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[ 175 ]
Trans. Brit. mycol. Soc. 47 (2), 175-195 (1964)'
Printed in Great Britain
The Herbarium, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
(With 2 Text-figures)
The paper presents a detailed generic description, and attempts to bring
together all the accepted species of Inonotus in the form of a practical key, with
brief accounts of their macroscopic and microscopic structures. Eleven new
combinations are made, two at the specific level, six at varietal level, and three
at form level.
Inonotus Karsten (1879) was erected to accommodate all those polypores
with 'Receptaculum pileatum, dimidiato-sessile, primitus spongioso-
carnosum, dein firmum, elasticum, anodermeum, setoso-hispidum,
coloratum. Hymenium heterogeneum sporaeque coloratae'. It consti-
tuted for a time the subdivision Hispidi of the larger genus Xanthochrous
Patouillard 1897, but today is accepted in nearly all modern systems of
classification of the Polyporaceae. Such systems are, however, restricted
in the main to covering limited geographical areas only, and no previous
attempt has been made to study the genus on a world-wide basis. Hence
t r ~ is still much confusion regarding the limits and nomenclature of the
The purpose of this paper is not to provide a complete monographic
study of Inonotus, but rather to clarify the range and limits of the genus,
and to provide descriptions, basic synonymy, and a practical key for use
in the correct determination of the species. Wherever possible spore
measurements have been given both as a range and with a mean value.
All material investigated under the microscope was mounted in 10 %
potassium hydroxide solution. Colour terms in inverted commas are
from Ridgway's Color Standards andColor Nomenclature, 1912.
My thanks are due to Dr R. W. G. Dennis and Mr D. A. Reid for
their continued advice and assistance.
Sporophore annual, sessile, broadly attached, occasionally attenuated
towards the base, effuso-reflexed to ungulate, or constantly resupinate,
solitary to densely imbricate. Pileus surface glabrous or subglabrous to
adpressed-villose, hispid or tomentose; plane, nodulose, or rugose, some-
times developing a cuticle; margin acute to obtuse. Context rusty brown
to cinnamon brown, fibrous, soft and spongy when fresh, drying hard and
176 Transactions British Mycological Society
brittle. Pores round to angular, thin-walled. Tubes non-stratose, cylindric
or with walls diverging towards the pores, often lacerate, drying brittle
to form a layer quite distinct from the context. Spores globose, ovoid,
ellipsoid, occasionally subcylindric, smooth, rarely apiculate, colourless in
some species, but typically rusty brown. Basidia oblong to claviform;
cystidia absent. Setae present, absent, or inconstant, ventricose, subulate
to lanceolate, straight or curved, thick- or thin-walled. Setalhyphae present
or absent, generally thick-walled with little or no lumen, straight or
curved, simple, very rarely branched. Hyphal system monomitic, hyphae
of the context brown, ribbon-like, sparingly branched, lying essentially
parallel, often semiagglutinated, septate, lacking clamp-connexions,
thick- or thin-walled, always with a distinct lumen, 2-12j.t diam., rarely
more. Lignicolous. Distribution world-wide. Lectotype species: Poly-
porus hispidus Bull. ex Fr. (selected by Donk, 1960) in preference to P.
cuticularis Bull. ex Fr. selected by earlier authors who followed the obsolete
'first species' rule.
The most striking features of the genus are the rusty brown colour and
fibrous texture of the context. As in other xanthochroic polypores the
context undergoes an irreversible colour change on contact with alkali
solution. The colour is generally paler in young or actively growing
specimens, particularly towards the upper surface and the margin, but
it becomes darker and more uniform on drying, frequently producing a
silky sheen. In fresh material the context is typically spongy and sometimes
so saturated that the exudation of watery droplets is a distinctive feature
for the species, e.g, I. dryadeus (Pers. ex Fr.) Murr., I. hispidus (Bull. ex Fr. )
Karst., I. plorans (Pat.) Bond. & Sing. The context of dried material is
quite different, as it becomes much harder and eventually brittle and is
capable of being easily crushed.
The context is truly fibrous, the fibres radiating from a central basal
area. In such species as I. rheades (Pers.) Bond. & Sing. and I. dryophilus
(Berk.) Murr., a rounded protuberance, upon which the sporophore
proper is formed, arises from the infected wood of the host. This protu-
berance becomes a hard, granular, basal core which may provide the
bulk of the context or remain relatively small. Apart from the core the
context is usually homogeneous throughout, though very rarely, e.g, in
I. ochroporus (Van der Bijl) Pegl., a markedlyduplex structure develops, with
a lower, hard, fibrous layer, and a paler upper spongy layer which forms
a tomentose surface. Growth rate varies with the species and is often
determined by environmental conditions, so that concentric zoning
develops both in the flesh and on the pileus surface. In other species
growth is more uniform, zoning less conspicuous, and the mature specimen
may be coriaceous or even corky-woody in texture.
Setal hyphae are very characteristic structures of certain species, either
occurring both in the context and in the trama of the dissepiments,
e.g. I. glomeratus (Peck) MUIT., or being confined to the dissepiments,
e.g. I. patouillardii (Rick) Imaz. In I. cuticularis (Bull. ex Fr. ) Karst.
abundant, branched, setigerous elements cover the pileus surface. The
presence of setae in the hymenium generally provides a good confirmatory
Survey of Inonotus. D. N. Pegler 177
~ . ~ ~ ~
JJ14 d ~ 12
Fig. I. Setae. I, Inonotus andersonii ; 2,1. chondromyelus; 3, 1. dryadeus ; 4, I. cuticularis;
5, I.fulvomelleus ; 6,1. glomeratus; 7, I. hispidus ; 8,1. luteocontextus ; 9, 1. nothofagi ; 10,1.
ochroporus; JI, 1. patouillardii; 12,1. obliquus; 13, I.pertenuis; 14,1. radiatus ; 15,1. radiatus
var. nodulosus ; 16,1. rickii; 17,1. rodwayi; 18, 1. victoriensis; all at x 1000. 19, Setigerous
elements of 1. cuticularis, x 400.
178 Transactions British Mycological Society


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Q 31

Fig. 2. Spores. I, fnonotus andersonii (type) ; 2, 1. chondromyelus (type); 3, 1. clemensiae
(type); 4, 1. cuticularis; 5, f. dryadeus; 6, 1. dryophilus ; 7, L fuloomelleus (type); 8, f . glomera-
tus (type ) ; g, 1. hispidus; 10, 1. jamaicensis (type) ; II , f .juniperinus (type) ; 12, f . ludo-
uicianus; 13,1. mikadoi (type ); 14,1. nothofagi ; 15, f. obliquus (type ); 16,1. ochroporus
(type ) ; 17, f . patouillardii ; 18, f . pertenuis (type) ; Ig, 1. pirisporus (type); 20 , f . plorans
(type ) ; 21,1. porrectus (type ) ; 22,1. pusillus (type) ; 23,1. radiatus; 24, f . rheades ; 25, f.
rickii; 26, f . pseudohispidus ; 27, f. rodwayi (type ); 28, 1. tamaricis ; 2g, f . tenuicamis (type);
30, f . subhispidus (type); 31, f. uictoriensis. All at x 1000.
Survey of Inonotus. D. N. Pegler
character for many species, but in others, e.g. 1. hispidus, they are not a
constant feature and frequently fail to develop.
Although the sporophores are annual, they are often of short duration
only, but sometimes new pilei ar e produced at the same locus continuously
over a number of years, e.g. 1. texanus Murr. and 1. radiatus var. licentii
I. Spores, particularly in the spore print, colourless or pale-coloured 2
I . Spores distinctly coloured 10
2 (I) . Resupinate, or at the most nodulose; setal hyphae and setae present 3
2 . Pileate, setal hyphae absent 4
3 (2). On conifers; tubes only slightly oblique; setal hyphae in both context and
dissepiments up to 30001l 10ng I. heinrichii (Pilat) Bond. & Sing. (1941)
Basinym: Xanthochrous glomeratus (Peck) Pilat ssp. heinrichii Pilat (1932)
Synonym: X. polymorphus (Rostk.) Bourd. & Galz. forma Bourdot (1932)
Inseparable or detachable as small fragments from the substratum; margin
membranous, sterile. Pores 3-4-5 per mm.; tubes slightly oblique, 2- 10 rnm,
long. Spores 5'5-6 x 4'5-51l, subglobose to broadly ellipsoid. Setae abundant,
22-40-50 x 6-7-81l. Setal hyphae 2000-3000 x 6-10 Il , pointed, curved
and projecting into the tube lumen. On Abies, Larix, Picea, and Pinus.
Siberia, Central Urals.
a . With nodulose, thicker pilei, 1-2 em. ; spores (?) ellipsoid, 4'5-5 x 2-3 /L
forma nodulosus Pilat (1935)
3. On deciduous hosts, particularly Fagus ; tubes distinctly oblique; setal hyphae
confined to the dissepiments, up to 1751l10ng only
I. polymorphus (Rostk .) Pilat (1940a)
Basinym: Polyporus polymorphus Rostk. (1838)
Synonyms: X. radiatus ssp. X. polymorphus Bourd. & Galz. (1925)
P. salebrosus Lasch. apud Rabenh. Fung. Exsicc. Eur. 1606, 1873
Firmly attached to the substratum, though perhaps reflexed at the margin,
occasionally nodulose. Pores umbrinous, 3-4 per mm., tubes oblique,
0'3-1 '2 rom. long. Spores 4-6Sx 3-S /L, broadly ellipsoid. Setae scattered,
18-25 (-40) x 6---8/L, subulate ; setal hyphae straight or curved. On Fagus,
reported on Ulmus. Europe.
4 (2). Setae absent. Sporophore imbricate at base of Eucalyptus sp.
I. pirisporus Pegler (1964)
Imbricate with one large pileus and several smaller nodulose pilei. Pileus
2' 5-6'5 x 2-8 x 1'5-3 em., dimidiate, broadly attached to compound base,
yellowish buff to 'Cinnamon-Brown', glabrous, soft; margin straight, even,
white. Context ferruginous, fibrous, zonate. Pores cinnamon to dark
umbrinous, angular, regular, 2-4(-5) per mm., tubes 2-7 mm. long.
Spores abundant, 5-6'3 x 3'5-4'5 (5'5 x 4) u, piriform, subglobose to
ellipsoid, apiculate. Context hyphae slightly agglutinated, 4-141l, mostly
about 9/L diam. Victoria, Australia.
4. Setae present 5
5 (4) Pileus with a well-differentiated crust 6
5. No distinct crust 8
6 (5). Granular core at base of context I. chondromyelus Pegler (1964)
Solitary or imbricate, sessile. Pileus 4'5-5 x 3-5 x 3-4'5 em" ungulate,
triquetrous, 'Dresden Brown' to ferruginous, developing a hard crust,
becoming rimose. Context up to 3 em. thick, with a granular core at the base,
the remainder of the context is fibrous, ' Buckthorn Brown' to 'Tawny ', but
180 Transactions British Mycological Society
'Ochraceous Buff' towards the upper surface. Pores irregular, 2-4 per mm.,
torn; tubes 2-14 mm. long with a greyish tint. Spores few, 7'5-10 x
5'5-7 (8'5 x 6) p, broadly ellipsoid, with thickened wall. Setae few, thick-
walled, ventricose to subulate, 23-35 x 7-10(-16) u, Context hyphae with
thickened wall, 4-10'5 p diam. On species of Eucalyptus. South Australia.
6. No granular core 7
7 (6). Spores globose to subglobose, 7-8'5 x 6'5-8 (7'5 x 6,8) u, Surface, particu-
larly at the margin, exuding brownish guttules
1. dryadeus (Pers, ex Fr.) Murrill (1908a) var. dryadeus
Basinym: Boletus fomentarius * dryadeus Pers. (1779)
Synonym: B. pseudoigniarius Bull. (1789)
Dimidiate to applanate, single or imbricate, pale grey becoming dark brown
but often with a white pruina covering the entire sporophore. Pileus large,
5-35 x 6-40(-60) x 2-8 cm., rugose to tuberculate, often pitted; margin
obtuse. Context 1'5-4 em. thick, 'Sudan Brown', 'Antique Brown', drying
'Brussels Brown' with a silky sheen. Pores 3-5 per mm., tubes 0'5-2(-3) em.
long. Setae thick-walled, curved, with broad sub-bulbous base, 15-37 x
7-13p. Context hyphae branched, septate, 3-gP diam. Mostly at base of
living Quercus species, also recorded on Acer, Aesculus, Castanea, Fagus, Ulmus,
and Tsuga. Temperate Northern hemisphere. Specimens examined.
a. Spores smaller, 4'4-5'6 x 3'6-5'2 p; India
var, brevisporus (Thind & Chatrath) comb.nov.
Basinym: Polyporus dryadeus Pers. ex Fr. var. breoisporus Thind & Chatrath, in
IndianPhytopath. 13, 82, 1960
Margin fairly acute; pores 5-7 per mm. N.W. Himalayas. Type examined.
7. Spores ellipsoid, 7'2-8'5 x 5-6'5 (8 x 6) p. No guttation; crust pale, wrinkled
I. victoriensis (Lloyd) comb. nov
Basinym: Polyporus victoriensis Lloyd, Mycol. Notes, 65, 1095, 192I
Large, solitary, 6'5-12'5 x 9-20 x 2'5-7'5 cm., light in weight, applanate to
subungulate, surface covered by a pale grey to 'Drab Gray' crust, up to
700 p thick, much wrinkled, at least in dried material. Context the same
thickness as the tube layer, 'Buckthorn Brown' to 'Ochraceous Tawny',
hard, fibrous. Pores at first 'Tawny', finally black, large, 1-3(-4) per mm.;
tubes 8-15 mm. long. Setae abundant, thick-walled, variable in shape,
12-28 X 7-12p. Context hyphae loosely interwoven, much branched, 3-6 p
diam. On dead Eucalyptus stumps. South Australia. Type examined.
8 (5). Context fibrous, rusty brown. Pileus effuso-reflexed, often imbricate 9
8. Context chalky, creamy-white. Pileus thick, subungulate, surface orange.
Setae septate 1. luteocontextus Reid, in Keto Bull. 17, 274, 1963
Dimidiate, 6 x 10 x 5'3 em.; margin rounded, sterile. Context up to 5 em.
thick. Pores 2-4 per mm., cinnamon, covered by a yellowish pruina;
tubes brittle, distinct from context, 2-4 mm. long. Spores 6'5-8 x 4-4'75
(-5'5) p, ovoid to ellipsoid. Setae often lanceolate, undulate, with thin,
transverse septa, 30-45(-67) x 7-8 p. Context hyphae hyaline to pale
yellowish brown, often constricted at the septa, much branched, 3-g' 5 p,
with a system of thin-walled conducting elements, up to 5 ft diam., containing
golden yellow sap. New South Wales, Australia. Could probably be
referred to a new genus. Type examined.
9 (8). Spores ovoid to ellipsoid, 4'5-7 x 3'5-4'5 (6 x 4'2) ft. Typically on Alnus.
Pileus glabrous at maturity
I. radiatus (Sow. ex Fr.) Karst. (1881) var. radiatus
Basinym: Boletus radiatus Sow., English Fungi, 2, t. 196, 1799
Synonyms: Polyporus scrobiculatus Karst. (1882a)
P. radians Lloyd, Mycol. Notes, 69, 1186, 1923. nom. nud.
Survey of Inonotus. D. N. Pegler 181
var. resupinatus (Bourd. & Galz.) Donk (1933)
(Sow.) Pat. var. resupinatus Bourd. & Galz.
P. aureonitens Pat. apud Peck, Rep. N.Y. St. Mus. 42, 2S, 1889; specimens
P. plicatus Pers. (I 82S)
P. minutus Vanine (1923)
Pileus I'S-6 x 2--8x 0'3-2 em., at first bright orange-ochraceous, normally
darkening with maturity, hard, radiately rugose; margin thin, fertile.
Context 0'2-1 em. thick, becoming tawny, soft and pliant when fresh,
drying rigid. Pores 2-4(-S) per mm., glancing; tubes 0'3-1'0 em. long,
ferruginous. Setae rare to abundant, fusiform to subventricose, pointed
apex, often curved or deformed, 14-24(-4S) x 6-1 I (-14) u; Context
hyphae slightly agglutinated, branching rare, 3' S-8' S/h diam. On Alnus,
but also recorded on many other hardwoods. Temperate Northern hemi-
sphere. Specimens examined.
a. Effused, with scattered nodulose pilei. On Fagus
var. nodulosus (Fr.) Donk (1933)
Basinym: Polyporus nodulosus Fr. (1838)
Synonyms: P. dentifer Velenovsky (1922)
P. armatus Vel. (1922)
Pileus small, 0'S-I'S(-2) em. wide. Spores 4'4-S'7 x 2'9-4'4 (4'9 x 3'7) u,
Setae thin- to thick-walled, fusoid, pointed, usually straight, 14'3-24'S x
5'7-10'31". Almost entirely confined to dead and dying branches of Fagus,
but also reported on Alnus, Betula and Carpinus. Type examined.
b. Totally resupinate
Basinym: Xanthochrous radiatus
Synonyms: Polyporus fuscolutescens Fuckel (1870). Type examined
Poriasetigera Peck, Rep. N.Y. St. Mus. 51, 293, 1898
Up to 6--8em. broad; margin often detached and normally sterile. Pore
surface uneven, cinnamon to dark ferruginous. Setae straight or slightly
curved, IS-40X4S-9/h. Spores 4'S-6x3S-4SI". On dead and fallen
branches of Alnus. Specimens examined.
c. Pileus small, thin, smooth; sulphurine to olivaceous
var. licentii Pilat (1940b)
Surface not ridged. New pilei formed upon those of previous year. Spores
ellipsoid, 4-S x 3-4'S ft. Setae IS-3S(-70) x 6-8/h. Common on leafy trees.
Northern China, Mongolia. See addendum.
-d, Spores smaller, more globose, 4-4'S x 3'S-4/h; setae hooked
var. cephalanthi (Overh.) comb.nov.
Basinym: Polyporus radiatus Sow. ex Fr. var. cephalanthi Overh. (1938)
Synonym: P. illinoisensis Baxter, in Pap. Mich. Acad. Sci. 24, 180 (1939)
Resupinate to nodulose. Pores 4-S per mm., tubes 1-3 mm. long. Spores
small, 4-4'S x 3'S-4/h. Setae not abundant, 20-32 x 8-12 fl, many with
a curved pointed apex. On branches of dead Cephalanthus. Probably
occurs along entire Mississippi River Valley; recorded from Illinois,
Louisiana, Michigan (U.S.A.).
e. Sporophore minute, smooth; margin projecting beyond pore-surface
var. cucullatus (Berk & Curt.) comb.nov.
Basinym: Polyporus cucullatus Berk. & Curt., in Grevillea, I, SI, 1872
Pileus O'S-I'S em. diam., ungulate, at times circular and attached at the
vertex; surface soft, glabrescent, becoming hard and black. Pores 2-3(-4)
per mm., tubes up to 4 mm. long. Spores 4'S-S'S x 3-4'S /h. Setae subulate,
slightly curved, 17-2sx8S-I2/h. New England (U.S,A.); reported from
Brazil. Type examined.
182 Transactions British Mycological Society
f. Growing on Betula; sporophore small, with thin margin
forma subexcarnis (Bourd. & Galz.) comb. nov.
Basinym: Xanthochrous radiatus (Sow.) Pat. forma subexcamis Bourd. & Galz.
Pileus 1-1'5 em. wide, radiately silky-fibrillose, not rugose. Spores 4-5 x
3-4#. Setae few, fusoid, often curved, 12-16x4-5#. France, Ural
g. Spores cylindric, apiculate, 5-6'5 x 2#. Pileus surface tomentose
1. sciurinus Imazeki (1943)
Pileus dimidiate, convex or applanate, 1-3'5 x 3-8 x 0'5-1'5 em., brown to
fulvo-ferruginous, covered by a tomentose layer, up to 3 mm. thick, over
a distinct subcrust. Context rigid and woody, ferruginous or fiavo-ferrugi-
nous. Tubes concolorous with the context, up to 5 mm. long; pores 3-5 per
mm. Setae few, 15-22 x 5-7 #. On dead trunks of deciduous trees; re-
corded on Acer. Japan.
10 (I). Setal hyphae present II
10. Setal hyphae absent 18
II (10). Setae absent. Resupinate, pulvinate. Pruina over pores
I. pruinosus Bond., in Notul. syst. Inst. cryptog. Bot. Kamarov Acad. Sci. U.R.S.S.
15,99, 19
Effused, 6-10 em. long, central region 5-15 mm. thick, colour subavel-
laneus, with extensive pruina. Margin very thin, adhering to the bark.
Context forming a very thin subiculum only. Pores angular, often elongate,
2-3(-4) per mm.; tubes 4-15 mm. long. Spores abundant, (6'5-)7-8x
(4-)4'5-6 #, attached to the tube wall, broadly ellipsoid to ovoid-globose,
unilaterally flattened, golden yellow, with central oil guttule. Setal hyphae
dark chestnut brown, 250-500 x 10-12 # or longer, pointed, not projecting
into the hymenium. On Salix. China.
II. Setae present 12
12 (II). Sporophore entirely resupinate, without pilei. Lining tree cavities 13
12. Sporophore pileate, or at least nodulose 14
13 (12). On Quercus. Pores 0'08-0'12 mm. diam. Spores 65-8-g x 5' 5-7 #
I. niduspici Pilat (1942)
Synonym: Poria obliqua (Pers.) Fr. forma' sur chine' (haec solum) Bourd. &
Galz. (1925)
Lining trunk cavities, but only fertile in the upper concave region, the rest
forming a sterile mycelial covering. Context as a thin subiculum only, of
waxy-mucilaginous consistency, sometimes not formed at all. Pore surface
yellowish green then olivaceous, finally dark brown when dry. Pores regular,
round, 80-120# diam., tubes appearing zoned in section, up to 15 zones,
1-2 em. long. Spores large, abundant, subglobose to broadly ovoid, pale
brown, sulphurine in mass. Setae few, thick-walled, narrow lumen, 20-25 x
8 #, conical fusiform. Setal hyphae forming up to 50 % of the trama, 150-
200 X 9-14#, pointed, sometimes curved and entering the tube lumen.
Occurs in cavities, probably caused by woodpeckers, of living or moribund
Quercus species. Czechoslovakia, France.
On Populus. Pores 0'15-0'4 mm. diam. Spores 4-7'5 x 3"7-5-6 (5'9 x 4'9) #
I. iliensis Kravts. (1950)
Sporophore curved, lining trunk-cavities, 10-55 em. broad, 1-5 em. thick,
tube layer between broad sterile margins. Context a thin subiculum only,
500-1200 #, containing abundant setal hyphae, 80-120 x 8-10 #, sometimes
ellipso-infiated up to 15-25# diam, Pores angular, 3-4 per mm.; tubes
always oblique, 0'5-5(-8) em. long, dissepiments containing abundant setal
Survey of Inonotus. D. N. Pegler
hyphae, 90-I80 x 8-13JL, at times projecting into the tube lumen. Spores
abundant, yellowish, ovoid to ellipsoid, unilaterally flattened. Setae few,
fusoid, 20-40 x 2-4JL. Upper sterile margin, I-20 em. broad, tobacco-brown,
with setal hyphae forming a circular zone (' linea nigra' ), lOo-S00 JL thick.
Lower sterile margin up to 25cm. wide with 1-2 weak ' lineae nigrae'. Kazakh-
stan (U.S.S.R.).
14 (12). Sporophore of irregular imbricate lobes or nodules 15
14. Sporophore applanate, usually single, rarely imbricate 17
15 ( 14). Mostly nodulose, without well-developed pilei. Setal hyphae in both
context and dissepiments
I. glomeratus (Peck) Murrill, in Mycologia, 12, 18, 1920
Basinym: Polyporus glomeratus Peck, Rep. N r . St. Mus. 24, 78, 1873.
Effuso-reflexed or nodulos e, very occasionally resupinate, ' Orange Buff' to
' Sudan Brown' , glabrescent, forming a thin black crust, radiately striate.
Context 'Tawny ' to 'Antique Brown ', hard, rigid, corky. Pores variable,
irregular, 3-S per mm., dentate; tubes 0'2-1'0 cm.long. Spores 5-6.8 x 4-5
(S8 x 4'S) It, shortly ellipsoid, sulphur yellow. Setae rare, subulate or ventri-
cose, sometimes constricted, 15-25 x 6-8 It. Setal hyphae very thick-walled,
often ellipso-inflated distally, at times divergent and entering the hymenium,
170-330 X 10-20 It . Context hyphae somewhat agglutinated, 4-7' 5 JL diam,
On dead wood of deciduous trees, particularly Acer and Fagus. North
America, Brazil (?). Type examined.
15. Sporophore of imbricate irr egular pilei 16
16 (15) . Ptychogastroid, with dark brown context I. rickii (Pat .) Reid (19S7)
Basinym: Xanthochrous rickii Pat. ( 1908)
Synonyms: Ptychogaster cubensis Pat. (1896) nom. anam. Type examined
Ceriomyces stuckertii Speg., in An. Soc. dent. Argent. 47, 265, 1899. nom. anam.
Type examined
Pilei may be applanate and imbricate or ungulate, surface at first rough and
hispid, glabrescent. Context' Buckthorn Brown ' to ' Clay Color', but often
with dark umbrinous ar eas as a result of chlamydospor e production, marked
concentric zonation, very fibrous. Pores large, irr egular, 1- 3 per mm.; tubes
distinct from cont ext , 0' 3- 2' 3 em. long. Basidiospores 6' S-8 x 4' 5-6 (7 x S) JL,
subglobose to broadl y ellipsoid, ochraceous to rufous. Chlamydospores
produced throughout context eith er simultaneously with basidi ospor es or
exclusively, large, often doliform or irregular, 7-1 7' 5(-35 ) JL diam., forming
a powd ery layer over the pileus surface. Setae subulate, 17' 5-25 x 7- 1I ' S it .
Setal hyphae in dissepiments only, cylindrical with pointed tips, 190-300 x
95- 14 Jl. On trunks and br anches of many deciduous tre es. Tropical
America. Specimens examined.
16. Not ptychogastroid, with bright fulvo-ferruginous context I. rodwayi Reid (19.17)
Forming large imbricate masses of highly irregular pilei, IS x I I X 1I cm.,
surface pitted and roughened, somewhat radiately-rugose, with a brittle
cuticle on maturity. Context thick, 'Snuff Brown ' to bright fulvo-ferrugi-
nous. Pores large, 2-3 per mm. , irregular ; tubes 2-10 mm. long. Spores
abundant, 6-g' S x 4S-6S (8' 3 x 6) JL, ochraceous-fulvous to sulphurine.
Seta e fusoid to lanceolate, 10- 26 x 6- 9 JL. Setal hyphae in dissepiments only
diverging and entering hymenium, 140-450 X I 1-15(- 20) JL. On species
of Ficus. Australia. Type examined.
17 ( 14) . Context duplex, with punky upper layer ; setal hyphae in upper layer
I. ochroporus (Van der Bijl) comb.nov.
Basinym: Polyporus ochroporus van der Bijl, in S. Afr. ] . Sci. 18, 269, 1922
Pileus applanate, attenuated toward the base, 4-16 x 4-17 x 0'5-2' 5 em.,
surface 'Ochraceous Tawny' to ' Pale Ochraceous Buff', soft and spongy,
Transactions British Mycological Society
but eventually becoming worn away to leave a hard, glabrous, umbrinous
surface. Context with pale upper and lower layers, hard, fibrous , fulvo-
ferruginous, with a silky sheen. Pores angular, often confluent, tubes 1-8 mm.
long. Spores abundant, 6- 9 x 5-7(7'7 x 6) fl., subglobose to broadly ellip-
soid, ochraceous. Seta e few, ventricose, 19-30 x 6-8'5 fl.. Setal hyphae in
dissepiments and in the upper context where they form stratified layers,
corresponding to growth zones, 150-30 x 11'5-17 fl.. On dead and dying
trunks of Salix and Ficus. South Africa, West Pakistan. Type examined.
17. Context not duplex; pileus thin, smooth or radiate1y rugos e
1. patouillardii (Rick) Imazeki var. patouillardii ( 1943)
Basinym: Polystictus patouillardii Rick ( 1907)
Pileus convex, thickened towards the base, 5-14 x 5-20 x r -5- 3 em. Context
fibrous, with a bright satiny lustre. Pores 3-S per mm., becoming lacerate;
tubes 0'2-!'O em. long. Spores abundant, 4'S-6(-7) x 3'S-S (5"S x 4'3) fl.,
ellipsoid, chrome yellow to rufous. Setae few, ventricose, IS-21 x S5-8SfI..
Setal hyphae in dissepiments only, inflated distally, 170-240 x 10-16 fl..
Context hyphae tightly interwoven, rarely branched, 4S-8S,u diam. On
trunks of living hardwoods ; probably throughout the southern tropics.
Specimens examined.
a. Spores larger, 7'5-8 x 5-6S (7,8 x 6),u. Pileus smooth
var. congoensis (Pat . & Hcim) comb.nov.
Basinym: Xanthochrous patouillardii (Rick) var, congoensis Pat. & Heim, in
Ann. Cryptog. exot. 6, 144, !933
Pileus surface lacking pliciform veins. Pores 3-4 per mm., walls entire.
Setal hyphae up to 250 x [2-14/(, pointed, with a distinct lumen. Context
hyphae 3-7 fI. diam. Conidiospores, also produced from hyaline hyphae
lining the hymenial surface, 5-8 If diam, On living tr ees. Congo, Uganda,
Annabon Is. Specimens examined.
18 (10). Setae present 19
18. Setae absent 25
19 (18) . Sporophore effuso-reflexed to dimidiate 20
19. Sporophore resupinate, without pilei , or at the most nodulose. Mostly on
Quercus 24
20 ( 19). Pileus with obtuse margin 21
20. Pileus with acute margin 22
21 (20). Context thicker than tube layer. Hispid pileus surface
I. hispidus (Bull. ex Fr.) Karst. var. & forma hispidus (1879)
Basinym: Boletus hispidus Bull. ([ 784)
Synonyms: B. hirsutus Scop. (1772)
B. spongiosus Light. (1777)
B. oillosus Huds. (1778)
B. velutinus With. (1796)
Bifiauus Pollini (1824)
Polyporus endocrocinus Berk. ( 1847). Type examined
P. hausmanni Fr. ( 1874)
P. tinctorius Quel. ( 188 I)
Inonotus bankeri Lloyd (1910, as McGinty)
Pileus large, 4-2S x 6-3S X 2-10 em. , solitary or imbricate, fleshy and watery
when fresh, triquetrous in section. Surface covered by a thick ve1utinate
tomentum, which dries to become strongly hispid and brittle, finally
forma quercus (Bourd. & Galz.) comb.nov.
hispidus (Bull.) Pat. forma quercus Bourd. & Galz.
forma salicum (Bourd. & Galz.) comb.nov.
(Bull.) Pat. forma salicum Bourd. & Galz.
Survey of Inonotus. D. N. Pegler
glabrescent; orange-rust becoming black. Pore surface convex, bright
rust colour, pores 2-3 per mm., irregular, lacerate; tubes up to 4 em. long.
Spores abundant, large, 8'3-11 x 7-9 (g6 x 8) 1", thick-walled, ochraceous.
Setae typically present, but often absent, 15-25(-30) x 6-1 II". Context
hyphae not agglutinated, 4-12'51" diam. On a wide variety of living
deciduous trees. Temperate and subtropical zones of Northern hemisphere.
Specimens examined.
a. On Quercus
Basinym: Xanthochrous
Smaller, 4-6 em., harder, less yellow and brighter brown; setae absent;
spores 7-9-12x 7-91". France.
b. On Salix
Basinym: Xanthochrous hispidus
At first yellow; context slightly fibrous, soft, brittle, lemon coloured, be-
coming mottled with yellow and rusty brown, finally cinnamon-tawny; spores
6-12 x 4-91". France.
c. Subresupinate, 3-4 em. thick var. minor (Rick apud Rambo) comb. nov.
Basinym: Polyporus hispidus (Bull.) Fr. var. minorRick apud Rambo (lg60)
Upper surface golden yellow, not hirsute though becoming so at length.
On living Rosaceae. Brazil.
21. Context less thick than tube layer I.fulvomelleus Murrill (lg08a)
Pileus applanate, often becoming ungulate, 1'5-5 x 3-10 x 1-3 crn., broadly
attached, covered by coarse hispid hairs, never becoming black or brittle.
Context ochraceous to 'Buckthorn Brown'. Pores small, 4-7 per mm.
Spores 6-7'5 x 4-4.8 (6'5 x 4'4) 1", ellipsoid to short cylindric, lateral apiculus,
ochraceous to rufous. Setae abundant, lanceolate, often hooked, 30-55 x
7'5-12'5 p,. Context hyphae loosely interwoven, 3-7 p, diam. Jamaica. On
dead wood. Type examined.
22 (20). Pileus surface covered with numerous, branched, setigerous elements
I. cuticularis (Bull. ex Fr.) Karst. (1879)
Basinym: Boletus cuticularis Bull. (I 789)
Synonyms: Xanthochrous fuscovelutinus Pat. (lg08)
Polyporus munzii Lloyd, Mycol. Notes, 67, 1163, Ig22. Type examined
I. schinii Brown (I 930). Type examined
Sporophore generally densely imbricate. Pileus applanate, attenuated
toward the base, 3-14 x 3-20 x 0'5-2'5(-4) cm., fulvo-ferruginous becoming
umbrinous. No crust, but surface covered with setigerous elements, up to
150P, long, with lateral and terminal branches, which themselves may
show bifurcate branching, thick-walled but with a continuous lumen.
Context typically thin, though up to 3 em. in some specimens. Pores round
to angular, 2-5(-6) per mm., glancing; tubes 0'3-2'0 em. long. Spores
abundant, 5'5-7'6(-8) x 4-6 (7 x 4,8) p" ellipsoid. Setae rare to abundant,
occasionally absent, never thick-walled, 15-25(-50) x 3'5-8'5 u, On dead
wood of deciduous trees. Mainly confined to the North Temperate zone.
Specimens examined. Polyporus munzii and I. schinii are only thick forms
with very rare setae.
22. No setigerous elements on the pileus surface
186 Transactions British Mycological Society
23 (22). Pileus very thin with acute margin; tube length not exceeding 2 mm.
I, pertenuis Murrill (1908a)
Sporophore imbricate, Pileus small, 2-3 x 4-6 x 0'1-0'3 em" with broad
decurrent attachment; margin often fimbriate. Context very thin. Por e
surface uneven, ferruginous to umbrinous. Pores round, S-7(-8) per mm.,
tubes 1-2 rom, long. Spores 4'8-6'S x 3'S-4'S (S x 3,8) It , ellipsoid, fulvous,
Setae large, thick-walled, ventricose, 2S-4S x 7' S-16' Sit' Context hyphae
tightly interwoven, 3'S-6'SIt diam, On decayed wood. Cuba, Panama,
Type examined.
23, Pileus thicker. Pores 2-S per rom. I. nothofagi G. H. Cunn. (1948)
Sporophore sessile to substipitate, often imbricate, occasionally resupinate,
Pileus I'S-3 x I'S-3 x 0'2-1 crn., narrow basal attachment, surface ferru-
ginous becoming umbrinous, glabrous, polished with age, cuticle present,
appearing as a black line in section, radiately plicate. Pores irregular,
soon lacerate; tubes 2-7 mm. long, Spores abundant, 4'S-6'3 x 3'4-4'7
(5"3x 4) It, ellipsoid, fulvo-ferruginous. Setae numerous, ventricose or
subulate, 16-40 x 7-8'SIt, Context hyphae tightly interwoven, 4'S-71t diam.
On living deciduous trees, New Zealand, India.
Specimens collected in India differ by their larger spores, S'8-7'S x 4'5-
5'5(6:7 x 5) It. Specimens examined.
24 (19). Pores large, 0'5-1'5 mm, diam, dentate-irpiciform, rusty yellow. Spores
suiphurine I. andersonii (Ellis & Everh.) Cerny (1963)
Basinym: Mucronoporus andersonii Ellis & Everh., in]. Mycol. 6, 79, 1890
Synonyms: Polyporus (Poria) xanthosporus Underw, (1894)' Type examined
I. leei Murr. (19ISa). Type examined
P. hispidus (Bull.) Fr . resupinate Burt (1931)
Xanthochrous obliquus sensu Bourdot (1932)
X. krauitzeuni Pihh (1932)
CorticiumpactolinumCooke & Harkness (1881), Type examined
Resupinate or slightly nodulose, usually developing beneath outer layers of
wood, sometimes entirely concealed by bark, fulvous to ferruginous but
often appearing ochraceous or sulphurine owing to spore deposition.
Context as thin subiculum only. Pores 1-2-3 per mm. ; tubes almost always
oblique, 0'5-3'5 em, long. Spores abundant,6's-8'S x 5-55-6S (7' S x 5'5) It,
ellipsoid to subglobose, Setae abundant, sometimes constricted, 15-So
(-40) x 6-10 It. On living and dead wood, particularly of Quercus, but also
recorded on Populus and Carya. Eastern Europe, Asia, North America.
Type examined.
Pores small, strongly oblique, O'I-O'S mm. diam. dark ferruginous. Spores
pale brown I. obliquus (Pers.) Pilat (1942)
Basinym: Boletus obliquus Pers. (180I)
Synonyms: Polyporus incrustans Pers, (1825)
P. umbrinus Pers. (182S)
Resupinate, forming effused layer under the bark or outer wood layers. Con-
text as a subiculum only, dark ferruginous. Pore surface pallid, ochraceous-
brown to black, pores 3-4 per rnm.; tubes 2-20 mm. long, oblique, at an
angle of 2<>-SOo with the context. Spores 7'5-10 x S-7 'S (8' 5 x 6) It, sub-
globose to broadly ellipsoid, Setae numerous, variable, 15-S5(-60) x
5- ISIt. On living wood of deciduous trees, particularly Betula, Ulmus, and
Fagus. World-wide. Type examined.
25 (18). Sporophore pileate
Survey of Inonotus. D. N. Pegler
Sporophore resupinate, or at the most nodulose. Under bark of Betula
I. pseudoobliquus (Pilat) Pilat (1942)
Basinym: Xanthochrous pseudoobliquus Pilat (1935)
Tube layer very oblique and irregularly developed; context not more than
1 mm. thick, coriaceous. Pore surface covered by a white pruina, pores of
nodules angular, o'3-{)'4 mm. diam.; tubes up to 8 rnm, long. Spores
8-10 x 4-6#, ellipsoid, unilaterally flattened. Context hyphae thick-
walled, rarely branched, 3-3'5(-4) JL diam, Siberia.
26 (25). Granular core at base of context
26. No granular core
27 (26). Spores with a distinctly thickened hyaline or yellowish wall
27. Spores with a thin, brown wall
28 (27). Pileus surface becoming black and brittle on drying or with age. On
Tamarix. Mediterranean species I. tamaricis (Pat.) Maire (1937)
Basinym: Xanthochrous tamaricis Pat. (1904)
Synonym: X. rheades (Pers.) Pat. ssp. tamaricis Bourd. & Galz . (1928)
Pileus convex to hemispherical, 4-9 x 3'5-8 x 2-5 cm., yellowish brown
becoming much darker at maturity, surface strongly hispid, glabrescent,
margin paler. Context distinctly zonate, with alternating light and dark
bands, fibrous, with a basal granular core. Pores round, becoming lacerate,
1-2(-3) per rnm.; tubes 0'5-2'5 em. long. Spores 7'2-g'5 x 5-7 (8'5 x 6) JL,
ovoid to ellipsoid, rusty brown to umbrinous. Context hyphae rarely
branched, frequent septa, 4-9'5# diam, On trunks of living Tamarix.
Southern Europe, North Africa. Specimens examined.
28. Pileus surface glabrescent but otherwise unchanged on drying or with age
I. pseudohispidus Kravts, (1950)
Sporophores in groups. Pileus 7-30 x 12-70 x 7-20 cm., applanate to
ungulate, surface at first hispid, glabrescent, cinnamon brown to brown
bistre; margin obtuse, paler. Context up to II em. thick at the base,
fibrous, with a silky sheen, and a large basal, granular core. Pores round to
angular, 1-2 (-4) per mm.; tubes 1'5-8'5 em. long. Spores abundant, 6'5-
9'5 x 4,8-7 (8'2 x 5'7) JL,ellipsoid. Context hyphae agglutinated.a-uo JL diam,
Mostly on Populus; also Acer and Fraxinus. Kazakhstan (U.S.S.R.). Speci-
mens examined.
Basinym: Polyporus dryophilus Berk. (1847)
Synonyms: P. corruscans Fr. (1852)
Xanthochrous rheades (Pers.) Pat. ssp. corruscans Bourd. & Galz. (19
I. levis Karst., in Hedwigia, 26, 112, 1887, teste Lowe (1956)
Pileus hemispherical to ungulate, often imbricate, 3-13 x 4-22 x 2-12 em.,
triquetrous in section, 'Straw Yellow' to umbrinous, surface hispid, glab-
rescent, with narrow concentric zonations. Context same thickness as the
tube layer or thicker, many specimens exceeding 10 cm., the globose,
granular core forming the greater proportion of the total volume. Pores
regular, 2-3 per mm.; tubes 0'3-3'0 em. long. Spores ellipsoid to ovoid.
Context hyphae loosely interwoven, 3'5-8'5JL diam, Typically on Quercus,
also recorded on Acer, Fagus, Prunus, and Schinus. North America, U.S.S.R.,
Sweden, and (rarely recorded) France and Germany. Specimens examined.
29 (27) On Quercus. Spores 7-8.8 x 5-6'5 (8'2 x 5'5) JL
I. dryophilus (Berk.) Murrill (1904)
188 Transactions British Mycological Society
29 On Populus. Spores S-7 x 3S-48 (6'2 x 4'2) #
1. rheades (Pers.) Bond. & Sing. (1941) var, rheades
Basinym: Polyporus rheades Pers. (182S)
Synonyms: Polystictus vulpinus Fr. (18S3)
I. hisingeri Karst. (1882a)
P. inonotus Sacco (1888)
P. dryophilus Berk. var. uulpinus (Fr.) Overh. (1933)
P. fuluus Fr. (1838)
P.jriesii Bres. (190S)
P. perplexus Peck, in Rep. N.T. St. Mus. 49, 19, 1896
Pileus hemispherical to ungulate, usually imbricate, 2-S X 3-10 x 1-3'S em.,
triquetrous in section, 'Cartridge Buff' becoming umbrinous, surface
woolly strigose to shiny velutinate. Context with a granular core which may
be small, rest of the context fibrous, paler towards the upper surface. Pores
irregular, 2-3(-4) per mm., dentate; tubes 0'2-1 em. long. Spores abundant,
ferruginous. Context hyphae 3-9' S(- I I) # diam. On living species of
Populus, recorded also on Fagus. Temperate Northern hemisphere. Specimens
a. Total absence of hyphae with thickened, dark walls
var. cognatus (Bres.) comb.nov.
Basinym: Polyporus rheades Pers. var. cognatus Bres., in Ann. mycol., Bert. 18,
34, 19
Hispid tomentum, glabrescent; pores 4-S per mm., hoary-white; tubes 6-
8 mm. long; spores subglobose, 4'7S-6 x 4-S #. Context hyphae yellowish,
thin-walled, 3-7 # diam. Argentine.
30 (26). Spores 7'S# or more long
30. Spores not exceeding 7#
31 (30). Sporophore strongly rimose, with well-developed crust, very thin context
I. texanus Murrill (lg04)
Dimidiate, new sporophore growing from the sporophore of the previous
year, 2'S-7 x 4-9'S x I'S-5 em., strongly convex to ungulate, avellaneus
grey, becoming fulvous, finally blackish, glabrescent, radially and con-
centrically rimose. Context 2-4(-8) mm. thick. Pores irregular, 2-3 per mm.;
tubes o-5-3' Sem. long. Spores 7-10 x S-7 #, ovoid to ellipsoid, chestnut brown.
Growing on Prosopis, Morus, and Salix. Known only from Arizona and
Texas (U.S.A.).
31. Sporophore not rimose
32 (31). Sporophore consisting of imbricate pilei, dark chestnut brown
I. clemensiae Murrill (I g08)
Large, with several imbricate lobes. Pileus 5-7 x lO-lS x 1-1'S em., dimi-
diate, rigid, fragile when dry, light in weight; surface short tomentose,
powdery on drying. Context up to I em. thick, 'Argus Brown' to 'Raw
Umber', soft, fibrous. Pore surface plane to concave, 'Brussels Brown';
pores 2-3 per mm.; tubes 3-S mm. long. Spores few, 6-8 x 4'S-6'3 (7 x S) #,
broadly ellipsoid, pale to deep ferruginous. Context hyphae slightly
agglutinated, ferruginous to deep umbrinous, very wide lumen, 4'5-17'S#,
mostly about 8 # diam. On dead wood. Philippines. Type examined.
32. Sporophore typically solitary, very thick
33 (32). Pileus surface hispid, turning black and brittle on drying, or with age
1. hispidus (Bull. ex Fr.) Karst, see above, p. 184
Survey of Inonotus. D. N. Pegler
33. Pileus surface tomentose, glabrescent, remaining un changed on drying, or
with age 34
34 (33) . Context rigid, dark, permeated throughout by white flecks
1. subhispidus Pegl er & Reid (Pegler, 1964)
Synonyms : Polyporus subhispidus Lloyd, Mycol. Notes, 73, [330, [924. nomen
non rite publicatum
I . tamaricis (Pat.) Maire forma comeus Bondartseva ( r956)
Solitary, applanate to ungulate, 4-9 x 6-[4 x 3-3' 5 em. , narrowed at the
base, ' Hazel' to ' Ferruginous' wi th a coarse hispid tomentum, glabrescent ;
margin obtuse. Context up to 1' 5 em. thick, 'Chestnut-Brown' , permeated
throughout by whitish flecks, hard, with a silky sheen. Pores large, 2-3 per
mm., umbrinous, lacerate; tubes I - 3 em. long. Spores abundant, 7-8.8 x
5-6'5(8'2 x 5'7) fl, thi ck-wall ed. Context hyphae loosely interwoven,
3'5-8 fl diam. On living Tamarix species. Indi a, Paki stan, Kara-Kalpak
(U. S.S.R.). Type exami ned.
34. Context friable, ferruginous to yellowish citrine
I. plorans (Pat. ) Bond. & Sing. (1941)
Basin ym : Xanthochrous plorans Pat., in Bull. Soc. mycol. Fr. 20, 52, [904
Pileus solitary, lar ge, 10-50 em. broad, convex to hemispherical, uniformly
'Ferruginous' or slightly pal er towards t he margin, surface soft, spongy,
roughened tomentose toward the base, silky pubescent at the margin. Con-
text 5-8 em. thick, 'Ferruginous' , ' Cinnamon Rufous', ' Yellowish Citrine' ,
fibrous, very brittle with a slight silky sheen. Pores fulvo-ferruginous,
2- 3(- 4) per mm., at first round, becoming fimbriate-lacerat e; tubes 2-8 em.
long. Spor es abundant, 8- [ [ x 6- 8' 5 ( [ 0 x 7' 5) It , broadly ellipsoid, ochra-
ceous to fulvo-ferruginous, thi ck-walled. Context hyphae firml y aggluti-
nated, 3-7' 5 It diam. On trunks of Populus and Salix. Algeria. Type
35 (30) . Minute speci es, not exceeding 2 mm. diam., growing from lenticels
I. pusillus Murrill (1904)
Synonym : Polyporus pygmaeus Lloyd (19[5, as McGinty)
Nodulose, erumpent from lenticels in large numbers, 2 x 2 X 0'5- 1 mm.,
surface soft, fibrillose, zona te ; margin sterile, acute. Context very thin,
200- 2 50 fL. Pores few, 4- 6 per mm., cinnamon to fulvou s; tubes much longer
than context. Spores abundant, 4' 5-6 x 3' 2-4 (5' 2 x 3'5 ) It . Context hyphae
3- 7 fl di am. On dead br anch es of ]acquinia. Mexico. Type exa mined .
35. Much larger, disti nctly pileate
36 (35). Pores 4-6 per mm. Pileus f1abelliform
36. Pores 2 -4 per mm.
37 (36). Context bright ochraceous-t awny , Pileus surface multizonate. Por es
5-6(- 7) per mm. 1. porrectus Murrill ( 1915b)
Usually imbricate. Pileus 4-8 x 4-10 x 0' 5-1 '5 cm., streaked with orange-
rufous , pa llid toward the margin, finall y black, radiately rugose at the centre.
Context ' Ochraceous T awny' , with a silky sheen. Pores small, 5-6(-7) per
mm.: tubes up to 4 mm. long, but very shallow towards the margin. Spores
5- 7 x 4- 5 (6 x 4'4) fl, sub globose to ellipsoid. Context hyphae loosely inter-
woven, 2' 5- 8 fL diam. On dead and decaying deciduous trees. Caicos
Islands (Bahamas), Louisiana (U.S.A.) . Type examined.
37. Context cinnamon brown . Pileus surface azonate. Por es 4-5 per mm.
1. tenuicarnis Pegl er & Reid (Pegler, 1964)
Small, flabelliform, 2-3'5 x 2' 5-3'5 x 0' 3-0.6 cm., convex, thin, ferru-
ginous to dark umbrinous, glabrous, smooth to scrupose, developing a crust
190 Transactions British Mycological Society
at maturity. Context very thin, cinnamon brown with a silky sheen, hard,
fibrous. Pores ferruginous to umbrinous, glancing, 4-5 per rnrn., angular,
dentate; tubes 2-4 mm.long. Spores abundant, 48-6 x 3'5-4'3 (5'5 x 3,8) p,
ellipsoid to oblong-ellipsoid. Context hyphae tightly interwoven, 3-7'5 p
diam. On living Castanea species. India.
38 (36). Pore surface and tubes oblique, appearing black and brittle, at least in
dried material I. juniperinus Murrill (1908a)
Pileus dimidiate to flabelliform, 3-7 x 3-4 x 0'4-2 cm., fulvo-ferruginous,
becoming umbrinous with black markings, glabrescent; margin acute,
broadly sterile. Context 5-7 mm. thick, fibrous, fragile when dry. Pores
dark umbrinous to black, irregular, 3-4(-5) per mm., dentate-fimbriate;
tubes oblique, 0'1-1 em. long. Spores 5-6'5(-7'4) x 3'8-5'3 (5'7 x 4'7) P,
subglobose to ellipsoid, smoky-brown. Context hyphae slightly agglutinated,
4-gp diam. On roots of Juniperus. Texas (U.S.A.). Type examined.
38. Not so
39 (38). Sporophore broadly attached, sometimes with confluent pilei
I. jamaicensis Murrill (1904)
Sporophore effuso-reflexed to dimidiate, sometimes confluent for up to
12 em. Pileus 2-4 x 3-7 x 1-2'5 em., subungulate, tawny, finally black;
surface hard, brittle, encrusted, and rugose. Context very thin; pores
angular, 3-4(-5) per mm., lacerate; tubes up to 2'5 em. long. Spores
5-7 x 4-4.8 (6'2 x 4'5) p . Context hyphae 3-7 p diam. On dead and
decaying deciduous trees, including Phylica. Jamaica, Tristan da Cunha.
Type examined.
39. Sporophore with small basal attachment; thin
40 (39). Sporophore large, spathulate to substipitate, forming rosette-like clusters
at the base of host I. ludouicianus (Pat.) Murrill var.ludovicianus (1915C)
Basinym: Xanthochrous ludovicianus Pat. (1908)
Imbricate masses may exceed 50 em. diam. Pileus 10-30 x 10-30 x 1-2'5 em.
with a decurrent hymenophore; surface ochraceous orange to ferruginous,
paler at the margin, hard, scrupose, radiately rugose; margin thin , sinuous,
incised. Context 0'2-2 em. thick, ochraceous tawny to 'Dresden Brown' .
Pores cinnamon brown to chestnut brown, irregular, (2-)3-4 per mm.,
tubes up to I em. long. Spores 5-6'3(-7) x 3'5-4(-4'5)(6 x 3,8) p, ellipsoid
to oblong-ellipsoid. Typically on @ercus; also on Liquidambar and Nyssa.
S.E. States of North America. Specimens examined.
a. Concentrically banded with umbrinous and melleous zones
var. melleus Murrill (1939)
Pileus finely hispid-tomentose, slightly sulcate, melleous, with concentric
banding c. 1 em. broad. On Quercus. Florida (U.S.A.).
40. Small, subungulate, with a strongly curved margin
I. mikadoi (Lloyd) Bond. (1953)
Basinym: POlypoTUS mikadoi Lloyd (1912)
Small, dimidiate to subungulate, 1'5-2'5 x 2-4 x 0'5-1 cm., 'Sudan Brown'
to 'Mars Brown', radiately strigose; margin acute, curved downwards.
Context up to 2 rom. thick, firm, fibrous. Pores concave, 2-3 per mm.;
tubes 1'5-7 mm. long, dissepiments thick. Spores abundant, 4'5-5'7 x
3'5-4'2 (5 x 3,8) u; Context hyphae 4-7'5 p diam. On living Prunus species.
Japan. Type examined.
Survey of Inonotus. D. N. Pegler
(All Inonotus except aduncus)
abietis (Karst.) Pilat (1940b) = Phellinus pini (Thore ex Fr.) Pilat var. abietis (Karst.)
aduncus (Polyporus) Lloyd (1915), type examined = Phaeolus schioeinitzii (Fr.) Pat.
amplectens Murrill (1904), type examined = Polyporusfruticum Berk. & Curt.
chinensis Pilat (1940 b) = Phellinus chinensis (Pilat) Pilat
cichoriaceus (Berk.) G. H. Cunn. (1948) = Cyclomyces cichoriaceus (Berk.) Pat.
corrosus Murrill (1904)' Excluded from Inonotus because the minute pores and spores
and the decidedly duplex structure of the context are all atypical of the genus
croceus (Pers.) Karst. (1882 b) = Hapalopilus croceus (Pers. ex Fr.) Donk
demidoffii (Lev.) Pilat (1937) = Phellinus demidoffii (Lev.) Bond. & Sing.
elmerianus Murrill (1907), type examined = Cyclomyces tabacinus (Mont.) Pat.
fibrillosus Karst. (1889) = Pycnoporellus fibrillosus (Karst.) Murrill
fruticum (Berk. & Curt.) Murrill (1904), type examined, excluded for the same reasons
as I. corrosus Murrill
herbergii (Rostk.) Karst. (1886) = Phaeolus schuieinitzii (Fr.) Pat. forma spongia (Fr.)
Konr. & Maub!. teste Lowe (1956)
hypococcinus (Berk.) Karst. (1879) = Hapalopilus croceus (Pers. ex Fr.) Dank
inermis (Ellis & Everh.) Pilat (1942), type examined = Fuscoporia inermis (Ellis &
Everh.) G. H. Cunn.
iodinus (Mont.) G. H. Cunn. (1948) = Cyclomyces iodinus (Mont.) Pat.
kanehirae (Yasuda) Imaz. apud Sawada (1959), type examined = Cryptoderma kanehirae
(Yasuda) Imaz.
lamaoensis (Murr.) Pilat (1942) = Phellinus lamaoensis (Murr.) Heim apud Pascalet
leporinus (Fr.) Karst. (1882b), type examined = Polystictus circinatus (Fr.) Karst. var.
triqueter (Secr.) Bres.
leprosus (Fr.) Murrill (1915b) = Hexagona leprosa Fr.
nidulans (Fr.) Karst. (1889) = Hapalopilus nidulans (Fr.) Karst.
pini (Fr. ex Brot.) Maire (1937) = Phellinus pini (Thore ex Fr.) Pilat
ribis (Schum.) Maire (1937) = P. ribis (Schum. ex Fr.) Quel,
setiporus (Berk.) G. H. Cunn. (1950) = Cyclomyces setiporus (Berk.) Pat.
spongia (Fr.) Karst. (1889) = Phaeolus schuieinitzii (Fr.) Pat. formaspongia (Fr.) Konr. &
Maub!. teste Lowe (1956)
tabacinus (Mont.) Karst. (1881) = Cyclomyces tabacinus (Mont.) Pat.
triqueter Karst. (1889) = Polystictus circinatus (Fr.) Karst. var. triqueter (Secr.) Bres.
triqueter var. purpurescens Karst. (1889) = Leptoporus mollis (Pers. ex Fr.) Pilat teste
Lowe (1956)
ufensis Karst. (1904) = Coriolopsis trabea (Pers. ex Fr.) Bond. & Sing. teste Lowe
unicolor (Schw.) Karst. (1879) = Spongipellis unicolor (Schw.) Murrill
wilsonii Murrill (1904), type examined = Polyporuschrysites Berk.
Species, excluded species, andvarieties
abietis, Inonotus = Phellinuspini var, abietis, 191
aduncus, Polyporus = Phaeolus schweinitzii, 191
amplectens, Inonotus, Polyporus = Polyporus fru-
ticumv rqt
andersonii, Mucronoporus, Xanthochrous, Poria,
Xanthoporia, Inonotus, 186
armatus, Polyporus = 1. radiatus var, nodulosus,
aureonitens, Polyporus, Xanthochrous = 1. radia-
bankeri, Inonotus = 1. hispidus,
brevisporus, POlypoTUS, 1. dryadeus var., 180
cephalanthi, POlyPOTUS, 1. radiatus var., 181
chinensis, Inonotus = Phellinus chinensis
chondromye1us, Inonotus, 179
cichoriaceus, lnonotus = Cyclomyces cichoriaceus
clemensiae, Inonotus, Polyporus, Hexagona, 188
cognatus, Polyporus, 1. rheades var., 188
congoensis, POlyPOTUS, Xanthochrous, I. patouil-
lardii var., 184
corneus, Inonotus tamaricis forma = I. subhispidus
corrosus, Inonotus = Polyporus corrosus, 191
corruscans, PolyPOTUS, Inonotus, Xanthochrous =
1. dryophilus
Transactions British Mycological Society
corruscans, Polyporus sensu Bres. = I. tama-
corruscans, Polyporus sensu Speg. = I. rickii
croceus, lnonotus = Hapalopilus croc eus, 191
cubensis, Ptychogaster = Imperfect form of I.
cucullatus, Polyporus = I. radiatus var,
cuticularis, Boletus, Polyporus, Inonotus, Phaeo-
porus, Inodermus, Xanthochrous, Polystictoides,
demidojJii, lnonotus = Phellinus demidoffii, 191
dentifer, Polyporus = 1. radiatus var, nodulosus
dryadea, Ungularia = 1. dryadeus
dryadeum, l schnoderma(?) = 1. dryadeus
dryadeus, Boletus, Polyporus, Placodes, Phellinus,
Inonotus, Fames, Coltricia, 180
dryophilus, Polyporus, Inonotus, 187
dryophilus var. oulpinus, Polyporus = 1. rheades
elmerianus, Inonotus, Polyporus, Polystictus =
Cydomyces tabacinus, 191
endocrocinus, Polyporus = 1. hispidus
fi bri llosus, Inonotus, Hapalopilus = Pycnoporellus
fibrillosus , 191
flaous, Boletus = I. hispidus
fomentarius * dryadeus, Boletus = 1. dryad eus
friesii, Polyporus = 1. rheades
f ruticum, Inonotus, Coltricia = Polyporus frut i-
cum. rqr
fulvomelleus, Inonotus, Poiyporns, 18S
fulous, Polyporus, Inonotus = 1. rheades
/uscolutescens, Polypotus, Poria = 1. radiatus var.
Iuscooelutinus, Xanthochrous, Polyporus = 1. cuti-
glorneratus, Polyporus, Inonotus, Xanihochrous,
glomeratus, Xanthochrous, ssp. heinrichii = 1.
hausmanni, Polyporus = 1. hispidus
heinrichii , Xanthochrous, Inonotus, 179
herbergii, lnonotus = Phaeolus schweinitzii
forma spongia, 191
hirsutus, Boletus, lnonotus = 1. hispidus
hisingeri, Inonotus = 1. rheades
hispidus, Boletus, Polyporus,Inonotus, lnodermus,
Phaeoporus, Xanthochrous, Polystictus, Femes,
hispidus resupinate Burt, Polyporus = 1. ander-
bispidus,Polyporus sensu Rostk. = I. rheades
hypococcinus, Inonotus = Hapalopilus croceus,
iliensis, Inonotus, 182
illinoisensis, Polyporus = I. radiatus var. cepha-
incrustans, Polyporus = 1. obliquus
inermis, lnonotus = Fuscoporia inermis, 191
inonotus, Polyporus = 1. rheades
jamaicensis, Inonotus, Polyporus, Ig0
juniperinus, Inonotus, Polyporus, Igo
kanehirae, Polyporus, Inonotus = Cryptoderma
kanehirae, 191
krauitzeuiii, Xanthochrous, lnonotus = 1. ander-
lamaoensis, lnonotus = Phellinus lamaoensis,
leei, lnonotus, Poria = 1. andersonii
leporinus, lnonotus = Polystictus circinatus var.
triqueter, Ig1
leprosus, lnonotus = Hexagona leprosa
leois, lnonotus = 1. dryophilus
licentii, 1. radiatus var., 181
ludo vicianus, Xanthachrous, Polyporus. Inonotus,
ludovicianus var, melleus , Inonotus, Igo
luteocontextus, Inonotus, 180
melleomarginatus, In onotus, 195
melleus, 1. ludovicianus var.
mikadoi, Polyporus, Inonotus, Ig0
minor, Polypotus, 1. hispidus var., 18S
minutus, Polyporus = 1. radiatus
munzii, Polyporus = I. cuticularis
negundinis, Polyporus rickii f. sp. = 1. rickii
nidulans, lnonotus = Hapalopilus nidulans, J 91
niduspici, Inonotus, 182
nodulosum, lnoderma = In onotus radiatus var,
nodulosus, Xanthochrous, 1. heinrichii var. , 179
nodulosus, Polyporus, Polystictus, Xanihochrous,
Inonotus = 1. radiatus var, nodulosus
nothofagi, Inonotus, 186
obliqua, Fuscoporia = 1. obliquus
obliqua, Poria forma 's ur chene ' = 1. nidus-
obliquus, Xanthochrous sensu Bourdot = 1.
obliquus, Xanthochrous sur chene ' I. nidus-
obliquus, Boletus, Poria, Polyporus, Phy sisporus,
Femes, Phaeoporus, Xanthochrous, Phellinus,
Inonotus, 186
ochroporus, Polyporus, Inonotus, 183
pactolinum, Corticum, Chromosporium = Spore
deposit of 1. andersonii
patouillardii, Polystictus, Polyporus, Xantho-
chrous, Inonotus, 184
perplexus, Polyporus, lnonotus = 1. rheades
pertenuis, Inonotus, Polyporus, 186
pini, Inonotus = Ph ellinus pini, 191
pirisporus, Inonotus, 179
plicat us, Polyporus = 1. radiatus
plorans, Xanthochrous, Polyporus, Inonotus, 189
polymorphus, Polyporus, Polystictus, Xantho-
chrous, Inonotus , 179
polymorphus, Xanthochrous, forma Bourdot = 1.
porrectus , Inonotus, Polyporus, 18g
pruinosus, Inonotus, 182
pseudohispidus, Inonotus, 187
pseudoigniarius, Boletus, Ochroporus, Polyporus =
1. dryadeus
Survey of Inonotus. D. N. Pegler
pseudoobliquus, Xanthochrous, Inonotus, 187
purpurescens, Inonotus, triqueter var. = Lept a-
porus mollis, Igl
pusillus , In onotus, Polyporus, 18g
pygmaeus, POlyPOTUS = I. pusillus
quercus, Xanthochrous, Inonotus hispidusforma,
radians, Polyporus = I. radiat us
radiata, Trametes, Mensularia = I. radiatus
radiatum, l noderma = I. radiatus
radiatus, Boletus, Polyporus, Polystictus, Inonotus,
lnodermus, Dchroporus, Xanthochrous, Fomes, 180
radiatus, Xanthochrous, ssp. polymorphus = I.
pol ymorphus
radiatus var. scrobiculatus, lnonotus = I. radia-
radiatus var. nodulosus, Polystictus, Xantho-
chrous, Inonotus, 181
resupinatus, Xanthochrous, I. radiatus var., 181
rheades, POlyPOTUS, Xanthochrous, Inonotus, 188
rheades, Polyporus sensu Bres. = I. tamaricis
rheades, Xanthochrous, ssp. tamaricis = I. tama-
ribis, l nonotus = Phellinus ribi s, Igi
rickii, Xanthochrous, Polyporus, Inonotus , 183
rodwayi, Inonotus, 183
salebrosus, Polyporus = I. polymorphus
salicum, Xanthochrous, In onotus hispidus forma ,
schinii, Inonotus, Polyporus = I. cuticularis
sciurinus, Inonotus, 182
scrobiculatus, Inonotus, Polyporus, Polystictus =
I. radiatus
scrobiculatus, lnonotus radiatus var. = I. radia-
setigera, Poria = 1. radiatus var. resupinatus
setiporus, Inonotus = Cyclomyces setiporus, Igi
spongia. Inonotus = Phaeolus schweinitzii forma
spongia, Igl
spongiosa, Boletus = I. hispidus
stuckerti, Ceriomyces = Imperfect form of I.
subexcarnis, Xanthochrous, I. radiatus forma, 182
subhispidus , Polyporus, Inonotus, 18g
sulphureopuloerulentus, Inonotus = Phaeolus
schweinitzii , Igi
tabacinus, lnonotus = Cyclomyces tabacinus, Igl
tamaricis, Xanthochrous, Polyporus, Inonotus, 187
tenuicarnis, Inonotus, 18g
texanus, Inonotu s, Polyporus, 188
tinctorius, Polyporus, Xanthochrous, l nonotus =
I. hispid us
triqueter, Inonotus = Polystictus circi natus var.
triqueter, 18g
triqueter var. purpurescens, Inonotus = Lepto-
porus mollis, Igi
ufensis, lnonotus = Cori olopsis trabea, Igl
umbrinus, PolyPOTUS = I. obliquus
unicolor, Inonotus = Spongipellis uni color , Igl
uelutinus, Boletus = I. hispidus
victoriensis, Inonotus, Polyporus, 180
oillosus, Boletus = I. hispidus
uulpinus, Polystictus, PolypoTUS, lnonotus = I.
wilsonii, Inonotus, Polyporus = Polyporus
chrysites, IgI
xanthosporus, Polyporus, Poria = I. andersoni i
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In 1963 Bondartsev & Ljubarsky (Notul. Syst., Crypt. Inst. Bot. Acad. Sci.
V.R.S.S. 16, 130, fig. 4-5) described from Quercus a polypore, Inonotus melleo-
marginatus, from the Primorsk region, Siberia. The sporophore consisted of
imbricate, thin pilei, each being 0'2-0'S em. thick with a honey coloured
margin; spores hyaline, 4-S x 3-3'S (-4) /1; setae numerous, 35-90 x 9-1 t p..
This species would appear to be very close to I. radiatus var. licentii, and
ultimately the two may be regarded as synonymous.
(Accepted for publication 26 June 1963)