0ody else3 T+e la6 is solicitous o* every individualDs ri/+ts irrespective o* +is station in li*e3 T+e #ilipino nation and its de.ustice trans/ressed t+e constitutionally i.ent proceedin/s a/ainst t+e .e .+ie* .any *eared 6ould ripen to a crisis in /overn.ourt as li@ely incapa0le o* i.ent +as e**ectively set up a re/i.ourt3 <ut 1ust 0ecause +e is t+e . nor indiscri.in/ 1urisdiction 6+ere it +ad none.0er o* t+is . ta@in/ part in a case in speci*ied instances3 <ut to disquali*y t+is entire institution no6 *ro.putations or speculations could 0e .peac+.e.ent 0ranc+Ds o**icial act as tested 0y t+e li.e o* 1udicial supre.ourt +as dispensed 1ustice over t+e course o* ti.e.ourt to/et+er 6it+ all ot+er courts +as lon/ +eld and 0een entrusted 6it+ t+e 1udicial po6er to resolve con*lictin/ le/al ri/+ts re/ardless o* t+e personalities involved in t+e suits or actions3 T+is .peac+.ent accordin/ to t+e la6 and t+e *acts3 8+y can it not no6 0e trusted to 6ield 1udicial po6er in t+ese petitions 1ust 0ecause it is t+e +i/+est ran@in/ .ain issue o* 6+et+er t+e i.ent3 <ut t+ou/+ it is indeed i.ply a non sequitur 3 >o one is a0ove t+e la6 or t+e . t+e .. t+e suit at 0ar is to re/ard t+e Supre.e.ustice 9ilario Cavide3 'ccordin/ly.ustice3 >ot+in/ could 0e *art+er *ro.ensely a 0lessin/ *or t+is .ands3 Per+aps.portant t+at it 6ent t+rou/+ t+is cruci0le o* a de.ent proceedin/s initiated a/ainst t+e .ple.ade to it.ost =ealous in protectin/ t+at principle o* le/al equality ot+er t+an t+e Supre. is patently 6it+out 0asis in *act and in la63 T+is .ustice is not a0ove t+e la6 and neit+er is any ot+er . t+is .erous cases especially o* t+e +i/+2pro*ile @ind in t+e annals o* 1urisprudence3 T+e .ourt to +ave *ound ans6ers in our 0edroc@ o* le/al principles.+ie* .+ie* .ourt in t+e present petitions su01ected to 1udicial scrutiny and resolved on t+e .ately t+e 0ene*icent e**ects o* +avin/ *ounded and ordered our society upon t+e rule o* la63 )t is su//ested t+at 0y our ta@in/ co/ni=ance o* t+e issue o* constitutionality o* t+e i..soever stood to 0ene*it or su**er t+ere*ro. t+ere is no ot+er /overn.partiality 6+en one o* its .onstitutionF ?* course.eanin/ and ra. 0ut t+e validity o* a /overn.e.ourt to assert 1udicial do.T+e clai.e. 6+ic+ is si.peac+.its set 0y t+e .erits only t+e .e. un*raid 0y 6+atever i.ourt 0y 1udicially entan/lin/ itsel* 6it+ t+e process o* i.ent t+e disc+ar/e 0y t+e executive and le/islative o* t+eir o6n po6ers to 0rin/ a0out ulti.+ie* .onstitution in searc+ *or a solution to 6+at .posed one2year ti. so lon/ as it rendered 1ud/.0ers o* t+is .i*ications t+rou/+ its application to nu. t+ere are rules on t+e in+i0ition o* any .ental issue is not +i.ent case a/ainst .peac+.e .+ie* .oral aut+ority and t+at o* its a/ents to secure respect *or and o0edience to its co.+ie* . 6+ic+ reco/ni=es equality o* all .0ers is a party to a case.acy. it did not /o a0out assu. t+e raison dDetre o* t+e 1udiciary is to co.inately turn 1usticia0le issues out o* decidedly political questions3 <ecause it is not at all t+e 0usiness o* t+is . t+ere*ore.ocratic process.0ersD interests in rulin/ on said issue is as . t+at t+is .inance over t+e ot+er t6o /reat 0ranc+es o* t+e /overn. una**ected 0y 6+o.ent3 Rat+er.e .e 0ar rule3 <eyond t+is..ustice.en 0e*ore t+e la6 as essential to t+e la6Ds .entality t+at is .

onsequently.ent co.ent co.a//ression upon eac+ ot+er3 4&EREFORE Sections 1! and 1% o* Rule ( o* t+e Rules o* Procedure in ).peac+.ent *ro. to exercise t+e po6er o* 1udicial revie6 to deter.entel. 5IIJ.peac+.ine t+e validity o* t+e second i. *iled a Motion to )ntervene and .plaint a/ainst .ustice Cavide *or culpa0le violation o* t+e .+ie* ..ent proceedin/s &ELD# .peac+.peac+.plaint 6as Bsu**icient in *or..ent Proceedin/s 6+ic+ 6ere approved 0y t+e 9ouse o* Representatives on >ove. 0e reco/ni=ed and up+eld pursuant to t+e provisions o* 'rticle A) o* t+e .ent court to try and decide i.+ie* .E# 8?> 1udicial revie6 po6er extends to t+ose arisin/ *ro. in +is o6n 0e+al*.C# under Cavide3 Petitions 6ere *iled to declare t+e 5 n d i.issin/ t+e *irst i.r3 and #elix 8illia. 5II5.peac+.C# in*rin/es on t+e constitutional doctrine o* separation o* po6ers and is a direct violation o* t+e constitutional principle o* *iscal autono. ..peac+. 5II1 are unconstitutional3 . *or.ent co.inistration 0y t+e . 0etrayal o* t+e pu0lic trust and ot+er +i/+ cri.plaint3 ISS.y o* t+e 1udiciary3 Senator 'quilino P3 Pi. includin/ t+e one 6+ere t+e .ent cases.une 5.onstitution.iss t+e sa.plaint.ourt over t+e issues a**ectin/ t+e i.3 Teodoro. i.ustice 9ilario G3 Cavide.C# under 9ilario Cavide3 )n .r3 6+ic+ 6as *iled 0y Representatives Gil0erto .une 55.onstitution3 FACTS# T+e 9R on its 15 t + . t+at o* t+e 11 t + .er President Estrada *iled an i.on/ress adopted a di**erent rule on i.ary.+ie* . .es3 T+e 9ouse .ent proceedin/s and t+at t+e sole po6er.o. <3 #uente0ella 6it+ t+e ?**ice o* t+e Secretary General o* t+e 9ouse o* Representatives on ?cto0er 5J.ent unconstitutional *or it violates t+e provision t+at no i.0er 5".ent.o.issed *or lac@ o* 1urisdiction o* t+e .e on ?cto0er 55.peac+.ent o* . t+e 9R adopted a resolution to investi/ate t+e dis0urse.+ie* .ustice ruled t+at t+e i.plaint a/ainst . t+e second i.ustice is t+e respondent. prayin/ t+at Bt+e consolidated petitions 0e dis.peac+.r3.ittee on . 5IIJ *or 0ein/ insu**icient in su0stance3 ' day a*ter dis.peac+.peac+. .peac+.onstitution3B )n su.ent co.e o**icial3 Petitions also clai. section J o* 'rticle A) o* t+e .ent co.ent proceedin/s s+all 0e initiated t6ice a/ainst t+e sa.B0ut voted to dis. 5IIJ is 0arred under para/rap+ H. petitioners plea *or t+e S. a 5 n d co.on/ress3 ?n .ustice o* t+e .ent o* *unds o* t+e .peac+.plaint 6as *iled a/ainst Cavide 0ased on t+e investi/ation o* *und dis0urse. t+at t+e le/islative inquiry into t+e ad..peac+. aut+ority and 1urisdiction o* t+e Senate as t+e i.

6+ic+.entioned Resolutions >o3 1 and J 0e su0. in L25"1 !.onstitution a/ainst erosions or onslau/+ts *ro. *or approval 0y t+e people.%r 9 19/7 FACTS# ?n Marc+ 1!.ine i* acts 0y t+e le/islature and t+e executive is in violation o* t+e . taxpayers. 0eca.on '3 Gon=ales. providin/ t+at t+e a.ENS# 8+et+er or not a Resolution o* . a taxpayer. to/et+er 6it+ t+e corollary principle o* separation o* po6ers. at t+e /eneral elections 6+ic+ s+all 0e +eld on >ove. 5 and J – i3e3 to increase t+e seats o* t+e Lo6er 9ouse *ro.end t+e .end. L-2.19/ Nov%+.ent and insures t+at its vast po6ers are utili=ed only *or t+e 0ene*it o* t+e people *or 6+ic+ it serves3 Separation o* po6ers is not a0solute3 T+e S.0ly S violates t+e . 'rticle ()) so t+ey can 0eco.anda0le and en*orcea0le3 .on/ress S actin/ as a constituent asse. is t+e *inal ar0iter to deter.onstitution3 Moreover. t+e po6er o* 1udicial revie6 is expressly stated in t+e .onstitutionF May . .peac+.une 1%. 6it+ preli.onstitutional '.onstitution proposed in t+e a*ore.ents <e Su0. No.selves to t+e .onvention o* 1 %1G and to a. a #ilipino citi=en. 1 !%. t+e Senate and t+e 9ouse o* Representatives passed resolutions >o3 1. not political.ilarly situated3 'not+er one is 0y P9)L.itted *or Rati*ication in a General ElectionF &ELD# T+e issue 6+et+er or not a Resolution o* .onstitutional . a corporation duly or/ani=ed and existin/ under t+e la6s o* t+e P+ilippines. and a civic.onvention3 Su0sequently. o* c+ec@s and 0alances 6+ic+.ent co.ustice Cavide is unconstitutional3 GON9ALES vs COMELEC G. on . in L25"55&. non2pro*it and non2 partisan or/ani=ation t+e o01ective o* 6+ic+ is to up+old t+e rule o* la6 in t+e P+ilippines and to de*end its . *or. *or and in 0e+al* o* all citi=ens.s t+e 0edroc@ o* repu0lican *or.0ly S violates t+e .ents to t+e .end. and a voter3 9e clai. 6+atever source3 ISS.e Repu0lic 'ct >o3 & 1J.e dele/ates t+e. 15I to 1"IG to convo@e a . and voters si.0er 1&. +ence.+ie* . upon approval 0y t+e President. 1 !%3 T6o cases 6ere *iled a/ainst t+is act o* .?>S'. su01ect to 1udicial revie63 .inary in1unction 0y Ra.onstitution3 Z5 n d ).on/ress passed a 0ill.udicial revie6 is indeed an inte/ral co.itted.on/ress$ ?ne an is ori/inal action *or pro+i0ition.R.on/ress S actin/ as a constituent asse. o* /overn.plaint a/ainst . and.onstitution essentially 1usticia0le.onstitution (Section 1!.Po6er o* 1udicial revie6 is t+e po6er o* t+e court to settle actual controversies involvin/ ri/+ts 6+ic+ are le/ally de. 1 !%.s to +ave instituted case L25"1 ! as a class unit.ponent o* t+e delicate syste.

e day as t+e re/ular elections3 Petitioners ar/ued t+at t+is 6as unla6*ul as t+ere 6ould 0e no proper su0.ents *or rati*ication in /eneral elections3 OO2 R%?%s (*ss%-"%(.on/ress dee. a constitutional an/le. No.19/ Nov%+.en (0ased upon Section H. L-2. -Ple0iscite s+ould 0e sc+eduled on a special date so as to *acilitate -#air su0. nu.on/ress to run *or dele/ates to t+e . *ro. t+e . li@e6ise. at 0est. 's a consequence. not6it+standin/ t+at t+e R3 <3 93 >os3 1 and J +ave 0een approved 0y a vote o* t+ree2*ourt+s o* all t+e .0er o* seats in t+e 9ouse o* Representatives.stance t+at t+e previous a. said resolutions are null and void 0ecause Me.onstitution +ad 0een su0.on/ress o* t+e P+ilippines andKor t+e election o* its Me.ission t+ereo* *or rati*ication to t+e people on >ove.en)G 9o6ever.ended proposition GON9ALES vs COMELEC G.)n t+e cases at 0ar.on/ress.ent to t+e .end.ents at a ple0iscite sc+eduled on t+e sa. o* t+e . constitutional3 ?ne o* t+e issues raised in t+is case 6as t+e validity o* t+e su0. 15I to 1"I. 'rticle ().ore interested in t+e issues involved in t+e election3 &ELD# Pursuant to 'rt 1H o* t+e 7JH .inority S 0elieve t+at Repu0lic 'ct >o3 & 1J satis*ies suc+ require.e.R.erely s+o6s t+at .u. and 6+o. +eld t+at t+ere is not+in/ in t+is provision to indicate t+at t+e election t+erein re*erred to is a special. and S under R3 <3 93 >o3 J S t+e aut+ority /iven to t+e . no apportion.end. constitute t+e . depends S in t+e vie6 o* t+ose 6+o concur in t+is opinion.pare t+e ori/inal proposition 6it+ t+e a.end.ent +as 0een .onvention and.ission o* certain proposed constitutional a. 1 !%.ed it 0est to do so under t+e circu. 6+ic+ approved t+e proposed a.ent and t+at said 'ct is. not a /eneral election3 T+e circu. S.onstitution. t+e su**iciency or insu**iciency.on/ress 6it+in t+ree (J) years since 1 !I3 T+erea*ter.end. accordin/ly. t+e .0ers o* .inority S upon 6+et+er t+e provisions o* Repu0lic 'ct >o3 & 1J are suc+ as to *airly apprise t+e people o* t+e /ist.axi.ain idea or t+e su0stance o* said proposals.on/ress andKor de facto con/ress.end. intelli/ent consent or re1ection43 T+ey s+ould 0e a0le to co.0ers 0eca.e. 6it+out *or*eitin/ t+eir seats in .%r 9 19/7 .onstitutional .0er 1&.ade 0een .itted to t+e people *or rati*ication in special elections .it proposed a. de facto . to disc+ar/e t+e duties o* suc+ dele/ates. i* elected t+ereto.on/ress and its Me.ission o* t+e proposal to t+e people 6+o 6ould 0e .0ers o* t+e Senate and o* t+e 9ouse o* Representatives votin/ separately.e a de facto . as 6ell as t+e resolution callin/ a convention to propose a. o* t+e su0.on/ress3 8e S 6+o constitute t+e . are. 6+ic+ is S under R3 <3 93 >o3 1 S t+e increase o* t+e . inso*ar as t+is p+ase o* t+e case.ents.onstitution.e ille/alG t+at . 0eca.0ers o* .ade 0y . t+e title o* a de facto o**icer cannot 0e assailed collaterally3 Re*errin/ particularly to t+e contested proposals *or a.ents.0ers.end.stances t+en o0tainin/3 )t does not ne/ate its aut+ority to su0.ission.on/ress.ent. *ro.

end.on/ress andKor de facto con/ress.e dele/ates t+e.onstitution essentially 1usticia0le.on/ress o* t+e P+ilippines andKor t+e election o* its Me. on .on/ress passed a 0ill. t+e title o* a de facto o**icer cannot 0e assailed collaterally3 .on '3 Gon=ales.une 1%.ents.on/ress 6it+in t+ree (J) years since 1 !I3 T+erea*ter.onstitutionF May .ents <e Su0. +ence. 0eca.onstitutional . *or approval 0y t+e people.inary in1unction 0y Ra. a taxpayer.end.on/ress S actin/ as a constituent asse. *or and in 0e+al* o* all citi=ens.s to +ave instituted case L25"1 ! as a class unit. a corporation duly or/ani=ed and existin/ under t+e la6s o* t+e P+ilippines. and voters si. 15I to 1"IG to convo@e a .onvention o* 1 %1G and to a.ent +as 0een .onstitutional '.?>S'. and.selves to t+e . not political.on/ress. at 0est. in L25"1 !.e Repu0lic 'ct >o3 & 1J.en)G 9o6ever. de facto .itted. providin/ t+at t+e a.on/ress and its Me. li@e6ise.onvention3 Su0sequently.onstitution a/ainst erosions or onslau/+ts *ro. non2pro*it and non2 partisan or/ani=ation t+e o01ective o* 6+ic+ is to up+old t+e rule o* la6 in t+e P+ilippines and to de*end its .ents.end.end. 6+ic+ approved t+e proposed a. at t+e /eneral elections 6+ic+ s+all 0e +eld on >ove.ade 0een .onstitution (Section 1!. su01ect to 1udicial revie63 )n t+e cases at 0ar. 6+ic+.0ers o* . 'rticle ()) so t+ey can 0eco. 'rticle ().entioned Resolutions >o3 1 and J 0e su0. not6it+standin/ t+at t+e R3 <3 93 >os3 1 and J +ave 0een approved 0y a vote o* t+ree2*ourt+s o* all t+e . upon approval 0y t+e President. as 6ell as t+e resolution callin/ a convention to propose a. 0eca.0ers.0ly S violates t+e .onstitution proposed in t+e a*ore. 6+atever source3 ISS. 's a consequence. 1 !%.itted *or Rati*ication in a General ElectionF &ELD# T+e issue 6+et+er or not a Resolution o* .onstitution. 1 !%3 T6o cases 6ere *iled a/ainst t+is act o* .on/ress.ade 0y .0ly S violates t+e .on/ress S actin/ as a constituent asse. .on/ress$ ?ne an is ori/inal action *or pro+i0ition. 6it+ preli.ents to t+e .0ers o* t+e Senate and o* t+e 9ouse o* Representatives votin/ separately. said resolutions are null and void 0ecause Me.e.ENS# 8+et+er or not a Resolution o* . in L25"55&.FACTS# ?n Marc+ 1!.ilarly situated3 'not+er one is 0y P9)L. 5 and J – i3e3 to increase t+e seats o* t+e Lo6er 9ouse *ro. t+e . and a civic.e ille/alG t+at . 1 !%. t+e Senate and t+e 9ouse o* Representatives passed resolutions >o3 1. taxpayers.0ers 0eca. a #ilipino citi=en. o* t+e . and a voter3 9e clai. are.end t+e .en (0ased upon Section H.0er 1&.e a de facto . no apportion.

*ro. No.ent. 1 !%. 6it+out *or*eitin/ t+eir seats in . G.on/ress3 8e S 6+o constitute t+e .onstitution.Re*errin/ particularly to t+e contested proposals *or a.pare t+e ori/inal proposition 6it+ t+e a.9/ F%. inso*ar as t+is p+ase o* t+e case. G. accordin/ly. nu.ed it 0est to do so under t+e circu.0ers o* . 6+ic+ is S under R3 <3 93 >o3 1 S t+e increase o* t+e .inority S upon 6+et+er t+e provisions o* Repu0lic 'ct >o3 & 1J are suc+ as to *airly apprise t+e people o* t+e /ist.onstitution +ad 0een su0. constitute t+e . i* elected t+ereto.u. a constitutional an/le.end. and 6+o.ents *or rati*ication in /eneral elections3 OO2 R%?%s (*ss%-"%(. .erely s+o6s t+at .0er 1&. not a /eneral election3 T+e circu. and S under R3 <3 93 >o3 J S t+e aut+ority /iven to t+e .e.ent and t+at said 'ct is.ents at a ple0iscite sc+eduled on t+e sa. No.stance t+at t+e previous a.onstitutional .R.ission o* t+e proposal to t+e people 6+o 6ould 0e .onvention and.R. o* t+e su0. constitutional3 ?ne o* t+e issues raised in t+is case 6as t+e validity o* t+e su0.inority S 0elieve t+at Repu0lic 'ct >o3 & 1J satis*ies suc+ require.NION petitioner. *ro. S. to disc+ar/e t+e duties o* suc+ dele/ates.axi.15 F%.on/ress dee.end. t+e .e day as t+e re/ular elections3 Petitioners ar/ued t+at t+is 6as unla6*ul as t+ere 6ould 0e no proper su0. t+e su**iciency or insu**iciency.end. depends S in t+e vie6 o* t+ose 6+o concur in t+is opinion.ore interested in t+e issues involved in t+e election3 &ELD# Pursuant to 'rt 1H o* t+e 7JH . -Ple0iscite s+ould 0e sc+eduled on a special date so as to *acilitate -#air su0.ent to t+e .r$ar? 22 1991 CI5IL LI1ERTIES .on/ress to run *or dele/ates to t+e .end.0er o* seats in t+e 9ouse o* Representatives.3.RT Manila E> <'>. 15I to 1"I. vs3 T&E E7EC.ended proposition Repu0lic o* t+e P+ilippines S.itted to t+e people *or rati*ication in special elections .r$ar? 22 1991 .3. .)REME CO.TI5E SECRETAR6 respondent . +eld t+at t+ere is not+in/ in t+is provision to indicate t+at t+e election t+erein re*erred to is a special.stances t+en o0tainin/3 )t does not ne/ate its aut+ority to su0.ission. intelli/ent consent or re1ection43 T+ey s+ould 0e a0le to co.ain idea or t+e su0stance o* said proposals.ission o* certain proposed constitutional a.ission t+ereo* *or rati*ication to t+e people on >ove.it proposed a.

or assistant secretary3 Petitioners . Euintos and 4uan T.ent in /overn. undersecretary or assistant secretary or ot+er appointive o**icial o* t+e Executive Cepart. in e**ect.pensation t+ere*orG )rovided .e.ary position. a-( CRIS)IN T. Aavid for petitioners in L#LJ=. FERNAN %. RE6ES as S%cr%"ar? o@ Tra-sBor"a"*o.uly 5H.a0inet.ent corporations and receive t+e correspondin/ co. 1ENG9ON as S%cr%"ar? o@ &%a'"hI REINERIO D. DRILON as S%cr%"ar? o@ La.ore positions t+an 6+at is allo6ed in Section 1 +ereo*.'*c 4orFs a-( &*DhEa?sI ANTONIO ARRI9A1AL as S%cr%"ar? o@ Sc*%-c% a-( T%ch-o'oD?I 2OSE CONCE)CION as S%cr%"ar? o@ Tra(% a-( I-($s"r?I 2OSE ANTONIO GON9ALE9 as S%cr%"ar? o@ To$r*s+I ALFREDO R.ILLERMO CARAG. t+eir undersecretaries and assistant secretaries to +old ot+er /overn.ent .E as Co++*ss*o-%r o@ "h% 1$(D%"I a-( SOLITA MONSOD as &%a( o@ "h% Na"*o-a' Eco-o+*c D%v%'oB+%-" A$"hor*"? r%sBo-(%-"s. :gnacio ).ent o**ices or positions in addition .ANTI-GRAFT LEAG.ore t+an t6o positions ot+er t+an +is pri. t+ey ( sic ) . &oronel for petitioners in L#L1%.an3 Sec3 53 )* a .+air.M1ING as S%cr%"ar? o@ E($ca"*o.ntonio ).ora=on .R%@or+I CARLOS DOMING. allo6s . 1ENIGNO as )r%ss S%cr%"ar?I 2.itation s+all not apply to ad +oc 0odies or co. RE6ES petitioners.ANITO FERRER as S%cr%"ar? o@ )$.. in addition to +is pri. 9acsina.ay.ary position3 Sec3 J3 )n order to *ully protect t+e interest o* t+e /overn.C$'"$r% a-( SBor"sI F.ittees.RDES 8.ntonio /. .J.0ers o* t+e 0oards o* suc+ corporation s+ould eit+er 0e a secretary.ICO as S%cr%"ar? o@ ADrar*a.LGENCIO FACTORAN 2R.aintain t+at t+is Executive ?rder 6+ic+. or undersecretary. 0ut in no case s+all any o**icial +old .or a-( E+B'o?+%-"I L. at least one2t+ird (1KJ) o* t+e . 2A6ME as S%cr%"ar? o@ F*-a-c%I SEDFRE6 ORDO:E9 as S%cr%"ar? o@ 2$s"*c%I FRAN3LIN N. councils or 0odies o* 6+ic+ t+e President is t+e .A.ore t+an t6o positions in t+e /overn. or to 0oards.ent +olds .3 'quino on . RAMOS as S%cr%"ar? o@ Na"*o-a' D%@%-s%I TEODORO F. +old not .E OF T&E )&ILI))INES INC.ent2o6ned or controlled corporations. vs3 )&ILI) ELLA C.a-( Co++$-*ca"*o-I G.E9 as S%cr%"ar? o@ ADr*c$'"$r%I LO. t+at t+is li.e. a .0er o* t+e ca0inet. 2.e.0er o* t+e . 1auricio.3p T+ese t6o (5) petitions 6ere consolidated per resolution dated 'u/ust . 1 "" 1 and are 0ein/ resolved 1ointly as 0ot+ see@ a declaration o* t+e unconstitutionality o* Executive ?rder >o3 5"& issued 0y President .e.IS SANTOS as S%cr%"ar? o@ Loca' Gov%r-+%-"I FIDEL 5. 9uis /. 1 "%3 T+e pertinent provisions o* t+e assailed Executive ?rder are$ Sec3 13 Even i* allo6ed 0y la6 or 0y t+e ordinary *unctions o* +is position. undersecretary or assistant secretary or ot+er appointive o**icials o* t+e Executive Cepart.ust relinquis+ t+e excess position in *avor o* t+e su0ordinate o**icial 6+o is next in ran@. as S%cr%"ar? o@ E-v*ro-+%-" a-( Na"$ra' R%so$rc%sI 5ICENTE 5.0ers o* t+e . .IS.ent and /overn.a0inet.

ustice Sed*rey ?rdoWe=.0er o* t+e . 'rticle )2A<3 T+is Bstrained lin@a/eB 0et6een t+e t6o provisions.ploy. 1 "%$ pro.e. receivin/ any salaries.onstitution. petitioner 'nti2Gra*t Lea/ue o* t+e P+ilippines *urt+er see@s in G3R3 >o3 "J"1H t+e issuance o* t+e extraordinary 6rits o* pro+i0ition and mandamus .e.ary positions. 'rticle ()) o* t+e 1 "% . exclusive.ustice 6+o is .s o* privile/es and t+e li@e appurtenant to t+eir questioned positions.uly 5H.0ers o* t+e . on . participate in any 0usiness. 2 6+ic+ provides as *ollo6s$ Sec3 1J3 T+e President. ?pinion >o3 %J and Executive ?rder >o3 5"& as t+ey alle/edly Blu.onstitution and *ro.andatory constitutional ran@ assi/ned to t+e pro+i0ition a/ainst . or in any *ranc+ise. +oldin/. +oldin/ any ot+er o**ice or e.ay +ave received *ro.porary restrainin/ order directin/ pu0lic respondents t+erein to cease and desist *ro.s and ot+er *or. dual or .0ers o* t+e . provides$ .on/ress convened on .entality t+ereo*. rei.a0inet. 'rticle ()))G or (0) i* allo6ed 0y la6G or (c) i* allo6ed 0y t+e pri. includin/ /overn. petitioner 'nti2Gra*t Lea/ue o* t+e P+ilippines c+ar/es t+at not6it+standin/ t+e a*orequoted Ba0solute and sel*2executin/B provision o* t+e 1 "% .ped to/et+erB Section 1J.uly 5%.ouncil under Section ". allo6ances.ary positions.a0inet. para/rap+ 1. runs counter to Section 1J. +i/+er.ay +old ot+er pu0lic o**ice. eac+ addressed to a distinct and separate /roup o* pu0lic o**icers –– one. 'rticle ()) in relation to Section %.to t+eir pri.a0inet . suc+ positions3 Speci*ically. 1 "% ?pinion >o3 %J. as . or instru. Section %. t+e Me. 'rticle ()) and t+e /eneral provision in anot+er article. par3 (5). as 6ell as a te. per die. and t+e ot+er. or special privile/e /ranted 0y t+e Govern.e. unless ot+er6ise provided in t+is .itation t+erein i.uly 5J.ple3B 7 'rticle )A2<. pu0lic servants in /eneral –– alle/edly Ba0olis+ed t+e clearly separate. and .0urse or re*und any and all a. 'rticle )A2<.ent or any su0division. t+e . in addition to t+eir pri.e. rendered on . and t+eir deputies and su0alterns.ade an ex'officio . 5 declarin/ t+at . 'rticle ()) pro+i0its pu0lic respondents. or 0e *inancially interested in any contract 6it+.onstitution. t+eir deputies (undersecretaries) and assistant secretaries . series o* 1 "%. durin/ said tenure.posed. and t+eir deputies or assistants s+all not. 1 "% or t6o (5) days 0e*ore .0ers+ip in t+e 0oards o* /overn. par3 (5) . +old any ot+er o**ice or e. alon/ 6it+ t+e ot+er pu0lic o**icials enu.0ers o* t+e . directly or indirectly practice any ot+er pro*ession. construin/ Section 1J. 6+o are t+e leaders o* /overn.ounts or 0ene*its t+at t+ey .0ers.udicial and <ar .pellin/ pu0lic respondents to return.ultiple 1o0s *or t+e President.ultiple positions ot+er t+an t+ose aut+ori=ed 0y t+e 1 "% .ent2o6ned or controlled corporations or t+eir su0sidiaries3 T+ey s+all strictly avoid con*lict o* interest in t+e conduct o* t+eir o**ice3 )t is alle/ed t+at t+e a0ove2quoted Section 1J.onstitution. t+e (ice2President. par3 (5).erated in t+e list attac+ed to t+e petitions as 'nnex B.ploy. a/ency. (ice2President.ent durin/ t+eir tenure3 T+ey s+all not. t+e President and +er o**icial *a. includin/ .ul/ated Executive ?rder >o3 5"&3 / Petitioner 'nti2Gra*t Lea/ue o* t+e P+ilippines o01ects to 0ot+ C?.ary *unctions o* t+eir respective positionsG and t+at on t+e 0asis o* t+is ?pinion. Section %.ent durin/ t+eir tenure3 )n addition to see@in/ a declaration o* t+e unconstitutionality o* Executive ?rder >o3 5"&.ent corporations$ (a) 6+en directly provided *or in t+e . and co.ent expected to lead 0y exa.e.B in G3R3 >o3 "J"1H 3 and as 'nnex B<B in G3R3 >o3 "J" ! < *ro.ily.onstitution as in t+e case o* t+e Secretary o* . t+en Secretary o* .a0inet. t+e President o* t+e P+ilippines. al0eit su01ect to t+e li.

a@es re*erence to Section %.e.0er o* t+e . ?pinion >o3 15 . agency or instrumentality thereof. t+e exception .0ers o* t+e .aintain t+at t+e p+rase Bunless ot+er6ise provided in t+e . 'rticle )2A< o* t+e . t+e .ustice C?.ust 0e expressly provided in t+e . (ice2President. 'rticle ()) ot+er t+an t+ose provided in t+e . series o* 1 "% and C?. par3 (5).a0inet under t+e second para/rap+ o* Section J.entioned t+erein are concerned3 . 'rticle ()) t+ereo*G and (5) t+e Secretary o* .0ers o* t+e .ploy.onstitution. 1 0 0ein/ t+e *irst o**icial construction and interpretation 0y t+e Secretary o* .ouncil under 'rticle ())). alt+ou/+ not so desi/nated as ex'officio are allo6ed 0y t+e pri.ivil Service .onstitution3 'ccordin/ to petitioners..ouncil 0y virtue o* Section " (1).udicial and <ar .ustice o* Section 1J. Sec3 " (1)3 Pu0lic respondents.onstitutionB in Section 1J. na. 'rticle ()) 6+ic+ applies speci*ically to t+e President.e. ?pinion >o3 %J.onstitution. 'rticle ()) .ary position. 'rticle ()) and par3 (5) o* Section %.B and t+at Executive ?rder >o3 5"&. ?pinion >o3 1HH.onstitution.its o* certain exceptions3 T+e disa/ree.ay 0e appointed as a Me.o.ultiple positions in t+e Govern. par3 (5). 'rticle ()) or t+e Secretary o* . 'rticle )2A< inso*ar as t+e appointive o**icials . series o* 1 "% is consequently constitutional3 )t is 6ort+ notin/ t+at C?.Sec3 %3 3 3 3 3 3 Cnless otherwise allowed by law or by the primary functions of his position. on t+e ot+er +and. ?pinion >o3 %J.a0inet and t+eir deputies or assistants *ro.ent ad. series o* 1 "".ustice 0ein/ desi/nated an ex'officio .0er o* t+e . (ice2President.onstitutionB used in Section 1J o* 'rticle ()). including government'owned or controlled corporations or their subsidiaries 3 T+e Solicitor General counters t+at Cepart.0er o* t+e .onstitution.ultiple positions 6+ic+ are not related to or necessarily included in t+e position o* t+e pu0lic o**icial concerned (disparate positions)3 )n su. as *urt+er elucidated and clari*ied 0y C?. t+e constitutionality o* Executive ?rder >o3 5"& is 0ein/ c+allen/ed 0y petitioners on t+e principal su0.. no appointive official shall hold any other office or employment in the government or any subdivision.udicial and <ar .a0inet under Section J.ary *unctions o* t+e pu0lic o**icial. pro. Me. 'rticle ()))3 Petitioners *urt+er ar/ue t+at t+e exception to t+e pro+i0ition in Section %. ?pinion >o3 1HH.ivil Service in /eneral and t+at said exceptions do not apply and cannot 0e extended to Section 1J. series o* 1 "" construed t+e li.ission applies to o**icers and e.e.itation i.ent 0et6een petitioners and pu0lic respondents lies on t+e constitutional 0asis o* t+e exception3 Petitioners insist t+at 0ecause o* t+e p+rase Bunless ot+er6ise provided in t+is .ission t+at it adds exceptions to Section 1J.ent are t+ose provided in t+e . 0ut only to t+e +oldin/ o* . series o* 1 "%. ?pinion >o3 15 . series o* 1 "% 9 and C?. as in t+e case o* t+e (ice2President 0ein/ allo6ed to 0eco.a0inet and t+eir deputies or assistants3 T+ere is no dispute t+at t+e pro+i0ition a/ainst t+e President.ustice is an ex'officio .ul/ated pursuant to C?. 'rticle )2A< on t+e . is Breasona0ly valid and constitutionally *ir.e su01ect o* appoint.e a Me.ployees o* t+e .posed 0y E3?3 >o3 5"& as not applyin/ to ex'officio positions or to positions 6+ic+. . involvin/ t+e sa. par3 (5).ent in Govern.0er o* t+e . +oldin/ dual or .ents or desi/nations o* an appointive executive o**icial to positions ot+er t+an +is pri.ent o* .B t+e only exceptions a/ainst +oldin/ any ot+er o**ice or e.ely$ (1) T+e (ice2President . 0y virtue o* t+e p+rase Bunless ot+er6ise provided in t+is ..

ent2?6ned and . *or easy re*erence is quoted ane6.onstitution inso*ar as .ers o* t+e .ents.0er J1.olu.0ers. t+eir deputies and assistants as .o.nation ca.e. t+us$ BEnless ot+er6ise allo6ed 0y la6 or 0y t+e pri..orporations as o* Cece.o O3 (elasco.ontrolled .ary 'nnual 'udit Report on$ Govern. i* any.0er o* t+e /overnin/ 0oards o* t6enty2nine (5 ) /overn. e.ary *unctions o* +is position. o* *ourteen eac+ (1&)G . includin/ /overn.ent soon led to a0uses 0y unscrupulous pu0lic o**icials 6+o too@ advanta/e o* t+is sc+e. sou/+t to 0e prevented or re."h% -%Da"*v%.ent2?6ned and .e. t+eir deputies or assistants are concerned ad.entalities and /overn.ploy.0ers o* t+e 0oard 6it+ t+e correspondin/ salaries.edied3 ' dou0t*ul provision 6ill 0e exa. per die.a0inet .orality in /overn.e le/islative po6ers in t+is country 6ere exercised 0y *or.ind t+e o01ect sou/+t to 0e acco.ent2o6ned or controlled corporation or t+eir su0sidiaries3B 4% r$'% *.0ansa3 1 2 T+is conde.ent2 o6ned and controlled corporations created 0y presidential decrees and ot+er . allo6ances and ot+er perquisites o* o**ice3 Most o* t+ese instru.a@e t+e 6ords consonant to t+at reason and calculated to e**ect t+at purpose3 11 T+e practice o* desi/natin/ .e *or purposes o* sel*2enric+.e in reaction to t+e pu0lis+ed report o* t+e .esar .a0inet. entitled B1 "J Su.artial la6 aut+ority3 T+ere 6as a proli*eration o* ne6ly2created a/encies. and t+e evils.er President #erdinand E3 Marcos pursuant to +is .onstitution to enact t+e particular provision and t+e purpose sou/+t to 0e acco.0ers.ent3 )n *act. a/ency or instru..e3 T+is practice o* +oldin/ .esar E3'3 (irata o* t6enty2t6o (55)G 'rturo R3 Tanco.ourt in construin/ a .e. 'rticle ()) o* t+e 1 "% . Sel*2Governin/ <oards and . 1 "J3B Particularly odious and revoltin/ to t+e peopleDs sense o* propriety and .onstitution 6as *ra.a0inet .ea o* t+irteen (1J)G Ru0en <3 'nc+eta and . 'rticle )2A< 6+ic+.ental a/encies. t+e +oldin/ o* .ent 6as stron/ly denounced on t+e *loor o* t+e <atasan/ Pa.ained up to t+e present ti.e.ent in t+e Govern.entalities +ave re. . no appointive o**icial s+all +old any ot+er o**ice or e.3 Oala. 0eca.ontrolled . it +as 0een +eld t+at t+e .it o* t+e 0road exceptions .ent or any su0division.e. par3 (5). t+eir deputies or assistants 6ere desi/nated to +ead or sit as .ent service 6ere t+e data contained t+erein t+at Ro0erto (3 ?n/pin 6as a .esus S3 9ipolito and Geroni.e prevalent durin/ t+e ti.odes o* presidential issuances 6+ere .plis+ed t+ere0y. instru.entalities and corporationsG ).entality t+ereo*.onstitution s+ould 0ear in .o.ined in t+e li/+t o* t+e +istory o* t+e ti.ent2o6ned and controlled corporations.T+e t+res+old question t+ere*ore is$ does t+e pro+i0ition in Section 1J.ission on 'udit.e.orporations.s.r3 o* *i*teen (1H)G .es. instru.ent a/encies and instru.issionsB 6+ic+ carried as its #i/ure >o3 & a BRoaster o* Me.ultiple o**ices in /overn. and t+e condition and circu.entalities.ade *or appointive o**icials in /eneral under Section %.stances under 6+ic+ t+e .0ers o* t+e .ed3 T+e o01ect is to ascertain t+e reason 6+ic+ induced t+e *ra.0ers+ip in Governin/ <oards o* Govern.0ers o* t+e /overnin/ 0odies or 0oards o* various /overn..plis+ed 0y its adoption. Gil0erto ?3 Teodoro. and Ed/ardo Tordesillas o* eleven (11) eac+G and Lilia <autista and Teodoro P3 PeWa o* ten (1I) eac+3 1 3 .ultiple o**ices or positions in t+e /overn.ose '3 RoWo o* t6elve (15) eac+G Manuel P3 'l0a.elda R3 Marcos o* t6enty2t+ree (5J)G . in order to construe t+e 6+ole as to . ' *oolproo* yardstic@ in constitutional construction is t+e intention underlyin/ t+e provision under consideration3 T+us. includin/ /overn.

no appointive o**icial s+all +old any ot+er o**ice or e.edy.ploy.ulate anot+er provision.ent in the 0overnment 3B )t is quite nota0le t+at in all t+ese provisions on disquali*ications to +old ot+er o**ice or e..o.pose a stricter pro+i0ition on t+e President and +is o**icial *a.er President Marcos. 0e appointed in any capacity to a civilian position in the 0overnment.ploy. includin/ /overn.e.ent in t+e /overn.ent3 Goin/ *urt+er into Section 1J. t+e pro+i0ition pertains to an o**ice or e.a0inet.ploy.in/ senti. 'rticle ()) 6it+ ot+er provisions o* t+e .onstitutional . participate in any 0usiness.ily is t+ere*ore all2e. B(>)o Senator or Me.in/ 0ot+ elective and appointive pu0lic o**icials. as @eenly o0served 0y Mr3 .ultiple positions in t+e /overn.pensation t+ere*ro.0er o* t+e ar. t+e intent o* t+e *ra.o. . 'rticle )A2<. relied upon 0y respondents provides B(E)nless ot+er6ise allo6ed 0y la6 or 0y t+e pri. one o* t+e stron/est sellin/ points o* t+e 1 "% .onstitution durin/ t+e ca. convened as it 6as a*ter t+e people success*ully unseated *or.ploy. s+ould dra*t into its proposed . 6ould 0e discontinued3 <ut 6+at is indeed si/ni*icant is t+e *act t+at alt+ou/+ Section %. B(>)o .onstitution itsel*3 Evidently.ent in the government and /overn. durin/ said tenure.ent in the 0overnment 3 3 3B3 Ender Section H(&).ay +old any ot+er o**ice or e.ent3 )n *act.ent su0su. not 0ein/ quali*ied 0y t+e p+rase Bin t+e Govern. t+e evils t+at *lo6 *ro.e3 )t 6as t+ere*ore quite inevita0le and in consonance 6it+ t+e over6+el.ent3B T+e pro+i0ition i.ent or else6+ere is concerned3 Moreover.onstitution t+e provisions under consideration 6+ic+ are envisioned to re. unless ot+er6ise provided in t+is . 'rticle A().ent o* t+e people t+at t+e 1 "! . t+e disquali*ication is a0solute. *ro.ers o* t+e . t+e +oldin/ o* .posed on t+e President and +is o**icial *a.ed *orces in t+e active service s+all. t+eir deputies and assistants *ro. (ice2President. at any ti.onstitution 6as to i.ultiple o**ices or e.onstitution on t+e disquali*ications o* certain pu0lic o**icials or e. (ice2President.ary *unctions o* +is position.0ers o* t+e .ent in t+e /overn.ploy. +oldin/ any ot+er o**ice or e. +old any ot+er o**ice or e.ustice )sa/ani '3 . t+e .e.0ers o* t+e .ent durin/ t+eir tenure3B )n t+e latter provision.ission. 'rticle )2A< already contains a 0lan@et pro+i0ition a/ainst t+e +oldin/ o* .ru= durin/ t+e deli0erations in t+ese cases.ent.a0inet. speci*ically pro+i0itin/ t+e President. t+e Me.0er o* t+e 9ouse o* Representatives .ent2o6ned or controlled corporations or t+eir su0sidiaries3 )n stri@in/ contrast is t+e 6ordin/ o* Section 1J.ploy.ploy. directly or indirectly.a0inet . or 0e .onstitutional .pai/n *or its rati*ication 6as t+e assurance /iven 0y its proponents t+at t+e scandalous practice o* .e.ily in so *ar as +oldin/ ot+er o**ices or e. unless ot+er6ise provided in t+e . Sec3 1J.ent3 Ender Section 1J.ploy.ent2o6ned or controlled corporations or any o* t+eir su0sidiaries3B Even Section % (5).ental o**ices and e. and t+eir deputies or assistants s+all not.ployees *ro.T+e 0latant 0etrayal o* pu0lic trust evolved into one o* t+e serious causes o* discontent 6it+ t+e Marcos re/i. i* not correct. 'rticle ()). +oldin/ ot+er o**ices or e. suc+ intent is underscored 0y a co. 'rticle ()) 6+ic+ states t+at B(T)+e President. t+e second sentence provides$ BT+ey s+all not.onstitution.ove as 6ell as in t+e di**erent p+raseolo/ies o* t+e constitutional provisions in question.e.0ers +oldin/ .. practice any ot+er pro*ession.ploy.ission s+ould see it *it to *or.ultiple /overn.0racin/ and covers 0ot+ pu0lic and private o**ice or e.parison o* Section 1J.ploy. 'rticle ().ent and collectin/ unconsciona0ly excessive co. t+is .ploy.ent durin/ t+eir tenure. 'rticle ()).

. under Section 1J o* 'rticle ()) is allo6ed to +old ot+er o**ice or e. .a0inet.onstitutionB . 6+ile all ot+er appointive o**icials in t+e civil service are allo6ed to +old ot+er o**ice or e. t+eir deputies and assistants 6it+ respect to +oldin/ ot+er o**ices or e. on t+e ot+er.ed *orces.0ers o* t+e ar. are called *or 0ecause t+ere is . t+eir deputies and assistants .e.0ers o* t+e civil service in /eneral and .ent or desi/nation in any capacity to any pu0lic o**ice or position durin/ +is tenure3B Surely.pose a stricter pro+i0ition on t+e President.onstitution itsel*3 )n ot+er 6ords. t+e quali*yin/ p+rase Bunless ot+er6ise provided in t+is . (ice2President.o. Me.ilarly i.ediately 0elo6 'ssistant Secretary do6n6ards. t+ere*ore. 'rticle ()) is .onstitutional .onstitutionB in Section 1J.ore c+ee@s and restraints on t+e.a0inet 0ecause t+ey exercise .ent durin/ t+eir tenure3 RespondentsD interpretation t+at Section 1J o* 'rticle ()) ad.o..onstitution to i.ission to 0e stricter 6it+ t+e President and +is o**icial *a. are proo* o* t+e intent o* t+e 1 "% .*inancially interested in any contract 6it+. respondentsD readin/ o* t+e provisions in question 6ould render certain parts o* t+e .entality t+ereo*... 6ould render nu/atory and .eant to lay do6n t+e /eneral rule applica0le to all elective and appointive pu0lic o**icials and e. 'rticle ()) cannot possi0ly re*er to t+e 0road exceptions provided under Section %.ent or any su0division.issioner Re/alado Maa.0ers o* t+e .ore po6ers and.ploy. on t+e one +and. ori/inally *ound in t+e General Provisions and t+e anticipated report on t+e Executive Cepart.a0inet.e.ivil Service pro+i0itions.ented. t+e President to 'ssistant Secretary. 'rticle )2A< o* t+e 1 "% .its o* t+e exceptions *ound in Section %.ani*est intent and purpose o* t+e *ra.ers o* t+e . .ore possi0ility o* a0use in t+eir case3B 1< T+us. t+e ran@ i.o. 6+ile Section 1J.o. . B8e actually +ave to 0e stricter 6it+ t+e President and t+e .eant to 0e t+e exception applica0le only to t+e President. t+e (ice2 President.0ers o* t+e .ay do so only 6+en expressly aut+ori=ed 0y t+e .onstitution to treat t+e President and +is o**icial *a. all2e.onstitution inoperative3 T+is o0servation applies particularly to t+e (ice2President 6+o. or in any *ranc+ise. 0ut 6+o as an elective pu0lic o**icial under Sec3 %.etry 0et6een t+e .ploy.ploy.0ers o* .ent 6+en so aut+ori=ed 0y t+e . Me.posed on t+e President and +is o**icial *a.ployees suc+ as t+e Me.o.on/ress.ily.0on/ noted durin/ t+e *loor deli0erations and de0ate t+at t+ere 6as no sy.. or special privile/e /ranted 0y t+e Govern.eanin/less t+e .issioner (icente #o= a*ter .ers o* t+e .posed on ot+er pu0lic o**icials or e.ent2o6ned or controlled corporations or t+eir su0sidiaries3B T+ese s6eepin/.ary *unctions o* t+eir positions. par3 (5) o* 'rticle )A2< 6ould o0literate t+e distinction so care*ully set 0y t+e *ra. . par3 (1) o* 'rticle )2A< is a0solutely ineli/i0le B*or appoint.onstitution3 To construe said quali*yin/ p+rase as respondents 6ould +ave us do.pose upon said class stricter pro+i0itions3 Suc+ intent o* t+e 1 "! .onstitution as to 6+en t+e +i/+2ran@in/ o**icials o* t+e Executive <ranc+ *ro..ent3 .ily as a class 0y itsel* and to i.ay +old any ot+er o**ice or position in t+e /overn.ent durin/ t+eir tenure 6+en suc+ is allo6ed 0y la6 or 0y t+e pri.ent in t+e /overn.ent durin/ t+eir tenure3 Moreover.e. and t+e /enerality o* civil servants *ro. 6+ic+ pro+i0itions are not si. a/ency or instru. includin/ /overn. to say t+at t+e p+rase Bunless ot+er6ise provided in t+is .0ers o* t+e . 'rticle )2A< is .issioner #o= .0ers o* t+e .ployees.0racin/ pro+i0itions i. t+eir deputies and assistants3 T+is 0ein/ t+e case.e..a0inet.onstitution. Section %.ent in t+e /overn.ily 6as also succinctly articulated 0y .

ploy.e. t+e Executive Secretary. 'rticle ())G or actin/ as President in t+ose instances provided under Section %.e . 'rticle ())3 )t is a 6ell2esta0lis+ed rule in .ust lean in *avor o* a construction 6+ic+ 6ill render every 6ord operative. t+eir deputies and assistants 6it+ respect to +oldin/ .a0inet under Section J. i 3 e 3. a. 'rticle ()) is pro+i0itory so t+at it .ust 0e read 6it+ equal severity3 ?n its *ace. and t+e Secretaries o* >ational Ce*ense. and one section is not to 0e allo6ed to de*eat anot+er.onstitution aut+ori=in/ t+e (ice2President to 0eco.e a . to 0e considered alone.ent and Local Govern.onstitutional construction t+at no one provision o* t+e . par3 (1) o* 'rticle )2A< providin/ t+e /eneral rule and t+e ot+er.ust +ar. t+e t6o can 0e . par3 (1) o* 'rticle )2A< 6ould render .ent3 (erily. 1 5 and to act as President 6it+out relinquis+in/ t+e (ice2Presidency 6+ere t+e President s+all not +ave 0een c+osen or *ails to quali*y3 1 / Suc+ a0surd consequence can 0e avoided only 0y interpretin/ t+e t6o provisions under consideration as one. 'rticle ()) as constitutin/ t+e exception t+ereto3 )n t+e sa. .position o* additional duties and *unctions on said o**icials3 2 3 To c+aracteri=e t+ese posts ot+er6ise 6ould lead to a0surd consequences.eanin/less t+e speci*ic provisions o* t+e .ent under Section 1J.ploy.ust not.ploy.ouncil reor/ani=ed under Executive ?rder >o3 11H (Cece.0er o* t+e .0ers o* t+e . t+e Secretary o* .plation o* t+e constitutional pro+i0ition 0ut are properly an i. pars3 (5) and (J). par3 (5).0er o* t+e .0er 5&.ust Section %. t+e court . 'rticle ()) o* t+e .onstitution is to 0e separated *ro. . t+e lan/ua/e o* Section 1J. +o6ever.a0inet. to 6it$ t+e (ice2President 0ein/ appointed as a .onstitution is to i. i* practica0le.onstitution itsel*.ent o**ices or e.udicial and <ar .*ound in Section 1J.pose a stricter pro+i0ition on t+e President.ultiple /overn. 1 "!)3 >eit+er can t+e (ice2President. Section 1J.on/ 6+ic+ are$ T+e President o* t+e P+ilippines cannot c+air t+e >ational Security .ent sit in .ay .ent in t+e /overn. 'rticle ()))3 T+e pro+i0ition a/ainst +oldin/ dual or .prise Bany ot+er o**iceB 6it+in t+e conte. 0e construed as applyin/ to posts occupied 0y t+e Executive o**icials speci*ied t+erein 6it+out additional co.oni=e t+e.ultiple o**ices or e.ultiple o**ices or e.0er o* t+e . La0or and E.ust 0e /iven a literal interpretation to re*er only to t+ose particular instances cited in t+e .ustice. rat+er t+an one 6+ic+ .ers o* t+e 1 "% .a0inet. it is to 0e understood as intended to 0e a positive and unequivocal ne/ation3 2 1 T+e p+rase Bunless ot+er6ise provided in t+is . 6+erever t+e lan/ua/e used in t+e constitution is pro+i0itory.pensation in an ex'officio capacity as provided 0y la6 and as required 2 2 0y t+e pri.ade to stand to/et+er3 1 9 )n ot+er 6ords.ploy..ary *unctions o* said o**icialsD o**ice3 T+e reason is t+at t+ese posts do no co. Section %. all t+e ot+ers. (ice2President.onstitutionB .ent3 1 7 Sections 0earin/ on a particular su01ect s+ould 0e considered and interpreted to/et+er as to e**ectuate t+e 6+ole purpose o* t+e .e.e. 'rticle ()) +as re*erence to Section %. i 3 e 3.onstitution 1 .ent durin/ t+eir tenure.ouncil 0y virtue o* Section " (1). and .a@e t+e 6ords idle and nu/atory3 2 0 Since t+e evident purpose o* t+e *ra. 0ut t+at all t+e provisions 0earin/ upon a particular su01ect are to 0e 0rou/+t into vie6 and to 0e so interpreted as to e**ectuate t+e /reat purposes o* t+e instru. 'rticle ())G and.ustice 0ein/ ex'officio . t+e exception to t+is pro+i0ition .ust 0e understood as intended to 0e a positive and unequivocal ne/ation o* t+e privile/e o* +oldin/ .onstitution .anner .e. par3 (5) o* 'rticle )2A< 0e construed vis' a'vis Section 1J. i* 0y any reasona0le construction.

'rticle ()) is not to 0e interpreted as coverin/ positions +eld 6it+out additional co.portance and t+us .possi0le or t+e i.ust 0e required 0y t+e o**icialDs pri.an and . cannot. under t+e act.0er 0y virtue o* +is title to a certain o**ice. 0ut rat+er annexed to t+e o**icial position3B +x' officio li@e6ise denotes an Bact done in an o**icial c+aracter.0er o* a 0oard is one 6+o is a .andin/ t+e i.aryB used to descri0e B*unctionsB re*ers to t+e order o* i.ples o* desi/nations to positions 0y virtue o* oneDs pri. 0ut . o**icial c+aracter .ust already 0e +oldin/ positions in t+e o**ices .t+is .oney. vie6ed as a continuously operative c+arter o* /overn.ary *unctions o* t+e concerned o**icialDs o**ice3 T+e ter. 3 1 t+us$ B'n exa. is not restricted to t+e sin/ular 0ut .ay re*er to t+e plural3 3 3 T+e additional duties . 6ould also 0e pro+i0ited3 T+e Secretary o* La0or and E.ouncil.e. o**iceG 0y virtue o* o**ice3B )t re*ers to an Baut+ority derived *ro.ents are necessary3 T+is is as it s+ould 0e.eans B*ro. *or instance.. i* possi0le.ent in t+e <ureau o* .o. 6+ic+ 6ould t+en +ave no reason to exist *or lac@ o* a c+airperson and . and 6it+out *urt+er 6arrant or appoint.ent *or policy coordination and /uidance3 >eit+er can +is Endersecretaries and 'ssistant Secretaries c+air t+ese a/encies3 T+e Secretaries o* #inance and <ud/et cannot sit in t+e Monetary <oard3 2 < >eit+er can t+eir respective undersecretaries and assistant secretaries3 T+e . t+e Secretary o* Transportation and .usto.eanin/ o* an ex'officio position in /afael vs 3 +mbroidery and . not expressly con*erred upon t+e individual c+aracter.ent 'd.ers o* our .ent.) or t+e P+ilippine ?verseas E. 2 9 and t+e Li/+t Rail Transit 'ut+ority3 3 0 T+e . 0an@in/ and credit3 2 5 )ndeed. t+e *ra. t+e ot+er o**ices3 >o ne6 appoint.ploy. t+e private sector. and 6it+out any ot+er appoint.e.ary *unctions3 Exa. 0ot+ o* 6+ic+ are attac+ed to +is depart. 0e desi/nated a representative *ro.ust not only 0e closely related to.practica0leG and unreasona0le or a0surd consequences.pparel &ontrol and :nspection -oard.entral <an@ Governor 6ould t+en 0e assisted 0y lo6er ran@in/ e.ployees in providin/ policy direction in t+e areas o* .inistration (P?E').e.ent cannot c+air t+e <oard o* Trustees o* t+e >ational Manpo6er and :out+ . ex'officio .unications is t+e ex'officio .pensation in ex'officio capacities as provided 0y la6 and as required 0y t+e pri.e is true 6it+ respect to t+e representatives *ro.ent3 2 .entioned in t+e la63 T+us.0ers3 T+e respective undersecretaries and assistant secretaries. t+at o**ice3 T+e sa. is not to 0e interpreted as de.erely. t+e pro+i0ition under Section 1J.onstitution.ploy. To illustrate.e.ary *unctions are .ination o* section 5 o* t+e questioned statute (R3'3 J1J%) reveals t+at *or t+e c+air. one 6+o does not +old a previous appoint. or as a consequence o* o**ice.ourt +ad occasion to explain t+e . 0ecause t+e representatives so desi/nated merely perform duties in the -oard in addition to those already performed under their original appointments 3B 3 2 T+e ter.0ers o* t+e <oard to quali*y t+ey need only 0e desi/nated 0y t+e respective depart.ent +eads3 8it+ t+e exception o* t+e representative *ro.an o* t+e <oard o* t+e P+ilippine Ports 'ut+ority.ouncil (>M:. t+ey sit ex'officio 3 )n order to 0e desi/nated t+ey .eans c+ie* or principal *unction3 T+e ter. s+ould 0e avoided3 2 / To reiterate.onstitution could not +ave intended suc+ a0surd consequences3 ' . Bpri.+air.ent or aut+ority t+an t+at con*erred 0y t+e o**ice3B 2 7 'n ex'officio .s. 0y express provision o* la6.

or an allo6ance.ans+ips or directors+ips in /overn.ily to sit in t+e /overnin/ 0odies or 0oards o* /overn.e under t+e 1urisdiction o* +is depart.otely related.onstitution. re. 6+et+er it 0e in t+e *or. suc+ additional *unctions 6ould *all under t+e purvie6 o* Bany ot+er o**iceB pro+i0ited 0y t+e .use.an o* t+e Mariti. without receiving any additional compensation therefor 3 T+e ex'officio position 0ein/ actually and in le/al conte.ited to c+air.ent *unctions andKor .e. to +ave control o* all t+e executive depart.ent3 #or suc+ attendance. suc+ additional duties or *unctions . or ot+er6ise alien to t+e pri.e rule applies to suc+ positions 6+ic+ con*er on t+e ca0inet o**icial .ple.onetary co. 0ureaus and o**ices and to ensure t+at t+e la6s are *ait+*ully executed3 3 5 8it+out t+ese additional duties and *unctions 0ein/ assi/ned to t+e President and +is o**icial *a. or an +onorariu.pensation is pro+i0ited 0y t+e .0er t+ereo*.pensation attac+ed to +is principal o**ice3 )t s+ould 0e o0vious t+at i*.e ot+er suc+ eup+e.a0inet .onstitution3 )t is interestin/ to note t+at durin/ t+e *loor deli0erations on t+e proposal o* . expertise and s@ill in t+eir respective executive o**ices is a practice lon/2reco/ni=ed in .3 <y 6+atever na.entalities in an ex'officio capacity as provided 0y la6 and as required 0y t+eir pri. t+eir deputies or assistants 6+ic+ are not inconsistent 6it+ t+ose already prescri0ed 0y t+eir o**ices or appoint.. (ice2President. policy direction.ust 0e required by the primary functions of the official concerned.orporation3 T+e sa.pati0le. 'rticle ()) o* t+e 1 "% . suc+ as 0ut not li.onstitution3 'n exa.in/ t+e pri.is. and t+e Secretary o* Transportation and .plation part o* t+e principal o**ice.a0inet Me. continuity and coordination a. inco. who is to perform the same in an ex'officio capacity as provided by law. t+e Secretary o* #inance attends a .0ers o* t+e Monetary <oard.ary *unctions.+air.plation per*or.ents.ands o* e**iciency. +e is actually and in le/al conte. +e is not entitled to collect any extra co.ed are .unications actin/ as .e.erely incidental.entin/ la6s a**ectin/ national interest and /eneral 6el*are and deliverin/ 0asic services to t+e people3 )t is consistent 6it+ t+e po6er vested on t+e President and +is alter e/os.ulti*arious tas@s o* executin/ and i.0ers.e it is desi/nated.pensation.0ers. t+ere*ore. t+e .ple 6ould 0e t+e Press Endersecretary sittin/ as a .pensation.ents 0y virtue o* t+eir special @no6led/e.0odied in Section 1J.eans *or control and resultin/ in an un6ieldy and con*used 0ureaucracy3 )t 0ears repeatin/ t+ou/+ t+at in order t+at suc+ additional duties or *unctions .e. 6+ic+ co.ay not trans/ress t+e pro+i0ition e.in/ . . o* a per t+e. suc+ additional co.eetin/ o* t+e Monetary <oard as an ex'officio . t+ey 6ould 0e supervision.pensation *or +is services in t+e said position3 T+e reason is t+at t+ese services are already paid *or and covered 0y t+e co.ary *unction o* +is principal o**ice in de*inin/ policy in .issioner .. t+ere0y deprived o* t+e .ental a/encies or instru.ivil 'eronautics <oard3 )* t+e *unctions required to 0e per*or.any 1urisdictions3 )t is a practice 1usti*ied 0y t+e de.e )ndustry 'ut+ority 3 < and t+e .ary *unction o* a ca0inet o**icial. inconsistent.onetary and 0an@in/ .0er o* t+e <oard o* t+e P+ilippine '.ana/e.t+e Secretaries o* #inance and <ud/et sittin/ as . it *ollo6s t+at t+e o**icial concerned +as no ri/+t to receive additional co.o.o.ent and Ga.ent2o6ned or controlled corporations and t+eir su0sidiaries3 Mandatin/ additional duties and *unctions to t+e President.e.atters. or so.on/ t+e di**erent o**ices in t+e Executive <ranc+ in t+e disc+ar/e o* its . say.

resort t+ereto .ission +ad 0een approved on t+ird readin/ on .issioner Monsod pointed out t+at t+ere are instances 6+en alt+ou/+ not required 0y current la6.posed upon +i.ent.. < 0 6+ile t+e article on t+e Executive Cepart. containin/ t+e .issioners too@ place in t+e plenary session o* Septe.ily is 0y reason o* t+e le/al principles /overnin/ additional *unctions and duties o* pu0lic o**icials rat+er t+an 0y virtue o* Section %.uly 55.0ers+ip o* certain +i/+2ran@in/ executive o**icials in other offices and corporations is necessary 0y reason o* said o**icialsD pri.uc+ less o* t+e .+ristian Monsod to add to Section %.onstitution.. 8+ile t+is exc+an/e 0et6een .o.ore speci*ic pro+i0ition in Section 1J.ission3 T+at t+is exception 6ould in t+e *inal analysis apply also to t+e President and +is o**icial *a.attin/ and Bstylin/B 0y t+e .B 0y t+e pri.ittee on Style t+at said Section J o* t+e General Provisions 0eca.s o* t+e ..onstitution +ad under/one re*or. 1 "!. ori/inally *ound as Section J o* t+e General Provisions. +o6ever.a0inet 6ere .issioner <las ?ple.ittee Resolution >o3 HJ1 6+ic+ 6as t+e proposed article on General Provisions3 3 9 't t+at ti.onstitutional .e. 6it+out o**endin/ t+e constitutional pro+i0ition under consideration. 1 "!3 Ender consideration t+en 6as Section J o* . +ad also 0een earlier approved on t+ird readin/ on 'u/ust 5!. it could +ave re26orded said Section 1J to con*or. par3 5.ade3 3 7 Respondin/ to a query o* .ary *unctionsB as t+e 0asis o* an exception to t+e /eneral rule coverin/ all appointive pu0lic o**icials3 9ad t+e .o. and as indicatin/ t+e reasons *or t+eir votes..ental la63 8e t+in@ it sa*er to construe t+e constitution *ro.ary *unctions .ary *unctions o* +is position3 3 3 3B 8+at 6as clearly 0ein/ discussed t+en 6ere /eneral principles 6+ic+ 6ould serve as constitutional /uidelines in t+e a0sence o* speci*ic constitutional provisions on t+e . 6+at appears upon its *ace3B < 3 .ivil Service . 0e ta@en as aut+ority *or sayin/ t+at t+is exception is 0y virtue o* Section %.ade it clear t+at only t+e additional *unctions and duties Brequired...ple /iven 0y . 'rticle )A2< 't any rate. t+e exception Bunless required 0y t+e *unctions o* +is position.ited p+rase Bpri.ent t+e *orce o* *unda.o. par3 (5) o* 'rticle )2A<3 T+is colloquy 0et6een t+e t6o . . to t+e 6ider exceptions provided in t+en Section J o* t+e proposed /eneral Provisions.e Section %. t+e article on t+e .ay 0e +ad only 6+en ot+er /uides *ail < 2 as said proceedin/s are po6erless to vary t+e ter.B as opposed to Ballo6ed. . par3 (5) o* 'rticle )A2< and re6orded BEnless ot+er6ise allo6ed 0y la6 or 0y t+e pri.e.atter3 8+at 6as pri.ission intended to dilute t+e speci*ic pro+i0ition in said Section 1J o* 'rticle ()). 1 "!3 < 1 )t 6as only a*ter t+e dra*t .ay 0e considered as not constitutin/ Bany ot+er o**ice3B 8+ile it is per.ay 0e used as aut+ority *or sayin/ t+at additional *unctions and duties *lo6in/ *ro..ary *unctions3 T+e exa.0ers o* t+e . par3 (5) o* 'rticle )A2< on t+e ..o.o..a1ority 6+o did not tal@.issioners Monsod and ?ple ..arily at issue and approved on t+at occasion 6as t+e adoption o* t+e quali*ied and deli. later placed as Section %.e. t+e pri.o.B 3 / express re*erence to certain +i/+2ran@in/ appointive pu0lic o**icials li@e .ivil Service .issi0le in t+is 1urisdiction to consult t+e de0ates and proceedin/s o* t+e constitutional convention in order to arrive at t+e reason and purpose o* t+e resultin/ .o.0ers.onstitution 6+en t+e .ass o* our *ello6 citi=ens 6+ose votes at t+e polls /ave t+at instru.ary *unctions o* t+e o**icial . 0ut t+ey /ive us no li/+t as to t+e vie6s o* t+e lar/e . it cannot.issioner Monsod 6as t+e Minister o* Trade and )ndustry3 3 ..e. 6e +ave . par3 (5).ay 0e i.eanin/ is clear3 Ce0ates in t+e constitutional convention Bare o* value as s+o6in/ t+e vie6s o* t+e individual . . 'rticle )A2<.o.o.o.0er 5%.

ploy.andate o* Section 1J. s@ills and expertise3 )* .uly 5J.onstitution itsel* and as a0ove clari*ied 6it+ respect to posts +eld 6it+out additional co. t+e court +ere0y orders respondents Secretary o* Environ. 0ene*its are to 0e derived *ro.T+e proper interpretation t+ere*ore depends . *ro. 'rticle )A2< o* t+e 1 "% . . su**ice it to say t+at t+e *eared i. particularly at t+is sta/e o* our national and econo. *ar out6ei/+ t+e 0ene*its. i* any. undersecretaries or assistant secretaries . @no6led/e and expertise.ary *unctions o* t+eir o**ice. as it 6as in *act one o* its 0est sellin/ points.ere personal opinions 6+ic+ cannot override t+e constitutionDs . 'rticle ()) on t+e operations o* t+e Govern. par3 (5).e.0ers 6ould 0e stripped o* t+eir o**ices +eld in an ex' officio capacity. except in t+ose cases speci*ied in t+e .ent +ead spreadin/ +i.plation o* t+e constitutional pro+i0ition3 8it+ respect to ot+er o**ices or e.on/ too .os.e. speciali=ed @no6led/e.0ers o* t+e .ent < 5 Luis Santos.a0inet . t+eir deputies or assistants *ro.ean 1o03 )t is . t+at t+e 1 "% .r3. t+e citation o* .ent3 9e s+ould 0e precluded *ro.ent.ani*est intent and t+e peopleD understandin/ t+ereo*3 )n t+e li/+t o* t+e construction /iven to Section 1J.pensation as provided 0y la6 and as required 0y t+e pri.any positions o* responsi0ility. Secretary o* >ational Ce*ense #idel (3 Ra.ent corporations.ary positions or 0y virtue o* le/islation3 's earlier clari*ied in t+is decision. Secretary o* 9ealt+ .e. unless ot+er6ise provided in t+e 1 "% . a strict application o* t+e pro+i0ition .ent and >atural Resources #ul/encio #actoran.ploy.ent and /overn. 'rticle ()) o* t+e 1 "% .ultiple o**ices or e. Executive ?rder >o3 5"& actually allo6s t+e. t+at .practical consequences t+at 6ill result *ro.ent in t+e /overn.ent +eld 0y virtue o* le/islation. to +old .e 1o0.0ers. +e s+ould 0e allo6ed to attend to +is duties and responsi0ilities 6it+out t+e distraction o* ot+er /overn. (ice2President.ore on +o6 it 6as understood 0y t+e people adoptin/ it t+an in t+e *ra.ultiple o**ices or e.ay +old in addition to t+eir pri. a depart.sel* too t+in and ta@in/ in .ersDs understandin/ t+ereo*3 < < )t 0ein/ clear.onstitution itsel*3 T+e .ourt is alerted 0y respondents to t+e i. +oldin/ durin/ t+eir tenure . a depart. 'rticle ()) in relation to Section %.ary position to not .ent in direct contravention o* t+e express .a0inet.practical consequences are .ent.ploy.onstitution.ay 0e /ained *ro. Executive ?rder >o3 5"& dated .ore t+an 6+at +e can +andle3 #indin/ Executive ?rder >o3 5"& to 0e constitutionally in*ir..0er o* positions t+at .u.ent +eadDs a0ility and expertise.e. Secretary o* Local Govern.0ers (t+en called Ministers) as exa. .ples durin/ t+e de0ate and deli0eration on t+e /eneral rule laid do6n *or all appointive o**icials s+ould 0e considered as .onstitution see@s to pro+i0it t+e President. 1 "% is unconstitutional3 ?stensi0ly restrictin/ t+e nu. considerin/ t+at . attention and ener/y a.ental o**ices or e.ic develop.onstitution pro+i0itin/ t+e. 6+ic+ . dissipatin/ +is e**orts. includin/ c+air. t+is concentration o* attention. ex'officio posts +eld 0y t+e executive o**icial concerned 6it+out additional co.a0inet .ore apparent t+an real3 <ein/ +ead o* an executive depart.axi.ay result in +ap+a=ardness and ine**iciency3 Surely t+e advanta/es to 0e derived *ro.ans+ips or directors+ips in /overn.a0inet .ore t+an a *ull2ti. requirin/ *ull attention.ore t+an t6o (5) positions in t+e /overn.ent2o6ned or controlled corporations and t+eir su0sidiaries. doin/ so.ploy.ent.ent is no . 0y reason o* t+eir pri.pensation in an ex'officio capacity as provided 0y la6 and as required 0y t+e pri.ary *unctions o* +is o**ice do not *all under t+e de*inition o* Bany ot+er o**iceB 6it+in t+e conte.andated under Section 1J.

'l*redo R3'3 <en/=on and Secretary o* t+e <ud/et Guiller.o ,ara/ue to i..ediately relinquis+ t+eir ot+er o**ices or e.ploy.ent, as +erein de*ined, in t+e /overn.ent, includin/ /overn.ent2 o6ned or controlled corporations and t+eir su0sidiaries3 8it+ respect to t+e ot+er na.ed respondents, t+e petitions +ave 0eco.e .oot and acade.ic as t+ey are no lon/er occupyin/ t+e positions co.plained o*3 Curin/ t+eir tenure in t+e questioned positions, respondents .ay 0e considered de facto o**icers and as suc+ entitled to e.olu.ents *or actual services rendered3 < / )t +as 0een +eld t+at Bin cases 6+ere t+ere is no de (ure, o**icer, a de facto o**icer, 6+o, in /ood *ait+ +as +ad possession o* t+e o**ice and +as disc+ar/ed t+e duties pertainin/ t+ereto, is le/ally entitled to t+e e.olu.ents o* t+e o**ice, and .ay in an appropriate action recover t+e salary, *ees and ot+er co.pensations attac+ed to t+e o**ice3 T+is doctrine is, undou0tedly, supported on equita0le /rounds since it see.s un1ust t+at t+e pu0lic s+ould 0ene*it 0y t+e services o* an o**icer de facto and t+en 0e *reed *ro. all lia0ility to pay any one *or suc+ services3 < 7 'ny per die., allo6ances or ot+er e.olu.ents received 0y t+e respondents 0y virtue o* actual services rendered in t+e questioned positions .ay t+ere*ore 0e retained 0y t+e.3 89ERE#?RE, su01ect to t+e quali*ication a0ove2stated, t+e petitions are GR'>TEC3 Executive ?rder >o3 5"& is +ere0y declared null and void and is accordin/ly set aside3

C*v*' L*.%r"*%s ,-*o- v EA%c$"*v% S%cr%"ar? (19< SCRA 317!

4A%(S3 T+e petitioner are assailin/ t+e Executive ?rder >o3 5"& issued 0y t+e President allo6in/ ca0inet .e.0ers, undersecretary or asst3 secretaries and ot+er appointive o**icials o* t+e executive depart.ent to +old 5 positions in t+e /overn.ent and /overn.ent corporations and to receive additional co.pensation3 T+ey *ind it unconstitutional a/ainst t+e provision provided 0y Section 1J, 'rticle ()) pro+i0itin/ t+e President, ,a0inet .e.0ers and t+eir deputies to +old any ot+er o**ice or e.ploy.ent3 Section %, par3 (5), 'rticle )A2< *urt+er states t+at -Enless ot+er6ise allo6ed 0y la6 or 0y t+e pri.ary *unctions o* +is position, no appointive o**icial s+all +old any ot+er o**ice or e.ploy.ent in t+e Govern.ent or any su0division, a/ency or instru.entality t+ereo*, includin/ /overn.ent2o6ned or controlled corporation or t+eir su0sidiaries3B )n t+e opinion o* t+e C?; as a**ir.ed 0y t+e Solicitor General, t+e said Executive ?rder is valid and constitutional as Section % o* 'rticle )A2< stated -unless ot+er6ise allo6ed 0y la64 6+ic+ is construed to 0e an exe.ption *ro. t+at stipulated on 'rticle ()), section 1J, suc+ as in t+e case o* t+e (ice President 6+o is constitutionally allo6ed to 0eco.e a ca0inet .e.0er and t+e Secretary o* ;ustice as ex2o**icio .e.0er o* t+e ;udicial and <ar ,ouncil3

ISS5 3 8+et+er Section % o* 'rticle )A2< provides an exe.ption to 'rticle ()), section 1J o* t+e

constitution3

R5$I673 T+e court +eld it is not an exe.ption since t+e le/islative intent o* 0ot+ ,onstitutional provisions is to prevent /overn.ent o**icials *ro. +oldin/ .ultiple positions in t+e /overn.ent *or sel* enric+.ent 6+ic+ a 0etrayal o* pu0lic trust3 Section %, 'rticle )2A< is .eant to lay do6n t+e /eneral rule applica0le to all elective and appointive pu0lic o**icials and e.ployees, 6+ile Section 1J, 'rticle ()) is .eant to 0e t+e exception applica0le only to t+e President, t+e (ice2 President, Me.0ers o* t+e ,a0inet, t+eir deputies and assistants3 T+us t+e p+rase -unless ot+er6ise provided 0y t+e ,onstitution4 in Section 1J, 'rticle ()) cannot 0e construed as a 0road exception *ro. Section % o* 'rticle )A2< t+at is contrary to t+e le/islative intent o* 0ot+ constitutional provisions3 Suc+ p+rase is only li.ited to and strictly applies only to particular instances o* allo6in/ t+e (P to 0eco.e a ca0inet .e.0er and t+e Secretary o* ;ustice as ex2o**icio .e.0er o* t+e ;udicial and <ar ,ouncil3 T+e court t+ere0y declared E3? 5"& as null and void3

IsaDa-* Cr$M vs DENR ;n 4anuary "J, "21" 9and Titles and Aeeds @ :)/. 9aw vis a vis /egalian Aoctrine ,ru=, a noted constitutionalist, assailed t+e validity o* t+e R' "J%1 or t+e )ndi/enous People7s Ri/+ts 'ct on t+e /round t+at t+e la6 a.ount to an unla6*ul deprivation o* t+e State7s o6ners+ip over lands o* t+e pu0lic do.ain as 6ell as .inerals and ot+er natural resources t+erein, in violation o* t+e re/alian doctrine e.0odied in Section 5, 'rticle A)) o* t+e ,onstitution3 T+e )PR' la6 0asically enu.erates t+e ri/+ts o* t+e indi/enous peoples over ancestral do.ains 6+ic+ .ay include natural resources3 ,ru= et al contend t+at, 0y providin/ *or an all2enco.passin/ de*inition o* -ancestral do.ains4 and -ancestral lands4 6+ic+ .i/+t even include private lands *ound 6it+in said areas, Sections J(a) and J(0) o* said la6 violate t+e ri/+ts o* private lando6ners3 ISS,E# 8+et+er or not t+e )PR' la6 is unconstitutional3 &ELD# T+e S, deli0erated upon t+e .atter3 '*ter deli0eration t+ey voted and reac+ed a %2% vote3 T+ey deli0erated a/ain and t+e sa.e result transpired3 Since t+ere 6as no .a1ority vote, ,ru=7s petition 6as dis.issed and t+e )PR' la6 6as sustained3 9ence, ancestral do.ains .ay include pu0lic do.ain – so.e+o6 a/ainst t+e re/alian doctrine3 Repu0lic o* t+e P+ilippines S,)REME CO,RT Manila E> <'>,

G.R. No. L-32<32 S%B"%+.%r 11 1970

MAN,EL 1. IM1ONG petitioner, vs3 2AIME FERRER as Cha*r+a- o@ "h% Co+%'%c LINO M. )ATA2O a-( CESAR MILAFLOR as +%+.%rs "h%r%o@ respondents3 G.R. No. L-32<<3 S%B"%+.%r 11 1970 IN T&E MATTER OF A )ETITION FOR DECLARATOR6 2,DGMENT REGARDING T&E 5ALIDIT6 OF R.A. No. /132 OT&ER4ISE 3NO4N AS T&E CONSTIT,TIONAL CON5ENTION ACT OF 1970. RA,L M. GON9ALES petitioner, vs3 COMELEC respondent3 1anuel -. :mbong in his own behalf. /aul 1. 0onzales in his own behalf. ;ffice of the *olicitor 0eneral 3elix E. .ntonio, .cting .ssistant *olicitor 0eneral /icardo 9. )ronove, 4r., and *olicitors /aul :. 0oco, -ernardo ). )ardo, /osalio .. de 9eon, Gicente .. Torres and 0uillermo &. <a7ar for respondents. 9orenzo TaHada, .rturo Tolentino, 4ovito *alonga and +mmanuel )elaez as amici curiae.

MA3ASIAR J.3 T+ese t6o separate 0ut related petitions *or declaratory relie* 6ere *iled pursuant to Sec3 1 o* R3'3 >o3 !1J5 0y petitioners Manuel <3 ).0on/ and Raul M3 Gon=ales, 0ot+ .e.0ers o* t+e <ar, taxpayers and interested in runnin/ as candidates *or dele/ates to t+e ,onstitutional ,onvention3 <ot+ i.pu/n t+e constitutionality o* R3'3 >o3 !1J5, clai.in/ durin/ t+e oral ar/u.ent t+at it pre1udices t+eir ri/+ts as suc+ candidates3 '*ter t+e Solicitor General +ad *iled ans6ers in 0e+al* t+e respondents, +earin/s 6ere +eld at 6+ic+ t+e petitioners and t+e a.ici curiae, na.ely Senator Loren=o TaWada, Senator 'rturo Tolentino, Senator ;ovito Salon/a, and Senator E..anuel Pelae= ar/ued orally3 )t 6ill 0e recalled t+at on Marc+ 1!, 1 !%, ,on/ress, actin/ as a ,onstituent 'sse.0ly pursuant to 'rt3 A( o* t+e ,onstitution, passed Resolution >o3 5 6+ic+ a.on/ ot+ers called *or a ,onstitutional ,onvention to propose constitutional a.end.ents to 0e co.posed o* t6o dele/ates *ro. eac+ representative district 6+o s+all +ave t+e sa.e quali*ications as t+ose o* ,on/ress.en, to 0e elected on t+e second Tuesday o* >ove.0er, 1 %I in accordance 6it+ t+e Revised Election ,ode3 '*ter t+e adoption o* said Res3 >o3 5 in 1 !% 0ut 0e*ore t+e >ove.0er elections o* t+at year, ,on/ress, actin/ as a le/islative 0ody, enacted Repu0lic 'ct >o3 & 1& i.ple.entin/ t+e a*oresaid Resolution >o3 5 and practically restatin/ in toto t+e provisions o* said Resolution >o3 53 ?n ;une 1%, 1 ! , ,on/ress, also actin/ as a ,onstituent 'sse.0ly, passed Resolution >o3 & a.endin/ t+e a*oresaid Resolution >o3 5 o* Marc+ 1!, 1 !% 0y providin/ t+at t+e convention Bs+all 0e co.posed o* J5I dele/ates apportioned a.on/ t+e existin/ representative districts accordin/ to

a@in/ aut+ority.e.entin/ Resolutions >os3 5 and &.onstitutional . 6+et+er elective or appointive.ent o* R3'3 >o3 !1J5 0y .onstituent 'sse. on t+e /rounds.e is .plication.onstitution solely . and par3 1 o* "(a)3 Petitioner Manuel <3 ).ployees. and t+e +oldin/ o*.onvention s+all 0e e.ployees o* corporations or enterprises o* t+e /overn.onstitutional . .entin/ le/islation$ Provided.0led 0ut votin/ separately3 Resolutions >os3 5 and & callin/ *or a constitutional convention 6ere passed 0y t+e required t+ree2 *ourt+s vote3 53 T+e /rant to .pensation o* t+e dele/ates as 6ell as appropriation o* *unds to .0odied in an i.end.ple. H.e quali*ications as t+ose required o* .0ers o* t+e 9ouse o* Representatives.0on/ i. 0y a t+ree2*ourt+s vote o* eac+ 9ouse in 1oint session asse.erely an application o* and in consonance 6it+ t+e pro+i0ition in Sec3 5 o* 'rt3 A)) o* t+e .ed #orces o* t+e P+ilippines. all pu0lic o**icers and e.onvention itsel*.t+e nu.e. 6as recently sustained 0y t+is . as resi/ned *ro.ents or to call a convention *or t+e purpose. t+at a representative district s+all 0e entitled to at least t6o dele/ates.e /rounds advanced 0y petitioner Gon=ales3 : T+e validity o* Sec3 & o* R3'3 >o3 !1J5.0ly o* suc+ plenary aut+ority to call a constitutional convention includes.ple.eet t+e expenses *or t+e election o* dele/ates and *or t+e operation o* t+e . apportion.onstitution and t+at it does not constitute a denial o* due process or o* t+e equal protection o* t+e la63 Li@e6ise.0ody t+e a0ove2. as 6ell as o**icers and e.on/ress as a .0ers o* t+e 'r.0odied in Sections 5. t+e date o* t+e *ilin/ o* t+eir certi*icates o* candidacy. t+e constitutionality o* para/rap+ 5 o* Sec3 "(a) o* R3'3 >o3 !1J5 6as up+eld3 < :: 8it+out *irst considerin/ t+e validity o* its speci*ic provisions. as 6ell as all ot+er i.onstitutional a. 1 %I.on/ress. inter alia. 6+ic+ considers. nu.B 1 Band t+at any ot+er details relatin/ to t+e speci*ic apportion. includin/ . all ot+er po6ers essential to t+e e**ective exercise o* t+e principal po6er /ranted. 0ecause S 13 . t+e .onstitution. and not as a . 6+o s+all +ave t+e sa. election o* dele/ates to.0ly pursuant to 'rt3 A( o* t+e .ent. and expressly repealin/ R3'3 >o3 & 1&3 3 Petitioner Raul M3 Gon=ales assails t+e validity o* t+e entire la6 as 6ell as t+e particular provisions e.0ly.ourt. and co. 6e sustain t+e constitutionality o* t+e enact.entioned details.on/ress actin/ as a le/islative 0ody in t+e exercise o* its 0road la62. except t+e appropriation o* *unds3 J3 8+ile t+e aut+ority to call a constitutional convention is vested 0y t+e present .onstituent 'sse. +as *ull and plenary aut+ority to propose . t+at it s+all not 0e inconsistent 6it+ t+e provisions o* t+is Resolution3B 2 ?n 'u/ust 5&. t+at t+e sa. i. suc+ as t+e po6er to *ix t+e quali*ications.onstituent 'sse. actin/ as a le/islative 0ody.ent o* dele/ates. enacted Repu0lic 'ct >o3 !1J5.pu/ns t+e constitutionality o* only par3 ) o* Sec3 "(a) o* said R3'3 >o3 !1J5 practically on t+e sa.entin/ details indispensa0le to a *ruit*ul convention3 Resolutions >os3 5 and & already e. 6+en actin/ as a .ent. &.0er o* t+eir respective in+a0itants$ Provided.ple.on/ress. 0y virtue o* t+e doctrine o* necessary i.0er.

onstituent 'sse.ici curiae.ple. sittin/ as a .itted to t+is Tri0unal 0y t+e a.ers o* t+e present .sel*.une JI.ption is t+at t+e *actual predicate. 6+ic+ are no6 contained in Resolutions >os3 5 and & as 6ell as in R3'3 >o3 !1J5.passes all .petence o* .ent o* dele/ates3 T+e Cirector o* t+e <ureau o* . eac+ con/ressional district or *or eac+ province.ent o* t+e representative districts3 5 T+e apportion.ple.entin/ details .on/ress.putation to e**ect t+e desired proportional representation3 T+e records o* t+e proceedin/s on Senate <ill >o3 %% sponsored 0y Senator Pelae= 6+ic+ is no6 R3'3 >o3 !1J5.ay constitutionally allocate one dele/ate *or. actin/ as a le/islative 0ody.on/ t+e existin/ representative districts accordin/ to t+e nu.0ly and adopt a resolution prescri0in/ t+e required i.onstitution 6it+ 6+ic+ it collides3 Enli@e in t+e apportion.ented t+e intent o* . does not exclusively pertain to . 6+en . o* at least t6o dele/ates *or a representative district3 T+e presu.ent o* dele/ates to t+e convention to 0e 0ased on t+e nu. t+e latest availa0le o**icial population census.ini.and exclusively in .atters 6it+in t+e co.ple.erely o0eyed and i. 6+ic+ aut+ority is expressly reco/ni=ed in Sec3 " o* Res >o3 5 as a. 6+ic+ provides t+at t+e J5I dele/ates s+ould 0e apportioned a. t+e .0ly.pliedly require suc+ apportion. 1 %!G and t+at .ple.ple.on/ress.0ly.onsequently.on/ress actin/ as a .entin/ details a*ter callin/ a constitutional convention.y and to avoid +avin/ an un6ieldy convention3 )* t+e *ra. actin/ as a .on/ress in t+e exercise o* its co.ent o* representative districts.any 6ords as t+ey did in relation to t+e apportion.onstituent 'sse.ployed a *or.0ly expressed in Sec3 1 o* Res3 >o3 &.ent provided *or in Sec3 5 o* R3'3 >o3 !1J5 cannot possi0ly con*lict 6it+ its o6n intent expressed t+ereinG *or it .ple.on/ress can override t+e Presidential veto or . s+o6 t+at it 0ased its apportion.entin/ le/islation to *ill in t+e /aps.entin/ details are .on/ress actin/ as a . 6+ic+ po6er enco.onstituent 'sse. su0. o.ent a/ainst concedin/ suc+ po6er in .entin/ details3 ::: Petitioner Raul M3 Gon=ales asserts t+at Sec3 5 on t+e apportion.on/ress can reconvene as a .oved 0y t+e .ent o* t+e dele/ates on t+e 1 %I o**icial preli. 6it+out pinpointin/ any speci*ic provision o* t+e .ensus and Statistics *ro.ent o* dele/ates to t+e convention on t+e 0asis o* population in eac+ con/ressional district3 . t+ey 6ould +ave done so in so .on/ress.inary population census ta@en 0y t+e <ureau o* .0er o* t+eir respective in+a0itants. accordin/ly e.0er o* in+a0itants in eac+ representative district. *or suc+ apportion. t+e po6er to enact t+e i.pre+ensive le/islative po6er. *or reasons o* econo.ple.ay 0e vetoed 0y t+e President is no ar/u. t+e a.onstitution 6anted t+e apportion.onstituent 'sse.onstituent 'sse.0ly.on/ress. t+ey are valid3 &3 . 0ut *ixin/ a .ensus and Statistics +i.ula to e**ect a reasona0le apportion. .u. .ent o* dele/ates is not in accordance 6it+ proportional representation and t+ere*ore violates t+e .0ly3 Suc+ i.edia0le as .its to provide *or suc+ i.0it o* le/islative action3 'nd as lone as suc+ statutory details do not clas+ 6it+ any speci*ic provision o* t+e constitution.ended 0y Res3 >o3 &3 H3 T+e *act t+at a 0ill providin/ *or suc+ i. can enact t+e necessary i.ent 6as presented to .entin/ details. .onstitution *ro.on/ress adopted t+e *or.ula *or t+e necessary co. 6+ic+.onstituent 'sse. May ! to .on/ress actin/ as a .on/ress as a le/islative 0ody nor present any di**icultyG *or it is not irre.onstitution and t+e intent o* t+e la6 itsel*.atters not expressly or 0y necessary i.plication 6it+dra6n or re.onstitution does not expressly or i.

e.ent as not e**ectin/ proportional representation3 '0solute proportional apportion. 6+ic+ nu.on/ t+e various provinces s+all 0e B as nearly as may be according to their respective inhabitants . does not vitiate t+e apportion.in a letter to Senator Pelae= dated .onstitution itsel* 6+en it directs t+at t+e apportion. .ould o* t+e doctrine in t+e case o* 1acias et al.ittin/ +ere6it+ t+e results o* t+e co.ensus and Statistics.ployed is reasona0le and t+e resultin/ apportion.all con/ressional district o* <atanes.ploy.eetin/ last ni/+t.ove.ay 0e over2 represented. t+e sa.ittee . 0ecause it is allotted t6o dele/ates 0y R3'3 >o3 !1J5 despite t+e *act t+at it +as a population very .at+e.ore representatives to a province 6it+ less population t+an t+e provinces 6it+ . 6e are su0.ent la6.0er o* dele/ates accorded ot+er provinces 6it+ . supra 3 T+e i. runnin/ B*or any pu0lic o**ice in any electionB or *ro.ay 0e accordin/ to t+eir respective in+a0itantsB e.et+od o* distri0utin/ t+e dele/ates pursuant to t+e provisions o* t+e 1oint Resolution o* 0ot+ 9ouses >o3 5.ate a reasona0le apportion. stated t+at Bon t+e 0asis o* t+e preli.ended3 Epon your request at t+e session o* t+e Senate29ouse .on/ress *or proportional representation as.p+asis supplied)3 T+e e.ini.plete.an . and t+ere*ore under2represented. eac+ o* 6+ic+ is also allotted only t6o dele/ates. . vs.e could still 0e a valid 0asis *or suc+ apportion. 6+ere under Sec3 5 o* R3'3 >o3 !1J5 <atanes is allotted only t6o dele/ates.ent provided in R3'3 >o3 !1J5 does not constitute a su0stantially proportional representation3 )n t+e Macias case. 0ut eac+ province s+all +ave at least one .onstitutional . a//ravated 0y t+e constant .on*erence .0er o* in+a0itants. 6e are not prepared to rule t+at t+e co. t+e apportion.puted t+e distri0ution o* dele/ates to t+e .o. 1 %I.inary census.ore population3 T+e present petitions t+ere*ore do not present *acts 6+ic+ *it t+e .p+asi=es t+e *act t+at t+e +u.on/ress 0y t+e <ureau o* .uc+ less t+an several ot+er con/ressional districts..possi0ility o* a0solute proportional representation is reco/ni=ed 0y t+e .onst3. &omelec. *or t+e population census cannot 0e accurate nor co.in/ Bany appointive .onvention 0ased on Senate <ill %% (p3 5 lines H to J5 and p3 J line 15) 6+ic+ is a *air and an equita0le . P+il3 . as a. o* t6o dele/ates *or a con/ressional district3 8+ile t+ere .itted to .ent 0ut cannot e**ect an a0solutely proportional representation 6it+ . vis2a2vis <atanes alone.ent o* t+e p+rase Bas nearly as .uly JI. 6e +ave co.ent is not required and is not possi0le 6+en 0ased on t+e nu. assu.ent considerin/ t+e evidence su0.ent is su0stantially proportional3 Resolution >o3 & *ixed a . 'rt3 (). as 6ell as daily deat+ and 0irt+3 )t is enou/+ t+at t+e 0asis e. directed in Res3 >o3 & is unreasona0le and t+at t+e apportion.putation *or. 6+ic+ 6as nulli*ied as unconstitutional.ay 0e ot+er *or.atical precision or exactitude3 :G Sec3 H o* R3'3 !1J5 is attac@ed on t+e /round t+at it is an undue deprivation o* li0erty 6it+out due process o* la6 and denies t+e equal protection o* t+e la6s3 Said Sec3 H disquali*ies any elected dele/ate *ro.ent o* population.ent3 / T+e *act t+at t+e lone and s.inary count o* t+e population. /ranted .ula adopted 0y. relied on 0y petitioner Gon=ales. dependent as it is on t+e dili/ence o* t+e census ta@ers.0erB (Sec3 H.ulas *or a reasona0le apportion.0er is equal to t+e nu.putation on t+e 0asis o* t+e a0ove2stated .ore in+a0itants3 Suc+ is not t+e case +ere.et+od3B Even i* suc+ latest census 6ere a preli.ind can only approxi.e.u.ent o* con/ressional districts a.

t+e pervertin/ in*luence o* sel*2 interest.onstitution3) 's o0served 0y t+e Solicitor General in +is 'ns6er.on/ress. 0ut love *or country . can create an o**ice and de*ine t+e quali*ications and disquali*ications t+ere*or as 6ell as i. . entice votes *or +is o6n proposals3 >ot love *or sel*. is /er. only t+ose 6it+ quali*ications and 6+o do not *all under any constitutional or statutory in+i0ition can 0e validly elected or appointed to a pu0lic o**ice3 T+e o0vious reason *or t+e questioned in+i0ition. its 0asic or/ani=ation and po6ers.itted 0y petitioner Gon=ales.ent.onstitution . 1 JH3 's ad. controllin/ elections or positions3 'lso it is a 0ra@e on t+e appointin/ po6er. is to i. t+is in+i0ition *inds analo/y in t+e constitutional provision pro+i0itin/ a . te. 'rt3 ().e la6 o* t+e land.0er o* .onstitution or le/islative 0ody.pt to control t+e convention3B (p3 1I.ent 6+ereo* s+all +ave 0een increased 6+ile +e 6as a . pursuant to t+eir representation and co.in/ solely in t+e interest o* t+e nation +is +i/+ and 6ell ni/+ sacred *unction o* *or.on/ress3 (Sec3 1!.uni=e t+e dele/ates *ro.ental la6 o* t+e land 6+ic+ delineates t+e essential nature o* t+e /overn. 0ein/ appointed to any civil o**ice 6+ic+ .pose in+i0itions on a pu0lic o**icer3 . 'ns6er in L2J5&&J3) T+us t+e c+allen/ed disquali*ication prescri0ed in Sec3 H o* R3'3 >o3 !1J5 is a valid li. t+e dele/ate 6ill not utili=e +is position as a 0ar/ainin/ levera/e *or concessions in t+e *or.itation on t+e ri/+t to pu0lic o**ice pursuant to state police po6er as it is reasona0le and not ar0itrary3 T+e discri.e to t+e convention.porary in nature.e *or 6+ic+ +e 6as elected. de*ines t+e li0erties o* t+e .ed t+e present . t+e overridin/ o01ective o* t+e c+allen/ed disquali*ication.onstitutional .ust al6ays .anent 0ut only te.onvention is li@e6ise constitutionalG *or it is 0ased on a su0stantial distinction 6+ic+ . +is seat in t+e convention 6ill 0e vacant and +is constituents 6ill 0e deprived o* a voice in t+e convention3 T+e in+i0ition is li@e6ise Bdesi/ned to prevent popular political *i/ures *ro.a@es *or real di**erences. P+il3 . as suc+ and to devote all t+eir ti.ont+s S *ro.ent o* t+e convention 6+ic+ . is to co.ent /overn.ay.ane to t+e purposes o* t+e la6.onstitution *inis+ed its tas@ in approxi.ay +ave 0een created or t+e e. to curtail t+e latterDs desire to DraidD t+e convention o* BtalentsB or atte.e to per*or.0odied in Sec3 H. o* an elective or appointive o**ice as lon/ as t+e convention +as not *inally ad1ourned3 T+e appointin/ aut+ority .otivate +is actuations as dele/ateG ot+er6ise t+e several provisions o* t+e ne6 .e class3 7 T+e *unction o* a dele/ate is .it.onsequently.e. 6+ic+ .pel t+e elected dele/ates to serve in *ull t+eir ter.ulatin/ t+e supre.o**ice or position in any 0ranc+ o* t+e /overn.e.ately seven .uly JI.atic under our constitutional syste.ent o* t+e . su0versive o* t+e 6el*are o* t+e /eneral citi=enry3 )t s+ould 0e stressed t+at t+e disquali*ication is not per.olu.ination under Sec3 H a/ainst dele/ates to t+e .ay only satis*y individual or special interests..ent until a*ter t+e *inal ad1ourn. and applies to all .ent to t+e peopleG ot+er6ise. durin/ t+e ti.ore endurin/ t+an t+at o* any ordinary le/islator or any ot+er pu0lic o**icer3 ' dele/ate s+apes t+e *unda.onvention3B T+at t+e citi=en does not +ave any in+erent nor natural ri/+t to a pu0lic o**ice.. is axio.onstitutional .e.porary only to continue until t+e *inal ad1ourn. *ro. party interest or vested interest and to insure t+at +e dedicates all +is ti. 0y +is appointin/ po6er.ore *ar2reac+in/ and its e**ect .ay endure *or /enerations and 6+ic+ cannot easily 0e c+an/ed li@e an ordinary statute3 8it+ t+e disquali*ication e.0ers o* t+e sa. 1 J& to #e0ruary ".3 T+e State t+rou/+ its .ay not extend 0eyond one year3 T+e convention t+at *ra.0er o* t+e .

R3'3 >o3 !1J5 pro+i0its$ 13 any candidate *or dele/ate to t+e convention (a) *ro.ourt applied t+e clear and present dan/er test to deter. /reed.ents are . corruption.e. *ree expression. and t+e ri/+t o* association are neit+er a0solute nor illi.sel* to 0e represented as 0ein/ a candidate o* any political party or any ot+er or/ani=ationG and 53 any political party. e. propose constitutional a.0ly pursuant to 'rt3 A( o* t+e .end.0ers o* +is *a.ay 0e la6*ully a0rid/ed to serve appropriate and i. t+e in+i0ition is relevant to t+e o01ect o* t+e la6. and a ca.selves.onstitutional /uarantees.0er. 1 %I3 G Para/rap+ 1.people.ination o* any suc+ candidate or in t+e *ilin/ o* +is certi*icate.posed o* not . civic.aterial. o* association3 T+is . representin/.its t+e candidate to utili=e in +is ca. &omelec case t+e .onstituent 'sse.ita0le ri/+tsG t+ey are al6ays su01ect to t+e pervasive and dor.ents cannot 0e c+an/ed in one or t6o years3 >o ot+er pu0lic o**icer possesses suc+ a po6er.end. t+ere*ore.ittee. o* asse..sical nor repu/nant to t+e sense o* 1ustice o* t+e co. or in1ustice3 Lastly.eanin/*ul to t+e .asses o* our people and not desi/ned *or t+e en+ance. or (0) *ro.ine 6+et+er a statute 6+ic+ trenc+es upon t+e a*oresaid . 6+ic+ is to insure t+at t+e proposed a.unity3 's +ereto*ore inti. *avora0le to or a/ainst +is ca.ore t+an one *or every ten precincts in +is district3 . or (0) allo6in/ +i. political /roup.onstitution3 T+e classi*ication. reli/ious.portant pu0lic interests3 . political co.ent o* sel*is+ness.e. )n said 0onzalez vs.ated. is a le/iti.pu/ned 0y 0ot+ petitioners as violative o* t+e constitutional /uarantees o* due process.ant police po6er o* t+e State and . *reedo.pai/n sta** co.ourt ruled last year t+at t+e /uarantees o* due process..pai/n t+e +elp o* t+e .pai/n *or election3 T+e 0an a/ainst all political parties or or/ani=ed /roups o* 6+atever nature contained in par3 1 o* Sec3 "(a).on/ress unless t+ey t+e.0ly. equal protection o* t+e la6s.ents 6+en actin/ as a . Sec3 "(a) o* R3'3 >o3 !1J5 is i.oral.0ly and *reedo. 6+et+er .end. equal protection o* t+e la6s. t+e disquali*ication applies to all t+e dele/ates to t+e convention 6+o 6ill 0e elected on t+e second Tuesday o* >ove. . pro*essional or ot+er or/ani=ations or or/ani=ed /roup o* 6+atever nature *ro. (a) intervenin/ in t+e no. and controls all ot+er la6s3 Enli@e ordinary statutes. not even t+e . *reedo. is neit+er 6+i. is con*ined to party or or/ani=ation support or assistance.0ers o* . constitutional a.ate exercise o* police po6er3 9 Para/rap+ 1 o* Sec3 "(a). o* expressions. peace*ul asse.ily 6it+in t+e *ourt+ civil de/ree o* consan/uinity or a**inity. .aterial or ot+er6ise.otional or ot+er6ise3 T+e very Sec3 "(a) in its provisos per. /ivin/ aid or support directly or indirectly.

caucuses.eetin/ on t+e pretext t+at t+e provision o* said section .ediately precedin/ an election.ourt.pai/n or propa/anda *or or a/ainst a party or candidateG (0) +oldin/ political conventions.uster t+e required ei/+t votes to declare as unconstitutional t+e li.inate in*or.edied3 To assert ot+er6ise 6ould 0e to close oneDs eyes to t+e reality o* t+e situation3B 1 2 G Li@e6ise.0lies *or t+e purpose o* solicitin/ votes andKor underta@in/ any ca.ent 6as still a**ir. parades or ot+er si. *ailed to .pai/n or partisan political activity . o* re*or. con*erences.it to +old a pu0lic .e durin/ 6+ic+ t+ey .ay 0elon/ or 6+ic+ . &omelec case. pars3 (a).s.itation on t+e period .ediately precedin/ an election3 T+e ri/+t o* association is a**ected3 Political parties +ave less *reedo.in/ or/ani=ations. t+is .ittees or ot+er /roup o* persons *or t+e purpose o* solicitin/ votes andKor underta@in/ any ca. or to advocate *or constitutional re*or. 0ecause +e cannot 0e denied any per.0ly.ously sustained t+e validity o* t+e li. associations.ate activities. and *or any ot+er elective pu0lic o**ice earlier t+an ninety days i. not . supra . is not unduly narro6ed3 >eit+er is t+ere in*rin/e.ation a0out. as to render .0er acts individually3 T+e very party or or/ani=ation to 6+ic+ +e .end. as to t+e ti. .eanin/less suc+ a 0asic ri/+t3 T+eir scope o* le/iti.0le3 T+ey can do so.ida0le in c+aracter3 'ccordin/ to t+e act$ B)t s+all 0e unla6*ul *or any political party. or receivin/ contri0utions *or election ca.itation on t+e period *or no. co. t+is . and li@ely to continue unless cur0ed or re. o* expression and +is ri/+t to peace*ul asse. policies or constitutional proposals *or a. 0ut actually in existence.ent 6as in response to a serious su0stantive evil a**ectin/ t+e electoral process.ited 6it+out o**endin/ t+e a*ore. and (c). or oppose +is opponent is preserved as lon/ as suc+ . &omelec.ously3 1 0 )n said 0onzales vs.ination o* candidates presents a question t+at is not too *or. to asse. t+us$ T+e pro+i0ition o* too early no.0ers dissented. t+e a0rid/.eetin/s.e is desi/ned also to prevent a Bclear and present dan/er o* a su0stantive evil.ittee. supra ..e..ent is not suc+.)t allo6s t+e *ull exercise o* +is *reedo.ent o* t+eir *reedo.e.ay or 6ill 0e violated3 T+e ri/+t o* a . 0ut not *or suc+ a purpose3 8e sustain its validity3 8e do so unani.pai/n eit+er directly or indirectly. solicitin/.ain su0stantially intact and inviolate3 'nd it is t+ere*ore a valid in*rin/e.ay 0e li. or political /roup to no.e.ourt li@e6ise +eld t+at t+e period *or t+e conduct o* an election ca. (Sec3 HI2<.ination o* candidates in Sec3 HI2' o* R3'3 >o3 &""I.ay no.s. pro/ra.entioned constitutional /uarantees as t+e sa.ent o* t+e a*oresaid constitutional /uarantees invo@ed 0y petitioners3 )n t+e a*oresaid case o* 0onzales vs. political co.inate candidates *or any elective pu0lic o**ice voted *or at lar/e earlier t+an one +undred and *i*ty days i.ay 0e in sy.ourt unani. is /uaranteed t+e ri/+t to disse.ilar asse.inate candidatesG t+e curtail. 6+ic+ could not Bi/nore 333 t+e le/islative declaration t+at its enact. &omelec.ents3 )t is t+ere*ore patent t+at t+e restriction contained in Sec3 "(a) is so narro6 t+at t+e 0asic constitutional ri/+ts t+e. t+is . clu0s...0er o* any political party or association to support +i. t+e de0ase.ed as constitutional 0y six members o* t+is . rallies.pat+y 6it+ +is cause or pro/ra. save t+is one. (0). R3'3 &""I). 0ecause *our .ent o* t+e electoral process3B 11 Even i* t+e partisan activity consists o* (a) *or.pai/n or propa/anda *or or a/ainst any candidate or partyG and (c) /ivin/.ourt in said case o* 0onzales vs. +o6ever.s. or to arouse pu0lic interest in.erely in dan/er o* +appenin/.selves re.

end. to 1usti*y suc+ 0an3 )n t+e said 0onzales vs. unless clearly repu/nant to *unda. is to assure t+e candidates equal protection o* t+e la6s 0y accordin/ t+e.ental action. and i* possi0le. is a rare p+eno. *inancial and ot+er6ise.itation on t+e *reedo. o* t+e political parties or or/ani=ations supportin/ +is opponent3 T+is position is *urt+er stren/t+ened 0y t+e principle t+at t+e /uarantee o* social 1ustice under Sec3 (.. Bt+at suc+ provisions 6ere dee. includes t+e /uarantee o* equal opportunity.6+ic+ 0an is a valid li. Sen3 Loren=o TaWada. 0e i/nored or disre/arded3B 1 5 <ut aside *ro.onstitution.pai/n or propa/anda *or or a/ainst any candidate or party speci*ied in Sec3 HI2<. predicated as it is on e. t+e denial o* t+e equal protection o* t+e la6s3 T+e candidates . t+e clear and i. 6+o appeared as a. t+e electoral process. as conceded 0y Senator Pelae=.*or (a) . (d) Q (e) o* R3'3 &""I3 1 3 T+e de0ase.on/ress into prescri0in/ t+e total 0an contained in par3 1 o* Sec3 "(a) o* R3'3 >o3 !1J5. pars3 (c).B 1 < i.es3 ?ne suc+ act is t+e party or or/ani=ation support proscri0ed in Sec3 "(a).enon in t+is country and t+e victory o* an independent candidate .inistration3 1 7 8+ile it .icus curiae.oved .aterialsG and (e) directly or indirectly solicitin/ votes andKor underta@in/ any ca.ent o* t+e electoral process as a su0stantive evil exists today and is one o* t+e . dis+onesty and corruption as 6ell as violence t+at o* late +as .erely to a clear and present dan/er 0ut to t+e actual existence o* a /rave and su0stantive evil o* excessive partisans+ip.ental ri/+ts. t+e poor candidate +as an even c+ance as a/ainst t+e ric+ candidate3 8e are not prepared to disa/ree 6it+ t+e.entaries or +oldin/ intervie6s *or or a/ainst t+e election o* any party or candidate *or pu0lic o**iceG (0) pu0lis+in/ or distri0utin/ ca.alady requirin/ /overn. t+e sponsor o* t+e Puyat2Tolentino a.edies *or an ad.pirical lo/ic.pressed as it 6as 0y t+e explanation . accordin/ to Senate Ma1ority #loor Leader Senator 'rturo Tolentino.ed 0y t+e le/islative 0ody to 0e part and parcel o* t+e necessary and appropriate response not .ent e. *or t+e reasons a*orestated3 .ent o* t+e electoral process. o* association as 6ell as expression..pellin/ interests t+at . 'rt3 )) o* t+e . equality o* c+ances3 1 / T+e pri. &omelec case .arily rests t+e responsi0ility3 >or s+ould t+e cure prescri0ed 0y it.a1or co. equality o* political ri/+ts. and equality 0e*ore t+e la6 enunciated 0y Mr3 .a@in/ speec+es. *inds support in our recent political +istory and experience3 <ot+ Senators stressed t+at t+e independent candidate 6+o 6ins in t+e election a/ainst a candidate o* t+e .atc+ t+e resources.ay 0e true t+at a partyDs support o* a candidate is not 6ron/ per se it is equally true t+at .pai/n literature or .erits and not on t+e support o* political parties or or/ani=ations3 Senator Tolentino and Senator Salon/a e.ala pro+i0ita 6+en 1usti*ied 0y t+e exi/encies o* t+e ti.inent dan/er o* t+e de0ase. on t+e le/islature pri.ustice Tua=on in t+e case Guido vs3 Rural Pro/ress 'd. 0ecause suc+ a conclusion.ents or co.arred election ca.pai/ns and partisan political activities in t+is country3 9e did invite our attention li@e6ise to t+e 6ell2settled doctrine t+at in t+e c+oice o* re.a@in/ aut+ority can declare certain acts as . t+is . render spotless.p+asi=ed t+at under t+is provision.ourt /ave Bdue reco/nition to t+e le/islative concern to cleanse.itted . t+e 0asic .on/ress in t+e exercise o* its 0road la62.0odied in par3 1 o* Sec3 "(a) o* R3'3 >o3 !1J5.ary purpose o* t+e pro+i0ition t+en is also to avert t+e clear and present dan/er o* anot+er su0stantive evil.ade 0y t+e aut+or o* R3'3 >o3 &""I.ainly rests on +is a0ility to .. announce.a1or political parties.otivation.ust depend on t+eir individual .

.inance o* interests. 0e t+ey reli/ious.ands t+at t+e dele/ates s+ould spea@ *or t+e entire nation.ic.an o* t+e Senate .onstitution in a +ope*ul endeavor to *ind a solution to t+e /rave econo.+air.onvention 0e co.ent o* t+e electoral process.ent t+at s+all e.a@e real t+e /uarantee o* equal protection o* t+e la6s3 T+e political parties and t+e ot+er or/ani=ed /roups +ave 0uilt2in advanta/es 0ecause o* t+eir .s 0esettin/ t+e country3 )nstead o* directly proposin/ t+e a.ination a/ainst any party or /roup nor does it con*er undue *avor or privile/e on an individual as +ereto*ore stated3 T+e discri. 6+ic+ are to avert t+e de0ase. cannot 0e expected to 0e su**iciently representative o* t+e people3 Suc+ dele/ates could very 6ell 0e t+e spo@es.onvention 6ill not 0e de*lated or *rustrated.ane to t+e o01ectives o* t+e la6. does not +ave3 T+e *act t+at t+e ot+er civic o* reli/ious or/ani=ations cannot +ave a ca. 0ecause t+ey +ave 0een c+osen 6it+ t+e aid and resources o* or/ani=ations.end.onvention 6+ic+ s+all +ave t+e tas@ o* *as+ionin/ a docu. not to *avor one /roup at t+e expense or disadvanta/e o* t+e candidates S 0ut to enco. social and political pro0le. reli/ious.ents .a1ority o* t+e people3 2 0 8e li@e6ise concur 6it+ t+e Solicitor General t+at t+e equal protection o* t+e la6s is not unduly su0verted in par3 ) o* Sec3 "(a)G 0ecause it does not create any +ostile discri.ilar support3 19 . eloquently stated t+at Bt+e *unction o* a constitution is not to represent anyone in interest or set o* interests. 0ut t+e +ar. 6+et+er political parties or social.. into one +ar.on/ individual candidates and t+ere0y .Senator Tolentino e.posed o* dele/ates truly representative o* t+e peopleDs 6ill3 Pu0lic 6el*are de.on/ress +as c+osen to call a . 6+ic+. not t+e predo. 6+ic+ t+e la6 see@s to prevent lies in t+e election o* dele/ates 6+o.ac+inery and ot+er *acilities. and to attain real equality o* c+ances a. T+e questioned par3 1 o* Sec3 " (a) li@e6ise can easily pass t+e 0alancin/2o*2interest test3 )n t+e apt 6ords o* t+e Solicitor General$ )t is to 0e noted t+at ri/+t no6 t+e nation is on t+e t+res+old o* re6ritin/ its .o. does not vary t+e situationG 0ecause it still +as t+at . or pro*essional associations3 T+e 0an is /er.onstitutional . country and conscience3 xxx xxx xxx T+e evil t+ere*ore.0ody t+e aspirations and ideals o* t+e people3 <ecause 6+at is to 0e a.ents.ended is t+e *unda.ination applies to all or/ani=ations. 0e+olden to no one 0ut to God. reli/ious or econo.ittee on .ent o* t+e citi=enry. and t+eir voices 0e not t+ose o* a particular se/.onstitutional .onious 0alancin/ t+ereo*3B So t+at t+e purpose *or callin/ t+e . . political.odes and .ental la6 o* t+e land.pass all t+e interests t+at exist 6it+in our society and to 0lend t+e.onstitutional .ac+inery as e**icient as t+at o* a political party.pai/n . it is indispensa0le t+at t+e . t+e individual candidate 6+o is 6it+out any or/ani=ation support.eans.end. or o* a particular class or /roup o* people.ay 0e 0etter attained 0y 0annin/ all or/ani=ation support3B 1 .p+asi=ed t+at Bequality o* c+ances . civic or pro*essional in c+aracter3 Senator Pelae=.ic interest and not o* t+e /reat .onious and 0alanced 6+ole3 #or t+e constitutional syste.uc+ 0uilt2in advanta/e as a/ainst t+e individual candidate 6it+out si. civic.en o* narro6 political. it is necessary t+at t+e dele/atee t+ereto 0e independent.onstitutional '.

its o* constitutional invasion o* suc+ c+eris+ed i.on candidates. reli/ious.0ued 6it+ patriotis.onvention. t+ese civic reli/ious and pro*essional or/ani=ation . t+e 0anG 0ecause t+en 0y suc+ exe.pai/n *or election o* dele/ates to t+e .onstitutional . L*+ LGR 11 %%H.plies t+e li0erty not to associate or 1oin 6it+ ot+ers or 1oin any existin/ or/ani=ation3 ' person .ent 'ct o* 1 5.pressed as 8e are 0y t+e eloquent and . 8e are not persuaded to entertain t+e 0elie* t+at t+e c+allen/ed 0an transcends t+e li. 6+o advocates t+e re*or. 1 %I attac+ed to +is petition as 'nnex BCB. t+ey .s t+at t+ese or/ani=ations c+a.p+asi=ed 0y Senators Tolentino and Salon/a. 6+erein t+e Senator stated t+at +is o6n BTi.ent 'ut+ority *or t+is Purpose.pai/n . &.vs. o* association also i. to t+at extent it parta@es o* t+e nature o* a political or/ani=ation3 T+is.ust 0e a**orded equal c+ances3 's e. as 6ell as no0ility o* purpose.a6aB /roup +ad a/reed 6it+ t+e Li0eral Party in )loilo to support petitioner Gon=ales and t6o ot+ers as t+eir candidates *or t+e convention.)$ concur. .itted 0y petitioner Gon=ales t+ru t+e letter o* Senator Gan=on dated 'u/ust 1%.unities3 89ERE#?RE.onstratin/ once a/ain +is deep concern *or t+e preservation o* our civil li0erties ens+rined in t+e <ill o* Ri/+ts. .ust li@e6ise respect t+e 0an3 T+e *reedo. Senator Gan=on stressed t+at B6it+out t+e /roup .onversion and Cevelop. or pro*essional associations usually pro+i0it t+e association *ro.onversion and Cevelop.ay run independently on +is o6n .anders. and "(a). Providin/ #unds T+ere*or and *or ot+er purposes. despite t+e *act t+at t+e .. cannot 0e declared unconstitutional3 8it+out costs3 2oh. 5& ?cto0er 5IIJM En <anc.pat+y *ro. 5 too@ no part 4acts3 Repu0lic 'ct %55%. so t+at t+e country can utili=e t+eir services i* elected3 ).pion and 0elieve are i.Moreover. para/rap+ 1.onvetsion o* Military Reservations into ot+er Productive uses. t+e prayers in 0ot+ petitions are +ere0y denied and R3'3 >o3 !1J5 includin/ Secs3 5. as . t+is 0an is to assure equal c+ances to a candidate 6it+ talent and i. etc3BG 0ut 6it+ t+eir 1oinin/ 6it+ t+e LPDs t+ey Bcould +ave presented a solid *ront 6it+ very 0ri/+t c+ances o* capturin/ all seats3B T+e civic associations ot+er t+an political parties cannot 6it+ reason insist t+at t+ey s+ould 0e exe. any political party or or/ani=ed /roup.B 6as enacted on 1J Marc+ 1 53 T+e la6 set out t+e policy o* t+e /overn.ac+ineries 6+ic+ t+ey are denyin/ to t+e political parties3 8+enever all or/ani=ation en/a/es in a political activity. de.ay 0and to/et+er to support co.. en/a/in/ in partisan political activity or supportin/ any candidate *or an elective o**ice3 9ence. . as in t+is ca.arpio2Morales (. t+e area co.perative3 T+is is ad.erits 6it+out need o* caterin/ to a political party or any ot+er association *or support3 'nd +e. entitled B'n 'ct 'ccelleratin/ t+e .. H.ovin/ and 6or@in/ in 1oint collective e**ortB t+ey cannot Bexercise e**ective control and supervision over our leaders S t+e 8o.B ot+er6ise @no6n as t+e B<ases .ent to accelerate t+e sound and 0alanced conversion into alternative .pted *ro.ption t+ey 6ould 0e *ree to utili=e t+e *acilities o* t+e ca. 6+ic+ or/ani=ed support is nulli*ied 0y t+e questioned 0an.uc+ as t+e candidate 6+ose candidacy does not evo@e sy.&a? )%oB'%s A'"%r-a"*v% Coa'*"*o.onstitution and 0y la6s o* suc+ civic.enDs Lea/ue.asterly exposition o* Senator TaWada *or t+e invalidation o* par3 1 o* Sec3 "(a) o* R3'3 >o3 !1J5. t+ereo*.reatin/ t+e <ases .

ilitary reservation3 Still 0y anot+er resolution passed on 51 #e0ruary 1 &.ent t+at a**ords protection to t+e environ.a. /uaranteed participation o* t+e city /overn.C' as o6ner and ad.o+n 9ay as pre.ay ot+er6ise 0e collected *ro.ent in t+e .on/ ot+er t+in/s. a. 6aiver or quitclai.C').ation to 0e issued 0y t+e President o* t+e P+ilippinesG and /ranted t+e Su0ic SEO incentives ran/in/ *ro.ean6+ile passed a nu.ulti*arious aspects o* carryin/ out t+e ulti.ents 6+ere0y t+ey 0ound t+e.a.ent3 <y a su0sequent Resolution dated 1 .ier tourist destinations and recreation centers3 & . <. t+e san//unian sou/+t *ro. local and national taxes.p .ent .oint (enture '/ree.C' to exclude all t+e 0aran/ays partly or totally located 6it+in .a. preparatory to t+e *or.ent 6it+ Tuntex (<3(3L) .ic Oones (SEO) in t+e areas covered respectively 0y t+e .itted to <.p .ploy.er . t+e . t+e san//unian passed a resolution requestin/ t+e Mayor to order t+e deter.ent and Mana/e.p .a.o+n 9ay and Poro Point *or t+e purpose o* turnin/ suc+ places into principal tourist and recreation spots.o+n 9ay a SEO as a condition precedent to its *ull develop. and . TE>TEA and 'S)'8?RLC a/reed to so.ent.ity o**icially as@ed <.ent units directly a**ected.ilitary 0ases under t+e 1 &% P+ilippines2Enited States o* '.ily2oriented type o* tourist destination. na. t+e 8allace 'ir Station in San #ernando.o+n 9ay 0e declared a SEO.andate o* R' %55%3 ?n 11 May 1 &.p . t+e san//unian adopted and su0.selves to put up a 1oint venture co. t+e san//unian 0ein/ o* t+e vie6 t+at suc+ declaration 6ould exe. )nc3 ('S)'8?RLC).orandu.C' entered into a Me. t+e reac+ or covera/e o* any plan or pro/ra.ilitary reservation.o+n 9ay3 T+e san//unianDs vision expressed.ent3 T+e <a/uio .onversion and Cevelop.ely.o+n 9ay Station (.C'.ent opportunities *or <a/uio residents and *ree access to t+e 0ase area. private corporations re/istered under t+e la6s o* t+e <ritis+ (ir/in )slands.ent 'ut+orityD (<. exclusion o* t+e previously na.p . t+e area *or develop.ate o01ective o* utili=in/ t+e 0ase areas in accordance 6it+ t+e declared /overn. a @ind o* develop.e.0er o* resolutions in response to t+e actions ta@en 0y <.e lots 0ein/ occupied 0y residents o* 0aran/ays surroundin/ t+e .p .ent in accordance 6it+ t+e .ent .C' a 1H2point concept *or t+e develop.o+n 9ay3 ?n 1! 'u/ust 1 J.a.ent and operation o* t+e ca. o* its o6ners+ip over t+e +o.productive uses o* t+e *or.ent policy3 R' %55% li@e6ise created t+e Su0ic Special Econo.inistrator o* .orand.o+n 9ay3 T+e resolution 6as intended to intelli/ently /uide t+e san//unian in deter.ate3 R' %55% expressly /ave aut+ority to t+e President to create t+rou/+ executive procla.a.odi*ied t+e ot+er proposals o* t+e san//unian3B T+ey stressed t+e need to declare .portations. o* '/ree.lar@ .etes and 0ounds o* 6+ic+ 6ere to 0e delineated in a procla.ption o* 0usinesses t+erein *ro. TE>TEA and 'S)'8?RLC executed a . <.ation o* a 1oint venture *or t+e develop. vestin/ it 6it+ po6ers pertainin/ to t+e . 0ut re1ected or .o3.ont+s later or on 1! Cece.p .ent.ilitary reservations as 6ell as t+eir extensions includin/ t+e .C'.ity /overn. exe.o+n 9ay) in t+e .lar@ and Su0ic . t+e San//unian/ Panlun/sod o* <a/uio .0er 1 J. priority in e. <.o+n 9ay *ro.pany @no6n as t+e <a/uio )nternational Cevelop.C' an a0dication.p3B <.o+n 9ay3 <y Resolution o* 5 Septe. and lia0ility *or local taxes o* 0usinesses to 0e esta0lis+ed 6it+in t+e ca.a. su01ect to t+e concurrence o* t+e local /overn.pt t+e ca. as ori/inally envisioned 0y t+e parties under t+eir 'Oe.ent o* Poro Point in La Enion and .ed nine 0aran/ays *ro.inin/ its position on 6+et+er . *or its develop.erica Military <ases '/ree.ent o* .ic Land #ree PortM Oone (Su0ic SEO) t+e . Ltd3 (TE>TEA) and 'sia6orld )nternationale Group. tax and duty2*ree i.a@in/ o* a *a.ana/e.ity o* <a/uio3 R' %55% created t+e <ases .pDs property and t+e . 1 J.p . La Enion.ent and Escro6 '/ree.a. real properties o* . ot+er Special Econo.a.p. to ot+er +all2nar@s o* a li0erali=ed *inancial and 0usiness cli.anuary 1 &.0er 1!.p .a. t+e .ation.n o* '/ree.ination o* realty taxes 6+ic+ .p .orporation 6+ic+ 6ould lease areas 6it+in .ent.

t+e interest o* petitioners.o+n 9ay Special Econo.laravall and :aranon.p .ain.erely an interest in t+e question involved or an incidental interest.aterial interest.porary restrainin/ order (TR?) andKor 6rit o* preli. is personal and su0stantial suc+ t+at t+ey +ave sustained or 6ill sustain direct in1ury as a result o* t+e /overn. t+e san//unian passed Resolution 5HH.a.ont+ later. et3 al3 *iled t+e petition *or pro+i0ition.oalition.a.)REME CO.ent and .p as a SEO in accordance 6it+ t+e provisions o* R' %55%3 To/et+er 6it+ t+is resolution 6as su0.B *or 6+at is at sta@e in t+e en*orce.ent 0et6een t+e <.ation and not . *or it is in e**ect a reco/nition o* t+e real interests t+at co. en/a/ed in t+e local /overnance o* <a/uio ..ent act 0ein/ c+allen/ed 3B T+eirs is a .e.ity and 6+ose duties included decidin/ *or and on 0e+al* o* t+eir constituents t+e question o* 6+et+er to concur 6it+ t+e declaration o* a portion o* t+e area covered 0y .ation *or consideration 0y t+e President3 ?n H .inary in1unction on 5H 'pril 1 H c+allen/in/.anda.laravall and Lilia G3 :aranon 6ere duly elected councilors o* <a/uio at t+e ti.RT Manila E> <'>. .econo.uly 1 & t+en President Ra.orandu. (Series o* 1 &). as city o**icials 6+o voted a/ainstB t+e san//unian Resolution >o3 5HH (Series o* 1 &) supportin/ t+e issuance o* t+e no6 c+allen/ed Procla.ic activity t+erein *ro. an interest in issue a**ected 0y t+e procla.us and declaratory relie* 6it+ prayer *or a te.ic Oone pursuant to Repu0lic 'ct %55%3B T+e . t+e court can exercise its po6er o* 1udicial revie6 only i* t+e *ollo6in/ requisites are present$ (1) t+e existence o* an actual and appropriate caseG (5) a personal and su0stantial interest o* t+e party raisin/ t+e constitutional questionG (J) t+e exercise o* 1udicial revie6 is pleaded at t+e earliest opportunityG and (&) t+e constitutional question is t+e lis .ation declarin/ an area o* 5"H31 +ectares o* t+e ca. +ave le/al standin/ to 0rin/ t+e present petition3 Repu0lic o* t+e P+ilippines S. +o6ever.ation &5I is t+e very econo.er .oint (enture '/ree.ent o* Procla.ent units o* t+e ri/+t o* concurrence on t+e 0asesD conversion is equivalent to vestin/ a le/al standin/ on t+e. Petitioners Edil0erto T3 .ity3 Moreover.ation &5I as 6ell as t+e le/ality o* t+e Me. su01ect to its concurrence.ation &5I.os issued Procla. in assailin/ t+e le/ality o* Procla.ota o* t+e case3B R' %55% expressly requires t+e concurrence o* t+e a**ected local /overn.ertainly t+en.itted a dra*t o* t+e proposed procla. in t+e .ation &5I3 8eld3 )t is settled t+at 6+en questions o* constitutional si/ni*icance are raised. .ic and social existence o* t+e people o* <a/uio .B see@in/ and supportin/.ent units to t+e creation o* SEOs out o* all t+e 0ase areas in t+e country3DB T+e /rant 0y t+e la6 on local /overn.o+n 9ay Peoples 'lternative . o* '/ree. t+e issuance 0y t+en President Ra.ation &5I (series o* 1 &). Bcreatin/ and desi/natin/ a portion o* t+e area covered 0y t+e *or.os o* a presidential procla.o+n 9ay as t+e .o+n 9ay as a SEO3 .p . and TE>TEA and 'S)'8?RLC3 Issue3 8+et+er t+e petitioners +ave le/al standin/ in *ilin/ t+e case questionin/ t+e validity o* Presidential Procla.C'. 0ein/ in+a0itants o* <a/uio. . t+e constitutionality or validity o* Procla.ation &5I. local or national taxation3 More t+an a .unities near0y or surroundin/ a particular 0ase area +ave in its utili=ation3 T+us. .

osp+ere3 )t . 1 "13 < ?n Marc+ 1I and 1J respectively. *or i* suc+ 6ere indeed t+e case.3 8e sit as a .uc+ too late in t+e day to deny t+e *orce and applica0ility o* t+e 1 %J . GON9ALES MAN.onstitutional . MALANA a-( GIL M. L-5/<0< ABr*' 2 19. are suin/ as taxpayers3 T+e rat+er unort+odox aspect o* t+ese petitions is t+e assertion t+at t+e 1 %J . petitioners +ave co.3 T+e c+allen/e in t+ese t6o pro+i0ition proceedin/s a/ainst t+e validity o* t+ree <atasan/ Pa. /oes *urt+er t+an .erely assailin/ t+eir alle/ed constitutional in*ir.1 SAM.ore persuasive3 #or reasons to 0e set *ort+. notice3 5 T+ere 6as a co.0ers o* t+e P+ilippine <ar and *or.ent.ents.1 RAMON A.ildest. TA1IOS petitioners.ity3 Petitioners Sa.onstitution3 )n t+e dispositive portion o* 4avellana v. as set *ort+ at t+e outset..er dele/ates to t+e 1 %1 .ourt stated t+at it did so 0y a vote o* six 7 to *our3 .R. o* constitutional liti/ation any .a1ority.ent on t+e part o* t+e respondents3 T+erea*ter. t+e cases 6ere dee.ed t+e present .R.e.onstitution 0ein/ considered in *orce and e**ect 3B 9 Suc+ a state.onstitution is not t+e *unda. 0ot+ cases 6ere set *or +earin/ and 6ere duly ar/ued on Marc+ 5! 0y petitioners and Solicitor General Estelito P3 Mendo=a *or respondents3 8it+ t+e su0.J. No. L-5/350 ABr*' 2 19.ents o* petitioners cast in t+e traditional *or.end. suc+ an approac+ +as t+e arrestin/ c+ar.ourt.ed su0.ental la6. )t t+en concluded$ BT+is 0ein/ t+e vote o* t+e . 0ot+ .on '3 Gon=ales.avellana 2 rulin/ to t+e contrary not6it+standin/3 To put it at its .0ansa Resolutions 1 proposin/ constitutional a. o* novelty – 0ut not+in/ else3 )t is in *act sel* de*eatin/. DRILON NELSON 1.onstitution.G.DIT T&E NATIONAL TREAS. vs3 T&E NATIONAL TREAS.ission o* pertinent data in a.issed3 13 )t is . respondents 6ere required to ans6er eac+ 6it+in ten days *ro.ourt duty20ound to up+old and apply t+at .itted *or decision3 )t is t+e rulin/ o* t+e . quite clearly. 6e dis.RER T&E DIRECTOR OF )RINTING respondents3 G. OCCENA petitioner. t+at t+e petitions .EL C. No.ade .EL 1.us to declare invalid its rati*ication.issin/ petitions *or pro+i0ition and .REA MARCOS-IM1ONG ALLAN T.ust 0e dis.onvention t+at *ra. an exercise in *utility3 >or are t+e ar/u. vs3 T&E COMMISSION ON ELECTIONS T&E COMMISSION ON A. t+ere is no *urt+er 1udicial o0stacle to t+e ne6 . t+is .pli*ication o* t+e oral ar/u.anda. / dis. The +xecutive *ecretary .ent served a use*ul purpose3 )t could even 0e said t+at t+ere 6as a need *or it3 )t served to clear t+e at.onstitution3 To contend ot+er6ise as 6as done +ere 6ould 0e.RER a-( "h% COMMISSION ON ELECTIONS respondents3 RA6 FERNANDO %.iss t+e petitions3 T+e suits *or pro+i0ition 6ere *iled respectively on Marc+ ! 3 and Marc+ 15.e to t+e 6ron/ *oru.uel ?ccena and Ra. t+e . IM1ONG 2O A.

0odied in t+e resolutions no6 0ein/ assailed3 )t .et as a constituent 0ody it acted 0y virtue ?* suc+ i. t+e extent o* t+e c+an/es t+at .ccena v.end.% %A%rc*s%( 3 More speci*ically as to t+e latter. t h% BoE%r o@ "h% Interim 1a"asa-D )a+. t+e nu.e.0ansa.ent provided in t+e 1 JH .ent3B 1 7 (5) )%"*"*o-%rs Eo$'( $rD% $Bo.oncerned. sixty2*ive (!H) to seventy (%I) years is 0ut a restoration o* t+e a/e o* retire. it cannot.atter o* la6.0ers to 0e rati*ied in accordance 6it+ t+e 'rticle on '.a-sa "o BroBos% a+%-(+%-"s a-( hoE *" +a? .ay not only nulli*y t+e acts o* coordinate 0ranc+es 0ut .onstitution is t+e *unda.ay 0e introduced.ani*est t+at. &ommission on +lections .ourt and 6it+ t+e reco/nition o* t+e cardinal postulate t+at 6+at t+e Supre.e petitioner.ent o* Section % o* 'rticle A o* t+e . as o* . t+is . 1 2 pro.0ansa is indu0ita0le3 T+e applica0le provision in t+e 1 %! '.edia. upon t+e call o* t+e President and Pri.0ansa.ass . .onstitution extendin/ t+e retire.e Minister #erdinand E3 Marcos.onstitution3 T+e latest case in point is )eople v.end.issal o* a suit o* t+is c+aracter su**ices3 T+at is t+e .end. a *actor *or insta0ility 6as re. it .0er o* votes necessary *or t+e validity o* a proposal.ent o* . decided on .onsiderin/ t+at t+e proposed a.e po6ers and its Me.onstrate t+at t+e c+allen/ed resolutions are tainted 0y unconstitutionality3 (1) T+e existence o* t+e po6er o* t+e :nterim <atasan/ Pa.0ers t+ereo*3B 1 < O-% o@ s$ch BoE%rs *s Br%c*s%'? "ha" o@ BroBos*-D a+%-(+%-"s 3 T+e 1 %J . 1 %J. t+ere*ore.e . "h% J$%s"*o. and t+e standard required *or a proper su0. suc+ a question 6as involved alt+ou/+ not directly passed upon3 To quote *ro. 0e said t+at our people are una6are o* t+e advanta/es and disadvanta/es o* t+e proposed a.onstitution.ent in .0ansa s+all +ave t+e sa.ul/ated 0arely t6o 6ee@s a/o3 Curin/ t+e *irst year alone o* t+e e**ectivity o* t+e present .end.$s "h% BroBos*"*o. all dou0ts 6ere resolved3 T+e 1 %J .ourt can c+ec@ as 6ell as le/iti.e into *orce and e**ect3 8it+ suc+ a pronounce.onstitution ca.e .ents e. t+e opinion o* t+e .end.avellana3 Since t+en.eanin/ o* t+e concludin/ state.o@ "h% a$"hor*"? o@ "h% Interim 1a"asa-D )a+. 1 "I. 11 t+e Supre.0ly 6it+ t+e po6er to propose a.ents3 1 5 8+en.a1ority o* its . at least ten cases .e .ate3 )n declarin/ 6+at t+e la6 is.ourt +as invaria0ly applied t+e present .0ers o* t+e Supre. t+ere is an a**ir. 1 / *iled 0y t+e sa.ourt and 1ud/es o* in*erior courts *ro. t+e present .ay 0e o0served parent+etically t+at as *ar as petitioner ?ccena is . privile/es.e Minister 0y a vote o* t+e . t+ere*ore.ere dis.ust also 0e o0eyed..ental la63 )t is as si.ents upon special call 0y t+e Pri.0ers s+all +ave t+e sa."ha" "h% a+%-(+%-"s BroBos%( ar% so .potence )ts aut+ority to do so is clearly 0eyond dou0t3 )t could and did propose t+e a.ati=ed as constitutionally de*icient3 T+e . responsi0ilities.0ly and t+e Me.anuary 5".ple as t+at3 8+at cannot 0e too stron/ly stressed is t+at t+e *unction o* 1udicial revie6 +as 0ot+ a positive and a ne/ative aspect3 's 6as so convincin/ly de.end. *ola. and disquali*ications as t+e interim >ational 'sse.anuary 1%.ay also sustain t+eir validity3 )n t+e latter case.a-sa "o BroBos% a+%-(+%-"s *s -o" -%E 3 )n .oved3 T+erea*ter.onstitution and +as 0een intensively and extensively discussed at t+e :nterim <atasan/ Pa. as a .ay 0e cited3 1 3 53 8e co.e . ri/+ts.ourt penned 0y .0ly and t+e re/ular >ational 'sse.ent 0y t+e Supre.e to t+e crucial issue.onstrated 0y Pro*essors <lac@ 1 0 and Murp+y.ustice 'ntonio in t+at case$ B.e *unctions.ourt says is not only entitled to respect 0ut .onstitution in its Transitory Provisions vested t+e :nterim >ational 'sse. t+e :nterim <atasan/ Pa.ents is quite explicit3 )nso*ar as pertinent it reads t+us$ BT+e :nterim <atasan/ Pa.e.ission3 's 6as stated earlier.ation t+at 6+at 6as done cannot 0e sti/. as 6ell as t+rou/+ t+e . petitioners 6ere una0le to de.

t+is .ent to t+e 'rticle on t+e . t+e standpoint o* suc+ a.ent allo6in/ a natural20orn citi=en o* t+e P+ilippines naturali=ed in a *orei/n country to o6n a li. )t su**ices to quote *ro.end.ocratic syste.itted to t+e people *or rati*ication3 ?nce rati*ied 0y t+e soverei/n people.end.onstitution or entirely over+aul t+e present .a1ority vote is needed3 )t 6ould 0e an inde*ensi0le proposition to assert t+at t+e t+ree2*ourt+ votes required 6+en it sits as a le/islative 0ody applies as 6ell 6+en it +as 0een convened as t+e a/ency t+rou/+ 6+ic+ a.o.o.ourt.0ansa sittin/ as a constituent asse.ents +avin/ 0een called to t+e attention o* t+e people so t+at it could not plausi0ly 0e .ission on Elections 0y a vote o* 1&" to 5 6it+ 1 a0stention3 8+ere t+en is t+e alle/ed in*ir.e 6ill 0e su0.ited area o* land *or residential purposes 6as approved 0y t+e vote o* 155 to HG Resolution >o3 5 dealin/ 6it+ t+e Presidency.0ly on #e0ruary H and 5%.ents to t+e .aterial t+e . t+e date o* t+e ple0iscite is set *or 'pril %.'? 3 For "h%+ Eha" Eas (o-% Eas "o r%v*s% a-( -o" "o a+%-(.0i/uity to t+e applica0le provision$ B 'ny a.ption t+at t+e require. 6+et+er t+e .%A"%-s*v% *.ustice Ma@asiar. sittin/ as a constituent 0ody.onstitution3 T+us any ar/u.onstitution is .ade out a case t+at calls *or a 1ud/.o.end.onstitution .end. and t+e >ational 'sse.ent a/ainst t+e validity o* t+e la6 0ecause Da.ent eit+er 6+en. or revision o*.a0inet.ent o* t+ree2 *ourt+ votes applies.ission3 '/ain.ents3 Moreover. is o* no .ents as 6ell as t+e standard *or proper su0. spea@in/ *or t+e .ents3 )n t+at capacity.0ansa exercises its constituent po6er to propose a.end.ent in t+eir *avor3 T+e lan/ua/e o* t+e . in Ael /osario v.e Minister and t+e .end. t+e ..0ly 0y a vote o* 1&% to H 6it+ 1 a0stentionG and Resolution >o3 J on t+e a.end."h% I-"%r*+ 1a"asa-D )a+..ay 0e revised and replaced 6it+ a ne6 one 333 is no ar/u. even on t+e assu. &ommission on +lections 1 .ent t+e sa.end.erely a..ont+s a*ter t+e approval o* suc+ a.ed as to t+e proposed c+an/es3 's to t+e period.end.onstitution3 't any rate.. t+e standpoint o* t+e period t+at . only a .e is rati*ied 0y t+e soverei/n people3B 1 9 T+ere is +ere t+e adoption o* t+e principle so 6ell2@no6n in '.entD includes t+e DrevisionD or total over+aul o* t+e entire .a-sa as S$cc%ssor o@ "h% Interim Na"*o-a' Ass%+.aintained t+at t+ey 6ere properly in*or.end.ent to t+e contrary is .ent to.0ansa.onstitutional .end.e i.onstitution s+all 0e valid 6+en rati*ied 0y a .ents could 0e proposed3 T+at is not a require.charac"%r "ha" "h%? Do @ar . suc+ a principle not only sound in t+eory 0ut also advanta/eous in practice3 (J) T+at leaves only t+e questions o* t+e vote necessary to propose a. to dispose o* t+is contention3 T+us$ BJ3 'nd 6+et+er t+e . petitioners +ave not .a1ority o* t+e votes cast in a ple0iscite 6+ic+ s+all 0e +eld not later t+an t+ree . t+e question . as in t+is case. can propose a.+*ss*o.onstitution3 &3 T+e *act t+at t+e present .onstitution supplies t+e ans6er to t+e a0ove questions3 T+e :nterim <atasan/ Pa.%?o-( "h% '*+*"s o@ "h% a$"hor*"? co-@%rr%( o.ended in part or revised or totally c+an/ed 6ould 0eco.0ansa <l/3 55.ityF As "o "h% r%J$*s*"% s"a-(ar( @or a BroB%r s$. t+e :nterim <atasan/ Pa.entG 0ecause t+e sa.onstitution indicates t+e 6ay t+e .onstitution and propose an entirely ne6 .ust elapse 0e*ore t+e +oldin/ o* t+e ple0iscite 0ut also *ro. 1 "13 )t is t+us 6it+in t+e I2day period provided 0y t+e .onstitution 0ased on an )deolo/y *orei/n to t+e de. suc+ extraordinary . t+e Pri.onvention 6ill only propose a.ent or revision3 B 2 1 T+e t+ree resolutions 6ere approved 0y t+e :nterim <atasan/ Pa. t+e opinion o* . 1 "13 )n t+e <atasan/ Pa.erican decisions as 6ell as le/al texts t+at a constituent 0ody can propose anyt+in/ 0ut conclude not+in/3 2 0 8e are not disposed to deviate *ro.ay 0e vie6ed not only *ro.ent as *ar as a constitutional convention is concerned3 )t is not a require. t+ere can 0e no de0ate a0out t+e validity o* t+e ne6 .atter s+ould 0e resolved3 T+ere is no a.a1ority 6as o0tained3 )t is not disputed t+at Resolution >o3 1 proposin/ an a.

0ers+ip rec@oned 6it+in t+e co.on/ress *ollo6in/ t+e elections.unavailin/3 's *or t+e people 0ein/ adequately in*or.ally suspended3 ' resolution *or t+eir suspension +ad 0een introduced in t+e 9ouse o* Representatives. 0e said t+at our people are una6are o* t+e advanta/es and disadvanta/es o* t+e proposed a.o.ission on Elections as +avin/ 0een elected senators and representatives in t+e elections +eld on 5J 'pril 1 &!3 T+e t+ree senators 6ere suspended 0y t+e Senate s+ortly a*ter t+e openin/ o* t+e *irst session o* . except to t+e extent t+at po6er to deal 6it+ suc+ questions +as 0een con*erred upon t+e courts 0y express constitutional or statutory provision3 T+is doctrine is predicated on t+e principle o* t+e separation o* po6ers. desi/nated BResolution o* 0ot+ +ouses proposin/ an a.on/ress3 T+e petition *or pro+i0ition sou/+t to prevent t+e en*orce.onstitution o* t+e P+ilippines to 0e appended as an ordinance t+ereto. 6+ere t+e a.o.ocratic 'lliance.e reason.end. a principle also too 6ell @no6n to require elucidation or citation o* aut+orities3 T+e di**iculty lies in deter.ade de*endants3 Ei/+t senators.ent to t+e .ission on Elections.eanin/ o* political question3 T+e ter.inin/ 6+at . L so t+at M it cannot. t+e proposed a.ent restored to seventy t+e retire.e.atters *all 6it+in t+e . alt+ou/+ t+ey +ad not 0een *or. and t+e presidents o* t+e Ce.e. except to ta@e part in t+e election o* t+e Spea@er.0ers o* t+e .ustice 'ntonio.)$ J concur. it cannot 0e denied t+at t+is ti.ents +ave B0een intensively and extensively discussed at t+e :nterim <atasan/ Pa.e. 1% representatives. 0ut t+at resolution +ad not 0een acted upon de*initely 0y t+e 9ouse 6+en t+e petition *or pro+i0ition 6as *iled3 's a consequence t+ese t+ree senators and ei/+t representatives did not ta@e part in t+e passa/e o* t+e con/ressional resolution. t+e Treasurer o* t+e P+ilippines.erit3 >o costs3 Ma.e. as in t+e cited 1 "I ?ccena opinion o* .end. 5 dissent in separate opinions. Tuason (.0ers o* .end.end..onstitution3 8eld3 )t is a doctrine too 6ell esta0lis+ed to need citation o* aut+orities.edia.ent 6ould +ave 0een s+ort o* t+e necessary t+ree2*ourt+s vote in eit+er 0ranc+ o* . and t+e Cirector o* t+e <ureau o* Printin/ are .end.issed *or lac@ o* .ed. 1 *iled separate opinion 4acts3 T+ree senators and ei/+t representatives +ad 0een proclai. t+at political questions are not 6it+in t+e province o* t+e 1udiciary.ent to t+e .onstitution3 T+e . is not suscepti0le o* exact de*inition.ass . 1 concur in separate opinion. H Marc+ 1 &%M En <anc. as 6ell as t+rou/+ t+e . and precedents and .end.0ansa. t+e petitions are dis.ent L s M3B 2 2 89ERE#?RE.a1ority vote o* t+e . t+e a**ir.ed 0y a .on/ress +ad 0een counted..putation o* t+e necessary t+ree2*ourt+s vote 6+ic+ is required in proposin/ an a.a-aD vs. on account o* alle/ed irre/ularities in t+eir election3 T+e ei/+t representatives since t+eir election +ad not 0een allo6ed to sit in t+e lo6er 9ouse. 5*"o LGR L2115J.e.a yinquire upon t+e irre/ularities in t+e approval o* t+e resolution proposin/ an a.ent a/e o* . *or t+e sa.ent to t+e . as it is alle/edly contrary to t+e .end.ent o* said con/ressional resolution.onstitution3 )* t+ese .ourt .B nor 6as t+eir .0ers o* t+e 1udiciary. t+e 'uditor General.ative votes in *avor o* t+e proposed a. t+ere*ore. t+e Popular #ront and t+e P+ilippine :out+ Party3 Issue3 8+et+er t+e .

ents o* t+e /overn. 55 .onstitution o* t+e Repu0lic o* t+e P+ilippines3 T+e next day. Co++*ss*o.onvention 6as +eld on 1I >ove. 4imenez vs. or on % Cece. until *urt+er orders o* t+e . t+e ot+er3 Proposal to a.ents. a proposal 6+ic+ leads to rati*ication +as to 0e a political question3 T+e t6o steps co. t+e prescription o* t+e 0allots to 0e used and t+e question to 0e ans6ered 0y t+e voters.ent eac+ ot+er in a sc+e. t+e .onvention approved its Proposed .oncepcion (. t+e settin/ o* /uidelines *or t+e conduct o* t+e sa. on t+is /round.ple.ended 0y Resolution & o* said 0ody. &omelec 50/ 9'#%J=16.entin/ Presidential Cecree %J.anuary 1 %JMG also *anidad vs.e . lod/ed exclusively in .anner.o. a/ainst t+e . . to en1oin said Brespondents or t+eir a/ents *ro.e intended to ac+ieve a sin/le o01ective3 )t is to 0e noted t+at t+e a.)$ J concur. &omelec 50/ 9'#%J$L6.. 1 dissents in separate opinion. in any .ple. 6+ic+ 6as a. 5 *iled separate opinions 4acts3 ?n 1! Marc+ 1 !%.ittin/ to t+e #ilipino people *or rati*ication or re1ection t+e .end. as a.on/ress. t+ere is less reason *or 1udicial inquiry into t+e validity o* a proposal t+en into t+at o* a rati*ication3 )'a-as vs.0er 1 %5.o. Aio7no vs. are.ony as to t+e scope o* t+e restrictions. and appropriatin/ *unds t+ere*or. adopted on 1% .onstitutional .onstitution Bconsists o* (only) t6o distinct parts$ proposal and rati*ication3B T+ere is no lo/ic in attac+in/ political c+aracter to one and 6it++oldin/ t+at c+aracter *ro.ourt. &omelec 50/ 9'#%J"J6.ented 0y R' !1J5.on/ress o* t+e P+ilippines passed Resolution 5. t+e President issued Procla.ple. and t+e appropriation o* pu0lic *unds *or t+e purpose.+ie* Executive3 )* on /rounds o* expediency scrupulous attention o* t+e 1udiciary 0e needed to sa*e/uard pu0lic interest.onvention 0e/an to per*or.onstitution o* t+e P+ilippines3 Said Resolution 5.une 1 ! .+arito Planas *iled.0er 1 %5. . t+e Treasurer o* t+e P+ilippines and t+e 'uditor General.onvention 6as in session on 51 Septe. Bsu0. inter alia. &omelec 50/ 9' #%JKJ6 Second Civision.ent is a political question.onstitution itsel*3 T+e exercise o* t+is po6er is even in dependent o* any intervention 0y t+e . J concur in separate opinions. a duly certi*ied la6 or resolution also 0inds t+e 1ud/es under t+e Benrolled 0ill ruleB 0orn o* t+at respect3 )* rati*ication o* an a. on t+e courts to . Tan vs. 6it+ t+e Supre. 0onzales vs. &omelec 50/ 9'#%J$16. JI >ove.ission on Elections. 6as i.0er 1 %5.e.onstitutional . .aut+orities are not al6ays in *ull +ar.une %13 8+ile t+e .E'%c"*o-s LGR L2JH 5H. &omelec 50/ 9'#%J=%6.B upon t+e /rounds. . /oxas vs. i. its *unctions on 1 .end t+e .0er 1 %5.itted to its c+ar/e 0y t+e .ended.B and Bt+ere is no proper . t+at said Presidential Cecree B+as no *orce and e**ect as la6 0ecause t+e callin/ o* suc+ ple0iscite.rdonez vs.onstitution on 1H .anuary 1 %J3 Soon a*ter.0er 1 %I.. &omelec 50/ 9'#%J$26. .on/ress in its soverei/n le/islative capacity and co. 1 concurs as recapitulated. <ational Treasurer of the )hilippines 50/ 9'#%J$"6.endatory process as provided in section ) o* 'rticle A( o* t+e P+ilippine . approved on 5& 'u/ust 1 %I.ents to t+e . pursuant to t+e provisions o* 6+ic+ t+e election o* dele/ates to said .onvention.onstitution is a +i/+ly political *unction per*or. &omelec 50/ 9'#%J%#6. and t+e 1 %1 .ase GR L2JH 5H. 0y t+e .eddle 6it+ t+e actions o* t+e political depart. 1onteclaro vs.ed 0y t+e .onstitution o* t+e Repu0lic o* t+e P+ilippines proposed 0y t+e 1 %1 .B as 6ell as settin/ t+e ple0iscite *or said rati*ication or re1ection o* t+e Proposed .ourt. and 8idalgo vs. t+e President o* t+e P+ilippines issued Presidential Cecree %J.ent3 )* a political question conclusively 0inds t+e 1ud/es out o* respect to t+e political depart.onvention to propose a.end.onstitution. callin/ a .ation 1I"1 placin/ t+e entire P+ilippines under Martial La63 ?n 5 >ove.

anuary 1H are #e0ruary 1 and Marc+ H)G L&M T+e openin/ o* t+e re/ular session slated on . on t+e aut+ority.onvention3 8eld 9':3 's re/ards t+e aut+ority o* t+e President to issue Presidential Cecree %J. t+e President +ad issued an order te. t+e President announced t+e postpone.e 0ein/. o* no less t+an t+at o* Su0division (1) o* Section 5. directin/ Bt+at t+e ple0iscite sc+eduled to 0e +eld on 1H . *ro.iti=ens 'sse. 1 %J) *or rati*ication or re1ection t+e .onstitution set *or 1H . 'rticle ())) o* t+e 1 JH . o* speec+.ain o01ection to Presidential Cecree %J 6as t+at t+e President does not +ave t+e le/islative aut+ority to call a ple0iscite and appropriate *unds t+ere*or.onstitution.anuary 1 %J.o.onstitution3B )n vie6 o* t+e events relative to t+e postpone.onstitution despite Martial La63B Issue 9&:3 8+et+er t+e . and since t+e .porarily suspendin/ t+e e**ects o* Procla.e to in*or. .al postpone. *or t+e ti. to 0e consulted on certain pu0lic questionsG and t+at t+erea*ter it 6as later announced t+at Dt+e 'sse..eB t+e Border o* 1% Cece. decidin/ t+e cases. a.e .0ly. pursuant to t+e 1 JH .onstitution proposed 0y t+e .0er 1 %5.perative to de*er its *inal action on t+ese cases3 )n t+e a*ternoon o* 15 . 1 0ut.ent o* t+e ple0iscite *or t+e rati*ication or re1ection o* t+e Proposed .on/ ot+ers. or on 1% Cece.ore i.B prayin/ t+at said case 0e decided Bas soon as possi0le.it to t+e People t+e . t+e leaders o* .ourt dee. t+ere 0ein/ no *reedo. *or neit+er t+e date nor t+e conditions under 6+ic+ said ple0iscite 6ould 0e +eld 6ere @no6n or announced o**icially3 T+en. 6+en General ?rder 5I 6as issued. Bt+at t+e President su0sequently announced t+e issuance o* Presidential Cecree "! or/ani=in/ t+e so2called . t+e people o* t+e contents t+ereo*3B Su0stantially identical actions 6ere *iled3 Mean6+ile.ourt +as aut+ority to pass upon t+e validity o* Presidential Cecree %J3 8eld 9&:3 Presidential Cecree %J purports to +ave t+e *orce and e**ect o* a le/islation. et3 al3 LGR L2JH &"M *iled an Bur/ent .anuary 1 %J.ission on Elections S t+e .su0.s instituted under Martial La6G LJM T+e +oldin/ o* a ple0iscite on t+e proposed ne6 .0lies.ent o* t+e ple0iscite 0y t+e President S reportedly a*ter consultation 6it+. sc+eduled to . Bsuspended in t+e .anuary 1 %J3B )t 6as alle/ed in said . pre*era0ly not later t+an 1H .onstitution. 6+ic+ .otion.0er 5J.ation 1I"1.onstitution3 ?n Cece.otion.al action to t+is e**ect 6as ta@en until % . 0e postponed until *urt+er notice3B Said General ?rder 5I.ourt to revie6 cases involvin/ said issue3 Issue 9':3 8+et+er t+e President +as t+e aut+ority to issue PC %J to su0.onstitution o* t+e Repu0lic o* t+e P+ilippines proposed 0y t+e 1 %1 . particularly in vie6 o* t+e *or.ani*estly a 1usticia0le one. *or t+e purpose o* *ree and open de0ate on t+e Proposed .0lies 6ill 0e as@ed i* t+ey *avor or oppose S L1M T+e >e6 SocietyG L5M Re*or.on/ress 6as.0er 1 %5.ation 1I"1 *or purposes o* *ree and open de0ate on t+e proposed .ed it . t+e ori/inal date o* .ittin/ to t+e #ilipino people (on .anuary 1H.porarily suspendin/ t+e e**ects o* Procla. (idal Tan.on/ress and t+e . Bsu0. so t+at t+e issue on t+e validity t+ereo* is .ed it *it to re*rain.eanti.onstitutional .anuary 55 in accordance 6it+ t+e existin/ .onstitution and 6+en (t+e tentative ne6 date /iven *ollo6in/ t+e postpone.ent o* t+e ple0iscite *ro. t+e .ourt dee.eet in re/ular session on 55 .anuary 1 %J. not only o* a lon/ list o* cases in 6+ic+ t+e . also. te. a/ain.anuary 1 %J.ission to t+e people o* said Proposed . .on/ress unquestiona0ly could do.onstitution3 >o *or.anuary 1 %J.ent o* t+e ple0iscite.onvention and appropriatin/ . 6+ic+ expressly provides *or t+e aut+ority o* t+e Supre.oreover.ourt +as passed upon t+e constitutionality o* statutes andKor acts o* t+e Executive. and t+ere 0ein/ no su**icient ti. press and asse.

ation >o3 11I5 +as 0een su0. Ma@asiar.stances.itted to and s+ould 0e deter. and 6ould.ation o* Martial La6 a**ected t+e proper su0.oot and acade. . Es/uerra and .oot and acade.ustice #ernando. 1 %J3 't any rate.onvention +ad aut+ority to continue in t+e per*or. .ission to t+e people *or rati*ication o* speci*ic proposals *or a. and it 6ould not 0e proper to resolve suc+ a transcendental question 6it+out t+e .e . *or t+e purposes conte.ourt.oncepcion +ave voted to up+old t+e aut+ority o* t+e . .ic3 . Tee+an@ee.ustice #ernando.0lies .*unds t+ere*or. s+ould t+e ple0iscite 0e sc+eduled to 0e +eld at any ti. 'ntonio and Es/uerra are o* t+e opinion t+at t+at issue involves question o* *act 6+ic+ cannot 0e predeter.ustices <arredo.ation.onvention to pass t+e proposed . said petitioners s+ould 0e /iven a reasona0le period o* ti.onstitutional .ic.onvention3 (&) .ustices Ma@alintal.ation o* Martial La63 )n e**ect.ay 1usti*y3 Issue 9.ustice <arredo +olds t+at t+e issue on t+e constitutionality o* Procla.ent o* t+e .issin/ t+e case as . Ma@asiar. said cases +avin/ 0een *iled 0e*ore t+e issuance o* suc+ Procla. #ernando.onstitutional .ately and necessarily related to t+e validity o* Procla.stances .0ers o* t+e .ic3 .ustice #ernando is o* t+e opinion t+at t+ere is a repu/nancy 0et6een t+e election conte.ined.oot and acade. t+e *ollo6in/ vie6s 6ere expressed$ LaM . 0ecause t+e ple0iscite ordained in said Cecree +as 0een postponed3 )n any event.:3 8+et+er .oncepcion.astro. said question +as not 0een adequately ar/ued 0y t+e parties in any o* t+ese cases.e 6it+in 6+ic+ to . Tee+an@ee and Es/uerra opine t+at t+e issue +as 0eco. Es/uerra and . Tee+an@ee. alt+ou/+ t+e petitioners in L2JH &" .aintain t+at t+e issue on t+e re*erral o* t+e Proposed .plated under 'rt3 A( o* t+e 1 JH .anuary 1H. .ises3 8eld <totalit"=3 Recapitulatin/ t+e vie6s expressed 0y t+e Me. 6+ereas .ation +as not 0een properly raised 0e*ore t+e . .ed and 6as raised in t+eir Supple.ic. to pass upon suc+ question. /rant t+e petitions 6ere t+ey not .onstitution and t+e existence o* Martial La6.ourt. .ustice Ma@alintal.astro. t+ere*ore. inso*ar as t+e *reedo.ation >o3 11I5 o* t+e President o* t+e P+ilippines3 T+is question +as not 0een explicitly raised.plated3 (!) ?n Presidential Procla.ustices <arredo. +o6ever.e .ity on t+e 1usticia0le nature o* t+e issue on t+e le/ality o* Presidential Cecree %J3 (5) ?n t+e validity o* t+e decree itsel*. t+e result is t+is$ (1) T+ere is unani. expressed t+e vie6 t+at t+e 1 %1 . essential t+ere*or is concerned.ove in t+e pre. *or t+e ti.ental Motion o* . t+at instead o* dis.astro.e later. or ! Me.iti=ensD 'sse.ay 0e dee. s+ould not pass upon suc+ question3 L0M .ustices <arredo.end.ission o* t+e proposed . Ma@asiar and 'ntonio voted to up+old t+e validity o* said Cecree3 (J) ?n t+e aut+ority o* t+e 1 %1 .artial la6 per se a**ects t+e validity o* a su0. <arredo. t+e proper parties . accordin/ly.onstitution to t+e . and t+at Martial La6 per se does not necessarily preclude t+e *actual possi0ility o* adequate *reedo.oot and acade.ost t+orou/+ discussion possi0le under t+e circu.ourt.e vie63 (H) ?n t+e question 6+et+er t+e procla. Ma@asiar and 'ntonio +old t+e sa. . are o* t+e opinion t+at t+e issue +as 0eco.ined 0y t+e . 'ntonio and .onstitution3 8eld 9.B it is unnecessary.ustices Ma@alintal.atter is one inti.ance o* its *unctions despite t+e procla.ourt.onstitution or to incorporate t+erein t+e provisions contested 0y t+e petitioners in L2JH &".0ers o* t+e .stances3 )n *airness to t+e petitioners in L2JH &" and considerin/ t+e surroundin/ circu.:3 T+e .onstitution 0ased on t+e re*erendu. #ernando.e 0ein/. li@e6ise.ay t+en *ile suc+ action as t+e circu.oncepcion are o* t+e opinion t+at question o* validity o* said Procla. .ation >o3 11I5. and t+at t+e Bpurported rati*ication o* t+e Proposed . in any o* t+e cases under consideration. 6+ic+.onstitution to a ple0iscite.

endin/ t+e previous Presidential Cecree 1. all o* t+e cases are dis.itted directly to t+e people in t+e re*erendu.ase >o3 L2JH &" as to 6+ic+ t+ey voted to /rant to t+e petitioners t+erein a reasona0le period o* ti. providin/ *or a ne6 interi. 5 dissent in separate opinions.enced L2&&!&I *or Pro+i0ition 6it+ Preli. President #erdinand E3 Marcos issued Presidential Cecree 1 callin/ *or a national re*erendu. a. t+e issues o* . it +as no *orce and e**ect 6+atsoever3 LdM .ustices #ernando. Bconsiderin/ all ot+er related relevant circu.ana/ea0le standards.ourt is not co.2ple0iscite on 1! ?cto0er 1 %!3 T+e Cecree recites in its B6+ereasB clauses t+at t+e peopleDs continued opposition to t+e convenin/ o* t+e interi. Martin (.astro <arredo.itted to t+e people in t+e re*erendu.2ple0iscite o* 1! ?cto0er 1 %!3 Puite relevantly. 'ntonio and Es/uerra voted in t+e a**ir.stances. except as re/ards .ission on Elections *ro.ent. Tee+an@ee and t+e 6riter si. Presidential Cecree 1IJ1.ase >o3 L2JH &" *or t+e purpose. accordin/ly. t+e po6ers o* suc+ replace. co. Bin t+e a0sence o* any 1udicially discovera0le and . le/islative 0ody.E'%c"*o-s LGR L2&&!&I. >ational 'sse.inary )n1unction see@in/ to en1oin t+e .petent to actB on t+e issue 6+et+er t+e Proposed . t+e len/t+ o* t+e period *or t+e exercise 0y t+e President o* +is present po6ers3 5I days a*ter or on 55 Septe.onstitution. Ma@asiar. Ple0iscite on ?cto0er 1!G to declare 6it+out *orce and e**ect Presidential Cecree >os3 1 and 1IJJ. statin/ t+e questions to +e su0.ission on Elections 6as vested 6it+ t+e exclusive supervision and control o* t+e ?cto0er 1 %! >ational Re*erendu.ustices Ma@alintal. +oldin/ and conductin/ t+e Re*erendu.0er 1 %!. asse. Presidential Cecree 1IJ1 repealed inter alia.artial la6.ately in *orce3B LcM .ilarly voted. &ommission on +lections 50/ 9'$$K1$6 En <anc.erits everyone o* t+e cases under consideration3 8+ere*ore. 0y declarin/ t+e provisions o* Presidential Cecree 55 providin/ *or t+e .issed. 5 *iled separate opinions 4acts3 ?n 5 Septe. Co++*ss*o.ustice Oaldivar *avors t+e /rantin/ o* said period to t+e petitioners in said .onstitution.B 0ut t+at suc+ un*ortunate dra60ac@ not6it+standin/. 6+ic+ 6ill 0e su0.issed. t+e President issued anot+er related decree.e date o* 55 Septe.anner o* votin/ and canvass o* votes in B0aran/aysB (.o..0lies (B0aran/aysB) to resolve. t+e ne6 .ustice Oaldivar .iti=ens 'sse. *or t+e reasons set *ort+ in t+eir respective opinions3 .end.on/ . .0lies) applica0le to t+e national re*erendu.B since t+e issue Bposes a question o* *act3B (%) ?n t+e question 6+et+er or not t+ese cases s+ould 0e dis.onstitution is le/ally reco/ni=a0le and s+ould +e reco/ni=ed as le/iti. Section &.ent. a. &omelec 50/ 9'$$=L$6..e 6it+in 6+ic+ to *ile appropriate pleadin/s s+ould t+ey 6is+ to contest t+e le/ality o* Presidential Procla.ents o* 'rticle A( o* t+e 1 JH .ustice 'ntonio *eels Bt+at t+e ..o.)$ 1 concurs in result. its replace.0er 1 %!. and 0onzales vs.ation 11I53 . . on 1! ?cto0er 1 %! *or t+e .0er 1 %!. 6it+out special pronounce.ative.2ple0iscite o* ?cto0er 1!3 T+e . Pa0lo .onstitution +as not 0een rati*ied in accordance 6it+ 'rticle A( o* t+e 1 JH .a. & concur in separate opinions.o.ourt s+ould /o *art+er and decide on t+e . 15 ?cto0er 1 %!MG also 0uzman vs. o* Presidential Cecree 13 ?n t+e sa.3 Sanidad and Pa0lito (3 Sanidad.ent. in e**ect.aintains unquali*iedly t+at t+e Proposed .iti=ens 'sse.onstitution +as 0een rati*ied 0y t+e people or not. t+e interi. t+e period o* its existence. and t+at. *at+er and son. t+at t+e . t+e President issued Presidential Cecree 1IJJ.0ly evinces t+eir desire to +ave suc+ 0ody a0olis+ed and replaced t+ru a constitutional a.0ly.on/ ot+er t+in/s.0lies *alls s+ort o* 0ein/ in strict con*or.ent as to costs3 Sa-*(a( vs. 0ut +e 0elieves.iti=ensD 'sse.ity 6it+ t+e require. inso*ar as t+ey .2Ple0iscite3 ?n 5% Septe.0er 1 %!.

ay 0e su0.0ly under action 1!.0ent President to exercise t+e constituent po6er to propose a.0ent President is vested 6it+ t+at prero/ative o* discretion as to 6+en +e s+all initially convene t+e interi.ent to.end. or revision o* t+e .2Ple0iscite o* ?cto0er 1!3 Issue3 8+et+er t+e President .entation o* Presidential Cecrees relative to t+e *ort+co.an. >ational . >ational 'sse. 'rticle A()) o* t+e .0er 1 %!. +old.onstitution3 's a consequence.0ly 3 9o6ever t+e callin/ o* a .e Minister3 T+e .e 6+en +e s+all initially convene t+e interi. anot+er action *or Pro+i0ition 6it+ Preli.it t+e question o* callin/ suc+ a convention to t+e electorate in an election3B Section 5 t+ereo* provides t+at B'ny a.onvention voted on t+e Transitory Provisions. >ational 'sse..ents to t+e ne6 .e Minister.ay 0e initiated 0y t+e proposals o* t+e (1) re/ular >ational 'sse.onstitutions t+ere is no /rant to t+e incu. 0y a .0ly3 T+e PresidentDs decision to de*er t+e convenin/ o* t+e interi. doc@eted as L2&&!"&.ourt in 'quino v3 . t+is .ont+s a a*ter t+e approval o* suc+ a. period o* nor.itted to t+e electorate in an election voted upon 0y a .end. as 6ell as Presidential Cecree 1IJ1.0ly. or revision o*.ay 0e proposed 0y t+e >ational 'sse.2Ple0iscite sc+eduled on 1! ?cto0er 1 %!3 T+ey contend t+at under t+e 1 JH and 1 %J .onstitutional .in/ Re*erendu. t+ey 6ere a6are o* t+e *act t+at under t+e sa.end.propose a. t+e incu. >ational 'sse.ple.0ers.alcy.onstitutional .ination o* t+e ti.0ers o* t+e >ational 'sse.end. inso*ar as it directs t+e .. a. t+e a.end. Pri. or revision o*.ission on Elections to supervise.onvention.ents to t+e . and conduct t+e Re*erendu.ent o* t+e .onstitution3 8eld3 Section 1 o* 'rticle A() o* t+e 1 %J .0ly upon special call 0y t+e interi. or 0y a constitutional convention3 (5) T+e >ational 'sse.e.0ers. . a dele/ate to t+e 1 %1 . >ational 'sse.onstitutional . t+is .0ers o* t+e >ational 'sse.0ly3 T+e .0ly instituted in t+e Transitory Provisions is con*erred 6it+ t+at a.ents s+all ta@e e**ect 6+en rati*ied in accordance 6it+ 'rticle Sixteen +ereo*3B T+ere are. control.o.es o* nor. Pri.onvention .e.onstitutional . +ad already settled t+at t+e incu.0ly upon a vote o* t+ree2*ourt+s o* all its Me.onstitution s+all 0e valid 6+en rati*ied 0y a .onstitution3 Suc+ a. upon special call 0y t+e interi. 0y a .end.0ent President 6as /iven t+e discretion as to 6+en +e could convene t+e interi.e.0ly .?MELE.ent to.ents to.onvention intended to leave to t+e President t+e deter.inary )n1unction 6as *iled on H ?cto0er 1 %! 0y Raul M3 Gon=ales.0ers.end. t+ere*ore. *or t+e a. doc@eted as L2&&%1&.0ly upon a vote o* t+ree2*ourt+s o* all its .0ers G or (5) 0y a .inary )n1unction.0ly3 )n ti. consistent 6it+ t+e prevailin/ conditions o* peace and order in t+e country3 8+en t+e Cele/ates to t+e .alcy and period o* transition3 )n ti.end.a1ority vote o* all t+e Me.0ers o* t+e interi.a1ority vote o* all t+e .ay.onstitution durin/ t+e transition period is expressly con*erred on t+e interi. to restrain t+e i.endin/ po6er3 Section 1H o* t+e Transitory Provisions reads BT+e interi.endin/ process .0ers. >ational 'sse.onstitution.a1ority vote o* all its Me.ents ordains t+at B(1) 'ny a. and 'l*redo Salapantan.a1ority vote o* all its Me.onstitution3 Still anot+er petition *or Pro+i0ition 6it+ Preli. su0. assertin/ t+at t+e po6er to propose a.a1ority o* t+e votes cast in a ple0iscite 6+ic+ s+all 0e +eld not later t+an t+ree .2Ple0iscite on ?cto0er 1! +as no constitutional or le/al 0asis3 ?n JI Septe. >ational 'sse.ay call upon a re*erendu.end.es o* transition. +is son Raul .ay 0e proposed 0y a .r3.onstitution on '.onstitutional . 0y a vote o* t6o2t+irds o* all its Me.onvention called 0y a vote o* t6o2t+irds o* all t+e Me.ents .plated in t+e constitutional li*e o* t+e nation. propose a.onstitution . call a constitutional convention or. >ational 'sse. 6as instituted 0y (icente M3 Gu=.end.ents to t+is . t+e interi. t+e Re*erendu. t6o periods conte.end. i3e3.ay.ent or revision3B )n t+e present period o* transition.0ly.

approval o* t+e President o* any proposed a.onstitutional . t+e people voted a/ainst t+e convenin/ o* t+e interi. t+is .issin/ petitions *or pro+i0ition and . t+e proposed question o* 6+et+er t+e interi. is one o* policy.er dele/ates to t+e 1 %1 .0ansa resolutions and t+e present petitions 6ere pro.onstitution. o* t+e state underta@es t+e proposals o* a.atically .0ers o* t+e interi.ourt stated t+at it did so 0y a vote o* six to *our3 )t t+en concluded$ BT+is 0ein/ t+e vote o* t+e .ul/ated and *iled.onstitution is not t+e *unda. in t+e re*erendu. t+e people t+e. >ational 'sse.inated.anuary 1I21H.ental la6. o* 5% #e0ruary 1 %H.'sse. at 6+ic+ t+e rati*ication o* t+e 1 %J .o. 6+o 6ere dee. >ational 'sse.0ly s+all 0e initially convened 6as eli.uly 1 %J. >ational 'sse.ent. t+e .onstitution (*or t+e re/ular >ational 'sse.0ly.anda. t+at 0ody is not in t+e usual *unction o* la6.ents. /oes *urt+er t+an ..e. a. o* .endin/ o* t+e . 1 %J t+e people +ad already resolved a/ainst it3 )n sensu striciore. t+e present . #ernando (. are suin/ as taxpayers3 T+e rat+er unort+odox aspect o* t+ese petitions is t+e assertion t+at t+e 1 %J . 1 %J.ity3 Sa. 6+en t+e le/islative ar. 0ot+ .e.ourt and 6it+ t+e reco/nition o* t+e cardinal postulate t+at 6+at . dis.0ly)3 8+ile ordinarily it is t+e 0usiness o* t+e le/islatin/ 0ody to le/islate *or t+e nation 0y virtue o* constitutional con*er. respectively3 8eld3 )t is .ade 0et6een constitutional content o* an or/anic c+aracter and t+at o* a le/islative c+aracter3 T+e distinction.onvention.er3 T+e prero/ative o* t+e President to approve or disapprove applies only to t+e ordinary cases o* le/islation3 T+e President +as not+in/ to do 6it+ proposition or adoption o* a.0ly soon *ound support *ro.onstitution 6as su0.on/ress and dele/ates o* t+e .ed t+e present .onstitution3 Occ%-a vs.0lies (B0a/an/aysB) reiterated t+eir soverei/n 6ill to 6it++old t+e convenin/ o* t+e interi.ents to t+e .anuary. 6ere a/ainst its inclusion since in t+at re*erendu.e .avellana v3 T+e Executive Secretary.onstitution.a@in/3 )t is not le/islatin/ 6+en en/a/ed in t+e a.anuary 1 %J.on '3 Gon=ales.onstitution 0ein/ considered in *orce and e**ect3B Suc+ a state. 1 on o**icial leave 4acts3 T+e c+allen/e in t+ese t6o pro+i0ition proceedin/s a/ainst t+e validity o* t+ree <atasan/ Pa.ade .end. >ational 'sse.0ansa Resolutions proposin/ constitutional a.0ly3 '/ain. 1 dissents in separate opinion.onstitution3 )n t+e dispositive portion o* . <ational Treasurer 50/ %=$2$6 En <anc. 5 'pril 1 "1MG also 0onzales vs.0ers o* t+e P+ilippine <ar and *or.e into *orce and e**ect3 8it+ suc+ a pronounce. it is exercisin/ a peculiar po6er 0esto6ed upon it 0y t+e *unda.end.0ly) or in Section 1H o* t+e Transitory Provisions (*or t+e interi. +o6ever.)$ " concur.onstitution is not le/islative in c+aracter3 )n political science a distinction is .avellana rulin/ to t+e contrary not6it+standin/3 Issue3 8+et+er t+e 1 %J .e o* t+e . t+ere is no *urt+er 1udicial o0stacle to t+e ne6 .onstitution ca.uc+ too late in t+e day to deny t+e *orce and applica0ility o* t+e 1 %J .0ly3 )n t+e re*erendu.uel ?ccena and Ra.ani*est t+at as o* 1% .iti=ens 'sse.osp+ere3 )t . >ational 'sse.ed auto.onstitutional .selves3 )n t+e ple0iscite o* .ent 0y t+e Supre.0ers o* .onvention t+at *ra.erely assailin/ t+eir alle/ed constitutional in*ir. not o* la63 Suc+ 0ein/ t+e case.ent is a .a1ority.end.isno. t+e .ental c+arter itsel*3 )n t+e P+ilippines.end.itted. o* 5& .endin/ process3 Rat+er. 0ecause so. Co++*ss*o. and in *orce and e**ect 6+en t+e <atasan/ Pa.e. t+at po6er is provided *or in 'rticle A() o* t+e 1 %J .ent served a use*ul purpose3 )t could even 0e said t+at t+ere 6as a need *or it3 )t served to clear t+e at.ent to a .E'%c"*o-s LGR H!JHI.onstitution 6as valid.us to declare invalid its rati*ication.

ay 0e cited3 I. t+ere can 0e no question t+at President .ade t+e 1ud/.lai.3 'quino and (ice2President Salvador 93 Laurel.ora=on 'quino and (ice President Salvador Laurel and t+e elected President #erdinand E3 Marcos and (ice President 'rturo M3 Tolentino 0ein/ re*erred to under t+e said Section H (not %) o* 'rticle A())) o* t+e Transitory Provision o* t+e proposed 1 "! .ental la63 )t is as si.ora=on . quotes t+e *irst para/rap+ o* Section H o* 'rticle A())) o* t+e proposed 1 "! .ple as t+at3 8+at cannot 0e too stron/ly stressed is t+at t+e *unction o* 1udicial revie6 +as 0ot+ a positive and a ne/ative aspect3 's 6as so convincin/ly de.on pu0lic @no6led/e t+at t+e .ust also 0e o0eyed. 6+ic+ provides t+at Bt+e six2year ter. 5& ?cto0er 1 "!M Resolution En 0anc.erely a de *acto /overn.ati=ed as constitutionally de*icient3 T+e . *or purposes o* sync+roni=ation o* elections.acy o* t+e 'quino /overn.3 'quino and (ice2President Salvador 93 Laurel are t+e incu. Saturnino (3 <er. 1 5 o* t+e *irst re/ular elections *or t+e President and (ice2President under said 1 "! .ate3 )n declarin/ 6+at t+e la6 is. it .0ent and le/iti.in/ t+at t+e said provision Bis not clearB as to 6+o.atter3 )t 0elon/s to t+e real. as a .ourt can c+ec@ as 6ell as le/iti.ani*estly /ratuitous.ere dis. a. +ere0y extended to noon o* JI . t+e Supre.ourt says is not only entitled to respect 0ut . t+e second para/rap+ o* t+e cited section provides *or t+e +oldin/ on t+e second Monday o* May.ent in . it re*ers.onstitution. o* t+e incu. a *actor *or insta0ility 6as re.onstrated 0y Pro*essors <lac@ and Murp+y.onstitution3 Mutatis .ation t+at 6+at 6as done cannot 0e sti/.0ent President .eanin/ o* t+e concludin/ state.ourt Bto declare and ans6er t+e question o* t+e construction and de*initeness as to 6+o.ora=on .atter o* pu0lic record and co.0ent President and (ice2President elected in t+e % #e0ruary 1 "! election is.t+e Supre.ent 0ut in *act and .$ % concur 4acts3 )n a petition *or declaratory relie* i. +e t+en as@s t+e .ay also sustain t+eir validity3 )n t+e latter case.une 1 5 *or purposes o* sync+roni=ation o* elections3 9ence.ay not only nulli*y t+e acts o* coordinate 0ranc+es 0ut .onstitution s+all 0e +eld on t+e second Monday o* May 1 53B .e .pleadin/ no respondents. it 0ein/ a .e .entG t+ey +ave accepted t+e /overn.3 'quino 6+ic+ is in e**ective control o* t+e entire country so t+at it is not .onstitutional . t+ere is an a**ir.atter o* la6..issal o* a suit o* t+is c+aracter su**ices3 T+at is t+e .0i/uity or va/ueness o* t+e provision is . t+is .onstitution is t+e *unda.ent is not a 1usticia0le .ission re*ers t+erein to incu.ate President and (ice President o* t+e Repu0lic o* t+e P+ilippines3 #urt+er.ul/ated 0arely t6o 6ee@s a/o3 Curin/ t+e *irst year alone o* t+e e**ectivity o* t+e present .ude=.o.ora=on . Per curia. and provides *or t+e extension o* t+eir ter.. pro.RE 1%r+$(%M LGR %!1"I. at least ten cases .onstitution. to noon o* JI . and to no ot+er persons. as a la6yer. o* politics 6+ere only t+e people o* t+e P+ilippines are t+e 1ud/e3 'nd t+e people +ave .utandis.oved3 T+erea*ter.onstitution re*ers to3 Issue3 8+et+er 'quino and Laurel are t+e le/iti.une 1 53 T+e *irst re/ular elections *or t+e President and (ice2President under t+is .onstitution3 T+e latest case in point is People v3 Sola. t+e le/iti. all dou0ts 6ere resolved3 T+e 1 %J .ourt +as invaria0ly applied t+e present .0ent President .ude=Ds alle/ation o* a.on/ t+e present incu.ent o* President .ate President and (ice President o* t+e P+ilippines3 8eld3 T+e petition states no cause o* action3 <er.avellana3 Since t+en.

plaint 6as endorsed 0y 9ouse Representatives.plaint or on 5J ?cto0er 5IIJ.e on 55 ?cto0er 5IIJ *or 0ein/ insu**icient in su0stance3 #our .ustice o* t+e Supre..o.ent3B Fra-c*sco vs.ent co.peac+.iss it. i.ent3 'll t+e eleven .0ers o* t+is . 5 6rote concurrin/ and dissentin/ separate opinions to 6+ic+ 5 concur3 4acts3 ?n 5" >ove.une 5IIJ.ost o* 6+ic+ petitions contend t+at t+e *ilin/ o* t+e second i.ent Rules approved 0y t+e 11t+ .ent co.entioned 9ouse Resolution3 T+e second i. .ustice voted to dis.peac+.on/ress o* t+e 9ouse o* Representatives adopted and approved t+e Rules o* Procedure in ).ourt.ittee on .onstitution.peac+.ustice ruled on 1J ?cto0er 5IIJ t+at t+e *irst i.ustice 9ilario G3 Cavide .e.anda0le and en*orcea0le3B 's indicated in 'n/ara v3 Electoral .panied 0y a BResolution o* Endorse.ourtDs po6er o* 1udicial revie6 is con*erred on t+e 1udicial 0ranc+ o* t+e /overn.peac+..ission. in aid o* le/islation.o.ustice on H 'u/ust 5IIJ in accordance 6it+ Section J(5) o* 'rticle A) o* t+e .ent proceedin/s s+all 0e initiated a/ainst t+e sa.o.o.r3. as reor/ani=ed. +ave s6orn to up+old t+e *unda. and 6as re*erred to t+e 9ouse .la6 a de 1ure /overn.ustice Bto conduct an investi/ation.ittee on .acy o* t+e present /overn.es3B T+e co. .. to/et+er 6it+ t+e corollary principle o* separation o* po6ers. et3 al3.uly 5II5. t+e 15t+ .plaint) a/ainst . *or.ent Porceedin/s.anner o* dis0urse. t+e 9ouse o* Representatives adopted a Resolution.0ers o* t+e 9ouse o* Representatives3 (arious petitions *or certiorari.ent3 Moreover. a day a*ter t+e 9ouse .peac+.0er 5IIJ) En <anc..ent proceedin/s3 8eld3 T+e .. 1I >ove.ent in Section 1.ental la6 o* t+e Repu0lic under +er /overn.e o**icial .ent #und (.s t+e 0edroc@ o* .o.e . &o$s% o@ R%Br%s%-"a"*v%s (GR 1!I5!1. *ounded on t+e alle/ed results o* t+e le/islative inquiry initiated 0y a0ove2.ine t+e proper allocation o* po6ersB o* t+e di**erent 0ranc+es o* /overn.udiciary Cevelop.er President .onstitution3 T+e B.ourt a/ainst t+e 9ouse o* Representatives..ent and Bto direct t+e course o* /overn.ent co.onstitution t+at BLnMo i..arpio Morales (.ourt *or Bculpa0le violation o* t+e .peac+.B 0ut voted to dis.anda. J 6rote separate concurrin/ opinions to 6+ic+ & concur. t+e co.ent alon/ constitutional c+annelsB is in+erent in all courts as a necessary consequence o* t+e 1udicial po6er itsel*.ents and expenditures 0y t+e . 6+ic+ is Bt+e po6er o* t+e court to settle actual controversies involvin/ ri/+ts 6+ic+ are le/ally de.oderatin/ po6erB to Bdeter.+ie* .entB si/ned 0y at least 1KJ o* all t+e Me. and .e .ustices o* t+e Supre.osep+ E3 Estrada *iled an i.peac+.peac+.C#)3 ?n 5 .ont+s and t+ree 6ee@s since t+e *ilin/ o* t+e *irst co. o* c+ec@s and 0alances 6+ic+. *or.plaint 6as Bsu**icient in *or.ittee on .+ie* .+ie* .ustice 9ilario G3 Cavide.iss t+e sa.r3 and seven 'ssociate . t+e second i.ent co. supercedin/ t+e previous 9ouse ).on/ress3 ?n 55 .entK).unity o* nations +as reco/ni=ed t+e le/iti. 'rticle ())) o* our present 1 "% .plaint 6as acco.ittee on .onstitution3 T+e 9ouse .us 6ere *iled 6it+ t+e Supre.plaint is unconstitutional as it violates t+e provision o* Section H o* 'rticle A) o* t+e .plaint (*irst i.peac+. pro+i0ition.ent co. on t+e .ponent o* t+e delicate syste. 0etrayal o* t+e pu0lic trust and ot+er +i/+ cri.e . 1udicial revie6 is indeed an inte/ral co.ent co.peac+. .plaint 6as *iled 6it+ t+e Secretary General o* t+e 9ouse 0y 9ouse Representatives a/ainst .ourt o* t+e . 6+ic+ directed t+e .peac+.)$ 1 concurs.0er 5II1.ore t+an once 6it+in a period o* one year3B Issue3 8+et+er t+e po6er o* 1udicial revie6 extends to t+ose arisin/ *ro.

fficersM1ember 50/ 1%J12#6. 1 dissents in separate opinion.ent proceedin/s3 8+ile t+e E3S3 .e .0odied in Section J(5).peac+.onstitution is to 0e interpreted as a 6+ole and Bone section is not to 0e allo6ed to de*eat anot+er3B <ot+ are inte/ral co.inin/ t+e validity o* t+e exercise o* suc+ discretion.e .onstitution3 T+is s+o6s t+at t+e .entality3 T+ere are also /larin/ distinctions 0et6een t+e E3S3 .ent +as exclusive co/ni=ance o* .ental principle in our syste.e 6it+in its o6n sp+ere3 <ut it does not *ollo6 *ro.ent 0ranc+ or instru.onstitution.)$ J concur. 1 on leave 4acts3 T+ey ca.entioned sa*e/uards in t+e .onstitution did not intend to leave t+e . J concur in result. *uplico.ents in t+e exercise o* its po6er to deter. 50/ 1%J1J=6 En <anc.e t+ree +undred 1unior o**icers and enlisted .itations to t+e exercise o* suc+ po6er as e.ourt and is discretionary in nature.ent act 0eyond t+e po6ers assi/ned to it 0y t+e . vs.ourt and t+at o* t+e E3S3 Supre.rroyo. o* /overn. and t+e one year 0ar on t+e i. our .ourt is t+at 6+ile t+e po6er o* 1udicial revie6 is only i.ent o* one and t+e sa. o* c+ec@s and 0alances to secure coordination in t+e 6or@in/s o* t+e various depart. and is supre. o* /overn.peac+. EA%c$"*v% S%cr%"ar? R%?%s LGR 1H I"H.e in t+e . t+at /ranted to t+e P+ilippine Supre.atter o* i. is not 1ust a po6er 0ut also a duty.e . as expressly provided *or in t+e .. o* independence and interdependence t+at insures t+at no 0ranc+ o* /overn.unitions and explosives.itation.atters 6it+in its 1urisdiction. 50/ 1%J1L%6! )imentel et al.ent3 )t o0tains not t+rou/+ express provision 0ut 0y actual division in our . 'rticle A) t+ereo*3 T+ese li. et al.onstitution and t+e P+ilippine . it provided *or certain 6ell2de*ined li. to 0e a0solutely unrestrained and independent o* eac+ ot+er3 T+e . 1 concurs in separate opinion to 6+ic+ 5 1oin.our repu0lican *or.ent cases.peac+.en o* t+e 'r.ent proceedin/s 6ould upset t+e syste. Tin/a (.ourt and lo6er courts. required vote to i.anner o* *ilin/..onstitution3 Sa-'aFas vs.ent3 'nd t+e 1udiciary in turn.its.a1or di**erence 0et6een t+e 1udicial po6er o* t+e P+ilippine Supre.ed 6it+ +i/+2po6ered a. e**ectively c+ec@s t+e ot+er depart.ents o* t+e /overn.e .onstitution +as provided *or an ela0orate syste.peac+.onstitution intended t+e.e .peac+.on/ress3 )nstead.onstitution3 T+e .ourt exercised t+e po6er o* 1udicial revie6 over con/ressional action3 #inally. o* c+ec@s and 0alances3 (erily.ent to t+e 9ouse o* Representatives 6it+out li.ent to t+e sole discretion o* . vs. (J).ed #orces o* t+e . t+ou/+ vestin/ in t+e 9ouse o* Representatives t+e exclusive po6er to initiate i. t+e *act t+at t+e t+ree po6ers are to 0e @ept separate and distinct t+at t+e .ponents o* t+e cali0rated syste. t+ere exists no constitutional 0asis *or t+e contention t+at t+e exercise o* 1udicial revie6 over i. 5 *ile o6n separate opinions. /omulo et al.peac+. t+e . and +ence to declare executive and le/islative acts void i* violative o* t+e .iddle o* t+e ni/+t3 'r. or B1udicially discovera0le standardsB *or deter. provides *or several li.itations include t+e .e o**icial3 T+e people expressed t+eir 6ill 6+en t+ey instituted t+e a0ove2.onstitution 6it+ respect to t+e po6er o* t+e 9ouse o* Representatives over i. (&) and (H). 1acapagal'.onstitution3 Eac+ depart.onstitution 0esto6s sole po6er o* i. et al. J #e0ruary 5II&MG also *ocial 4ustice *ociety (*4* .pliedly /ranted to t+e E3S3 Supre.ent o* t+e /overn. so.ourt as t+e *inal ar0iter.ine t+e la6.peac+. 6it+ t+e Supre.ent and insures t+at its vast po6ers are utili=ed only *or t+e 0ene*it o* t+e people *or 6+ic+ it serves3 T+e separation o* po6ers is a *unda. t+rou/+ t+e po6er o* 1udicial revie63 T+ere is indeed a plet+ora o* cases in 6+ic+ t+is .onstitution. and it 6as /iven an expanded de*inition to include t+e po6er to correct any /rave a0use o* discretion on t+e part o* any /overn.

courts 6ill decide a question. ot+er6ise . courts do not ad1udicate .ents.panyin/ cases precluded t+e .posed o* Senators and Representatives. vs. t+e ?a@6ood occupation +ad ended3 '*ter +ours2lon/ ne/otiations.3 . +o6ever. 'l0erto G3 Ro. 5J 'u/ust 5II&).oot.ation &5% and General ?rder &3 Issue3 8+et+er t+e petitions +ave 0een rendered .ity in t+e 6ee +ours o* 5% . did not i. t+e soldiers a/reed to return to 0arrac@s3 T+e President.ourt assailin/ t+e validity o* t+e President7s declaration3 #ive days a*ter suc+ declaration.ent o* >ational Ce*ense.oot3 's a rule.r3 (-Senator Pi. -Tan an/ry and violent .ootness o* t+e petitions in Lacson v3 Pere= and acco.arpio (. 5J 'u/ust 5II&). ree. t+e . Luisa P3 E1ercito2Estrada (-Senator E1ercito2 .entel4).uly 5II&3 T+e . 0laded 6eapons.ent o* Environ.pted to 0rea@ into MalacaWan/34 Petitions 6ere *iled 0e*ore t+e Supre. t+e Supre. LGR 1!& %". .ediately li*t t+e declaration o* a state o* re0ellion and did so only on 1 'u/ust 5IIJ. 6as constituted on 5H 'u/ust 5II&3 Mean6+ile.ed 6it+ explosives. declarin/ t+at t+e state o* re0ellion +as ceased to exist. a.ootness o* t+e petitions not6it+standin/3 )*+%-"%' %" a'.ission on 'ppoint.0er 5II&. 1J ?cto0er 5IIHM En <anc.e .P+ilippines ('#P) stor.ru=.ination o* -actual controversies34 >evert+eless. +o6ever.iere apart.o0 ar.enced t+eir re/ular session on 5! . too@ t+eir oat+ o* o**ice and assu. and Mic+ael T3 Ce*ensor (Cepart. *irear. t+rou/+ Procla. i* it is -capa0le o* repetition yet evadin/ revie634 T+e present case is one suc+ case3 ?nce 0e*ore. several petitions 6ere *iled 0e*ore t+e Supre.e . 5J 'u/ust 5II&).3 (illa (Cepart.ents in Ma@ati . t+e Secretary o* Ce*ense and t+e .3 :ap (Cepart.ent o* .ent o* #orei/n '**airs. co.ation &JH. .3 'n/ara (-Senator 'n/ara4).ation J" and General ?rder 13 ?n t+at occasion.ents to 'rt+ur . et al3.ent o* Education.ourt *ro.. 1H 'u/ust 5II&). t+e soldiers de. .ed #orces to suppress t+e re0ellion3 <y t+e evenin/ o* 5% .ustice.uan Ponce Enrile (-Senator Enrile4). 'quilino P3 Pi.entel.on/ress4) co.ed into t+e ?a@6ood Pre. 5J 'u/ust 5II&) as actin/ secretaries o* t+eir respective depart.ilar questions *ro.oot 0y t+e li*tin/ o* t+e declaration3 8eld3 >?3 T+e . Er+*"a %" a'.. t+e President on 1 May 5II1 declared a state o* re0ellion and called upon t+e '#P and t+e P>P to suppress t+e re0ellion t+rou/+ Procla.osep+ 93 Curano (Cepart. Raul M3 Gon=ale= (Cepart.ited to t+e deter. 1udicial po6er 0ein/ li.)$ 1& concur 4acts3 T+e Senate and t+e 9ouse o* Representatives (-. 5J 'u/ust 5II&)..ed duties as actin/ secretaries3 ?n " Septe. Rene .ents3 Ce*ensor.ation &JH3 )n t+e interi.on/ ot+er t+in/s.anded. t+e resi/nation o* t+e President.ent o* '/riculture.+ie* o* t+e P+ilippine >ational Police (P>P)3 )n t+e 6a@e o* t+e ?a@6ood occupation. .uly 5IIJ. .e3 T+e .r3 (Cepart.ourt sei=ed t+e opportunity to *inally lay to rest t+e validity o* t+e declaration o* a state o* re0ellion in t+e exercise o* t+e President7s callin/ out po6er.ation &5% and General ?rder &.s. clu0s. 5J 'u/ust 5II&). 5J 'u/ust 5II&).er/in/.o..ourt c+allen/in/ t+e validity o* Procla.ent o* Touris.ent and >atural Resources. 'velino . t+e President issued later in t+e day Procla. 0ot+ declarin/ -a state o* re0ellion4 and callin/ out t+e 'r. Ed/ardo . stones and ot+er deadly 6eapons7 assaulted and atte. +as rendered t+e case ..ourt a/rees 6it+ t+e Solicitor General t+at t+e issuance o* Procla.ent o* '/rarian Re*or.oot cases.e . addressin/ t+e constitutionality o* t+e declaration3 To prevent si.. #lorencio <3 '0ad (Cepart. President 'rroyo issued appoint.uly 5IIJ3 <e6ailin/ t+e corruption in t+e '#P.ulo (Cepart. t+e President li*ted t+e sa.

t+e 6rit o* pro+i0ition 6ill not lie to en1oin acts already done3 9o6ever.e a.y3 T+e last portion o* 'rticle AAA))) covers t+e appropriations o* t+e .ple.S.ul/ated Resolution ' "2I&% n I& Septe.e.o. et al3.ita4)3 T+e petition also sou/+t to pro+i0it Ce*ensor et al3 *ro.entation o* a co.inary in1unction as Senators o* t+e Repu0lic o* t+e P+ilippines. Mercedes (3 . .apital Re/ion ?**ice. and .ission (.on/ress is in session 6ill arise in every suc+ appoint.9R)3 T+ese special provisions tac@les ?r/ani=ational Structure and t+e Ese o* Savin/s3 ?n t+e stren/t+ o* t+ese special provisions.ent secretaries3 Issue3 8+et+er t+e petition is .ent o* depart.in/ t+e duties o* depart.issioners3 ?n 1 ?cto0er 1 "..0er 1 ".o.ission on 9u.(C&REA! vs.on/ress passed Repu0lic 'ct "H55. .&$+a. 'l*redo S3 Li.eWa4) *iled t+e petition *or certiorari and pro+i0ition 6it+ a prayer *or t+e issuance o* a 6rit o* preli. li@e6ise. appoint. provided *or t+e creation and up/radin/ o* ot+er positions3 To support t+e i. adoptin/ an up/radin/ and reclassi*ication sc+e. aut+ori=ed t+e au/. 0ut t+e t+en C<M secretary <en1a. to declare unconstitutional t+e appoint. as an exception to t+e rule on .ita (-Secretary Er.or/e R3 .o.a.+e.9R.ely$ one Cirector )( position.. t+e . t+e . .ents issued 0y President Gloria Macapa/al2'rroyo (-President 'rroyo4) t+rou/+ Executive Secretary Eduardo R3 Er.0er 5II& i.+airperson 'urora P3 >avarette2ReciWa and .ent o* <ud/et and Mana/e.ensurate a.4).ootness. t+e . one .ent (C<M) 6it+ a request *or its approval. na. ))) (-Senator ?s. courts 6ill decide a question ot+er6ise .o.e.an Ri/+ts (.odi*ication and up/radin/ sc+e.on/ selected positions in t+e .ission3 'nnexed to said resolution is t+e proposed creation o* ten additional plantilla positions.ission3 )t. (icente P3 Si0ulo.ediately a*ter t+e recess o* .o.ent secretaries in an actin/ capacity 6+ile .. pro.ount /enerated *ro.oot i* it is capa0le o* repetition yet evadin/ revie63 9erein. 6it+ Salary Grade H under t+e ?**ice o* t+e .. 6it+ Salary Grade 5" *or t+e .oot 0ecause President 'rroyo +ad extended to Ce*ensor.ivil Service . and *ive Process Servers.entation o* suc+ sc+e.issioners >asser '3 Maro+o.o.9R. t+rou/+ its t+en . 5H >ove. ad interi.ler@ ))3 T+e .ara/a Re/ional ?**ice. ot+er6ise @no6n as t+e General 'ppropriations 'ct o* 1 "3 )t provided *or Special Provisions 'pplica0le to 'll .9R -collapsed4 t+e vacant positions in t+e 0ody to provide additional source o* *undin/ *or said sta**in/ .ootness o* t+e petition does not 0ar its resolution3 T+e question o* t+e constitutionality o* t+e President7s appoint.ist ))).ler@ ))). t+rou/+ .in Cio@no denied t+e request3 )n li/+t o* t+e C<M7s disapproval o* t+e proposed personnel .odi*ication sc+e.R*Dh"s E+B'o?%%sL Assoc*a"*o.0y '3S3 Madri/al (-Senator Madri/al4). savin/s under Personnel Services3 <y virtue o* Resolution ' "2I!5 dated 1% >ove.. Co++*ss*o.9R *or6arded said sta**in/ .onstitutional ?**ices En1oyin/ #iscal 'utono.o. . . *our Security ?**icer )) 6it+ Salary Grade 1H. per*or. (-Senator Li.e resolution.oquia.&$+aR*Dh"s LGR 1HHJJ!.odi*ication3 '.e to t+e Cepart.o. t+e .9R issued Resolution >o3 ' "2IHH providin/ *or t+e up/radin/ or raisin/ o* salary /rades o* certain positions in t+e ..0er 5II&M Second Civision. and one 'ccountin/ .on/ t+e positions collapsed 6ere$ one 'ttorney ))). t+e .ent3 Co++*ss*o.Estrada4). t+ree Special )nvesti/ator ).on/ress3 8eld3 's a rule. Pan*ilo M3 Lacson (-Senator Lacson4). *our 'ttorney )(.+ico2>a=ario (.salic..)2>ational .. in t+e sa.)$ & concur 4acts3 ?n 1& #e0ruary 1 ".eWa. and Ser/io R3 ?s.in//oy E3 Estrada (-Senator Estrada4).ents on 5J Septe.ontreras.0er 1 ". one .

S.9R.9RE'7s personality to 0rin/ t+e suit 6as a non2issue in t+e .e on appeal. it is settled 1urisprudence t+at an issue t+at 6as neit+er raised in t+e co.ourt o* 'ppeals3 T+e .plaint nor in t+e court 0elo6 cannot 0e raised *or t+e *irst ti.9RE' *iled a .atter to t+e .)$ concur.ission7s savin/s or t+at portion o* its 0ud/etary pie ot+er6ise allocated *or Personnel Services. Providin/ #unds T+ere*or and *or ot+er purposes.o..onvetsion o* Military Reservations into ot+er Productive uses.ployees3 T+is su**iciently .2Re/ional ?**ice3 .9R7s up/radin/ sc+e.B 6as enacted on 1J Marc+ 1 53 T+e la6 set out t+e policy o* t+e /overn. retitlin/. protests t+at t+e up/radin/ and collapsin/ o* positions 0ene*ited only a select *e6 in t+e upper level positions in t+e ..lar@ and Su0ic . potentially entails eatin/ up t+e .ission resultin/ to t+e de.p .ended to t+e . 0ut t+e .erits o* t+is case3 T+us. t+e reco.9RE').9RE'7s request in a Resolution dated 1! Cece. reco.9RE' stood its /round in sayin/ t+at t+e C<M is t+e only a/ency 6it+ appropriate aut+ority .ents 0e re1ected o6in/ to t+e C<M7s disapproval o* t+e plantilla reclassi*ication3 Mean6+ile..0it o* .entral ?**ice denied t+e sa. L*+ LGR 11 %%H.ployees o* .erica Military <ases '/ree. entitled B'n 'ct 'ccelleratin/ t+e .une 5III3 Given t+e cacop+ony o* 1ud/.0er 1 .andated 0y la6 to evaluate and approve .ultitude o* cases t+at a proper party is one 6+o +as sustained or is in i.e.S. requested t+e .atters o* reclassi*ication and up/radin/.apital Re/ion ?**ice3 .ourt o* 'ppeals a**ir.S. and reclassi*ication sc+e.ent 'ut+ority *or t+is Purpose.9RE' is a proper party to 0rin/ t+e suit in .e 0e censured3 . neit+er s+ould our +ands 0e tied 0y t+is tec+nical concern3 )ndeed.e in t+e .plained o*3 9ere.vs.a.ployees.ity o* <a/uio3 R' %55% created .ilitary reservations as 6ell as t+eir extensions includin/ t+e .entral ?**ice to a**ir. 1ustice.9R on t+e 1usti*ication t+at suc+ action is 6it+in t+e a.entral ?**ice t+at t+e su01ect appoint.9RE' to *ile t+is case 6as reco/ni=ed 0y t+e .9R.ely. as to do so 6ould 0e o**ensive to t+e 0asic rules o* *air play.onversion and Cevelop. 5& ?cto0er 5IIJM En <anc.entral ?**ice denied .o+n 9ay) in t+e . dated 5 Marc+ 1 .entral ?**ice and up+eld t+e validity o* t+e up/radin/.9RE'7s request to a**ir.o+n 9ay Station (. and due process3 2oh.ployees o* t+e .onversion and Cevelop.B ot+er6ise @no6n as t+e B<ases .ourt o* 'ppeals 6+en it passed upon t+e .2.. t+e .9RE'. 6+ic+ consists o* ran@ and *ile e.a .ed t+e pronounce.9R7s *iscal autono..an Ri/+ts E. .9RE' *iled t+e petition *or revie63 Issue3 8+et+er .endation o* t+e . t+e reco.S.ent to accelerate t+e sound and 0alanced conversion into alternative productive uses o* t+e *or.ployees7 'ssociation (.orandu. are derived3 #urt+er. in representation o* t+e ran@ and *ile e.eets t+e in1ury test3 )ndeed.o.2.S.ediate dan/er o* sustainin/ an in1ury as a result o* t+e act co.2.S. na.2Re/ional ?**ice t+at t+e up/radin/ sc+e. ..y3 T+e . *ro. t+e . 6+ic+ t+e 0ene*its o* t+e e.e..S.orali=ation o* t+e ran@ and *ile e. 6+en it too@ co/ni=ance o* t+e . includin/ t+ose in t+e ran@ and *ile.otion *or reconsideration.S..o.ent.ission on 9u..endation o* t+e .arpio2Morales (.ent o* t+e .endation o* t+e .2>ational .2.S. t+e personality o* t+e .9RE' elevated t+e .e on .reatin/ t+e <ases .&a? )%oB'%s A'"%r-a"*v% Coa'*"*o.ent 'ct o* 1 5. and reversed t+e reco. . i* *ound to 0e valid.ents 0et6een t+e C<M and t+e .S.ilitary 0ases under t+e 1 &% P+ilippines2Enited States o* '. as 6ell as creation o* positions3 T+e . t+e o**icers o* t+e .er . 5 too@ no part 4acts3 Repu0lic 'ct %55%. .ourt3 8eld3 )t +as 0een +eld in a .2.

1 J.ity o**icially as@ed <.ic Oones (SEO) in t+e areas covered respectively 0y t+e .a.0er o* resolutions in response to t+e actions ta@en 0y <.inin/ its position on 6+et+er .o+n 9ay and Poro Point *or t+e purpose o* turnin/ suc+ places into principal tourist and recreation spots.C'.C' as o6ner and ad.ont+ later.a.ate3 R' %55% expressly /ave aut+ority to t+e President to create t+rou/+ executive procla. t+e 8allace 'ir Station in San #ernando.ent and Escro6 '/ree.lar@ .ent 'ut+orityD (<.a.0er 1 J.p . local and national taxes.o+n 9ay3 T+e resolution 6as intended to intelli/ently /uide t+e san//unian in deter.B see@in/ and supportin/. t+e .o+n 9ay 0e declared a SEO. su01ect to its concurrence. priority in e. tax and duty2*ree i.ate o01ective o* utili=in/ t+e 0ase areas in accordance 6it+ t+e declared /overn.ation declarin/ an area .p . and .ana/e.ic Land #ree PortM Oone (Su0ic SEO) t+e .C' a 1H2point concept *or t+e develop.p . t+e San//unian/ Panlun/sod o* <a/uio .ent in accordance 6it+ t+e .t+e <ases .a.itted to <. +o6ever.a@in/ o* a *a.ulti*arious aspects o* carryin/ out t+e ulti. real properties o* .o+n 9ay *ro.ent.ent and operation o* t+e ca. t+e san//unian passed a resolution requestin/ t+e Mayor to order t+e deter.o+n 9ay as pre.ination o* realty taxes 6+ic+ .ier tourist destinations and recreation centers3 & .a.ily2oriented type o* tourist destination.ation o* a 1oint venture *or t+e develop.ic activity t+erein *ro.ity /overn.C' entered into a Me.e. La Enion.p .ay ot+er6ise 0e collected *ro. a @ind o* develop. su01ect to t+e concurrence o* t+e local /overn. o* its o6ners+ip over t+e +o.os o* a presidential procla.ent 6it+ Tuntex (<3(3L) .ent in t+e .n o* '/ree. t+e san//unian sou/+t *ro.oint (enture '/ree.ent t+at a**ords protection to t+e environ.ent policy3 R' %55% li@e6ise created t+e Su0ic Special Econo. t+e area *or develop.on/ ot+er t+in/s.o+n 9ay3 T+e san//unianDs vision expressed. TE>TEA and 'S)'8?RLC a/reed to so.o+n 9ay a SEO as a condition precedent to its *ull develop.anuary 1 &.p . t+e issuance 0y t+en President Ra.odi*ied t+e ot+er proposals o* t+e san//unian3B T+ey stressed t+e need to declare .C' an a0dication. (Series o* 1 &). Ltd3 (TE>TEA) and 'sia6orld )nternationale Group. as ori/inally envisioned 0y t+e parties under t+eir 'Oe.ilitary reservation3 Still 0y anot+er resolution passed on 51 #e0ruary 1 &.a. t+e reac+ or covera/e o* any plan or pro/ra.ent o* Poro Point in La Enion and .andate o* R' %55%3 ?n 11 May 1 &.p.pDs property and t+e econo.orandu. TE>TEA and 'S)'8?RLC executed a .p . t+e san//unian adopted and su0. o* '/ree.o3. <.ation to 0e issued 0y t+e President o* t+e P+ilippinesG and /ranted t+e Su0ic SEO incentives ran/in/ *ro.e lots 0ein/ occupied 0y residents o* 0aran/ays surroundin/ t+e . to ot+er +all2nar@s o* a li0erali=ed *inancial and 0usiness cli.ean6+ile passed a nu.p3B <.onversion and Cevelop. a. ot+er Special Econo.o+n 9ay3 <y Resolution o* 5 Septe.ation. t+e san//unian passed Resolution 5HH.C'). local or national taxation3 More t+an a .ent o* .ent3 T+e <a/uio .ption o* 0usinesses t+erein *ro.ed nine 0aran/ays *ro.etes and 0ounds o* 6+ic+ 6ere to 0e delineated in a procla.ents 6+ere0y t+ey 0ound t+e. 0ut re1ected or .a.ent. /uaranteed participation o* t+e city /overn. *or its develop. )nc3 ('S)'8?RLC). <.ent .C' to exclude all t+e 0aran/ays partly or totally located 6it+in .ent and Mana/e. exclusion o* t+e previously na. <. and lia0ility *or local taxes o* 0usinesses to 0e esta0lis+ed 6it+in t+e ca.portations.ent units directly a**ected. vestin/ it 6it+ po6ers pertainin/ to t+e . private corporations re/istered under t+e la6s o* t+e <ritis+ (ir/in )slands.pany @no6n as t+e <a/uio )nternational Cevelop.C'.a.ent opportunities *or <a/uio residents and *ree access to t+e 0ase area.ploy.ent .p .0er 1!. 6aiver or quitclai.pt t+e ca. t+e san//unian 0ein/ o* t+e vie6 t+at suc+ declaration 6ould exe.orand.ilitary reservation.ont+s later or on 1! Cece. exe.orporation 6+ic+ 6ould lease areas 6it+in . preparatory to t+e *or.a.inistrator o* .o+n 9ay3 ?n 1! 'u/ust 1 J.p .selves to put up a 1oint venture co.p .ent3 <y a su0sequent Resolution dated 1 .

ation and not .ation &5I.ic Oone pursuant to Repu0lic 'ct %55%3B T+e .. too@ e**ect on 1H .a.)$ J concur. t+erea*ter.o+n 9ay as a SEO3 .laravall and Lilia G3 :aranon 6ere duly elected councilors o* <a/uio at t+e ti.ent and .us and declaratory relie* 6it+ prayer *or a te.p . .?2P+il3) *iled. ot+er6ise @no6n as t+e Mi/rant 8or@ers and ?verseas #ilipinos 'ct o* 1 H.ain.ent units o* t+e ri/+t o* concurrence on t+e 0asesD conversion is equivalent to vestin/ a le/al standin/ on t+e. a petition *or declaratory relie* under .ertainly t+en..uly 1 & t+en President Ra.ation &5I.entin/ t+e Mi/rant 8or@ers and ?verseas #ilipino 'ct o* 1 H 6as. pu0lis+ed in t+e % 'pril 1 ! issue o* t+e Manila <ulletin3 9o6ever.a. et3 al3 *iled t+e petition *or pro+i0ition.ent 0et6een t+e <.porary restrainin/ order (TR?) andKor 6rit o* preli.uly 1 H3 T+e ?. +ave le/al standin/ to 0rin/ t+e present petition3 EA%c$"*v% S%cr%"ar? vs.ation &5I is t+e very econo.er . o* '/ree.p as a SEO in accordance 6it+ t+e provisions o* R' %55%3 To/et+er 6it+ t+is resolution 6as su0. an interest in issue a**ected 0y t+e procla. 0ein/ in+a0itants o* <a/uio.oint (enture '/ree.p . Th% Co$r" o@ ABB%a's LGR 1J1%1 .itted a dra*t o* t+e proposed procla.ent o* Procla. .C'. .erely an interest in t+e question involved or an incidental interest.o+n 9ay as t+e . Petitioners Edil0erto T3 .ent . 1 on o**icial leave 4acts3 Repu0lic 'ct "I&5. 5H May 5II&M Second Civision.ation *or consideration 0y t+e President3 ?n H . t+e constitutionality or validity o* Procla.ation &5I (series o* 1 &). t+e 'sian Recruit.+apter.inary in1unction on 5H 'pril 1 H c+allen/in/. and TE>TEA and 'S)'8?RLC3 Issue3 8+et+er t+e petitioners +ave le/al standin/ in *ilin/ t+e case questionin/ t+e validity o* Presidential Procla.oalition.ation &5I3 8eld3 )t is settled t+at 6+en questions o* constitutional si/ni*icance are raised.ouncil P+ilippine .anda. as city o**icials 6+o voted a/ainstB t+e san//unian Resolution >o3 5HH (Series o* 1 &) supportin/ t+e issuance o* t+e no6 c+allen/ed Procla.alle1o Sr3 (.ity3 Moreover. in t+e .ple.aterial interest. Bcreatin/ and desi/natin/ a portion o* t+e area covered 0y t+e *or.ota o* t+e case3B R' %55% expressly requires t+e concurrence o* t+e a**ected local /overn. even 0e*ore t+e la6 too@ e**ect. t+e interest o* petitioners.uly 1 H. t+e court can exercise its po6er o* 1udicial revie6 only i* t+e *ollo6in/ requisites are present$ (1) t+e existence o* an actual and appropriate caseG (5) a personal and su0stantial interest o* t+e party raisin/ t+e constitutional questionG (J) t+e exercise o* 1udicial revie6 is pleaded at t+e earliest opportunityG and (&) t+e constitutional question is t+e lis .e. *or it is in e**ect a reco/nition o* t+e real interests t+at co. is personal and su0stantial suc+ t+at t+ey +ave sustained or 6ill sustain direct in1ury as a result o* t+e /overn.B *or 6+at is at sta@e in t+e en*orce.ent units to t+e creation o* SEOs out o* all t+e 0ase areas in t+e country3DB T+e /rant 0y t+e la6 on local /overn.ic and social existence o* t+e people o* <a/uio .o+n 9ay Peoples 'lternative . en/a/ed in t+e local /overnance o* <a/uio .o+n 9ay Special Econo.laravall and :aranon.unities near0y or surroundin/ a particular 0ase area +ave in its utili=ation3 T+us. )nc3 ('R.orandu.ity and 6+ose duties included decidin/ *or and on 0e+al* o* t+eir constituents t+e question o* 6+et+er to concur 6it+ t+e declaration o* a portion o* t+e area covered 0y .ni0us Rules and Re/ulations ).os issued Procla. in assailin/ t+e le/ality o* Procla.o* 5"H31 +ectares o* t+e ca.ent act 0ein/ c+allen/ed3B T+eirs is a . on 1% .ation &5I as 6ell as t+e le/ality o* t+e Me.

t+e Secretary o* #orei/n '**airs. para/rap+ (/).. en*orcin/ t+e assailed provisions o* t+e la63 )n a supple.otion *or reconsideration o* t+e said decision3 T+ey t+us *iled a petition *or revie6 on certiorari3 Issue3 8+et+er '.issin/ t+e petition and a**ir. Section ". t+e Secretary o* . su0sections (a) Q (0)G Section "G Section G Section 1IG pars3 1 Q 5G Section 11G and Section &I o* R' "I&5.ploy. et al37s . discri. as it 6as inconceiva0le +o6 a non2stoc@ and non2pro*it corporation.entation o* t+e la6.porary restrainin/ order en1oinin/ t+e Executive Secretary.inary in1unction issued 0y t+e trial court3 T+ey asserted t+at 'cro2P+il is not t+e real party2in2interest as petitioner in t+e trial court. Section % on penalties *or ille/al recruit. para/rap+s (a) and (0).ents3 ?n 1 'u/ust 1 H.ent o* Section !.0ers and 6+ic+ it represented in t+e suit.ent o* t+e la63 T+ey ar/ued t+at i*.).ple. su0sections (a) to (. 6it+ a plea *or t+e issuance o* a te.on/ ot+ers) )n t+eir ans6er to t+e petition. inter alia.ourt 6it+ t+e Re/ional Trial .e. Section %.ination o* t+e proceedin/s3 T+e Executive Secretary.ination a/ainst licensed and re/istered recruiters.). et al3 *iled t+eir co. any da. a. not 'cro2P+il3 ?n H Cece.ent. 'rticle ))) o* t+e .entin/ rules 6ere needed3 )t prayed t+at t+e court issue a te. su0sections (/) and (i.R?2P+il +as locus standi3 8eld3 P'RTL: :ES3 '.inary in1unction issued 0y t+e trial court3 T+e appellate court.) on ille/al recruit. could sustain direct in1ury as a result o* t+e en*orce.porary restrainin/ order to en1oin t+e en*orce. (d) t+e la6 6as approved 0y .III3 'cro2P+il posted t+e requisite 0ond and on 5& 'u/ust 1 H. en*orcin/ Section ! su0section (i).end. t+e Secretary o* La0or and E.ple.ents consistin/ in t+e inclusion in t+e caption t+ereo* 11 ot+er corporations 6+ic+ it alle/ed 6ere its .a/e 6ould result in t+e i. ?88' 'd.inistrator *ro. and a plea *or a te.porary restrainin/ order e**ective *or a period o* only 5I days t+ere*ro. and pars3 1H Q 1!G Section %. and Sections and 1I o* t+e la6. denied t+e Executive Secretary. t+e Executive Secretary.ended petition.onstitution (i3e3 discri.entin/ R' "I&5 not +avin/ 0een released as yetG (c) t+e assailed provisions do not violate any provisions o* t+e . at all. and P?E' 'd. it is t+e licensed and re/istered recruit.ourt o* Pue=on .a/e.?2P+il3 *iled an a. para/rap+s (a) to (1). et al3 alle/ed.in/ t+e assailed order and 6rit o* preli.e out 6it+ a *our2pa/e decision dis. et al3 *ro. t+e trial court issued a 6rit o* preli.inistrator. 5nd par3)G Section !.ourt o* 'ppeals assailin/ t+e order and t+e 6rit o* preli. t+e trial court issued on 51 'u/ust 1 H. t+e 'R.ent. para/rap+s 1 and 5. (l) and (.inary in1unction en1oinin/ T+e Executive Secretary.ent on t+e petition.inary in1unction upon a 0ond o* PHI.ents.onstitutionG and. et al3 *iled a petition *or certiorari 6it+ t+e . t+e appellate court ca. li@e6ise. Section !.ination a/ainst uns@illed 6or@ers.ent.porary restrainin/ order andKor 6rit o* preli. an order /rantin/ 'cro2P+il7s plea *or a 6rit o* preli. and Sections 11 and &I o* R' "I&53 'rco2P+il averred t+at t+e provisions o* R' "I&5 violate Section 1. Section 1I.?2P+il3 alle/ed t+at R' "I&5 6as sel*2executory and t+at no i. para/rap+s (a) to (.0er 1 %. pendin/ t+e ter.ent a/encies andKor t+e uns@illed #ilipino .inary in1unction en1oinin/ t+e en*orce. t+at (a) 'cro2P+il +as no cause o* action *or a declaratory relie*G (0) t+e petition 6as pre.inal actions *or ille/al recruit.3 '*ter t+e Executive Secretary.inated a/ainst 6+o 6ould sustain t+e said in1ury or da.ent o* Section 5.on/ress in t+e exercise o* t+e police po6er o* t+e State3 '*ter t+e respective counsels o* t+e parties 6ere +eard on oral ar/u.ustice. and Section on venue o* cri.i/rant 6or@ers discri.ent to its petition.R?2P+il +as locus standi to *ile t+e petition in t+e RT.ity to declare as unconstitutional Section 5. Section ! su0section (@) and para/rap+s 1H and 1! t+ereo*.ature as t+e rules i.Rule !J o* t+e Rules o* . in representation o* . t+e a. t+e 'R. t+e trial court issued a te.ple.

ploy.ended petition3 T+e .ediu. .ply 6it+ Section 5 o* Rule !J o* t+e Rules o* .odern vie6 is t+at an association +as standin/ to co.pleaded in t+e a.0ers and t+e o**icers and e.aterialsG . devices and .o.e.0ers3 'n association +as standin/ to *ile suit *or its 6or@ers despite its lac@ o* direct interest i* its .ent industry.puter equip. Pan/ani0an (. Co++*ss*o. co.elec to conduct a nation6ide de. '. t+e .R?2P+il 6as or/ani=ed *or t+e purposes inter alia o* pro. and to per*or.e. 1 concurs in result..)$ & concur.0ers3 T+is vie6 *uses t+e le/al identity o* an association 6it+ t+at o* its ..ultiplicity o* suits3 I-@or+a"*o.ed to represent. or t+at t+e ri/+t o* t+e t+ird party 6ould 0e diluted unless t+e party in court is allo6ed to espouse t+e t+ird party7s constitutional clai.0ers are in every practical sense identical3 '.ent a/encies 6+ic+ are its .e. '. 6+ic+ aut+ori=ed .anpo6er recruit. t+us.e.ent industry.ourt note t+at.andated t+e poll 0ody to acquire auto.0ers are a**ected 0y t+e action3 'n or/ani=ation +as standin/ to assert t+e concerns o* its constituents3 )n Teleco. and allo6ed t+e poll 0ody to pilot2test t+e syste.ac+ines ('.plead any uns@illed 6or@ers in its petition3 #urt+er.R?2P+il *iled t+e suit are speci*ically na.o. creatin/ and explorin/ e.t+e 11 licensed and re/istered recruit.ed a.a@e .e.ployees t+ereo*3 '.ore e**ective t+e expression o* t+eir voices and t+e redress o* t+eir /rievances3 9o6ever.Ms).R?2P+il *iled t+e petition *or declaratory relie* under Rule !& o* t+e Rules o* . in t+e Marc+ 1 ! elections in t+e 'utono.e. ('ES) *or t+e process o* votin/.o.ourt notes t+at it even *ailed to i.e. '. co.ated election syste. 1 concurs in separate opinion.ous Re/ion in Musli.otin/ and supportin/ t+e /ro6t+ and develop.R?2P+il *ailed to co.ended petition is dee.otin/ t+e /eneral 6el*are and protection o* #ilipino 6or@ersG and.R?2P+il to *ile t+e said suit *or and in t+eir 0e+al*3 T+e .ore.ended to avoid .anuary 5II&M En <anc.ent a/encies i. 1 also *iled a separate opinion to 6+ic+ 1 1oined. 5 *iled separate opinions.ent.plis+ t+e purposes e. '. as parties2petitioners. ot+er acts and activities necessary to acco.puteri=ed election syste.ent a/encies it clai. entity or association on .ourt *or and in 0e+al* o* its 11 licensed and re/istered recruit.ated countin/ . countin/ votes and canvassin/Kconsolidatin/ t+e results o* t+e national and local elections3 )t also .onstration o* a co. to act as t+e representative o* any individual. and 6+ic+ approved separate resolutions expressly aut+ori=in/ '. Mindanao ('RMM)3 ?n 55 Cece.0odied t+erein3 '. under its 'rticles o* )ncorporation.s3 9erein.ent o* t+e .0er 1 %.ourt3 >evert+eless.0ers see@ to .ourt +eld t+at standin/ 1us tertii 6ould 0e reco/ni=ed only i* it can 0e s+o6n t+at t+e party suin/ +as so. t+e a. t+e 11 licensed and re/istered recruit.o. t+e appropriate party to assert t+e ri/+ts o* its . 0ecause it and its .ent a/encies *or 6+ic+ '.T%ch-o'oD? Fo$-(a"*o.o@ "h% )h*'*BB*-%s vs.0ers.ent opportunities *or t+e exclusive 0ene*it o* its /eneral .unications and <roadcast 'ttorneys o* t+e P+ilippines v3 .plead. in *ailin/ to i.E'%c"*o-s LGR 1H 1J .anpo6er recruit.une 1 H.0ers. 1 dissents in separate opinion to 6+ic+ 1 1oined 4acts3 ?n % .R?2P+il asserts t+at t+e assailed provisions violate t+e constitutional ri/+ts o* its . t+rou/+ 6+ic+ its individual .R?2P+il is 0ut t+e .plain o* in1uries to its .elec to use an auto.R?2P+il is.on/ress passed Repu0lic 'ct "I&!.e.atters related to t+e .e su0stantial relation to t+e t+ird party. 1J .ed in t+e petition.pany.0ers+ipG en+ancin/ and pro. .on/ress enacted Repu0lic 'ct "&J! aut+ori=in/ .e.ission on Elections.R?P9)L +as no locus standi to *ile t+e petition *or and in 0e+al* o* uns@illed 6or@ers3 T+e . since t+e eleven licensed and re/istered recruit. 0ot+ in t+e local and international levelsG providin/.

t+e a6ard o* any contract *or auto. t+ere can .entation and li. t+e .ic *uture virtually +an/s in t+e 0alance.ple. t+e present petition *or certiorari3 Issue3 8+et+er )T#.ission3 ?n 5& .ated Election Syste.anually. President Gloria Macapa/al2'rroyo issued Executive ?rder 1%5.ation Tec+nolo/y #oundation o* t+e P+ilippines. t+ey sou/+t a re20iddin/3 )n a letter2reply dated ! .ent t+e auto.ple. *or t+e 5II& elections3 )t resolved to conduct 0iddin/s *or t+e t+ree (J) p+ases o* its 'uto.elec issued Resolution H 5 clari*yin/ certain eli/i0ility criteria *or 0idders and t+e sc+edule o* activities *or t+e pro1ect 0iddin/3 ?ut o* t+e H% 0idders.G and P+ase ))) 2 Electronic Trans.o.elec 22 in its Resolution 5 "H dated #e0ruary 1 " 22 eventually decided a/ainst *ull national i.ust 0e *ollo6ed strictly3 Truly.in '0alos Sr3 T+ey protested t+e a6ard o* t+e .e Pa=.o.o.ent o* Science and Tec+nolo/y (C?ST)3 )n its Report on t+e Evaluation o* t+e Tec+nical Proposals on P+ase )).o.anner in 6+ic+ t+e 0iddin/ process +ad 0een conducted3B . . +ad o0tained a nu. t+e countin/ and canvassin/ o* votes *or 0ot+ national and local positions 6ere also done .) *ound t+e Me/a Paci*ic .Ms +ad 0een acquired *or t+at electoral exercise alle/edly 0ecause o* ti.illion3 ?n . 5IIJ.and to adopt ne6 electoral *or.onsortiu. o* P53H 0illion to *und t+e 'ES *or t+e 1I May 5II& elections3 Epon t+e request o* .o.ely.aterials3 )nitially intendin/ to i.ittee (<'. pro. .elec .o. pu0lic interest requires t+at t+e la6s /overnin/ t+e transaction .anvassin/ Syste.une 5IIJ.ation Mana/e.ission issued an B)nvitation to 'pply *or Eli/i0ility and to <id3B ?n 11 #e0ruary 5IIJ. and T)M.o. pendin/ t+e outco.) eli/i0le3 #or tec+nical evaluation.an <en1a.. P+ase ) 2 (oter Re/istration and (alidation Syste.portance and o* national interest3B 's alle/ed.elec7s *la6ed 0iddin/ and questiona0le a6ard o* t+e .ar@s in t+e tec+nical evaluation3 >ot6it+standin/ t+ese *ailures.ation durin/ t+e 11 May 1 " presidential elections.ontract to MP.G P+ase )) 2 'uto.anual count *or t+e entire Province o* Sulu3 )n t+e May 5II1 elections.ora=on '@ol) 6rote a letter to . on 1H 'pril 5IIJ.an 22 spea@in/ t+rou/+ 'tty3 .oderni=ation pro/ra. 6+ic+ allocated t+e su.pliance 6it+ eli/i0ility as 6ell as tec+nical and procedural require.e constraints3 ?n 5 ?cto0er 5II5.elec adopted in its Resolution I52I1%I a .o. as no additional '. o* /overn.ent o* pu0lic *unds are in /ar/antuan a.ation involves dis0urse.ountsG t+ere*ore.orporation (T)M.. t+ey 6ere re*erred to t+e <'.ul/ated Resolution !I%& a6ardin/ t+e pro1ect to MP.3 T+e .ocratic syste. t+e poll 0ody later ordered t+eir . t+e .ited t+e auto. C?ST said t+at 0ot+ MP.elec c+air.G na. s+e aut+ori=ed t+e release o* an additional PHII .elec en 0anc.ents. . our nation7s political and econo. Bdue to /larin/ irre/ularities in t+e .o.e o* t+e 5II& elections3 9ence.0er o* *ailed . represented 0y its president.itin/ t+erein t+e nonco. on 1! May 5IIJ3 ?n 5 May 5IIJ.o.7s Tec+nical 8or@in/ Group (T8G) and t+e Cepart.ated .+air.puteri=ation 0iddin/3 8eld3 T+e issues central to t+e case are Bo* transcendental i.anuary 5IIJ. (MP.. t+e <iddin/ and '6ards .ission pu0lici=ed t+is Resolution and t+e a6ard o* t+e pro1ect to MP. *ive individuals and entities (includin/ t+e )n*or.) and t+e Total )n*or. +is +ead executive assistant 22 re1ected t+e protest and declared t+at t+e a6ard B6ould stand up to t+e strictest scrutiny3B 9ence. due to t+e *ailure o* t+e .ated 0allots in one to6n.elec.ac+ines to read correctly so.ai. .ontract to an unquali*ied entity 6ould i.ation to t+e 'RMM3 9o6ever.pact directly on t+e success or t+e *ailure o* t+e electoral process3 'ny taint on t+e sanctity o* t+e 0allot as t+e expression o* t+e 6ill o* t+e people 6ould inevita0ly a**ect t+eir *ait+ in t+e de.s and printin/ .o.ent3 #urt+er.ent . et3 al3 +ave t+e locus standi to *ile t+e case questionin/ t+e validity o* t+e election co.ountin/ and . 'l*redo M3 TorresG and Ma3 . .anuary 5".e auto.

e o* 6+ic+ 6ere close *riends andKor relative o* t+e .ission ?n ElectionsG .III eac+3 So.portance3B T+is *act alone 6ould 1usti*y relaxin/ t+e rule on le/al standin/.ple.unicipal treasurer) *ro. )nc3G 'nd Me/a Paci*ic .elec <iddin/ 'nd '6ard .atter o* t+e case is Ba . et al3 T+e construction o* t+e stalls 6+ic+ .an. Mi/uel Ey.ontract contrary to la6 and re/ulation3 'ccordin/ly.ount o* P&I.entin/ t+e .+air.ent and 0ene*it o* private respondents.a*e and t+e .ayor and t+e san//unian.3 . renderin/ t+e prayer t+ere*or .+air.III3II *or eac+ stall.ourt +as +eld t+at taxpayers are allo6ed to sue 6+en t+ere is a clai. Mi/uel 9ilado. t+at t+e 0iddin/ 6as de*ective.orona (. t+eir personal *unds t+e su. it is o* Bpara. deno. et3 al3 possess locus standi3 2$+a+*' vs.a*e.0ers o* t+e San//unian/ <ayan o* Pana0o.in '0alos Sr3G .)$ & concur 4acts3 )n 1 " .ourt +old t+at )T#.elec . Cavao del >orte a petition *or declaratory relie* 6it+ prayer *or preli.o.0e no serious dou0t t+at t+e su01ect . necessarily.inated as ?rdinance 1I.inary in1unction in t+e RT. o* P&I. LGR 1&&H%I.3 La/. i. *ro.ayor +ad a prior contract to a6ard t+e 6ould 0e constructed stalls to all private respondentsG t+at resolutions and . *ollo6in/ t+e li0eral policy o* t+e . et3 al37s le/al standin/ s+ould t+ere*ore 0e reco/ni=ed and up+eld3 Moreover.r3G Me/a Paci*ic eSolutions.e.ourt 6+enever a case involves Ban issue o* overarc+in/ si/ni*icance to our society3B )T#..il alle/es t+at Resolution >os3 % and & 6ere unconstitutional 0ecause t+ey 6ere passed *or t+e 0usiness.il sou/+t to stop t+rou/+ t+e preli.e Sinocru= .III *or t+e construction o* stalls around a proposed ter.u.oney is 0ein/ Bde*lected to any i.ited to t+ose 6+o +ad deposited P&I.0ued 6it+ pu0lic interestBG in ot+er 6ords. . Ca@P %" a'.III *or t+e construction o* additional stalls in t+e sa.as.a.atter o* pu0lic concern and i. en1oy.ose #3 <al0uena.o.ourt (RT. t+ey clai. appropriatin/ a *urt+er a. . t+ey see@ to restrain t+e . La.e o* t+e parties 6ere close *riends andKor relatives o* .oot and acade. so. 'nd <artolo.e pu0lic .inary in1unction and 6rit o* restrainin/ order a/ainst Mayor .an <en1a. provided *or an initial appropriation o* P%!H. +o6ever.a@in/ any un6arranted expenditure o* pu0lic *unds pursuant t+ereto3 T+us. (ivencio (3 . enactin/ 'ppropriation ?rdinance 111.a. o* Bille/al dis0urse. suin/ as taxpayers.il *iled 0e*ore t+e Re/ional Trial . t+e petition 6as a.ontract and. assert a . and Manuel 'lcua= . and 6it+ 6+o.an Eduardo C3 Me1os 'nd Me.u.0ers Gideon Ce Gu=. Ley Salcedo. also t+e . series o* 1 " (Resolution & ).ent o* pu0lic *unds. 6as li.III eac+3 T+us. and t+e a6ard o* t+e . 'u/usto . *ro.ent o* an invalid or unconstitutional la63B 9erein.r3.0erto P3 Lla.3 Crilon.onsortiu. Eduardo 93 Lope=. Mayor .proper purposeBG or 6+en petitioner(s) see@ to restrain respondent(s) *ro.aterial interest in seein/ to it t+at pu0lic *unds are properly and la6*ully used3 )n t+e Petition. Ma3 . .0er 5IIHM T+ird Civision.H1H.ount pu0lic interestB and Btranscendental i.a*e +ad already entered into contracts 6it+ t+ose 6+o advanced and deposited (6it+ t+e . 6+o deposited t+e a. t+e 6innin/ 0idder not a quali*ied entity.an.a.ount o* P1..) o* Pana0o. t+e .u. occupation. t+e petition 6as a. Series o* 1 " (Resolution %)3 Resolution %.ended due to t+e passa/e o* Resolution & .ose .ic3 T+e leases o* t+e stalls 6ere t+en a6arded 0y pu0lic ra**le 6+ic+.ar@et3 Prior to t+e passa/e o* t+ese resolutions.B or i* pu0lic . B6astin/ pu0lic *unds t+rou/+ t+e en*orce. Cavao del >orte3 9e questioned t+e constitutionality o* Municipal Resolution %. 6as nevert+eless *inis+ed. 51 Septe.ora=on M3 '@ol. Rex .inal *rontin/ t+e Pana0o Pu0lic Mar@et 6+ic+ 6as destroyed 0y *ire3 Su0sequently. t+e .o.ended ane6 to include t+e H% a6ardees o* t+e stalls as private respondents3 .o.ittee .

.itted t+ey deposited P&I.ourtDs duty.e can 0e availed o* 0y any0ody 6illin/ to deposit P&I.pletion o* t+e stalls a*ter t+e pu0lic .ent and 0ene*it o* private respondents4 (t+at is. 6as o0viously an a*tert+ou/+t3 Issue 9':3 8+et+er t+e rule on locus standi s+ould 0e relaxed3 8eld 9':3 ?01ections to a taxpayerDs suit *or lac@ o* su**icient personality.issed .a.il 0rou/+t t+e petition in +is capacity as taxpayer o* t+e Municipality o* Pana0o. occupation. alle/edly *or t+e private 0ene*it o* respondents) 0ecause even 0e*ore t+ey 6ere passed.ourt did +e *irst assert t+at -+e (6as) 6illin/ to en/a/e in 0usiness and (6as) interested to occupy a . en1oy.portance to t+e pu0lic o* a suit assailin/ t+e constitutionality o* a tax la6.ayor and t+e .' GR . an interest in issue a**ected 0y t+e decree.ar@et stall34 Suc+ clai.a.u.e.( JHI"5).inary in1unction and 6rit o* restrainin/ order.ay 0e availed o* 0y any0ody 6+o can deposit t+e a.o. specially explicated in t+e 1 "% .u.III to eac+ o* t+e H% private respondents3 ?n appeal.isapplication o* suc+ *unds3 T+e resolutions 0ein/ assailed 6ere appropriations ordinances3 . to . t+e . +e +as no le/al standin/3 .a.ordinances did not provide *or any notice o* pu0lication t+at t+e special privile/e and un6arranted 0ene*its con*erred on t+e private respondents .u.il alle/ed t+at t+ese ordinances 6ere -passed *or t+e 0usiness. 6+ic+ a. or a .a*e and private respondents +ad already entered into lease contracts *or t+e construction and a6ard o* t+e ..eans a . Mayor .ade availa0le to t+e . and on 5& .u.il to pay attorney7s *ees in t+e a.ere interest in t+e question involved.u.unicipality durin/ t+e construction o* t+e stalls3 T+e deposits.ust speci*ically prove su**icient interest in preventin/ t+e ille/al expenditure o* .ited only to t+ose 6+o advanced t+eir personal *unds *or t+eir construction3 .ental act 0ein/ c+allen/ed3 )t calls *or .u.ourt dis.ar@et stalls3 Private respondents ad.e .ounts 6ere .il did not seasona0ly alle/e +is interest in preventin/ t+e ille/al expenditure o* pu0lic *unds or t+e speci*ic in1ury to +i. t+e a6ard o* t+e stalls 6as necessarily li.il *iled t+e petition *or revie6 on certiorari3 Issue 9&:3 8+et+er .IIIG and t+at nor t+ere 6ere any prior notice or pu0lication pertainin/ to contracts entered into 0y pu0lic and private respondents *or t+e construction o* stalls to 0e a6arded to private respondents t+at t+e sa.onsiderin/ t+e i. as a result o* t+e en*orce.ourt o* 'ppeals a**ir. -interest4 .a.ar@et 6as /utted 0y a series o* *ires3 T+us.a.il +ad t+e le/al standin/ to 0rin/ t+e petition *or declaratory relie* 8eld 9&:3 Le/al standin/ or locus standi is a party7s personal and su0stantial interest in a case suc+ t+at +e +as sustained or 6ill sustain direct in1ury as a result o* t+e /overn.ore t+an 1ust a /enerali=ed /rievance3 T+e ter.ed t+e decision o* t+e trial court3 .ar@ to .oney raised 0y taxation3 T+e expenditure o* pu0lic *unds 0y an o**icer o* t+e State *or t+e purpose o* executin/ an unconstitutional act constitutes a .unicipal treasurer. and in @eepin/ 6it+ t+e .ere incidental interest3 Enless a person7s constitutional ri/+ts are adversely a**ected 0y t+e statute or ordinance.a. 6ere needed to ensure t+e speedy co.ent4 +e *iled in t+e Supre.u.III eac+ 6it+ t+e . Cavao del >orte and not in +is personal capacity3 9e 6as questionin/ t+e o**icial acts o* t+e t+e .ent o* t+e questioned resolutions and contracts3 )t 6as only in t+e -Re.ount o* P1.il7s petition *or declaratory relie* 6it+ prayer *or preli.onstitution.uly 5III (.III3II3 T+e Re/ional Trial . standin/ or interest are procedural .atters3 . +o6ever. and ordered .0ers o* t+e San//unian in passin/ t+e ordinances and enterin/ into t+e lease contracts 6it+ private respondents3 ' taxpayer need not 0e a party to t+e contract to c+allen/e its validity3 Parties suin/ as taxpayers . as distin/uis+ed *ro.aterial interest.ount o* P&I.a.

il *ailed to prove t+e su01ect ordinances and a/ree. +e s+ould +ave clearly esta0lis+ed t+at suc+ ordinances operated un*airly a/ainst t+ose 6+o 6ere not noti*ied and 6+o 6ere t+us not /iven t+e opportunity to .ourt to nulli*y t+e acts o* t+e local political depart.5"I.)$ " concur.a.III eac+ and 6+o 6ere eit+er *riends or relatives o* t+e .?MELE. t+e *ollo6in/ deter. .ar@et stalls to t+e private respondents 6+o deposited P&I.entG and (J) t+e lac@ o* any ot+er party 6it+ a .inatory 0ecause.0ers o* t+e San//unian3 . to *ill t+e vacancy t+rou/+ a special election to 0e +eld si.ed t+e no.ulated 0y *or.ultaneously 6it+ t+e re/ular elections on 1& May 5II13 T6elve Senators.o.r3 (-Senator Guin/ona4) as (ice2President3 .une 5II&3 ?n H .ent 6as aut+ori=ed 0y t+e San//unian/ <ayan o* Pana0o per Resolution 1"I dated 1I ?cto0er 1 ""4 and t+at -all t+e people interested 6ere invited to participate in investin/ t+eir savin/s34 . a decision +ad already 0een .0er o* votes s+all serve only *or t+e unexpired ter. .e2+onored presu. Co++*ss*o. 6ere due to 0e elected in t+at election3 Resolution "& *urt+er provided t+at t+e -Senatorial candidate /arnerin/ t+e 1Jt+ +i/+est nu.u.onstitution and t+e la6s and t+at t+ey +ave not a0used t+e discretion /iven to t+e.arpio (. o* *or.e . 6it+ a !2year ter.inated t+en Senator Teo*isto T3 Guin/ona.ourt disre/ards .?MELE.anuary 5II1.onsiderin/ t+at +e 6as as@in/ t+e .ar@et stalls3 .its o* t+e . a0sent any s+o6in/ to t+e contrary3 To'%-"*-o vs. all t+e provinces 0ut one (Lanao del >orte). even i* t+e .u.?MELE.ation.ent..r3.ption o* re/ularity o* o**icial duty.a.ayor or . President Gloria Macapa/al2 'rroyo no. . t+is petition .ustice #lorentino P3 #eliciano are instructive$ (1) t+e c+aracter o* t+e *unds or ot+er assets involved in t+e caseG (5) t+e presence o* a clear case o* disre/ard o* a constitutional or statutory pro+i0ition 0y t+e pu0lic respondent a/ency or instru.u.er Senator Teo*isto T3 Guin/ona.il asserted t+at -t+ere (6as) no pu0lication or invitation to t+e pu0lic t+at t+is contract (6as) availa0le to all 6+o (6ere) interested to o6n a stall and (6ere) 6illin/ to deposit P&I. a*ter .a.inatory3 .portance. 51 .une 5II1.a@e t+eir deposits3 9is unsu0stantiated alle/ation t+at t+e pu0lic 6as not noti*ied did not su**ice3 #urt+er.ust still *ail3 T+e su01ect resolutionsKordinances appropriated a total o* P5.inants *or. issued Resolution I12IIH provisionally proclai.ination o* Senator Guin/ona 6+o too@ +is oat+ as (ice2President on #e0ruary 5II13 #ollo6in/ Senator Guin/ona7s con*ir.ents to 0e discri. even prior to t+eir enact. Cavao del >orte.u. .deter.e . o* t+ree (J) years o* Senator Teo*isto T3 Guin/ona. counter t+at t+e -pu0lic respondents7 act o* enterin/ into t+is a/ree.il alle/ed t+at t+ese ordinances 6ere discri.ent +ave @ept t+e.e.E'%c"*o-s LGR 1&"JJ&. eac+.r3 6+o .entality o* t+e /overn.er Supre.III34 Respondents.ay 0rus+ aside tec+nicalities o* procedure and ta@e co/ni=ance o* t+e suit3 T+ere 0ein/ no doctrinal de*inition o* transcendental i.in/ 1J candidates as t+e elected Senators3 Resolution I12IIH also provided t+at -t+e *irst t6elve (15) Senators s+all serve *or a ter. t+e Senate on " #e0ruary 5II1 passed Resolution "& certi*yin/ to t+e existence o* a vacancy in t+e Senate3 Resolution "& called on .4 6+ic+ ends on JI .selves 6it+in t+e li. 1 dissents in separate opinion to 6+ic+ J 1oin 4acts3 S+ortly a*ter +er succession to t+e Presidency in . t+e Supre.anuary 5II&M En <anc.on/ress con*ir.III *or t+e construction o* t+e pu0lic . +ad canvassed t+e election results *ro.ore direct and speci*ic interest in raisin/ t+e questions 0ein/ raised3 <ut. +o6ever. . o* six (!) years and t+e t+irteent+ (1Jt+) Senator s+all serve t+e unexpired ter.ourt .il7s lac@ o* le/al standin/.ore. t+ere 6as t+e ti.ade to a6ard t+e .a.ine 6+et+er or not t+e ot+er 0ranc+es o* t+e Govern.ourt .ent o* Pana0o.

?MELE.andate t+at t+is . respectively.e . t+at . Tolentino and Mo1ica assert a +ar. t+at t+ey sustained personal in1ury 0ecause o* t+e issuance o* Resolutions I12IIH and I12II!3 Issue3 8+et+er Tolentino and Mo1ica +ave standin/ to liti/ate3 8eld3 -Le/al standin/4 or locus standi re*ers to a personal and su0stantial interest in a case suc+ t+at t+e party +as sustained or 6ill sustain direct in1ury 0ecause o* t+e c+allen/ed /overn.ent on standin/ and exercised our discretion to /ive due course to voters7 suits involvin/ t+e ri/+t o* su**ra/e3 T+e .easure 0y a lar/e class o* voters.?MELE.ultaneously 0ut 1ust a sin/le election *or t+irteen seats.6as appointed (ice2President34 Ralp+ Recto (-Recto4) and Gre/orio 9onasan (-9onasan4) ran@ed 15t+ and 1Jt+. t+e . or t+at pu0lic . as voters and taxpayers. i* not all t+e voters. t+e validity o* t+e special election on 1& May 5II1.ourt +as t+e discretion to ta@e co/ni=ance o* a suit 6+ic+ does not satis*y t+e require.34 Tolentino and Mo1ica sou/+t t+e issuance o* a te. seat3 'ccordin/ly. irrespective o* ter. issued Resolution I12IIH 6it+out 1urisdiction 0ecause$ (1) it *ailed to noti*y t+e electorate o* t+e position to 0e *illed in t+e special election as required under Section 5 o* R' !!&HG (5) it *ailed to require senatorial candidates to indicate in t+eir certi*icates o* candidacy 6+et+er t+ey see@ election under t+e special or re/ular elections as alle/edly required under Section %J o* <P ""1G and.ourt s+ould /ive due course to t+e petition 0ecause in t+e special election +eld on 1& May 5II1 -tax .entG (5) t+e in1ury is *airly tracea0le to t+e c+allen/ed actionG and (J) t+e in1ury is li@ely to 0e redressed 0y a *avora0le action3 'pplied strictly.ation to suc+ e**ect3 Tolentino and Mo1ica contend t+at .ental act3 T+e require. .ount interest is involved3 . Tolentino and Mo1ica prayed *or t+e nulli*ication o* Resolution I12IIH in so *ar as it . canvassed all t+e votes cast *or t+e senatorial candidates in t+e 1& May 5II1 elections 6it+out distinction suc+ t+at -t+ere 6ere no t6o separate Senate elections +eld si. /enerally.?MELE.ent o* le/al standin/ 6+en para. consequently. classi*ied as a -/enerali=ed /rievance34 T+is /enerali=ed /rievance is s+ared in su0stantially equal . *ro. to . t+e doctrine o* standin/ to liti/ate 6ill indeed 0ar t+e present petition3 )n questionin/.ourt required .ent o* standin/.?MELE.in/ 6it+ *inality t+e candidate *or Senator receivin/ t+e 1Jt+ +i/+est nu.ourt +as relaxed t+e require. 6+ic+ necessarily -s+arpens t+e presentation o* issues. 6+o voted in t+at election3 >eit+er +ave Tolentino and Mo1ica alle/ed.4 relates to t+e constitutional .?MELE.proper purpose34 ?n t+e ot+er +and.porary restrainin/ order durin/ t+e pendency o* t+eir petition3 8it+out issuin/ any restrainin/ order.?MELE.a@es a procla. *iled t+e petition *or pro+i0ition.ation S+eet t+e candidates see@in/ election under t+e special or re/ular senatorial elections as purportedly required under Section &. proclai. a party 6ill 0e allo6ed to liti/ate only 6+en (1) +e can s+o6 t+at +e +as personally su**ered so.ent on t+e petition3 9onasan questioned Tolentino7s and Mo1icaDs standin/ to 0rin/ t+e instant petition as taxpayers and voters 0ecause t+ey do not clai. in t+eir capacity as taxpayers. as respondent3 Tolentino and Mo1ica sou/+t to en1oin .ourt settle only actual cases or controversies3 T+us.o.isapplication o* suc+ *unds 0y .e actual or t+reatened in1ury 0ecause o* t+e alle/edly ille/al conduct o* t+e /overn..0er o* votes as t+e 6inner in t+e special election *or a sin/le t+ree2year ter.issions. t+at t+e .oney L6asM de*lected to any i. in Resolution I12IIH3 ?n 5I . ille/ally dis0ursed pu0lic *undsG nor clai.pleadin/ only .oney L6asM Tx x x extracted and spent in violation o* speci*ic constitutional protections a/ainst a0uses o* le/islative po6er 7 or t+at t+ere L6asM . t+e Supre. para/rap+ & o* R' !!&!3 Tolentino and Mo1ica add t+at 0ecause o* t+ese o. (J) it *ailed to speci*y in t+e (oters )n*or.une 5II1. i. in t+eir capacity as voters.?MELE. 'rturo Tolentino and 'rturo Mo1ica.

on 5& >ove. a. 5 concur in result 4acts3 T+e People o* t+e P+ilippine and t+e 9on/@on/ and S+an/+ai <an@in/ .otion *or reconsideration or ne6 trial and t+erea*ter re.ayor.ed t+e 1ud/.u En1ien/ *iled a .u En1ien/. 1 J!3 T+e Supre. t+e . 6+en t+e issues raised are o* para.e . re*erred t+e application *or pro0ation o* t+e )nsular Pro0ation ?**ice 6+ic+ reco.#) o* Manila.odi*ied t+e sentence to an indeter.ony and t+e 0ul@ o* t+e ex+i0its presented.portance to t+e pu0lic. under t+e provisions o* 'ct &551 o* t+e de*unct P+ilippine Le/islature3 .anuary 1 J&.ended denial o* t+e sa. inter alia.ay 0rus+ aside tec+nicalities o* procedure3 T+e .on/ ot+er t+in/s. 'rticle ))) o* t+e ..0er 1 J!. is nevert+eless violative o* section 1. to pay t+e costs and 6it+ reservation o* civil action to t+e o**ended party. alle/in/. 9S<.portant issues involvin/ t+eir ri/+t o* su**ra/e.inal case 6as *iled 6it+ t+e .ose ?3 (era presidin/. t+at 'ct &551. denied t+e petition su0sequently *iled 0y .otions *or ne6 trial 6+ic+ 6ere denied on 1% Cece. 6+o +eard t+e application o* .ont+s o* prision correccional to " years o* prision .#).ity o* Manila *iled an opposition to t+e /rantin/ o* pro0ation to . et al3B (.#)) o* Manila and GR &15II o* t+e Supr.inal case entitled BT+e People o* t+e P+ilippine )slands vs3 Mariano . intervenin/ in t+e case as private prosecutor3 '*ter a protracted trial unparalleled in t+e annals o* P+ilippine 1urisprudence 0ot+ in t+e len/t+ o* ti.e .). ! .ayor.onstitution /uaranteein/ equal protection o* t+e la6s .orporation (9S<. t+at +e +as no cri.0er 1 JH. & years and 5 .u En1ien/ *iled an application *or pro0ation on 5% >ove.e . t+e #iscal o* t+e .u En1ien/3 T+e private prosecution also *iled an opposition on H 'pril 1 J%. on 5! Marc+ 1 JH.u En1ien/ is one o* t+e de*endants.e 1" .0er 1 J%M #irst Civision. 0ut a**ir.inal record and t+at +e 6ould o0serve /ood conduct in t+e *uture3 T+e . 0e*ore t+e trial court.ont+s and 5% days o* prision .ent3 .in/ t+at it +as not 0een repealed 0y section 5 o* 'rticle A( o* t+e .otion *or reconsideration and *our successive .ent o* conviction sentencin/ .u En1ien/ states in +is petition. o* t+e sevent+ 0ranc+ o* t+e . Laurel (. is t+e .#) on 1H ?cto0er 1 J1.inal case &5!& ) o* t+e .u En1ien/ *or pro0ation in t+e a*oresaid cri.ri.ent in all ot+er respects3 .ourt3 9on3 .onstitution. and Mariano . sevent+ 0ranc+. on " .ud/e . H years and ! . and *inal 1ud/.ourt . t+e .u En1ien/ to indeter.ourt o* #irst )nstance (.)n not a *e6 cases.inal case3 T+e in*or. set t+e petition *or +earin/ on H 'pril 1 J%3 ?n 5 'pril 1 J%.ud/e ad interi.anded t+e case to t+e court o* ori/in *or execution o* t+e 1ud/.ose ?3 (era.ourt o* #irst )nstance o* Manila.une 1 J%3 T+erea*ter.u En1ien/ t+ereupon sou/+t to +ave t+e case elevated on certiorari to t+e Supre. 1! >ove.ent 6as accordin/ly entered on 1" Cece. su0section (1). .e in t+e testi.inate penalty ran/in/ *ro. . .ud/e Pedro Tuason presidin/. t+e . assu.ourt accords t+e sa.0er. considerin/ t+at t+e issue raised in t+e petition is li@ely to arise a/ain3 )%oB'% vs.ont+s o* prision correccional to % years.3 Epon appeal.ount i. 5%ra LGR &H!"H.u En1ien/ *or leave to *ile a second alternative . in t+e cri. are respectively t+e plainti** and t+e o**ended party. 9S<.inate penalty o* *ro.e spent 0y t+e court as 6ell as in t+e volu.ourt.ourt o* t+e Enited States 0ut t+e latter denied t+e petition *or certiorari in >ove. t+e court +as adopted a li0eral attitude on t+e locus standi o* a petitioner 6+ere t+e petitioner is a0le to cra*t an issue o* transcendental si/ni*icance to t+e people3 T+us.e o* 6+ic+ +e 6as convicted.0er 1 JH3 .0er 1 J!.e treat.)$ & concur. t+at +e is innocent o* t+e cri. t+e court. rendered a 1ud/.ent to Tolentino and Mo1ica in t+e present case in t+eir capacity as voters since t+ey raise i.ation in t+e said cri.#) o* Manila.

t+rou/+ t+e Solicitor General and #iscal o* t+e .it .itted on 1& .otion *or leave to intervene as a.ici curiae 0ut.posed 0y t+is 9onora0le .a@e said la6 e**ective or ot+er6ise in t+eir respective or ot+er6ise in t+eir respective provinces3 T+e private prosecution also *iled a supple.u En1ien/ *iled an exception to t+e resolution denyin/ pro0ation and a notice o* intention to *ile a . t+rou/+out t+e )slands and 0ecause section 11 o* t+e said 'ct endo6s t+e provincial 0oards 6it+ t+e po6er to .otions 6ere set *or +earin/ on J1 .itted to court 6as to +ave 0een +eard on 1 'u/ust 1 J%3 <ut at t+is 1uncture.ity o* Manila *iled a . .otion *or reconsideration su0.entary opposition on 'pril 1 .ity o* Manila . in 6+ose na. +as a su0stantial interest in +avin/ it set aside3 ?* /reater i.u En1ien/ to 1ail in o0edience to said 1ud/. as an undue dele/ation o* le/islative po6er to t+e provincial 0oards o* several provinces (sec3 1. 1 J%.u En1ien/3B T+e sc+eduled +earin/ 0e*ore t+e trial court 6as accordin/ly suspended upon t+e issuance o* a te.pu/ns t+e validity o* a statute .ici curiae to appear 0e*ore t+e court on 1& 'u/ust 1 J%3 ?n t+e last2. is a proper party in t+e present proceedin/s3 T+e unc+allen/ed rule is t+at t+e person 6+o i. 9S<.port t+an .oved *or t+e +earin/ o* +is .ud/e (era issued an order requirin/ all parties includin/ t+e .uly 1 J%. represented 0y t+e Solicitor2General and t+e #iscal o* t+e .ent in pre*erence to t+e .otion *or leave to intervene as a.uly 1 J%3 T+e a*oresaid .otion *or leave to intervene in t+e case as a.ose ?3 (era pro.u En1ien/ *or delay in t+e execution o* t+e sentence i.ity o* Manila.ici curiae as in order3 Evidence as to t+e circu.u En1ien/. and t+e People ca.ourt on +i. upon o01ection o* counsel *or .onstitution)3 T+e .ourt on extraordinary le/al process to put an end to 6+at t+ey alle/ed 6as an inter.entioned date.otion *or leave to intervene as a.ent3 ?n 1I 'u/ust 1 J%.stances under 6+ic+ said . concludin/ t+at . direct in1ury as a result o* its en*orce. or 6ill sustained.e . and ridicule 0ecause o* t+e apparent ina0ility o* t+e 1udicial .*or t+e reason t+at its applica0ility is not uni*or.ust +ave a personal and su0stantial interest in t+e case suc+ t+at +e +as sustained. 0ut said +earin/ 6as postponed at t+e petition o* counsel *or ... +e .ina0le proceedin/ in t+e . t+e People o* t+e P+ilippines.a@e e**ective a *inal 1ud/.ented 0y an additional .ici curiae 6as si/ned and su0.porary restrainin/ order 0y t+e Supre.otion *or reconsideration3 'n alternative .une 1 J%.#) o* Manila 6+ic+ *ostered Bt+e ca.uly 1 J%3 T+is 6as supple.ent o* t+is court i.ity o* Manila.otion *or execution on 51 'u/ust 1 J%. 'rt3 ().pai/n o* t+e de*endant Mariano .otion 6it+ t+e trial court *or t+e issuance o* an order o* execution o* t+e 1ud/. .u En1ien/ 0ecause a .ity #iscal concurred in t+e opposition o* t+e private prosecution except 6it+ respect to t+e questions raised concernin/ t+e constitutionality o* 'ct &5513 ?n 5" .e court in GR &15II. .ac+inery to .e o* 6+ic+ +e stands convicted 0y t+e Supre. exposin/ t+e courts to criticis.ovants *or intervention as a. ela0oratin/ on t+e alle/ed unconstitutionality on 'ct &551. counsel *or . is a proper party in present case3 8eld3 :ES3 T+e People o* t+e P+ilippines.ent o* t+is court in said case and *ort+6it+ to co.oved *or t+e postpone.e .ent o* t+e +earin/ o* 0ot+ .otion *or reconsideration or ne6 trial 6as *iled 0y counsel on 1J . t+e #iscal o* t+e .ent3 )t /oes 6it+out sayin/ t+at i* 'ct &551 really violates t+e constitution.ud/e . 0ut proceeded to consider t+e .e to t+e Supre.ul/ated a resolution.e t+e present action is 0rou/+t. t+e #iscal o* t+e .ourt on 51 'u/ust 1 J%3 Issue3 8+et+er t+e People o* t+e P+ilippines.otions3 T+e 1ud/e t+ereupon set t+e +earin/ o* t+e .otion *or execution o* 1ud/.ici curiae si/ned 0y JJ (J&) attorneys +ad 1ust 0een *iled 6it+ t+e trial court3 ?n ! 'u/ust 1 J%. 0ut denyin/ t+e latterDs petition *or pro0ation3 ?n J .uly 1 J%.u En1ien/ Bes inocente por duda racionalB o* t+e cri.posed on t+e de*endant Mariano .

ortal 6ound in*licted upon t+e *unda.ent *or *ull pay. pro+i0ition and . s+e .ove to dis. 'rceta *ailed to pay said payee 6it+ t+e *ace a.HII.aloocan .ental la6 0y t+e en*orce.iss t+e c+ar/es on said /round 6ould *ail in vie6 o* t+e Lo=ano rulin/3 )nstead.anuary 5III. t+e ?**ice o* t+e . Cy .0in/ (. t+e dra6ee 0an@ t+at said c+ec@ +as 0een dis+onored and +ad not 0een paid3 Li@e 'rceta.0er 1 ".ri.ic and *inancial crisis.us.ount o* P5.inal .?E>T .ourt .ity Prosecutor o* >avotas. 6it+ prayers *or a te.'S9.ent.ation (. 6ell2@no6in/ t+at at t+e ti.ent o* an invalid statute3 9ence.ove 6ould 0e an exercise in *utility *or it 6as +i/+ly unli@ely t+at t+e trial court 6ould /rant +er .astro paya0le in .ani*ested t+at +er arrai/n.e .. alle/in/ in an )n*or. suc+ a .+ua 6ell @no6in/ at t+e ti. it is t+e esta0lis+ed doctrine t+at t+e .+ec@s La6 (MeT.L?SEC4 and 6it+ intent to de*raud *ailed and still *ails to pay t+e said co. assailin/ t+e constitutionality o* t+e <ouncin/ .ourt invo@in/ its po6er o* 1udicial revie6 to +ave t+e said la6 voided *or .ation t+at on or a0out 1! Septe. Metro Manila c+ar/ed ?*elia (3 'rceta 6it+ violatin/ <atas Pa. s+e *iled a petition 6it+ t+e Supre. .t+e da.inal .ota o* t+e case3 .anda.ity Prosecutor o* .HII.iss t+e c+ar/es a/ainst +er on t+e /round t+at <P 55 6as unconstitutional3 Cy li@e6ise 0elieved t+at any . o* .anuary 5III in *avor o* 'nita .R).III3II dated 1 .ade upon t+e MeT.III (postdated 51 Cece.ove on +er part to quas+ t+e indict. 1H . 'rceta 6as arrai/ned and pleaded -not /uilty4 to t+e c+ar/e3 9o6ever.ourt s+ould render <P55 unconstitutional due to t+e present econo.onstitutional in*ir. Puisu. else due to t+e undue 0urden .+ec@ IIIIJ5 5JI in t+e a.issed or t+e )n*or.a/e caused 0y t+e ille/al expenditure o* pu0lic *unds is t+e .ent s+ould 0e 6it+out pre1udice to t+e present petition or to any ot+er actions s+e 6ould ta@e to suspend proceedin/s in t+e trial court3 'rceta LGR 1H5" HM t+en *iled t+e petition *or certiorari. 1 on o**icial leave 4acts3 T+e .III3II despite receipt o* notice *ro.ent o* suc+ c+ec@ in *ull upon its present.0er 1 ") to ?scar R3 .ase 5151"J).ation quas+ed on t+e /round t+at <P 55 6as unconstitutional3 S+e reasoned out t+at 6it+ t+e Lo=ano doctrine still in place.ent t+ereo* 6it+in H 0an@in/ days a*ter receivin/ notice3 'rceta did not .ade no .ase 1H 2.ont+ o* .porary restrainin/ order.une 5II&M Resolution En <anc.ount o* P5. t+e 6ell2settled rule t+at t+e state can c+allen/e t+e validity o* its o6n la6s3 Arc%"a vs.ount o* said c+ec@ or to . 0y 0ouncin/ c+ec@s cases3 8eld3 8+en t+e issue o* unconstitutionality o* a le/islative act is raised.ent 6+ic+ c+ec@ 6as su0sequently dis+onored *or t+e reason -'.otion and t+us /o a/ainst prevailin/ 1urisprudence3 ?n 51 ?cto0er 5II5.)$ 15 concur.plainant t+e a.a-D LGR 1H5" H. Ma-Dro. Cy issued Prudential <an@ .+ec@s La6 (<P 55)3 ?n t+e ot+er +and.ri. 'rceta issued a Re/ional <an@ c+ec@ 6ort+ P%&I.0ansa 55 in an )n*or.a@e arran/e. alle/in/ in t+e )n*or.e o* issue s+e did +ave su**icient *unds or credit 6it+ t+e dra6ee 0an@ *or t+e pay.aloocan *iled a c+ar/e s+eet a/ainst Gloria S3 Cy *or violation o* t+e <ouncin/ .e o* issue t+at s+e +as no su**icient *unds in or credit 6it+ t+e dra6ee 0an@ *or t+e pay.ent or to dis.ove to +ave t+e c+ar/e a/ainst +er dis.ity.ay exercise its po6er o* 1udicial revie6 only i* t+e *ollo6in/ requisites are present$ (1) an actual and appropriate case and controversy existsG (5) a personal and su0stantial interest o* t+e party raisin/ t+e constitutional questionG (J) t+e exercise o* 1udicial revie6 is pleaded at t+e earliest opportunityG and (&) t+e constitutional question raised is t+e very lis .ity3 Issue3 8+et+er t+e .ation t+at on or a0out t+e . and despite receipt o* notice o* suc+ dis+onor.

inistrative re/ulations to oversee t+e su/ar export pe//ed t+e purc+ase price o* export su/ar in crop years 1 %J21 %& and 1 %&21 %H at P1"I3II per picul3 P>< continued to *inance t+e su/ar production o* t+e Mirasols *or crop years 1 %H21 %! and 1 %!21 %%3 T+ese crop loans and si.ar@ets and to apply t+e proceeds to t+e pay.issions.+ec@s La6 constitutionally in*ir.ort/a/es over several properties o* t+e Mirasols and c+attel . and a Real Estate Mort/a/e in *avor o* P><3 T+e .+attel Mort/a/e on Standin/ .ota presented in t+e controversy 0elo63 Every la6 +as in its *avor t+e presu.ay t+e . yieldin/ !H.ost co.e.1II piculs o* su/ar.e crop 6as lo6er. 6it+ 5J.. 0y t+e ?**ice o* t+e President3 T+e decree *urt+er aut+ori=ed P>< to *inance P9)LEADs purc+ases3 #inally.!!53J! o* 6+ic+ 6ere assi/ned *or export3 T+e *ollo6in/ crop year. t+en President #erdinand Marcos issued Presidential Cecree H% in >ove. and to 1usti*y its nulli*ication.es t+at t+ere exists a . and not one t+at is dou0t*ul. t+e decree directed t+at 6+atever pro*it P9)LEA .rops.onstitution.ust 0e a clear and unequivocal 0reac+ o* t+e . 1 %&3 T+e decree aut+ori=ed t+e P+ilippine Exc+an/e . and *inally.pellin/ reason to stren/t+en *ait+ and con*idence in t+e *inancial syste.ensely 0y 0ouncin/ c+ec@s cases no6.ar@ed *or export3 T+e P+ilippine >ational <an@ (P><) *inanced t+e MirasolsD su/ar production venture *or crop years.ents. t+e Cepart. 5H. )nc3 (P9)LEA) to purc+ase su/ar allocated *or export to t+e Enited States and to ot+er *orei/n .?nly 6+en t+ese requisites are satis*ied . t+eir acrea/e planted to t+e sa.+attel Mort/a/e e.0er..ilar o0li/ations 6ere secured 0y real estate .ort/a/es over standin/ crops3 <elievin/ t+at t+e proceeds o* t+eir su/ar sales . t+at *act is i. over+ead expenses and lia0ilities +ad 0een deducted3 T+e /overn.ple. t+ere . 1 #e0ruary 5II1M Second Civision.i/+t reali=e *ro.po6ered P>< as t+e MirasolsD attorney2in2*act to ne/otiate and to sell t+e latterDs su/ar in 0ot+ do.ic and *inancial crisis s+ould 0e a 0asis to declare t+e <ouncin/ . to prevent +avoc in t+e tradin/ and *inancial co. Co$r" o@ ABB%a's LGR 15"&&".entation trans/ressed a provision o* t+e .etropolitan trial courts .onstitution3 Even t+e t+esis o* Cy t+at t+e present econo. t+e .aterial to t+e alle/ed invalidity o* t+e la6 0ein/ assailed3 T+e solution to t+e clo//in/ o* doc@ets in lo6er courts lies else6+ere3 M*raso' vs.inistration. a*ter co.e3 Ender said sc+e. sales o* su/ar a0road 6as to 0e re.ar@ets3 T+e price and quantity 6as deter. speculative or ar/u.ourt exa.ption o* constitutionality.0in/ (.et3 >or does t+e . t+ey produced %I.itted to a special *und o* t+e national /overn.a@in/ po6ers under Martial La6.redit '/ree. 1 %J21 %& and 1 %&21 %H under a crop loan *inancin/ sc+e.ourt assu. 6+ile indeed t+e .e 1urisdiction over a question o* unconstitutionality or invalidity o* an act o* ..ent o* Trade and )ndustry. and any practice tendin/ to destroy con*idence in c+ec@s as currency su0stitutes s+ould 0e deterred.ent.estic and export .ourt 6as una0le to a/ree t+at t+e said requisites +ave 0een adequately .)$ & concur 4acts3 Spouses 'le1andro and Lilia Mirasol are su/arland o6ners and planters3 )n 1 %J21 %&.HI13I" piculs o* su/ar. a .ourt *ind t+e constitutional question raised to 0e t+e very lis .ined t+e contentions o* 'rceta and Cy care*ullyG 0ut t+ey still +ave to persuade us t+at <P 55 0y itsel* or in its i. Puisu.unities3 #urt+er.ent o**ices and entities tas@ed 0y existin/ la6s and ad.o3.entative3 T+e . t+e Mirasols si/ned . P><.ent o* t+eir o0li/ations to it3 Exercisin/ +is la62 .on/ress3 8it+ due re/ard to counsel7s spirited advocacy in 0ot+ cases. it is precisely durin/ tryin/ ti..ay 0e 0urdened i. deserves 0ut scant consideration3 's stressed in Lo=ano.ined 0y t+e Su/ar Puota 'd.! !3&I piculs .

t+e Mirasols as@ed P>< *or an accountin/ o* t+e proceeds o* t+e sale o* t+eir export su/ar3 P>< i/nored t+e request3 Mean6+ile.ands.anda0le accounts3 's a result o* t+ese de. t+ere 6as not+in/ to account since under said la6.ended to i.&!!3II 0y 6ay o* dacion en pa/o. as 6ell as policies.J&%3%"3 ?n 1I 'u/ust 1 "5. P>< and to .plaint 6as a. t+e Mirasols continued to avail o* ot+er loans *ro. o* P1"I3II per picul already paid 0y P>< and P9)LEA in advance and t+e allo6a0le deduction in service *ees and ot+er c+ar/esG and (&) directin/ P>< and P9)LEA to pay. o* P15.ance.ort/a/ed properties3 '*ter applyin/ t+e proceeds o* t+e auction sale o* t+e . t+e 0alance o* outstandin/ su/ar crop and ot+er loans o6ed 0y t+e Mirasols to P>< stood at P1H. insistin/ t+at said proceeds. unconstitutional and t+ere*ore.ant in its stance t+at under PC H% .&1I.ivil .H ! piculs o* export su/ar *or crop year 1 %&21 %H at an avera/e rate o* P51&31& per picul .a@e un*unded 6it+dra6als *ro.ort/a/e contracts. t+e a.oney clai.ained ada. +o6ever.ands *or pay.s and da.ort/a/ed realties.ent. speci*ic per*or. as 6ell as t+e *oreclosure o* t+eir .5H53 J3 T+e Mirasols continued to as@ P>< to account *or t+e proceeds o* t+e sale o* t+eir export su/ar *or crop years 1 %J21 %& and 1 %&21 %H.odi*ied 0y a Resolution o* t+e trial court dated 1& May 1 5.inus +o6ever.ore t+an enou/+ to pay t+eir o0li/ations.ort/a/ed properties validG (5) orderin/ t+e P>< to render an accountin/ o* t+e su/ar account o* t+e MirasolLsM speci*ically statin/ t+e inde0tedness o* t+e latter to t+e *or. *aultin/ t+e trial court *or not nulli*yin/ t+e dacion en pa/o and t+e .ent2o6ned and controlled a/encies3B T+e Mirasols t+en *iled an appeal 6it+ t+e appellate court (.( J"!I%). conveyed to P>< real properties valued at P1.III3II as attorneyDs *ees. t+e Mirasols t+e su.a/es a/ainst P>< 6it+ t+e Re/ional Trial .erits.ount o* P1"I3II already paid in advance plus t+e allo6a0le deductions in service *ees and ot+er c+ar/esG (J) and also. t+eir current accounts 6it+ said 0an@3 P>< t+en as@ed Mirasols to settle t+eir due and de.D aut+ori=in/ t+e restitution o* losses su**ered 0y t+e plainti**s *ro. 0ot+ P>< and P9)LEA3 ?n 55 . could o**set t+eir outstandin/ o0li/ations 6it+ t+e 0an@3 P>< re.!!5 piculs in export su/ar *or crop year 1 %J21 %& at an avera/e price o* PJII3II per picul.ort/a/ed properties. t+e su.III3II in .a/es and t+e a. t+e Mirasols t+e 6+ole a.anda0le accounts3 P>< t+en proceeded to extra1udicially *oreclose t+e .ity (. 1ointly and severally. .oral da. 6+ic+ addin/ t+e *ollo6in/ para/rap+$ BT+is decision s+ould +o6ever. t+e *ull . t+e Mirasols t+e 6+ole a. 6ere .'2GR . i* properly liquidated.H1J. orders and ot+er issuances issued in *urt+erance t+ereo*. i* properly accounted *or. all earnin/s *ro. >ELL and (?)C 0ein/ in /ross violation o* t+e <ill o* Ri/+tsG (5) ?rderin/ P>< and P9)LEA to pay.une 1 "%. t+e Mirasols *ailed to settle said due and de.HH1.ount correspondin/ to t+e unpaid actual price o* 1&.ent and 6ere su01ect to t+e disposition o* t+e President o* t+e P+ilippines *or pu0lic purposes3 ?n 'u/ust 1 % . !&. t+e . t+e Mirasols *iled a suit *or accountin/.uly 1 !. deductin/ t+ere*ro. t+e trial court decided in *avor o* t+e Mirasols (1) declarin/ PC H% and all circulars.er and t+e proceeds o* MirasolsD 1 %J21 %& and 1 %&21 %H .e 6as.ourt o* <acolod .ount correspondin/ to t+e residue o* t+e unliquidated actual cost price o* 5H. t+e co. 1ointly and severally. +o6ever. plus t+e costs o* t+e liti/ation3 T+e sa.rop year 1 %&21 %H to .plead P9)LEA as party2de*endant3 '*ter trial on t+e .to P><.ount o* PHI. *or P>< and P9)LEA to pay. 1ointly and severally.5H53 J3 Cespite de. 0e interpreted 6it+out pre1udice to 6+atever 0ene*its t+at . leavin/ an unpaid overdra6n account o* P1.ourt o* 'ppeals reversed t+e trial court (1) declarin/ t+e dacion en pa/o and t+e *oreclosure o* t+e .rop year 1 "&21 "H occasioned 0y t+e actuations o* /overn. . P>< still +ad a de*iciency clai. t+e Mirasols on & 'u/ust 1 %%.ase 1&%5H)3 ?n 1! . o* PHI. and da. and t+e trial courtDs *ailure to a6ard t+e.ay +ave accrued in *avor o* t+e plainti**s 6it+ t+e passa/e and approval o* Repu0lic 'ct %5I5 ot+er6ise @no6n as t+e DSu/ar Restitution La6.a/es sou/+t *ro. t+e export sales o* su/ar pertained to t+e >ational Govern.

or executive order or re/ulation.andatory notice require.ourt3 8eld3 )t is settled t+at Re/ional Trial .anuary 1 %3 T+e Mirasols *iled t+e petition *or revie6 on certiorari 6it+ t+e Supre.ourt provides t+at Bin any action 6+ic+ involves t+e validity o* a statute.edies3 T+e rule itsel* provides t+at suc+ notice is required in Bany actionB and not 1ust actions involvin/ declaratory relie*3 8+ere t+ere is no a.ourt.ade it i.ount to deprivin/ +i.ourts t+e aut+ority to rule on t+e con*or. 6+ic+ t+e appellate court denied on 5J .)$ concur. . Section J is to ena0le t+e Solicitor General to decide 6+et+er or not +is intervention in t+e action assailin/ t+e validity o* a la6 or treaty is necessary3 To deny t+e Solicitor General suc+ notice 6ould 0e tanta.ivil .ase 1&%5H3 >or did t+e trial court ever require +i.proper *or t+e trial court to pass upon t+e constitutional validity o* t+e questioned presidential decrees3 Sa'o-Da vs.ourts3 #urt+er.eo. one (ictor <urns Lovely.0 inside +is roo.erican citi=en *ro. a P+ilippine20orn '. t+e Mirasols .0in/s occurred in t+e Metro Manila area in t+e .sel* and in1ured +is youn/er 0rot+er. presidential decree. J too@ no part 4acts3 ' ras+ o* 0o. international or executive a/ree. and s+all 0e entitled to 0e +eard upon suc+ question3B T+e purpose o* t+e .ost @illed +i.ent.ent s+all 0e /overned 0y t+e pertinent provisions o* R' %5I53 ?n 5" 'u/ust 1 !. t+e outstandin/ 0alance or t+e excess pay. on t+e constitutionality o* t+e assailed decree3 9ence.ali*ornia. .ent is not li.ited to actions involvin/ declaratory relie* and si. presidential decree.putation o* MirasolsD account. treaty. or procla.e. Gutierre= . executive order. at t+e :M. order.ilitary aut+orities 6ere several pictures .ity o* la6s or treaties 6it+ t+e . Section J (>otice to Solicitor General) o* t+e Rules o* .ont+s o* 'u/ust. *or construction3 )n all actions assailin/ t+e validity o* a statute.ation.onstitution vests t+e po6er o* 1udicial revie6 or t+e po6er to declare a la6. 1 concur in separate opinion.oved *or reconsideration.all 0o. al. <P 15 /rants Re/ional Trial . treaty.ilar re.G (J) orderin/ t+e P>< to reco. instruction.ourt3 Issue3 8+et+er t+e Trial . t+e Solicitor General s+all 0e noti*ied 0y t+e party attac@in/ t+e statute.onstitution3 9o6ever.it suc+ issue *or t+e resolution o* t+e Trial . Cr$M-)a-o LGR H H5&.orandu. or re/ulation.ore.andatory notice in Rule !&. ordinance.' 0uildin/ in Manila3 #ound in LovelyDs possession 0y police and . 0ut in all Re/ional Trial .0er and ?cto0er o* 1 "I3 ?n ! Septe. 1" #e0ruary 1 "HM En <anc. Ro. t+e Solicitor General 6as never noti*ied a0out .andatory3 9erein.ourt +as 1urisdiction to declare a statute unconstitutional 6it+out notice to t+e Solicitor General 6+ere t+e parties +ave a/reed to su0. Los 'n/eles.ade as 6ell as t+e auction price o* t+eir *oreclosed real estate and stipulated value o* t+eir properties ceded to P>< in t+e dacion en pa/oG and (&) 6+atever t+e result o* t+e reco. or executive order3 T+e . t+e . Septe. order. as a result o* t+e explosion o* a s.0i/uity in t+e 6ords used in t+e rule. or re/ulation not only in t+is .r3 (. o* +is day in court3 T+e .su/ar production sold pursuant to and in accordance 6it+ PC H% and t+e issuances t+ere*ro.ourt o* 'ppeals did not err in +oldin/ t+at lac@ o* t+e required notice .ents already . presidential decree. t+ere is no roo. to appear in person or 0y a representative or to *ile any pleadin/ or .r3.ourts +ave t+e aut+ority and 1urisdiction to consider t+e constitutionality o* a statute.e .pute in accordance 6it+ R' %5I5 MirasolsD inde0tedness to it creditin/ to t+e latter pay. Rule !&. notice to t+e Solicitor General is .0er 1 "I.

ode3 T+e inquest court set t+e preli. and da.ol3 Madella 6+ere +e 6as +eld inco.plaint accusin/ Salon/a.ity #iscal *iled a co.e .an P3 Madella.e.0s once a/ain exploded in Metro Manila includin/ one 6+ic+ resulted in t+e deat+ o* an '.ore 0o.ouncil 6as called *or ! ?cto0er 1 "I3 ?n 1 ?cto0er 1 "I. et al3 (6+ic+ included Salon/a as a co2accused)3 Ep to t+e ti.0in/s in Metro Manila3 Mean6+ile. o* Salon/a at t+e Manila Medical . arrest. and sei=ure orders ('SS?s) 6ere issued a/ainst persons.eo.erican lady 6+o 6as s+oppin/ at RustanDs Super.0er 1 "I.inary )nvesti/ationB in People v3 <eni/no 'quino.ustice3 ?n 5& #e0ruary 1 "1. Salon/a 6as trans*erred a/ainst +is o01ections *ro.3 #or so.ed 6+y +e 6as trans*erred and detained. 6+ic+ +o6ever did not speci*y t+e c+ar/e or c+ar/es a/ainst +i.ended 0y PC ""H and <P J1 in relation to 'rticle 1&5 o* t+e Revised Penal .onvention . t+e PresidentDs anniversary television radio press con*erence 6as 0roadcast3 T+e youn/er 0rot+er o* (ictor Lovely.0er 1 "I.ilitary and police aut+orities to t+e '#P Medical . under t+e over2all direction o* General #a0ian (er. on 5H Septe. on 5% >ove.ud/e 'dvocate General sent Salon/a a B>otice o* Preli. Ro. nor any copies o* t+e so2called supportin/ evidence3 ?n #e0ruary 1 "1.eetin/ o* t+e General Military .on*erence o* t+e '.e out 6it+ al. as a.0er 1 "I. ille/al possession o* explosives.erican Society o* Travel '/ents at t+e P+ilippine )nternational . Lovely 6as ta@en out o* t+e +ospitalDs intensive care unit and trans*erred to t+e o**ice o* . Salon/a +as not received any copies o* t+e c+ar/es a/ainst +i.ost identical +eadlines statin/ in e**ect t+at Salon/a +ad 0een lin@ed to t+e various 0o. 5" ?cto0er 1 "I) issued an order directin/ t+at Salon/aDs ri/+t to 0e visited 0y counsel 0e respected3 ?n 5 >ove.ar@et in Ma@ati and ot+ers 6+ic+ caused in1uries to a nu.ents o* t+e .anitarian reasons *ro. Salon/a 6as allo6ed to leave t+e country to . t+e records o* t+e case 6ere turned over 0y t+e .. under arrest3 T+e arrestin/ o**icer s+o6ed Salon/a t+e 'SS? *or.e in May 1 "I at t+e 0irt+day party o* *or.enter 6+ere +e 6as con*ined due to +is recurrent and c+ronic ail.ilitary custody and placed Bunder +ouse arrest in t+e custody o* Mrs3 Lydia Salon/aB still 6it+out t+e 0ene*it o* any investi/ation or c+ar/es3 ?n 1I Cece.anuary 1 "1. Ro.a and placed +i. t+e .an Raul Ca=a +eld at t+e latterDs residence in a Los 'n/eles su0ur03 .enter.eti.enter ((3 Luna 9ospital) 6+ere +e 6as place in t+e custody and detention o* .0s in1ured people3 ' .ilitary or civil aut+ority3 Su0sequently.ovito R3 Salon/a and +is 6i*e 6ere a. includin/ Salon/a.0s 6ere reported to +ave exploded at J 0i/ +otels in Metro Manila3 T+e 0o. a s.p at #ort <oni*acio. +ead o* t+e >ational )ntelli/ence and Security 'ut+ority (>)S')3 S+ortly a*ter6ards. in +is +ospital roo. +is +ospital arrest to an isolation roo. Salon/a 6as released *or +u. 6it+out 6indo6s in an ar.e3 ?n t+e ni/+t o* & ?cto0er 1 "I.e ti.ilitary 6ent to t+e +ospital roo. t+e .er . ele. and despite assurance to t+e contrary.r3. et al3. until t+e Supre.0er 1 "I.eti. nor 6as +e ever investi/ated or questioned 0y any . .0 exploded3 8it+in t+e next 5& +ours.0er 1 "I. .on/ress. Ma@ati3 Salon/a stated t+at +e 6as not in*or. 6as presented durin/ t+e con*erence3 T+e next day. .inutes a*ter t+e President +ad *inis+ed deliverin/ +is speec+ 0e*ore t+e )nternational . ne6spapers ca.y prison ca.plicated 0y (ictor Lovely in t+e series o* 0o.ta@en so. 0o.ourt in t+e case o* ?rdoWe= v3 Gen3 #a0ian (er. includin/ Lovely3 's a result o* t+e serious in1uries +e su**ered.on/ ot+ers o* +avin/ violated R' 1%II.unicado *or so.0er o* persons3 ?n 5I Septe.on/ t+ose 6+ose li@enesses appeared in t+e /roup pictures to/et+er 6it+ ot+er /uests.all 0o.artial la6 6as li*ted on 1% . searc+.0in/s in Metro Manila3 ?n 51 ?cto0er 1 "I. Mr3 Lovely and +is t6o 0rot+ers. Salon/aDs la6yers 6ere not per. a. .e .itted to visit +i.ent o* 0ronc+ial ast+. 6+o 6ere apparently i.ol3 Ro. (GR HHJ&H.ud/e 'dvocate GeneralDs ?**ice to t+e Ministry o* .inary investi/ation *or 1% Marc+ 1 "13 ?n ! Marc+ 1 "1.eo and <alta=ar Lovely 6+ere c+ar/ed 6it+ su0version.a/e to property3 ?n 15 Septe.0er 1 "I. Lovely 6as 0rou/+t 0y .

ourtDs *unctions3 T+e . as a. precepts. v3 Enrile (H S. pro.anuary 1 "5 are t+e su01ect o* t+e present petition *or certiorari3 )t is t+e contention o* Salon/a t+at no pri. in proper cases. t+e .0olic *unction *ro. as a.ud/e Ernani . t+e .ainin/ petitioner 6as *acin/ c+ar/es o* . <ranc+ A())). sto. constitutionally void.ic did not prevent t+e .enter o* t+e P+ilippines could validly 0e created t+rou/+ an executive order 6as .ooted 0y Presidential Cecree 1H.a *acie case a/ainst +i.urder. durin/ t+e pendency o* t+e case.ation *or violation o* t+e Revised 'nti2 Su0version 'ct. .0er 1 "1 and & .ara v3 Ena/e (&1 S.otion3 ?n & .0er 1 "1. 5! petitioners 6ere released *ro. includin/ Salon/a3 T+e resolutions o* t+e said 1ud/e dated 5 Cece. and ille/al possession o* *irear.oot 0ecause o* +is escape 0ut 6e nonet+eless rendered a decision3 )n Gon=ales v3 Marcos (!H S.enterDs ne6 c+arter pursuant to t+e PresidentDs le/islative po6ers under .oval o* +is le*t eye to save +is ri/+t eye3 T+e counsel *or Salon/a 6as *urnis+ed a copy o* an a.a *acie case +as 0een esta0lis+ed 0y t+e prosecution to 1usti*y t+e *ilin/ o* an in*or. dated 15 Marc+ 1 "1.ent o* #ilipino culture *or national identity3 )n t+e +a0eas corpus case o* 'quino.3 9e states t+at to sanction +is *urt+er prosecution despite t+e lac@ o* evidence a/ainst +i.ended co. escaped *ro. 6ould 0e to ad.ul/atin/ one o* t+e .R' 1"J).otion to dis.ity) denied t+e . custody and one 6it+dre6 +is petition3 T+e sole re. 1& Marc+ 1 IM .ultural .R' !5&) 6+et+er or not t+e . t+ere*ore.ourt also +as t+e duty to *or. t+e prosecution evidence .ourt 6ill not validate t+e *ilin/ o* an in*or.r3.0olic *unction o* educatin/ 0enc+ and 0ar on t+e extent o* protection /iven 0y constitutional /uarantees3 )n dela .1 H. o* intrusions o* State aut+ority into areas reserved 0y t+e <ill o* Ri/+ts *or t+e individual as constitutionally protected sp+eres 6+ere even t+e a6eso.a.e po6ers o* Govern.ent or as an o**icer or leader o* any su0versive or/ani=ation3 T+e respondents +ave ta@en t+e initiative o* droppin/ t+e c+ar/es a/ainst Salon/a3 T+e .ourt in t+e exercise o* its sy. a/ainst &I people.ay still ela0orate on a decision 6+en t+e lo6er courts +ave dropped t+e case a/ainst petitioner Salon/a3 8eld3 T+e settin/ aside or declarin/ void.ost volu. <P J1 and PC 1%J!3 ?n 1H ?cto0er 1 "1.a *acie case a/ainst Salon/a. doctrines.ulate /uidin/ and controllin/ constitutional principles.iss t+e c+ar/es a/ainst Salon/a *or *ailure o* t+e prosecution to esta0lis+ a pri. eit+er as a co2conspirator o* a desta0ili=ation plan to overt+ro6 t+e /overn. t+e petitioner 6+o questioned a P1.ac+.s3 T+e *act t+at t+e petition 6as .5II3II 0ail 0ond as excessive and.ourt reiterates t+e rule. Pue=on . t+e provincial 1ail 6+ile +is petition 6as pendin/3 T+e petition 0eca. or rules3 )t +as t+e sy. alon/ 6it+ J ot+er accused 6it+ t+e violation o* R' 1%II.ation 0ased on t+e @ind o* evidence a/ainst Salon/a *ound in t+e records3 Sa'aMar vs.anuary 1 "5.ru= Pano (Presidin/ . .ation a/ainst +i. liver.3 ?n 5 Cece. +o6ever. t+e counsel *or Salon/a *iled a .it t+at no rule o* la6 exists in t+e P+ilippines today3 Issue3 8+et+er t+e . su0version.ourt .pre+ensive . c+ar/in/ Salon/a.e .ay not enter at 6ill is not t+e totality o* t+e .ud/e o* t+e .inous decisions ever printed in t+e Reports3 9erein.artial la63 Still. t+at t+e .ended.ourt o* #irst )nstance o* Ri=al.inations o* t+e +eart. Achacoso LGR "1H1I.isera0ly *ails to esta0lis+ a pri.oot and acade.andate on t+e preservation and develop.ourt discussed t+e constitutional .attend a series o* c+urc+ con*erences and under/o co. eye and ear includin/ a possi0le re. +e issued a resolution orderin/ t+e *ilin/ o* an in*or.ended 0y PC ""H.edical exa.ent .plaint si/ned 0y Gen3 Prospero ?livas.R' 1).

6it+ t+e avo6ed purpose o* /ivin/ . t+e /roup assisted 0y Mandaluyon/ police.ana/er.o.astillo o* t+e PeopleDs .onstitution.ent 'd. P?E' Cirector on Licensin/ and Re/ulation 'tty3 Estelita <3 Espiritu issued an o**ice order desi/natin/ 'tty3 Marque=.es 6+ic+ 6ere duly receipted *or 0y Mrs3 'suncion Ma/uelan and 6itnessed 0y Mrs3 #lora Sala=ar3 ?n 5" .anuary 1 "!. *or 6it++oldin/ t+e *or.iento (.ent3 T+e Cecree /ave t+e Minister o* La0or arrest and closure po6ers3 ?n 5! .ation o* t+e co. s+e 6as una0le to produce any3 )nside t+e studio.plaint a/ainst +er 6it+ t+e Pasi/ Provincial #iscal ()S2""2"J!)3 Issue3 8+et+er t+e P+ilippine ?verseas E.ed t+e tea.ers S practicin/ a dance nu.ode. in t+e exercise o* +is le/islative po6ers under '.ore teet+ to t+e ca. .ent Enit !K#.end.0er and sa6 a0out 5I . t+e t+en Minister o* La0or .endatory po6ers *or t+e arrest and detention o* any person en/a/ed in ille/al recruit. 6as entered as an a. /ivin/ t+e La0or Minister searc+ and sei=ure po6ers as 6ell3 T+e decrees in question stand as t+e dyin/ vesti/es o* aut+oritarian rule in its t6ili/+t .ode3 8eld3 Section J". sent to Sala=ar a tele/ra. tas@ed to i.erDs .ode. served said .ent *iled 6it+ t+e P+ilippine ?verseas E.as C3 'c+acoso issued +is . directin/ t+e latter to directly appear 0e*ore #erdie Marque=. in a s6orn state.e day.0er 1 "%.erDs PE. to Presidential Cecree 1! J.En <anc. 'tty3 #erdinand Marque= to 6+o.an Cevelop.anuary 1 "".plainant and t+e 6itnesses +e . entry into t+e pre.ent (P+il3) 9o6ever.ploy. Mr3 Marcos.edia. 6+en required to s+o6 credentials.en Lito .ises3 Mrs #lora Sala=ar in*or. +avin/ ascertained t+at Sala=ar +ad no license to operate a recruit.ent a/ency. 'tty3 .ent3 ?n even date.inistration (P?E') c+ar/ed 9ortencia Sala=ar o* !1H R3?3 Santos St3.anuary 1 "".ul/ated Presidential Cecree 5I1".ore 6aitin/ outside3 T+e tea. t+at 9annalie Cance Studio 6as accredited 6it+ More.ploy..ediately returned on t+e /round t+at said sei=ure 6as contrary to la6 and a/ainst t+e 6ill o* t+e o6ner t+ereo*3 ?n 5 #e0ruary 1 "".ournal and Ernie <aluyot o* >e6s Today proceeded to Sala=arDs residence3 T+ere it 6as *ound t+at Sala=ar 6as operatin/ 9annalie Cance Studio3 <e*ore enterin/ t+e place.losure and Sei=ure order on a certain Mrs3 #lora Sala=ar 6+o voluntarily allo6ed t+e.3 RE case *iled a/ainst Sala=ar3 ?n t+e sa. .ent . requestin/ t+at t+e personal properties sei=ed at 9orty Sala=arDs residence 0e i. Rosalie Tesoro o* 1%% Tupa= Street. ECS' corner ?rti/as 'venue.e.end. as no6 6ritten. Mandaluyon/ on ! >ove.ent ! o* t+e 1 %J . Mandaluyon/. said co.losure and Sei=ure ?rder 15IH3 Coin/ so. #lora Sala=ar *iled 6it+ P?E' a letter. P?E' *iled a cri. P?E' 'nti2)lle/al Recruit. contestin/ t+e validity o* t+e po6er o* t+e Secretary o* La0or to issue 6arrants o* arrest and sei=ure under 'rticle J" o* t+e La0or . Sala=ar *iled t+e petition *or pro+i0ition. c+anced upon 15 talent per*or. P?E' <uildin/. 'd.ay produce.ul/ated Presidential Cecree 1 5I. Mr3 Marcos pro.. Sar. Bno searc+ 6arrant or 6arrant o* arrest s+all issue except upon pro0a0le cause to 0e deter.ard3 ?n J >ove.pai/n a/ainst ille/al recruit.ity.)$ 1& concur 4acts3 ?n 51 ?cto0er 1 "%.erely exercised reco.ined personally 0y t+e 1ud/e a*ter exa.onstitution3 Ender t+e latter.losure and Sei=ure ?rder 15IH a/ainst 9orty Sala=ar3 ?n 5! . para/rap+ (c).plaint 6as assi/ned.inistration (or t+e Secretary o* La0or) validly issue 6arrants o* searc+ and sei=ure (or arrest) under 'rticle J" o* t+e La0or . pro.0ers o* a tea. con*iscated assorted costu.inal co. t+e tea. 0e*ore P?E' could ans6er t+e letter. alle/edly t+e *or.ination under oat+ or a**ir. t+e tea.0er 1 "% at 1I a3.ent 0y Presidential Cecrees 1 5I and 5I1" o* t+e late President #erdinand Marcos. Pasay . pro+i0itin/ ille/al recruit.inistrator To. Leveri=a..en and . o* t+e La0or .ent 'd.ent3 ?n 1 May 1 "&.ovencio '0ara and 'tty3 Ernesto (istro as .ents3 Ender t+e ne6 .ple.

Lovely 6as ta@en out o* t+e +ospitalDs intensive care unit and trans*erred to t+e o**ice o* .0s in1ured . Lovely 6as 0rou/+t 0y . Ro.er .ost @illed +i.r3. para/rap+ (c).ed t+e principles t+at (1) Ender 'rticle ))). t+e .e3 More 0o.aterials sei=ed as a result o* t+e i..o. unconstitutional and o* no *orce and e**ect3 #or t+e /uidance o* t+e 0enc+ and t+e 0ar. and t+us orderin/ t+e P?E' to return all .eo.e in May 1 "I at t+e 0irt+day party o* *or. ne6spapers ca. Ro.all 0o.0er and ?cto0er o* 1 "I3 ?n Septe.sel* and in1ured +is youn/er 0rot+er. *or t+e purpose o* deportation3 T+us. and no ot+er.ovito R3 Salon/a and +is 6i*e 6ere a. includin/ Lovely3 's a result o* t+e serious in1uries +e su**ered.ali*ornia. as a result o* t+e explosion o* a s. .ode unconstitutional and null and void.a/e to property3 <o. SALONGA vs..ont+s o* 'u/ust.onstitution.e out 6it+ al. &ON. Section 5 .eo.issioner o* ). under t+e over2 all direction o* General #a0ian (er. 6+o .ay it 0e done 0y a .ilitary and police aut+orities to t+e '#P Medical . 6as presented durin/ t+e con*erence3 T+e next day. t+e President or t+e . +ead o* t+e >ational )ntelli/ence and Security 'ut+ority (>)S')3 S+ortly a*ter6ards.0er o* persons3 T+e PresidentDs anniversary television radio press con*erence 6as 0roadcast3 T+e youn/er 0rot+er o* (ictor Lovely.ay order arrested.0 inside +is roo.0in/s in Metro Manila3 Mean6+ile.ay not exercise t+is po6er3 >eit+er .0in/s occurred in t+e Metro Manila area in t+e .ourt declare 'rticle J".0er 1 "I. it is only 1ud/es. . a P+ilippine20orn '.ay no lon/er issue searc+ or arrest 6arrants3 9ence. Los 'n/eles. and da. al. one (ictor <urns Lovely.on/ t+ose 6+ose li@enesses appeared in t+e /roup pictures to/et+er 6it+ ot+er /uests.enter ((3 Luna 9ospital)6+ere +e 6as place in t+e custody and detention o* .an Raul Ca=a +eld at t+e latterDs residence in a Los 'n/eles su0ur03 .ol3 Madella 6+ere +e 6as +eld inco.' 0uildin/ in Manila3 #ound in LovelyDs possession 0y police and . 1 "H3 FACTS# ' ras+ o* 0o. not 0ein/ a 1ud/e. Septe.an P3 Madella. Mr3 Lovely and +is t6o 0rot+ers.ay issue 6arrants o* arrest and searc+G and (5) T+e exception is in cases o* deportation o* ille/al and undesira0le aliens.?urt rea**ir. ERNANI CR. t+e .ol3 Ro.ourt +erein /ranted t+e petition.and particularly descri0in/ t+e place to 0e searc+ed and t+e persons or t+in/s to 0e sei=ed3 )t is only a 1ud/e 6+o . 6+o. o* t+e 1 "% ..ode.i/ration .ust /o t+rou/+ t+e 1udicial process3 To t+at extent.e ti.erican citi=en *ro. .ere prosecutin/ 0ody3 T+e Secretary o* La0or. at t+e :M. *ollo6in/ a *inal order o* deportation. t+e aut+orities . t+e . para/rap+ (c) o* t+e La0or .on/ress.0s 6ere reported to +ave exploded at J 0i/ +otels in Metro Manila3 T+e 0o.0s once a/ain exploded in Metro Manila includin/ one 6+ic+ resulted in t+e deat+ o* an '.ilitary aut+orities 6ere several pictures ta@en so.ay issue 6arrants o* searc+ and arrest3B Mayors . Ro.entation o* Searc+ and Sei=ure ?rder 15IH3 2O5ITO R.9 )A:O GR H H5&3 #e0ruary 1".ost identical +eadlines statin/ in e**ect t+at Salon/a +ad 0een lin@ed to t+e various 0o. declarin/ 'rticle J".erican lady 6+o 6as s+oppin/ at RustanDs Super. ille/al possession o* explosives.unicado *or so.ar@et in Ma@ati and ot+ers 6+ic+ caused in1uries to a nu.ple.eo and <alta=ar Lovely 6+ere c+ar/ed 6it+ su0version.eti. o* t+e La0or .

ourt 6ill not validate t+e *ilin/ o* an in*or. and ille/al possession o* *irear.ourt reiterates t+e rule.ent o* 0ronc+ial ast+.enterDs ne6 c+arter pursuant to t+e PresidentDs le/islative po6ers under .R'1"J).ent . t+e prosecution evidence .ay not enter at 6ill is not t+e totality o* t+e . .ents o* t+e .R' !5&) 6+et+er or not t+e . constitutionally void. as .ulate /uidin/ and controllin/ constitutional principles. 6+o 6ere apparently i.s3 T+e *act t+at t+e petition 6as .e .plicated 0y (ictor Lovely in t+e series o* 0o. eit+er as a co2conspirator o* a desta0ili=ation plan to overt+ro6 t+e /overn.doctrines.ooted 0y Presidential Cecree 1H.onvention . t+e petitioner 6+o questioned a P1.ara v3 Ena/e (&1 S.enter 6+ere +e 6as con*ined due to +is recurrent and c+ronic ail.ainin/ petitioner 6as *acin/ c+ar/es o* .inous decision sever printed in t+e Reports3 9erein.a.all 0o. under arrest3 T+e arrestin/ o**icer s+o6ed Salon/a t+e 'SS? *or.t+ere*ore.E# 8+et+er t+e .ul/atin/ one o* t+e .ilitary 6ent to t+e +ospital roo. pro.0in/s in Metro Manila3 Ele. +o6ever.a and placed +i. t+at t+e . and sei=ure orders ('SS?s) 6ere issued a/ainst persons.oot and acade. o* intrusions o* State aut+ority into areas reserved 0y t+e <ill o* Ri/+ts *or t+e individual as constitutionally protected sp+eres 6+ere even t+e a6eso. su0version.ourtDs *unctions3 T+e .artial la63 Still.ost volu.urder. 6+ic+ +o6ever did not speci*y t+e c+ar/e or c+ar/es a/ainst +i.ay still ela0orate on a decision 6+en t+e lo6er courts +ave dropped t+e case a/ainst petitioner Salon/a3 &ELD# T+e settin/ aside or declarin/ void.ourt in t+e exercise o* its sy.oot 0ecause o* +is escape 0ut 6e nonet+eless rendered a decision3 )n Gon=ales v3 Marcos (!H S. 5! petitioners 6ere released *ro.isera0ly *ails to esta0lis+ a pri.ourt discussed t+e constitutional . t+e provincial 1ail 6+ile +is petition 6as pendin/3 T+e petition 0eca. v3 Enrile (H S.5II3II 0ail 0ond as excessive and.enter. escaped *ro. arrest.3 ISS.ation 0ased on t+e @ind o* evidence a/ainst Salon/a *ound in t+e records3 . includin/ Salon/a.ouncil 6as called *or ! ?cto0er 1 "I3 Minutes a*ter t+e President +ad *inis+ed deliverin/ +is speec+ 0e*ore t+e )nternational . precepts.0olic *unction o* educatin/ 0enc+ and 0ar on t+e extent o* protection /iven 0y constitutional /uarantees3 )n dela . searc+.ourt .R' 1).ultural .andate on t+e preservation and develop. o* Salon/a at t+e Manila Medical . or rules3 )t +as t+e sy.ourt also +as t+e duty to *or. custody and one 6it+dre6 +is petition3 T+e sole re.people3 ' .on*erence o* t+e '.0olic *unction *ro.1 H.a *acie case a/ainst Salon/a. in proper cases.0 exploded3 8it+in t+e next 5& +ours. durin/ t+e pendency o* t+e case.ent o* #ilipino culture *or national identity3 )n t+e +a0eas corpus case o* 'quino.ic did not prevent t+e .eetin/ o* t+e General Military .enter o* t+e P+ilippines could validly 0e created t+rou/+ an executive order 6as .e po6ers o* Govern.ent or as an o**icer or leader o* any su0versive or/ani=ation3 T+e respondents +ave ta@en t+e initiative o* droppin/ t+e c+ar/es a/ainst Salon/a3 T+e .r3. t+e . t+e .erican Society o* Travel '/ents at t+e P+ilippine )nternational .

Sa-*(a( vs.an. assertin/ t+at t+e po6er to propose a.ission on Elections 6as vested 6it+ t+e exclusive supervision and control o* t+e ?cto0er 1 %! >ational Re*erendu. t+e period o* its existence.onstitution3 'not+er petition *or Pro+i0ition 6it+ Preli. providin/ *or a ne6 interi. +is son.0er 1 %!.itted to t+e people in t+e re*erendu.inary )n1unction 6as *iled 0y Raul M3 Gon=ales. t+e interi. 1IJJ and 1IJ13 T+ey contend t+at under t+e 1 JH and 1 %J . *ro. statin/ t+e questions to 0e su0.ents to.o.end.o.end.entation o* Presidential Cecrees3 Issue3 8K> t+e President . le/islative 0ody.onvention. *at+er and son.ent to. 6as instituted 0y (icente M3 Gu=. *or t+e a. a..endin/ t+e previous Presidential Cecree 1. t+e len/t+ o* t+e period *or t+e exercise 0y t+e President o* +is present po6ers3 ?n 55 Septe.onstitution durin/ t+e transition period is expressly con*erred on t+e interi.3 Sanidad and Pa0lito (3 Sanidad.ay call upon a re*erendu.0er 1 %!.itted directly to t+e people in t+e re*erendu.ent o* t+e . co.2 Ple0iscite3 Pa0lo . >ational 'sse. Ple0iscite on ?cto0er 1!G to declare 6it+out *orce and e**ect PC 1.0ly evinces t+eir desire to +ave suc+ 0ody a0olis+ed and replaced t+ru a constitutional a.ent.iti=ens 'sse.onstitution3 8eld3 Section 1 o* 'rticle A() o* t+e 1 %J .onstitution on '.2ple0iscite on 1! ?cto0er 1 %!3 T+e Cecree recites in its B6+ereasB clauses t+at t+e peopleDs continued opposition to t+e convenin/ o* t+e interi. on 1! ?cto0er 1 %! *or t+e .0ly upon a . or revision o* t+e .ents ordains t+at B(1) 'ny a.end. its replace.inary )n1unction. anot+er action *or Pro+i0ition 6it+ Preli.enced *or Pro+i0ition 6it+ Preli.ent.onstitution . 'rticle A()) o* t+e .onstitutional .ay 0e proposed 0y t+e >ational 'sse.onstitutions t+ere is no /rant to t+e incu.2ple0iscite o* ?cto0er 1!3 T+e .0lies (B0aran/aysB) to resolve t+e issues o* .?MELE. t+e po6ers o* suc+ replace.ents to t+e ne6 .inary )n1unction see@in/ to en1oin t+e .0er 1 %!.onstitution3 ?n JI Septe.2ple0iscite o* 1! ?cto0er 1 %!3 T+e President also issued PC 1IJJ.0lies) applica0le to t+e national re*erendu. t+e President issued anot+er PC 1IJ1.. a dele/ate to t+e 1 %1 . Co++*ss*o. to restrain t+e i.end.anner o* votin/ and canvass o* votes in B0aran/aysB (.0ly.artial la6. and 'l*redo Salapantan.0ly under action 1!. President #erdinand E3 Marcos issued PC 1 callin/ *or a national re*erendu. t+is . +oldin/ and conductin/ t+e Re*erendu. >ational 'sse. 0y declarin/ t+e provisions o* Presidential Cecree 55 providin/ *or t+e . or revision o*.iti=ens 'sse.end.ent. asse.0ent President to exercise t+e constituent po6er to propose a.E'%c"*o-s 4acts ?n 5 Septe.end. 6+ic+ 6ill 0e su0.ple.

itted to t+e electorate in an election voted upon 0y a . >ational 'sse.e Minister3 T+e .atically .endin/ process .0lies (B0a/an/aysB) reiterated t+eir soverei/n 6ill to 6it++old t+e convenin/ o* t+e interi. t+e interi.inated. >ational 'sse.0ers.onstitutional .ent to.ents . 0ecause so.0ly.onstitution3 Suc+ a.e.ay.alcy and period o* transition3 )n ti.0ly upon special call 0y t+e interi.ents to t+is .ay.0ers.vote o* t+ree2*ourt+s o* all its Me. at 6+ic+ t+e rati*ication o* t+e 1 %J .end. >ational 'sse. propose a. o* 5& .onstitutional .0ers o* t+e interi.ination o* t+e ti. t6o periods conte.ed auto. consistent 6it+ t+e prevailin/ conditions o* peace and order in t+e country3 8+en t+e Cele/ates to t+e . t+is . or 0y a constitutional convention3 (5) T+e >ational 'sse.?MELE.0ly.e Minister.0ly3 T+e .0ly.0ent President 6as /iven t+e discretion as to 6+en +e could convene t+e interi.0ly soon *ound support *ro.e.0ly . 0y a .a1ority vote o* all its Me. su0. t+e proposed question o* 6+et+er t+e interi.a1ority vote o* all t+e . >ational 'sse.es o* nor.end.ay 0e proposed 0y a .a1ority o* t+e votes cast in a ple0iscite 6+ic+ s+all 0e +eld not later t+an t+ree . t+e a.uly 1 %J.end. +ad already settled t+at t+e incu. o* 5% #e0ruary 1 %H.onstitutional . t+ere*ore.0ly s+all 0e initially convened 6as eli.0ly3 9o6ever t+e callin/ o* a . t+e people voted a/ainst t+e convenin/ o* t+e interi.0ly3 )n t+e re*erendu.0ers.0ers. >ational 'sse. 6ere . a. Pri.selves3 )n t+e ple0iscite o* . . 0y a vote o* t6o2t+irds o* all its Me.ont+s a a*ter t+e approval o* suc+ a. t+ey 6ere a6are o* t+e *act t+at under t+e sa.0ent President is vested 6it+ t+at prero/ative o* discretion as to 6+en +e s+all initially convene t+e interi.0ly upon a vote o* t+ree2*ourt+s o* all its . t+e people t+e.0ers o* t+e interi.ent or revision3B )n t+e present period o* transition. call a constitutional convention or. t+e incu.es o* transition. >ational 'sse.ay 0e su0.onstitutional . 6+o 6ere dee.0ers o* t+e >ational 'sse. 0y a .anuary 1I21H.0ly3 )n ti.e o* t+e . 1 %J.onvention .iti=ens 'sse.onstitution 6as su0.0ersG or (5) 0y a . >ational 'sse. >ational 'sse.0ly instituted in t+e Transitory Provisions is con*erred 6it+ t+at a. Pri.onstitution s+all 0e valid 6+en rati*ied 0y a .e.itted.onvention called 0y a vote o* t6o2t+irds o* all t+e Me. upon special call 0y t+e interi. >ational 'sse.end.ents s+all ta@e e**ect 6+en rati*ied in accordance 6it+ 'rticle 1! +ereo*3B T+ere are.onvention.it t+e question o* callin/ suc+ a convention to t+e electorate in an election3B Section 5 t+ereo* provides t+at B'ny a.endin/ po6er3 Section 1H o* t+e Transitory Provisions reads BT+e interi.onvention voted on t+e Transitory Provisions.0ers o* t+e >ational 'sse.e.on/ress and dele/ates o* t+e . >ational 'sse.0ly3 T+e PresidentDs decision to de*er t+e convenin/ o* t+e interi.0ers o* .end.e 6+en +e s+all initially convene t+e interi.0ly3 '/ain.ourt in 'quino v3 .ay 0e initiated 0y t+e proposals o* t+e (1) re/ular >ational 'sse. >ational 'sse.e. in t+e re*erendu.onstitutional .onvention intended to leave to t+e President t+e deter.. or revision o*.a1ority vote o* all t+e Me. t+e .a1ority vote o* all its Me.plated in t+e constitutional li*e o* t+e nation$ period o* nor.alcy.

IS SANTOS as S%cr%"ar? o@ Loca' Gov%r-+%-"I FIDEL 5.LGENCIO FACTORAN 2R.ICO as S%cr%"ar? o@ ADrar*a. o* . 6+en t+e le/islative ar.r$ar? 22 1991 CI5IL LI1ERTIES .15 F%. o* t+e state underta@es t+e proposals o* a.C$'"$r% a-( SBor"sI F.ade 0et6een constitutional content o* an or/anic c+aracter and t+at o* a le/islative c+aracter3 T+e distinction.9/ F%. >ational 'sse. as S%cr%"ar? o@ E-v*ro-+%-" a-( Na"$ra' R%so$rc%sI 5ICENTE 5.)REME CO.er3 T+e prero/ative o* t+e President to approve or disapprove applies only to t+e ordinary cases o* le/islation3 T+e President +as not+in/ to do 6it+ proposition or adoption o* a.end.ents to t+e .onstitution3 Repu0lic o* t+e P+ilippines S.E9 as S%cr%"ar? o@ ADr*c$'"$r%I LO.R.onstitution (*or t+e re/ular >ational 'sse.or a-( E+B'o?+%-"I L.ent to a . .end.E as .ent. vs3 T&E E7EC. t+at po6er is provided *or in 'rticle A() o* t+e 1 %J .endin/ process3 Rat+er. not o* la63 Suc+ 0ein/ t+e case.endin/ o* t+e . it is exercisin/ a peculiar po6er 0esto6ed upon it 0y t+e *unda. 1ENIGNO as )r%ss S%cr%"ar?I 2. +o6ever. G. RE6ES petitioners.isno.0ly)3 8+ile ordinarily it is t+e 0usiness o* t+e le/islatin/ 0ody to le/islate *or t+e nation 0y virtue o* constitutional con*er.end. vs3 )&ILI) ELLA C.a-( Co++$-*ca"*o-I G. .R%@or+I CARLOS DOMING.RT Manila E> <'>. RAMOS as S%cr%"ar? o@ Na"*o-a' D%@%-s%I TEODORO F. 2.ILLERMO CARAG.3.r$ar? 22 1991 ANTI-GRAFT LEAG.IS. 2A6ME as S%cr%"ar? o@ F*-a-c%I SEDFRE6 ORDO:E9 as S%cr%"ar? o@ 2$s"*c%I FRAN3LIN N. RE6ES as S%cr%"ar? o@ Tra-sBor"a"*o. a-( CRIS)IN T. 1ENG9ON as S%cr%"ar? o@ &%a'"hI REINERIO D.anuary. t+at 0ody is not in t+e usual *unction o* la6. DRILON as S%cr%"ar? o@ La. a.'*c 4orFs a-( &*DhEa?sI ANTONIO ARRI9A1AL as S%cr%"ar? o@ Sc*%-c% a-( T%ch-o'oD?I 2OSE CONCE)CION as S%cr%"ar? o@ Tra(% a-( I-($s"r?I 2OSE ANTONIO GON9ALE9 as S%cr%"ar? o@ To$r*s+I ALFREDO R.M1ING as S%cr%"ar? o@ E($ca"*o.A.onstitution is not le/islative in c+aracter3 )n political science a distinction is .3.E OF T&E )&ILI))INES INC. approval o* t+e President o* any proposed a.ental c+arter itsel*3 )n t+e P+ilippines.onstitution. 1 %J t+e people +ad already resolved a/ainst it3 )n sensu striciore.TI5E SECRETAR6 respondent .0ly) or in Section 1H o* t+e Transitory Provisions (*or t+e interi.a/ainst its inclusion since in t+at re*erendu. No. No.NION petitioner.R.RDES 8. G.a@in/3 )t is not le/islatin/ 6+en en/a/ed in t+e a.ent is a . is one o* policy.ANITO FERRER as S%cr%"ar? o@ )$.

runs counter to Section 1J. 0ut in no case s+all any o**icial +old .0ers o* t+e .ore t+an t6o positions ot+er t+an +is pri. a . .a0inet.ary position. al0eit su01ect to t+e li.0ers o* t+e 0oards o* suc+ corporation s+ould eit+er 0e a secretary.ent in /overn. 1 "%3 T+e pertinent provisions o* t+e assailed Executive ?rder are$ Sec3 13 Even i* allo6ed 0y la6 or 0y t+e ordinary *unctions o* +is position. in e**ect.a0inet.onstitution.ent or any su0division. or undersecretary. Aavid for petitioners in L#LJ=. or in any *ranc+ise. or to 0oards. councils or 0odies o* 6+ic+ t+e President is t+e .B in G3R3 >o3 .ittees.e.0ers o* t+e .pensation t+ere*orG )rovided .0er o* t+e ca0inet.onstitution.itation t+erein i. a/ency. (ice2President.ploy. Euintos and 4uan T.ntonio /.ent corporations and receive t+e correspondin/ co.itation s+all not apply to ad +oc 0odies or co. allo6s .ent2o6ned or controlled corporations.J.posed.ent2o6ned or controlled corporations or t+eir su0sidiaries3 T+ey s+all strictly avoid con*lict o* interest in t+e conduct o* t+eir o**ice3 )t is alle/ed t+at t+e a0ove2quoted Section 1J. t+e Me. or 0e *inancially interested in any contract 6it+. at least one2t+ird (1KJ) o* t+e . 2 6+ic+ provides as *ollo6s$ Sec3 1J3 T+e President.e. 9uis /. or instru. and t+eir deputies or assistants s+all not.+air. in addition to +is pri.e.3p T+ese t6o (5) petitions 6ere consolidated per resolution dated 'u/ust . +old not . FERNAN %. or assistant secretary3 Petitioners . directly or indirectly practice any ot+er pro*ession.0ers o* t+e . undersecretary or assistant secretary or ot+er appointive o**icials o* t+e Executive Cepart. durin/ said tenure.ary positions.entality t+ereo*.3 'quino on . 'rticle ()) o* t+e 1 "% . includin/ /overn.0er o* t+e . unless ot+er6ise provided in t+is . .ay.ent +olds .e.aintain t+at t+is Executive ?rder 6+ic+.ent .ore positions t+an 6+at is allo6ed in Section 1 +ereo*. t+at t+is li.ntonio ). 1auricio.uly 5H. alon/ 6it+ t+e ot+er pu0lic o**icials enu. +old any ot+er o**ice or e.erated in t+e list attac+ed to t+e petitions as 'nnex B.an3 Sec3 53 )* a . as . 9acsina.ust relinquis+ t+e excess position in *avor o* t+e su0ordinate o**icial 6+o is next in ran@. undersecretary or assistant secretary or ot+er appointive o**icial o* t+e Executive Cepart.e.ore t+an t6o positions in t+e /overn. 'rticle ()) pro+i0its pu0lic respondents. as &%a( o@ "h% Na"*o-a' Eco-o+*c :gnacio ).. or special privile/e /ranted 0y t+e Govern. &oronel for petitioners in L#L1%.Co++*ss*o-%r o@ "h% 1$(D%"I a-( SOLITA MONSOD D%v%'oB+%-" A$"hor*"? r%sBo-(%-"s.ent and /overn.ora=on .a0inet. t+eir undersecretaries and assistant secretaries to +old ot+er /overn.ent durin/ t+eir tenure3 T+ey s+all not.a0inet. participate in any 0usiness. 1 "" 1 and are 0ein/ resolved 1ointly as 0ot+ see@ a declaration o* t+e unconstitutionality o* Executive ?rder >o3 5"& issued 0y President . t+ey ( sic ) .ary position3 Sec3 J3 )n order to *ully protect t+e interest o* t+e /overn.ent o**ices or positions in addition to t+eir pri.

onstitution. rendered on . t+e (ice2President. t+e President o* t+e P+ilippines.ustice Sed*rey ?rdoWe=. 'rticle ()) and t+e /eneral provision in anot+er article. 'rticle ()) and par3 (5) o* Section %.onstitution as in t+e case o* t+e Secretary o* .ent o* . para/rap+ 1.s o* privile/es and t+e li@e appurtenant to t+eir questioned positions. t+eir deputies (undersecretaries) and assistant secretaries . pu0lic servants in /eneral –– alle/edly Ba0olis+ed t+e clearly separate. Section %. petitioner 'nti2Gra*t Lea/ue o* t+e P+ilippines c+ar/es t+at not6it+standin/ t+e a*orequoted Ba0solute and sel*2executin/B provision o* t+e 1 "% ."J"1H 3 and as 'nnex B<B in G3R3 >o3 "J" ! < *ro.udicial and <ar . and .0er o* t+e . includin/ .ounts or 0ene*its t+at t+ey .e.ent durin/ t+eir tenure3 )n addition to see@in/ a declaration o* t+e unconstitutionality o* Executive ?rder >o3 5"&. eac+ addressed to a distinct and separate /roup o* pu0lic o**icers –– one. and t+eir deputies and su0alterns. in addition to t+eir pri. no appointive official shall hold any other office or employment in the government or any subdivision. series o* 1 "%. 'rticle )A2<. pro. series o* 1 "% 9 and C?. rei.ultiple positions ot+er t+an t+ose aut+ori=ed 0y t+e 1 "% .on/ress convened on . Section %.0ers+ip in t+e 0oards o* /overn. 6+o are t+e leaders o* /overn.a0inet. par3 (5). series o* 1 "%. par3 (5) .0ers.0urse or re*und any and all a.uly 5%. petitioner 'nti2Gra*t Lea/ue o* t+e P+ilippines *urt+er see@s in G3R3 >o3 "J"1H t+e issuance o* t+e extraordinary 6rits o* pro+i0ition and mandamus .ily. series o* 1 "".ent expected to lead 0y exa. ?pinion >o3 %J and Executive ?rder >o3 5"& as t+ey alle/edly Blu. +i/+er.e.. t+e . construin/ Section 1J.andatory constitutional ran@ assi/ned to t+e pro+i0ition a/ainst . 'rticle )2A<3 T+is Bstrained lin@a/eB 0et6een t+e t6o provisions. 1 "% ?pinion >o3 %J.ary positions. 1 0 0ein/ t+e *irst o**icial construction and interpretation 0y t+e Secretary o* .ents or desi/nations o* an appointive executive o**icial to positions ot+er t+an +is pri.porary restrainin/ order directin/ pu0lic respondents t+erein to cease and desist *ro.ay +ave received *ro. and t+e ot+er. and co.ustice o* Section 1J.ped to/et+erB Section 1J.onstitution and *ro. par3 (5).0ers o* t+e .ent corporations$ (a) 6+en directly provided *or in t+e . is Breasona0ly valid and constitutionally *ir. dual or .ple3B 7 'rticle )A2<.uly 5H.e. ?pinion >o3 1HH. exclusive.e su01ect o* appoint.B and t+at Executive ?rder >o3 5"&.ploy. 5 declarin/ t+at .e. as *urt+er elucidated and clari*ied 0y C?. agency or instrumentality thereof. allo6ances.ustice 6+o is . suc+ positions3 Speci*ically.onstitution.ul/ated pursuant to C?.a0inet . on . per die.ouncil under Section ". 'rticle ()))G or (0) i* allo6ed 0y la6G or (c) i* allo6ed 0y t+e pri. ?pinion >o3 15 .ary *unctions o* t+eir respective positionsG and t+at on t+e 0asis o* t+is ?pinion. ?pinion >o3 %J. series o* 1 "% is consequently . receivin/ any salaries.ary position.ultiple 1o0s *or t+e President. as 6ell as a te. ?pinion >o3 %J.ul/ated Executive ?rder >o3 5"&3 / Petitioner 'nti2Gra*t Lea/ue o* t+e P+ilippines o01ects to 0ot+ C?.pellin/ pu0lic respondents to return. +oldin/ any ot+er o**ice or e.uly 5J. including government'owned or controlled corporations or their subsidiaries 3 T+e Solicitor General counters t+at Cepart. involvin/ t+e sa. 'rticle ()) in relation to Section %.s and ot+er *or.ustice C?. 1 "%$ pro. 1 "% or t6o (5) days 0e*ore .ade an ex'officio . t+e President and +er o**icial *a. +oldin/. 'rticle )2A< o* t+e . t+en Secretary o* .ay +old ot+er pu0lic o**ice. provides$ Sec3 %3 3 3 3 3 3 Cnless otherwise allowed by law or by the primary functions of his position.

a0inet and t+eir deputies or assistants3 T+ere is no dispute t+at t+e pro+i0ition a/ainst t+e President.ust 0e expressly provided in t+e .e a Me.ely$ (1) T+e (ice2President . 'rticle )2A< on t+e .B t+e only exceptions a/ainst +oldin/ any ot+er o**ice or e. 0ut only to t+e +oldin/ o* .e.0ers o* t+e . par3 (5).ent2o6ned or controlled corporation or t+eir su0sidiaries3B 4% r$'% *.onstitution3 'ccordin/ to petitioners.ined in t+e li/+t o* t+e +istory o* t+e ti.onstitution inso*ar as . 'rticle ()) .ourt in construin/ a . t+eir deputies or assistants are concerned ad.a@es re*erence to Section %.ent in Govern..itation i.ent 0et6een petitioners and pu0lic respondents lies on t+e constitutional 0asis o* t+e exception3 Petitioners insist t+at 0ecause o* t+e p+rase Bunless ot+er6ise provided in t+is .aintain t+at t+e p+rase Bunless ot+er6ise provided in t+e . (ice2President. 'rticle ()) t+ereo*G and (5) t+e Secretary o* .0er o* t+e .o.a0inet under Section J.e. 'rticle ()) o* t+e 1 "% . t+e exception .ent in t+e Govern.ustice is an ex'officio .ary *unctions o* t+e pu0lic o**icial.onstitution.. ?pinion >o3 1HH.ultiple positions 6+ic+ are not related to or necessarily included in t+e position o* t+e pu0lic o**icial concerned (disparate positions)3 )n su. t+e constitutionality o* Executive ?rder >o3 5"& is 0ein/ c+allen/ed 0y petitioners on t+e principal su0.es.ent or any su0division. a/ency or instru.plis+ed 0y its adoption.ind t+e o01ect sou/+t to 0e acco. +oldin/ dual or .entioned t+erein are concerned3 T+e t+res+old question t+ere*ore is$ does t+e pro+i0ition in Section 1J. 'rticle ()) ot+er t+an t+ose provided in t+e .edied3 ' dou0t*ul provision 6ill 0e exa.0ers o* t+e . Sec3 " (1)3 Pu0lic respondents. series o* 1 "% and C?. *or easy re*erence is quoted ane6.onstitution s+ould 0ear in . ?pinion >o3 15 . and t+e .ouncil 0y virtue o* Section " (1).0er o* t+e .0ers.udicial and <ar ."h% -%Da"*v%.ivil Service in /eneral and t+at said exceptions do not apply and cannot 0e extended to Section 1J. series o* 1 "" construed t+e li. alt+ou/+ not so desi/nated as ex'officio are allo6ed 0y t+e pri.ent ad. and t+e evils.udicial and <ar . sou/+t to 0e prevented or re.a0inet and t+eir deputies or assistants *ro. na.0er o* t+e . as in t+e case o* t+e (ice2President 0ein/ allo6ed to 0eco. par3 (5).ustice 0ein/ desi/nated an ex'officio . 0y virtue o* t+e p+rase Bunless ot+er6ise provided in t+is .ployees o* t+e . Me. on t+e ot+er +and.posed 0y E3?3 >o3 5"& as not applyin/ to ex'officio positions or to positions 6+ic+.ission applies to o**icers and e.onstitution.ouncil under 'rticle ())).e. 'rticle ()) or t+e Secretary o* . 'rticle )2A< inso*ar as t+e appointive o**icials .it o* t+e 0road exceptions . par3 (5).onstitution.a0inet under t+e second para/rap+ o* Section J.ent are t+ose provided in t+e . 'rticle ()) 6+ic+ applies speci*ically to t+e President.entality t+ereo*.onstitutionB in Section 1J. .its o* certain exceptions3 T+e disa/ree.ade *or appointive o**icials in /eneral under Section %.a0inet .ission t+at it adds exceptions to Section 1J.ploy.onstitutionB used in Section 1J o* 'rticle ()). t+e .ultiple positions in t+e Govern. 'rticle )2A< 6+ic+.ay 0e appointed as a Me. 'rticle ()))3 Petitioners *urt+er ar/ue t+at t+e exception to t+e pro+i0ition in Section %. no appointive o**icial s+all +old any ot+er o**ice or e.e.0er o* t+e . ' *oolproo* yardstic@ in constitutional construction is t+e intention underlyin/ t+e provision under consideration3 T+us.ary *unctions o* +is position. includin/ /overn. par3 (5). t+us$ BEnless ot+er6ise allo6ed 0y la6 or 0y t+e pri.ploy. i* any.constitutional3 )t is 6ort+ notin/ t+at C?.ivil Service . (ice2President. it +as 0een +eld t+at t+e .

e.. allo6ances and ot+er perquisites o* o**ice3 Most o* t+ese instru.ent o* t+e people t+at t+e 1 "! ..ission on 'udit.ent3 )n *act. 0eca. o* *ourteen eac+ (1&)G .ose '3 RoWo o* t6elve (15) eac+G Manuel P3 'l0a.pai/n *or its rati*ication 6as t+e assurance /iven 0y its proponents t+at t+e scandalous practice o* .0ers +oldin/ .ent2?6ned and . 'rticle )2A< already contains a .onstitution durin/ t+e ca.ained up to t+e present ti. convened as it 6as a*ter t+e people success*ully unseated *or.3 Oala.orporations.ent soon led to a0uses 0y unscrupulous pu0lic o**icials 6+o too@ advanta/e o* t+is sc+e. t+eir deputies and assistants as .a@e t+e 6ords consonant to t+at reason and calculated to e**ect t+at purpose3 11 T+e practice o* desi/natin/ .ent 6as stron/ly denounced on t+e *loor o* t+e <atasan/ Pa.olu.ultiple o**ices in /overn.ent2 o6ned and controlled corporations created 0y presidential decrees and ot+er .onstitution t+e provisions under consideration 6+ic+ are envisioned to re.ploy.entalities and /overn.ents.ent and collectin/ unconsciona0ly excessive co.onstitutional . 1 "J3B Particularly odious and revoltin/ to t+e peopleDs sense o* propriety and . instru. e. one o* t+e stron/est sellin/ points o* t+e 1 "% .o.issionsB 6+ic+ carried as its #i/ure >o3 & a BRoaster o* Me.0ers o* t+e /overnin/ 0odies or 0oards o* various /overn. as @eenly o0served 0y Mr3 .e in reaction to t+e pu0lis+ed report o* t+e .0ers o* t+e . t+e +oldin/ o* .orporations as o* Cece.ultiple o**ices or positions in t+e /overn. t+e evils t+at *lo6 *ro.ent3 )n *act.ed3 T+e o01ect is to ascertain t+e reason 6+ic+ induced t+e *ra.a0inet. and Ed/ardo Tordesillas o* eleven (11) eac+G and Lilia <autista and Teodoro P3 PeWa o* ten (1I) eac+3 1 3 T+e 0latant 0etrayal o* pu0lic trust evolved into one o* t+e serious causes o* discontent 6it+ t+e Marcos re/i. 6ould 0e discontinued3 <ut 6+at is indeed si/ni*icant is t+e *act t+at alt+ou/+ Section %.0ansa3 1 2 T+is conde. i* not correct. t+eir deputies or assistants 6ere desi/nated to +ead or sit as .ultiple positions in t+e /overn.ent2o6ned and controlled corporations.0er o* t+e /overnin/ 0oards o* t6enty2nine (5 ) /overn.onstitution 6as *ra.r3 o* *i*teen (1H)G .artial la6 aut+ority3 T+ere 6as a proli*eration o* ne6ly2created a/encies.0ers+ip in Governin/ <oards o* Govern.e *or purposes o* sel*2enric+.a0inet .ultiple /overn.e.e.e.pensation t+ere*ro.esar ..e.ent a/encies and instru.o. per die.ary 'nnual 'udit Report on$ Govern. Gil0erto ?3 Teodoro.ontrolled .e3 T+is practice o* +oldin/ .er President #erdinand E3 Marcos pursuant to +is .ustice )sa/ani '3 . s+ould dra*t into its proposed .a0inet . entitled B1 "J Su. .0ers. instru.s.elda R3 Marcos o* t6enty2t+ree (5J)G .entalities +ave re.ental o**ices and e.onstitution to enact t+e particular provision and t+e purpose sou/+t to 0e acco.ission.e prevalent durin/ t+e ti.plis+ed t+ere0y. Sel*2Governin/ <oards and .stances under 6+ic+ t+e .0er J1.er President Marcos.nation ca.ental a/encies.entalities.ea o* t+irteen (1J)G Ru0en <3 'nc+eta and .in/ senti.esar E3'3 (irata o* t6enty2t6o (55)G 'rturo R3 Tanco. includin/ /overn.ent2?6ned and .orality in /overn.0ers o* t+e 0oard 6it+ t+e correspondin/ salaries.esus S3 9ipolito and Geroni..ers o* t+e . t+e +oldin/ o* . in order to construe t+e 6+ole as to .e le/islative po6ers in t+is country 6ere exercised 0y *or.ent service 6ere t+e data contained t+erein t+at Ro0erto (3 ?n/pin 6as a .ru= durin/ t+e deli0erations in t+ese cases.o.edy.e3 )t 6as t+ere*ore quite inevita0le and in consonance 6it+ t+e over6+el.entalities and corporationsG ).condition and circu.ontrolled .e.odes o* presidential issuances 6+ere .o O3 (elasco.

ily is t+ere*ore all2e.a0inet.ent or any su0division.e.0lan@et pro+i0ition a/ainst t+e +oldin/ o* . and t+eir deputies or assistants s+all not. all2e.0on/ noted durin/ t+e *loor deli0erations and de0ate t+at t+ere 6as no sy.0racin/ and covers 0ot+ pu0lic and private o**ice or e.ission s+ould see it *it to *or.ed *orces in t+e active service s+all.posed on ot+er pu0lic o**icials or e.ay +old any ot+er o**ice or e. t+e . suc+ intent is underscored 0y a co. t+e second sentence provides$ BT+ey s+all not.onstitutional .o.. 'rticle )A2<.ers o* t+e ..posed on t+e President and +is o**icial *a.ent in t+e /overn. 6+ic+ pro+i0itions are not si..ent durin/ t+eir tenure.onstitution on t+e disquali*ications o* certain pu0lic o**icials or e. or in any *ranc+ise. no appointive o**icial s+all +old any ot+er o**ice or e. 'rticle ()). unless ot+er6ise provided in t+e .ent3 Ender Section 1J. t+e Me. t+e pro+i0ition pertains to an o**ice or e.ent in the 0overnment 3B )t is quite nota0le t+at in all t+ese provisions on disquali*ications to +old ot+er o**ice or e.ulate anot+er provision.onstitutional .ploy.o.parison o* Section 1J.ploy. practice any ot+er pro*ession. .ent2o6ned or controlled corporations or t+eir su0sidiaries3B T+ese s6eepin/.ent2o6ned or controlled corporations or t+eir su0sidiaries3 )n stri@in/ contrast is t+e 6ordin/ o* Section 1J. +oldin/ ot+er o**ices or e.e. t+e disquali*ication is a0solute. participate in any 0usiness.ent3 Goin/ *urt+er into Section 1J. (ice2President. (ice2President.pose a stricter pro+i0ition on t+e President and +is o**icial *a. durin/ said tenure.ove as 6ell as in t+e di**erent p+raseolo/ies o* t+e constitutional provisions in question.ent durin/ t+eir tenure3B )n t+e latter provision.ploy. speci*ically pro+i0itin/ t+e President.0racin/ pro+i0itions i. or 0e *inancially interested in any contract 6it+.on/ress.e. t+eir deputies and assistants *ro.o.onstitution itsel*3 Evidently..posed on t+e President and +is o**icial *a. . t+is .onstitution.ilarly i.pose upon said class stricter pro+i0itions3 Suc+ intent o* t+e 1 "! .ily as a class 0y itsel* and to i. B(>)o . unless ot+er6ise provided in t+is .ent2o6ned or controlled corporations or any o* t+eir su0sidiaries3B Even Section % (5). directly or indirectly. a/ency or instru. +oldin/ any ot+er o**ice or e.ploy.ployees *ro. ori/inally *ound in t+e General Provisions and t+e anticipated report on .ployees suc+ as t+e Me.ploy.ent in the 0overnment 3 3 3B3 Ender Section H(&).ploy. *ro.onstitution to treat t+e President and +is o**icial *a.ily in so *ar as +oldin/ ot+er o**ices or e.0er o* t+e 9ouse o* Representatives . t+e intent o* t+e *ra.e.ission to 0e stricter 6it+ t+e President and +is o**icial *a. +old any ot+er o**ice or e.0er o* t+e ar.issioner (icente #o= a*ter .ent or else6+ere is concerned3 Moreover.o. 'rticle ()). B(>)o Senator or Me.0ers o* t+e .ent su0su. not 0ein/ quali*ied 0y t+e p+rase Bin t+e Govern.ent. includin/ /overn. 'rticle A(). 0e appointed in any capacity to a civilian position in the 0overnment.ent in the government and /overn.e.0ers o* . relied upon 0y respondents provides B(E)nless ot+er6ise allo6ed 0y la6 or 0y t+e pri.ivil Service pro+i0itions.onstitution 6as to i. at any ti. includin/ /overn..ploy.0ers o* t+e civil service in /eneral and .ary *unctions o* +is position.ent in t+e /overn.etry 0et6een t+e .ily.in/ 0ot+ elective and appointive pu0lic o**icials.a0inet.ed *orces. 'rticle ().0ers o* t+e . are proo* o* t+e intent o* t+e 1 "% . 'rticle ()) 6+ic+ states t+at B(T)+e President.issioner Re/alado Maa.ily 6as also succinctly articulated 0y .entality t+ereo*. Sec3 1J.ploy. or special privile/e /ranted 0y t+e Govern.0ers o* t+e ar.ploy.ultiple o**ices or e.ploy. 'rticle ()) 6it+ ot+er provisions o* t+e .ent3B T+e pro+i0ition i.

ore possi0ility o* a0use in t+eir case3B 1< T+us.onstitution aut+ori=in/ t+e (ice2President to 0eco. 'rticle ()) as constitutin/ t+e exception t+ereto3 )n t+e sa. 6+ile all ot+er appointive o**icials in t+e civil service are allo6ed to +old ot+er o**ice or e.0er o* t+e .ent in t+e /overn. par3 (1) o* 'rticle )2A< 6ould render .0ers o* t+e .e a .ent durin/ t+eir tenure3 RespondentsD interpretation t+at Section 1J o* 'rticle ()) ad. t+e President to 'ssistant Secretary. 'rticle )2A< o* t+e 1 "% .its o* t+e exceptions *ound in Section %. all t+e ot+ers.0ers o* t+e .ers o* t+e .eanin/less t+e .ent in t+e /overn.ploy. 'rticle ()) is .a0inet.ent3 1 7 Sections 0earin/ on a particular su01ect s+ould 0e considered . 6ould render nu/atory and .ore po6ers and. 'rticle ()) +as re*erence to Section %. respondentsD readin/ o* t+e provisions in question 6ould render certain parts o* t+e .e. t+e (ice2 President.ented. t+eir deputies and assistants 6it+ respect to +oldin/ ot+er o**ices or e.ploy.a0inet. to 0e considered alone.e .e.onstitution as to 6+en t+e +i/+2ran@in/ o**icials o* t+e Executive <ranc+ *ro. 1 5 and to act as President 6it+out relinquis+in/ t+e (ice2Presidency 6+ere t+e President s+all not +ave 0een c+osen or *ails to quali*y3 1 / Suc+ a0surd consequence can 0e avoided only 0y interpretin/ t+e t6o provisions under consideration as one.a0inet.anner .a0inet. Section 1J.ent durin/ t+eir tenure3 Moreover. i 3 e 3.onstitution inoperative3 T+is o0servation applies particularly to t+e (ice2President 6+o. under Section 1J o* 'rticle ()) is allo6ed to +old ot+er o**ice or e. t+eir deputies and assistants3 T+is 0ein/ t+e case.ent durin/ t+eir tenure 6+en suc+ is allo6ed 0y la6 or 0y t+e pri.ent or desi/nation in any capacity to any pu0lic o**ice or position durin/ +is tenure3B Surely. .onstitution itsel*3 )n ot+er 6ords.0ers o* t+e . t+eir deputies and assistants .onstitutionB in Section 1J. 'rticle ()) cannot possi0ly re*er to t+e 0road exceptions provided under Section %. on t+e ot+er. Me.ore c+ee@s and restraints on t+e. par3 (1) o* 'rticle )2A< is a0solutely ineli/i0le B*or appoint.ary *unctions o* t+eir positions.onstitution to i. and t+e /enerality o* civil servants *ro. to say t+at t+e p+rase Bunless ot+er6ise provided in t+is .issioner #o= .ploy.ent3 . . B8e actually +ave to 0e stricter 6it+ t+e President and t+e . Section %. .ay do so only 6+en expressly aut+ori=ed 0y t+e . 0ut t+at all t+e provisions 0earin/ upon a particular su01ect are to 0e 0rou/+t into vie6 and to 0e so interpreted as to e**ectuate t+e /reat purposes o* t+e instru.o.ent 6+en so aut+ori=ed 0y t+e .ay +old any ot+er o**ice or position in t+e /overn.pose a stricter pro+i0ition on t+e President.t+e Executive Cepart. on t+e one +and. par3 (1) o* 'rticle )2A< providin/ t+e /eneral rule and t+e ot+er.o.onstitution3 To construe said quali*yin/ p+rase as respondents 6ould +ave us do. t+ere*ore. are called *or 0ecause t+ere is . par3 (5) o* 'rticle )A2< 6ould o0literate t+e distinction so care*ully set 0y t+e *ra. par3 (5) o* 'rticle )2A< 0e construed vis' a'vis Section 1J. t+e ran@ i.ust Section %.onstitution is to 0e separated *ro.onstitutional construction t+at no one provision o* t+e .ani*est intent and purpose o* t+e *ra.onstitutionB *ound in Section 1J. 6+ile Section 1J.e.a0inet 0ecause t+ey exercise ..0ers o* t+e .eant to 0e t+e exception applica0le only to t+e President..ployees. Section %. t+e quali*yin/ p+rase Bunless ot+er6ise provided in t+is .. 'rticle )2A< is . 'rticle ())3 )t is a 6ell2esta0lis+ed rule in . (ice2President.ediately 0elo6 'ssistant Secretary do6n6ards.ers o* t+e .eanin/less t+e speci*ic provisions o* t+e . Me.onstitution.eant to lay do6n t+e /eneral rule applica0le to all elective and appointive pu0lic o**icials and e. i 3 e 3. 0ut 6+o as an elective pu0lic o**icial under Sec3 %.

0ers o* t+e .e. 6+erever t+e lan/ua/e used in t+e constitution is pro+i0itory.ent *or policy coordination and /uidance3 >eit+er can +is Endersecretaries and 'ssistant Secretaries c+air t+ese a/encies3 T+e Secretaries o* #inance and <ud/et cannot sit in t+e Monetary <oard3 2 < >eit+er can t+eir respective undersecretaries and assistant secretaries3 T+e .udicial and <ar .a0inet under Section J. 0ot+ o* 6+ic+ are attac+ed to +is depart.ary *unctions o* said o**icialsD o**ice3 T+e reason is t+at t+ese posts do no co. 'rticle ())G or actin/ as President in t+ose instances provided under Section %.ent o**ices or e. t+e lan/ua/e o* Section 1J.onstitution .ultiple /overn.ploy. La0or and E.ust +ar.ploy.ustice 0ein/ ex'officio . 'rticle ()) is pro+i0itory so t+at it . i* practica0le.pensation in an ex'officio capacity as provided 0y la6 and as required 2 2 0y t+e pri.0ers3 T+e respective undersecretaries and assistant secretaries. rat+er t+an one 6+ic+ .0er o* t+e . 6+ic+ 6ould t+en +ave no reason to exist *or lac@ o* a c+airperson and .on/ 6+ic+ are$ T+e President o* t+e P+ilippines cannot c+air t+e >ational Security . to 6it$ t+e (ice2President 0ein/ appointed as a . and t+e Secretaries o* >ational Ce*ense.ade to stand to/et+er3 1 9 )n ot+er 6ords.onstitution could not +ave intended suc+ a0surd consequences3 ' . 6ould also 0e pro+i0ited3 T+e Secretary o* La0or and E. t+e Secretary o* .onstitutionB .onstitution 1 .ultiple o**ices or e.0er 5&.position o* additional duties and *unctions on said o**icials3 2 3 To c+aracteri=e t+ese posts ot+er6ise 6ould lead to a0surd consequences.ent and Local Govern. (ice2President.ers o* t+e 1 "% . . it is to 0e understood as intended to 0e a positive and unequivocal ne/ation3 2 1 T+e p+rase Bunless ot+er6ise provided in t+is .ust 0e /iven a literal interpretation to re*er only to t+ose particular instances cited in t+e .onstitution is to i. 'rticle ()))3 T+e pro+i0ition a/ainst +oldin/ dual or .prise Bany ot+er o**iceB 6it+in t+e conte.ent sit in t+is .. t+e t6o can 0e .and interpreted to/et+er as to e**ectuate t+e 6+ole purpose o* t+e .ouncil 0y virtue o* Section " (1). t+e *ra. +o6ever.ent durin/ t+eir tenure.pose a stricter pro+i0ition on t+e President. 'rticle ()) o* t+e .e. t+eir deputies and assistants 6it+ respect to +oldin/ .ers o* our .ent 'd.ploy.a@e t+e 6ords idle and nu/atory3 2 0 Since t+e evident purpose o* t+e *ra. par3 (5).0er o* t+e .ultiple o**ices or e. and one section is not to 0e allo6ed to de*eat anot+er. 0e construed as applyin/ to posts occupied 0y t+e Executive o**icials speci*ied t+erein 6it+out additional co. 0an@in/ and credit3 2 5 )ndeed.ust lean in *avor o* a construction 6+ic+ 6ill render every 6ord operative.ustice.plation o* t+e constitutional pro+i0ition 0ut are properly an i. t+e Executive Secretary.ouncil (>M:.ust 0e read 6it+ equal severity3 ?n its *ace.entral <an@ Governor 6ould t+en 0e assisted 0y lo6er ran@in/ e.ent in t+e /overn.ent3 (erily. a.oni=e t+e.onstitution itsel*.ploy.inistration (P?E').e.ent cannot c+air t+e <oard o* Trustees o* t+e >ational Manpo6er and :out+ .ouncil reor/ani=ed under Executive ?rder >o3 11H (Cece. . 1 "!)3 >eit+er can t+e (ice2President.oney. t+e court . i* 0y any reasona0le construction.ploy.) or t+e P+ilippine ?verseas E.e. and . 'rticle ())G and.ust not.ployees in providin/ policy direction in t+e areas o* . t+e exception to t+is pro+i0ition .ay .ouncil.ust 0e understood as intended to 0e a positive and unequivocal ne/ation o* t+e privile/e o* +oldin/ .ent under Section 1J.ploy.a0inet. pars3 (5) and (J).

in/ .0er o* a 0oard is one 6+o is a .ana/e. *or instance.ust not only 0e closely related to. t+e ot+er o**ices3 >o ne6 appoint.e rule applies to suc+ positions 6+ic+ con*er on t+e ca0inet o**icial . o**icial c+aracter .ourt +ad occasion to explain t+e . 3 1 t+us$ B'n exa.ary *unction o* a ca0inet o**icial. t+ey sit ex'officio 3 )n order to 0e desi/nated t+ey . vie6ed as a continuously operative c+arter o* /overn.ple 6ould 0e t+e Press Endersecretary sittin/ as a .o.unications is t+e ex'officio . t+e pro+i0ition under Section 1J.onetary co. s+ould 0e avoided3 2 / To reiterate.ed are .ent *unctions andKor .unications actin/ as .0er o* t+e <oard o* t+e P+ilippine '. and 6it+out any ot+er appoint. t+eir .+air.entioned in t+e la63 T+us. To illustrate.an o* t+e Mariti..ples o* desi/nations to positions 0y virtue o* oneDs pri.otely related. 0e desi/nated a representative *ro.ent.e.usto. t+e Secretary o* Transportation and . suc+ additional *unctions 6ould *all under t+e purvie6 o* Bany ot+er o**iceB pro+i0ited 0y t+e .an o* t+e <oard o* t+e P+ilippine Ports 'ut+ority.ans+ips or directors+ips in /overn.ent and Ga.0ers o* t+e <oard to quali*y t+ey need only 0e desi/nated 0y t+e respective depart.. 2 9 and t+e Li/+t Rail Transit 'ut+ority3 3 0 T+e .ent in t+e <ureau o* . under t+e act.e )ndustry 'ut+ority 3 < and t+e . and t+e Secretary o* Transportation and . inco. 0ut .use. suc+ as 0ut not li.practica0leG and unreasona0le or a0surd consequences. 0ut rat+er annexed to t+e o**icial position3B +x' officio li@e6ise denotes an Bact done in an o**icial c+aracter.eans B*ro.0ers. Bpri.possi0le or t+e i.onstitution3 'n exa. and 6it+out *urt+er 6arrant or appoint.0er 0y virtue o* +is title to a certain o**ice. . 'rticle ()) is not to 0e interpreted as coverin/ positions +eld 6it+out additional co. 0ecause t+e representatives so desi/nated merely perform duties in the -oard in addition to those already performed under their original appointments 3B 3 2 T+e ter.ent3 2 .e.a0inet Me.e.ary *unctions3 Exa.ent or aut+ority t+an t+at con*erred 0y t+e o**ice3B 2 7 'n ex'officio .ent +eads3 8it+ t+e exception o* t+e representative *ro.erely incidental. o**iceG 0y virtue o* o**ice3B )t re*ers to an Baut+ority derived *ro.onstitution. ex'officio .s. inconsistent.ust already 0e +oldin/ positions in t+e o**ices . i* possi0le.o.+air. t+e private sector.ust 0e required 0y t+e o**icialDs pri. (ice2President.ary *unctions o* t+e concerned o**icialDs o**ice3 T+e ter. 0y express provision o* la6.pensation in ex'officio capacities as provided 0y la6 and as required 0y t+e pri.ary *unctions are t+e Secretaries o* #inance and <ud/et sittin/ as .an and .pati0le.pparel &ontrol and :nspection -oard. is not to 0e interpreted as de..eanin/ o* an ex'officio position in /afael vs 3 +mbroidery and . is not restricted to t+e sin/ular 0ut .ivil 'eronautics <oard3 )* t+e *unctions required to 0e per*or. or as a consequence o* o**ice.0ers o* t+e Monetary <oard.e. t+at o**ice3 T+e sa.orporation3 T+e sa.ent2o6ned or controlled corporations and t+eir su0sidiaries3 Mandatin/ additional duties and *unctions to t+e President.ited to c+air.e is true 6it+ respect to t+e representatives *ro.pensation.aryB used to descri0e B*unctionsB re*ers to t+e order o* i. or ot+er6ise alien to t+e pri. re. cannot.eans c+ie* or principal *unction3 T+e ter.portance and t+us .ents are necessary3 T+is is as it s+ould 0e.ay re*er to t+e plural3 3 3 T+e additional duties .e. one 6+o does not +old a previous appoint.andin/ t+e i.ination o* section 5 o* t+e questioned statute (R3'3 J1J%) reveals t+at *or t+e c+air. not expressly con*erred upon t+e individual c+aracter.erely.

ary *unctions. suc+ additional co. to +ave control o* all t+e executive depart. t+e Secretary o* #inance attends a ..ary *unctions3 T+e exa.a0inet 6ere .ents 0y virtue o* t+eir special @no6led/e. policy direction.0er t+ereo*.plation part o* t+e principal o**ice.ily to sit in t+e /overnin/ 0odies or 0oards o* /overn. par3 (5) o* 'rticle )2A<3 T+is colloquy 0et6een t+e t6o .ary *unction o* +is principal o**ice in de*inin/ policy in ..issioner Monsod pointed out t+at t+ere are instances 6+en alt+ou/+ not required 0y current la6..posed upon +i.any 1urisdictions3 )t is a practice 1usti*ied 0y t+e de. it cannot. 6+ic+ co. without receiving any additional compensation therefor 3 T+e ex'officio position 0ein/ actually and in le/al conte.ulti*arious tas@s o* executin/ and i. who is to perform the same in an ex'officio capacity as provided by law.0ers. +o6ever.ay 0e used as aut+ority *or sayin/ t+at additional *unctions and duties *lo6in/ *ro.issioner <las ?ple. t+e exception Bunless required 0y t+e *unctions o* +is position.eetin/ o* t+e Monetary <oard as an ex'officio .ay 0e i.ents. par3 (5).pensation.onetary and 0an@in/ .0odied in Section 1J.pensation attac+ed to +is principal o**ice3 )t s+ould 0e o0vious t+at i*.ple /iven 0y .3 <y 6+atever na.ple.. o* a per t+e.ary *unctions o* t+e o**icial . it *ollo6s t+at t+e o**icial concerned +as no ri/+t to receive additional co.ands o* e**iciency. .issioners Monsod and ?ple . +e is actually and in le/al conte.e.. 8+ile t+is exc+an/e 0et6een . t+ere0y deprived o* t+e .e. 0ureaus and o**ices and to ensure t+at t+e la6s are *ait+*ully executed3 3 5 8it+out t+ese additional duties and *unctions 0ein/ assi/ned to t+e President and +is o**icial *a.atters.o.ental a/encies or instru.ust 0e required by the primary functions of the official concerned. continuity and coordination a.o.issioner .+ristian Monsod to add to Section %. 0e ta@en as aut+ority *or sayin/ t+at t+is exception is 0y virtue o* Section %. ori/inally *ound as Section J o* t+e General Provisions.. 'rticle )A2<.entalities in an ex'officio capacity as provided 0y la6 and as required 0y t+eir pri. or an +onorariu.plation per*or.ay not trans/ress t+e pro+i0ition e.on/ t+e di**erent o**ices in t+e Executive <ranc+ in t+e disc+ar/e o* its . 6+et+er it 0e in t+e *or. t+e .eans *or control and resultin/ in an un6ieldy and con*used 0ureaucracy3 )t 0ears repeatin/ t+ou/+ t+at in order t+at suc+ additional duties or *unctions .e it is desi/nated. 'rticle ()) o* t+e 1 "% .o.o.0ers o* t+e .e.0ers+ip o* certain +i/+2ran@in/ executive o**icials in other offices and corporations is necessary 0y reason o* said o**icialsD pri. or an allo6ance. expertise and s@ill in t+eir respective executive o**ices is a practice lon/2reco/ni=ed in .ade3 3 7 Respondin/ to a query o* . t+ey 6ould 0e supervision.onstitution. or so. 6it+out o**endin/ t+e constitutional pro+i0ition under consideration.onstitution3 )t is interestin/ to note t+at durin/ t+e *loor deli0erations on t+e proposal o* .issioner Monsod 6as t+e Minister o* Trade and )ndustry3 3 .B 3 / express re*erence to certain +i/+2ran@in/ appointive pu0lic o**icials li@e . t+e pri.is.in/ t+e pri.o.a0inet . say. suc+ additional duties or *unctions .e under t+e 1urisdiction o* +is depart.ent3 #or suc+ attendance.o.e ot+er suc+ eup+e. t+ere*ore.e. +e is not entitled to collect any extra co. .issioners too@ place in t+e plenary session o* .pensation *or +is services in t+e said position3 T+e reason is t+at t+ese services are already paid *or and covered 0y t+e co.entin/ la6s a**ectin/ national interest and /eneral 6el*are and deliverin/ 0asic services to t+e people3 )t is consistent 6it+ t+e po6er vested on t+e President and +is alter e/os.pensation is pro+i0ited 0y t+e .deputies or assistants 6+ic+ are not inconsistent 6it+ t+ose already prescri0ed 0y t+eir o**ices or appoint.

ore on +o6 it 6as understood 0y t+e people adoptin/ it t+an in t+e *ra.ay 0e +ad only 6+en ot+er /uides *ail < 2 as said proceedin/s are po6erless to vary t+e ter.e.0ers (t+en called Ministers) as exa.s o* t+e .e.B as opposed to Ballo6ed.o.ani*est intent and t+e peopleD understandin/ t+ereo*3 )n t+e li/+t o* t+e construction /iven to Section 1J. t+e citation o* .a0inet .uc+ less o* t+e . par3 (5) o* 'rticle )A2< and re6orded BEnless ot+er6ise allo6ed 0y la6 or 0y t+e pri. 'rticle )A2< 't any rate.a0inet.onstitution itsel* and as a0ove clari*ied 6it+ respect to posts +eld 6it+out additional co..ivil Service ..ore speci*ic pro+i0ition in Section 1J.ary *unctions .ary *unctions o* t+eir o**ice. 1 "!.ission intended to dilute t+e speci*ic pro+i0ition in said Section 1J o* 'rticle ()).ily is 0y reason o* t+e le/al principles /overnin/ additional *unctions and duties o* pu0lic o**icials rat+er t+an 0y virtue o* Section %.. as it 6as in *act one o* its 0est sellin/ points.ere personal opinions 6+ic+ cannot override t+e constitutionDs . par3 (5) o* 'rticle )A2< on t+e .attin/ and Bstylin/B 0y t+e . containin/ t+e .ary *unctionsB as t+e 0asis o* an exception to t+e /eneral rule coverin/ all appointive pu0lic o**icials3 9ad t+e .ass o* our *ello6 citi=ens 6+ose votes at t+e polls /ave t+at instru.e Section %. to t+e 6ider exceptions provided in t+en Section J o* t+e proposed /eneral Provisions. .a1ority 6+o did not tal@.ade it clear t+at only t+e additional *unctions and duties Brequired.ent t+e *orce o* *unda. par3 5. par3 (5).ploy. .0ers o* t+e . +ad also 0een earlier approved on t+ird readin/ on 'u/ust 5!.ent.atter3 8+at 6as pri. later placed as Section %. 0ut t+ey /ive us no li/+t as to t+e vie6s o* t+e lar/e .e.0er 5%.issi0le in t+is 1urisdiction to consult t+e de0ates and proceedin/s o* t+e constitutional convention in order to arrive at t+e reason and purpose o* t+e resultin/ . 6e +ave . 1 "!3 < 1 )t 6as only a*ter t+e dra*t .o..ittee Resolution >o3 HJ1 6+ic+ 6as t+e proposed article on General Provisions3 3 9 't t+at ti.ivil Service .ental la63 8e t+in@ it sa*er to construe t+e constitution *ro.0ers. < 0 6+ile t+e article on t+e Executive Cepart. 1 "!3 Ender consideration t+en 6as Section J o* . and as indicatin/ t+e reasons *or t+eir votes. 'rticle ()) in relation to Section %.onstitutional . it could +ave re26orded said Section 1J to con*or.onstitution see@s to pro+i0it t+e President.ay 0e considered as not constitutin/ Bany ot+er o**ice3B 8+ile it is per.. 6+at appears upon its *ace3B < 3 T+e proper interpretation t+ere*ore depends .arily at issue and approved on t+at occasion 6as t+e adoption o* t+e quali*ied and deli.B 0y t+e pri. t+eir deputies or assistants *ro.o.uly 55.ent. except in t+ose cases speci*ied in t+e . resort t+ereto .ary *unctions o* +is position3 3 3 3B 8+at 6as clearly 0ein/ discussed t+en 6ere /eneral principles 6+ic+ 6ould serve as constitutional /uidelines in t+e a0sence o* speci*ic constitutional provisions on t+e . +oldin/ durin/ t+eir tenure . t+at t+e 1 "% .Septe.ited p+rase Bpri.onstitution.ission +ad 0een approved on t+ird readin/ on .e. (ice2President.ples durin/ t+e de0ate and deli0eration on t+e /eneral rule laid do6n *or all appointive o**icials s+ould 0e considered as .ersDs understandin/ t+ereo*3 < < )t 0ein/ clear. .ultiple o**ices or e.onstitution 6+en t+e .pensation in an ex'officio capacity as provided 0y la6 and as required 0y t+e pri. t+e article on t+e .ittee on Style t+at said Section J o* t+e General Provisions 0eca.o.ent in t+e /overn.eanin/ is clear3 Ce0ates in t+e constitutional convention Bare o* value as s+o6in/ t+e vie6s o* t+e individual .onstitution +ad under/one re*or.o.ission3 T+at t+is exception 6ould in t+e *inal analysis apply also to t+e President and +is o**icial *a.

0ers.pensations attac+ed to t+e o**ice3 T+is doctrine is.os. s@ills and expertise3 )* .ay 0e considered de facto o**icers and as suc+ entitled to e.ploy.onstitution. 0y reason o* t+eir pri. a strict application o* t+e pro+i0ition . is le/ally entitled to t+e e.plation o* t+e constitutional pro+i0ition3 8it+ respect to ot+er o**ices or e. unless ot+er6ise provided in t+e 1 "% . o**icer.uly 5J. +e s+ould 0e allo6ed to attend to +is duties and responsi0ilities 6it+out t+e distraction o* ot+er /overn. Secretary o* 9ealt+ 'l*redo R3'3 <en/=on and Secretary o* t+e <ud/et Guiller.ents received 0y t+e .ent and >atural Resources #ul/encio #actoran. allo6ances or ot+er e.axi. attention and ener/y a.ean 1o03 )t is . t+is concentration o* attention.ay in an appropriate action recover t+e salary. doin/ so.ental o**ices or e.ed respondents.'rticle )A2< o* t+e 1 "% . t+e court +ere0y orders respondents Secretary o* Environ.ents *or actual services rendered3 < / )t +as 0een +eld t+at Bin cases 6+ere t+ere is no de (ure.ent.ore t+an t6o (5) positions in t+e /overn. undou0tedly. to +old . ex'officio posts +eld 0y t+e executive o**icial concerned 6it+out additional co.e. and .olu.e .olu. ..ay 0e /ained *ro.ore t+an 6+at +e can +andle3 #indin/ Executive ?rder >o3 5"& to 0e constitutionally in*ir.ploy.ay +old in addition to t+eir pri.u.ent and /overn.ploy.olu. 'rticle ()) o* t+e 1 "% .any positions o* responsi0ility.ploy.onstitution itsel*3 T+e .. su**ice it to say t+at t+e *eared i. requirin/ *ull attention.andate o* Section 1J.ent. Executive ?rder >o3 5"& actually allo6s t+e.ara/ue to i. in t+e /overn. as +erein de*ined.a0inet .practical consequences t+at 6ill result *ro. t+at . a de facto o**icer.ourt is alerted 0y respondents to t+e i.ore t+an a *ull2ti.ent corporations.ent2o6ned or controlled corporations and t+eir su0sidiaries..0er o* positions t+at .andated under Section 1J. includin/ c+air.sel* too t+in and ta@in/ in .ary position to not .e. includin/ /overn. Executive ?rder >o3 5"& dated . all lia0ility to pay any one *or suc+ services3 < 7 'ny per die.r3. t+e petitions +ave 0eco. 0ene*its are to 0e derived *ro.oot and acade. particularly at t+is sta/e o* our national and econo.ent +eld 0y virtue o* le/islation. Secretary o* >ational Ce*ense #idel (3 Ra.ic develop.onstitution pro+i0itin/ t+e.ic as t+ey are no lon/er occupyin/ t+e positions co. in /ood *ait+ +as +ad possession o* t+e o**ice and +as disc+ar/ed t+e duties pertainin/ t+ereto. 6+ic+ . undersecretaries or assistant secretaries .ary positions or 0y virtue o* le/islation3 's earlier clari*ied in t+is decision.o .plained o*3 Curin/ t+eir tenure in t+e questioned positions.ent < 5 Luis Santos. @no6led/e and expertise. speciali=ed @no6led/e. considerin/ t+at .ent.ent is no .ent in direct contravention o* t+e express .e 1o0. 1 "% is unconstitutional3 ?stensi0ly restrictin/ t+e nu. *ro.0ers 6ould 0e stripped o* t+eir o**ices +eld in an ex' officio capacity. supported on equita0le /rounds since it see.ore apparent t+an real3 <ein/ +ead o* an executive depart. a depart.ent +ead spreadin/ +i.ay result in +ap+a=ardness and ine**iciency3 Surely t+e advanta/es to 0e derived *ro.ary *unctions o* +is o**ice do not *all under t+e de*inition o* Bany ot+er o**iceB 6it+in t+e conte. *ar out6ei/+ t+e 0ene*its.ent2 o6ned or controlled corporations and t+eir su0sidiaries3 8it+ respect to t+e ot+er na.ent. Secretary o* Local Govern.ent3 9e s+ould 0e precluded *ro.ans+ips or directors+ips in /overn.ent +eadDs a0ility and expertise. respondents . *ees and ot+er co.ultiple o**ices or e. a depart. 6+o.practical consequences are .s un1ust t+at t+e pu0lic s+ould 0ene*it 0y t+e services o* an o**icer de facto and t+en 0e *reed *ro.pensation as provided 0y la6 and as required 0y t+e pri. dissipatin/ +is e**orts.ediately relinquis+ t+eir ot+er o**ices or e. 'rticle ()) on t+e operations o* t+e Govern.on/ too . i* any.ents o* t+e o**ice.a0inet .

ent3 Section %.ited to and strictly applies only to particular instances o* allo6in/ t+e (P to 0eco.0ers o* t+e . Me. 6+ile Section 1J.ay t+ere*ore 0e retained 0y t+e. t+e (ice2 President.pensation3 T+ey *ind it unconstitutional a/ainst t+e provision provided 0y Section 1J.ent o**icials *ro.e. t+eir deputies and assistants3 T+us t+e p+rase -unless ot+er6ise provided 0y t+e .onstitutional provisions is to prevent /overn. 'rticle ()) pro+i0itin/ t+e President. par3 (5). su01ect to t+e quali*ication a0ove2stated.0er o* t+e .ent and /overn.a0inet.ary *unctions o* +is position. t+e petitions are GR'>TEC3 Executive ?rder >o3 5"& is +ere0y declared null and void and is accordin/ly set aside3 C*v*' L*.ent2o6ned or controlled corporation or t+eir su0sidiaries3B )n t+e opinion o* t+e C?.e a ca0inet .v EA%c$"*v% S%cr%"ar? (19< SCRA 317! 4A%(S3 T+e petitioner are assailin/ t+e Executive ?rder >o3 5"& issued 0y t+e President allo6in/ ca0inet .e.%r"*%s .ption to 'rticle ()). +oldin/ .e.e.ustice as ex2o**icio .ploy.a0inet .e. t+e said Executive ?rder is valid and constitutional as Section % o* 'rticle )A2< stated -unless ot+er6ise allo6ed 0y la64 6+ic+ is construed to 0e an exe.ent *or sel* enric+.e a ca0inet .eant to 0e t+e exception applica0le only to t+e President.eant to lay do6n t+e /eneral rule applica0le to all elective and appointive pu0lic o**icials and e.onstitution4 in Section 1J.0er o* t+e . includin/ /overn.ent or any su0division.ent 6+ic+ a 0etrayal o* pu0lic trust3 Section %.0er and t+e Secretary o* . 'rticle ()) is .ouncil3 T+e court t+ere0y declared E3? 5"& as null and void3 .-*o.udicial and <ar .ultiple positions in t+e /overn. 'rticle ()) cannot 0e construed as a 0road exception *ro.ed 0y t+e Solicitor General.e. section 1J o* t+e constitution3 R5$I673 T+e court +eld it is not an exe.3 89ERE#?RE. .entality t+ereo*.0er and t+e Secretary o* .0ers and t+eir deputies to +old any ot+er o**ice or e.ent corporations and to receive additional co. 'rticle )2A< is . no appointive o**icial s+all +old any ot+er o**ice or e.ption *ro.ouncil3 ISS5 3 8+et+er Section % o* 'rticle )A2< provides an exe.ustice as ex2o**icio . 'rticle )A2< *urt+er states t+at -Enless ot+er6ise allo6ed 0y la6 or 0y t+e pri. a/ency or instru. suc+ as in t+e case o* t+e (ice President 6+o is constitutionally allo6ed to 0eco. Section % o* 'rticle )A2< t+at is contrary to t+e le/islative intent o* 0ot+ constitutional provisions3 Suc+ p+rase is only li.ploy.ployees.ent to +old 5 positions in t+e /overn. undersecretary or asst3 secretaries and ot+er appointive o**icials o* t+e executive depart.udicial and <ar . t+at stipulated on 'rticle ()). section 1J.0ers.respondents 0y virtue o* actual services rendered in t+e questioned positions .ption since t+e le/islative intent o* 0ot+ . as a**ir.ent in t+e Govern.

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