Introduction to Global Urban Education | Millennium Development Goals | Programme For International Student Assessment

Photo Credit: Martha Adams, courtesy of Girl Rising and 10x10 Productions

Introduction to Global Urban Education
SYLLABUS Spring 2014

Professor:
Dr. Fred Mednick Founder, Teachers Without Borders Assistant Professor, Johns Hopkins University School of Education cell: (Seattle) 206-356-4731 fred@twb.org or fred.mednick@jhu.edu

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Table of Contents
Note for Johns Hopkins University Students ...................................................................... 2 Course Description ............................................................................................................ 2 Course Objectives ............................................................................................................. 3 Required Texts and Other Materials .................................................................................. 3 Webinars ........................................................................................................................... 3 Credits and Grading Criteria .............................................................................................. 4 Essential Course Policies .................................................................................................. 5 Session 1: Getting Oriented, Learning About Each Other, Digging In ........................ 8 Session 2: Comparative Education (Part II) ............................................................. 11 Session 3: International Testing, Part I (Hopkins students start here) .................... 13 Session 4: International Testing, Part II ................................................................... 15 Session 5: Education and the Global Development Agenda .................................... 16 Session 6: Education in Emergencies ..................................................................... 20 Session 7: Global and Glocal Education .................................................................. 23 HOPKINS STUDENTS ONLY: ......................................................................................... 25 Session 8: Girls‘ Education, NGOs, and Universities (4 Weeks).............................. 25 Session 9: Global Research and Local Practice – Safe Schools ............................. 29 Selected Bibliography ...................................................................................................... 30

Note for Johns Hopkins University Students
1. This syllabus is being revised to reflect the unique collaboration with non-Hopkins students. PLEASE START AT SESSION 3 on page 13: International Testing, Part I 2. To read ahead and see how this course will be extended for you, see Sessions 8 on, beginning on pg. 22

Course Description
Developed through a close collaboration between Johns Hopkins University‘s School of Education and Teachers Without Borders, ―Introduction to Global Urban Education‖ centers around four themes: (1) comparative education (2) education and development

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(3) education in emergencies and (4) global education within and beyond the classroom. I have structured the discussions and assignments to give you options as you examine some of the most perplexing issues and questions in global education today. How has the international community looked at the goals of education? How have international comparisons been used in debates about school reform worldwide? What are the implications of the growth of global networks for curriculum? Who are the other important actors in international education? What is the connection between education and development? How have educators dealt with education in emergency situations, both throughout the world and one‘s own backyard? How can we provide global education for our classrooms and education for the world of students in our classrooms? While the course will focus on large questions such as these, students who are practicing educators will be able to reach out to global colleagues, discuss these issues as points of entry into their own practice, and learn more about getting involved in education — worldwide.

Course Objectives
Throughout this course, students will:        Explore the central questions in comparative international education Critique the use of international comparisons in policy debates Understand the rationale for global education goals Provide a critical analysis of the relationship between education and development Demonstrate the components of education in emergencies Incorporate international content into practice and gain tools to reach global students Build a global network of education colleagues

Required Texts and Other Materials
None. This course only includes free, open content available to the public. All course readings will be made available in the course website. Most resources are governed by a Creative Commons 3.0 license. In short, no textbooks and no textbook fees.

Webinars
Traditionally, this course has been almost entirely asynchronous. Students have been reading and writing at a time that meets their own schedule and nothing has been live. If time zones permit, however, I would like to hold live webinars with the group and with guest speakers.

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Credits and Grading Criteria
CREDITS: This is non-credit course professional development course is available for Continuing Education Units (CEUs). In selected cases, students can solicit a letter of recommendation: a valuable asset in a teacher‘s portfolio. The degree to which you commit to the course content (and each other) determines the quality of that letter. To receive CEU credit, all assignments must be completed in the form of a portfolio (described below). The professor may require that students make edits before determining the completion of any assignment. . In addition to the written assignments, students are required to respond to the readings and to each other throughout each week by posing or responding to issues or the comments of each other. This cannot be saved up until the end. Should there be any issue about making deadlines, the professor must be contacted in advance. ―Attendance‖ is determined by student engagement with the classroom content and tools, with other students, and with the instructor. GRADING CRITERIA FOR CEUs: We‘re going to be using a point system. You‘ll get feedback on discussions and assignments. Please know that your work will NOT be judged based upon the style or grammar of your writing, especially because a significant number of colleagues will not be writing in your first language. That would not be fair. Students‘ submissions for assignments shall be evaluated based upon the following criteria:

[6]: Exemplary: Clear incorporation of research, an extra effort to learn more, proper
acknowledgment of material other than your own, creativity, and clarity. All of this would be worthy of sharing to educators around the world and makes a contribution to our knowledge of teaching and learning. Mentor status.

[4-5]: Meets Requirements: Satisfies the expectations of the assignment with
professional use of sources.

[3]: Needs Work: Basic treatment of the ideas, but needs to dig deeper in order to
show core competence. To get credit, I would be asking for a revision

[0-2]: No Credit: (a) Student uses others‘ ideas as her/his own without attribution,
and/or (b) does not address or respect the assignment. HOPKINS STUDENTS: We will use the same grading criteria as above in order to keep the Gradebook consistent. However, I will be translating these into the same scale used across JHU-SOE, and will provide you with that feedback directly. Here is the JHU-SOE scale for this course:   Participation in class discussion (30%) Papers up to Session 8: (20%)

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Session 8 and Session 9 papers: (25% each)

Grading Scale (The grading scale is determined by the university. Instructors should assign point values or % for each of the grades listed below) A = 92+% A- = 89-91%% B+ = 85-88% B = 82-84% B- = 80-81% C+ = 77-79% C = 75-76% C- = 70-74% Note to Instructors: The following statement must appear on the syllabus: ―The grades of D+, D, and D- are not awarded at the graduate level.‖

Essential Course Policies
INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY The Internet is a social contract designed around the idea that learning is sharing. It requires that we both generously share our ideas AND explicitly acknowledge the work of others. You might write something that someone, somewhere needs. Post it and share it.1 Apologies in advance for repeating the obvious, but plagiarism (copying and pasting the work of others without appropriate attribution or credit to the author) is theft, plain and simple. You might also find the perfect article to address an issue you wish to explore for an assignment. Go ahead, post it, but you must cite it and give credit to the author. The assignments are not roadblocks to conquer, but opportunities for growth. That article you may have found is just a means, not the end; use it to reinforce your point, not in place of your point Though we won‘t take points off for the citation format you use, the preferred citation style for this course is the Tw Format. Here is a Quick Guide to APA Format to guide you along. Two YouTube videos can serve as a exemplars:
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The majority of our policies about the creation, use, and reuse of content are adapted from the work of our colleague, David Wiley, PhD of Brigham Young University — a pioneer in the field of Open Educational Resources (OER). To learn more about the transformative power of OER, please look up: www.davidwiley.org and, in particular, his course: Introduction to Openness in Education.

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APA Style References Using Word for APA Style References

PLAGIARISM: IT‘S YOUR REPUTATION On occasion, I will spot-check for plagiarism, but we don‘t want to chase after you. That‘s not learning — it‘s policing. At the same time, five of your blog posts will be public. If you copy and paste the work of others without proper attribution, someone will notice. Your reputation, even your job, could be at stake. As U.S. Supreme Court Justice Louis Brandeis famously observed, ―sunlight is said to be the best of disinfectants.” You may need course credit (CEUs) or an acknowledgment that you participated in this course, but reputation should be the biggest motivator for doing one‘s best. OFFICIAL POLICIES FROM JOHNS HOPKINS UNIVERSITY ON ACADEMIC INTEGRITY ―Violations of academic integrity and ethical conduct include, but are not limited to, cheating, plagiarism, unapproved multiple submissions, knowingly furnishing false or incomplete information to any agent of the University for inclusion in academic reco rds…‖ For full policy and misconduct proceedings, see the Academic Policy section of School of Education. The School of Education defines academic misconduct as any intentional or unintentional act that provides an unfair or improper advantage beyond a student‘s own work, intellect, or effort, including but not limited to cheating, fabrication, plagiarism, unapproved multiple submissions, or helping others engage in misconduct. This includes the misuse of electronic media, text, print, images, speeches and ideas. Any act that violates the spirit of authorship or gives undue advantage is a violation. Students are responsible for understanding what constitutes academic misconduct. Please note that student work may be submitted to Turnitin.com, an online plagiarism detection tool, at the discretion of the course instructor. If student work is deemed plagiarized, the course instructor shall follow the policy and procedures governing academic misconduct as laid out in the School of Education‘s Academic Catalog. LATE WORK POLICY Educators are some of the busiest people in the world and so we understand how understand how the tyranny of the urgent can get in the way of getting work in on time. At the same time, many assignments require collaboration, and group work entails obligations to each other. Whether it is an individual assignment or a collaborative project, please be reasonable, and I will be as well. Whatever the circumstance, please inform me (or your group) so that no one is caught off guard. That said, excessive lateness can result in notification of no-credit for the assignment and/or the course.

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RELIGIOUS OBSERVANCE ACCOMMODATION POLICY Religious holidays are valid reasons to be excused from class. Students who must miss a class or examination because of a religious holiday must inform me as early in the term as possible in order to ensure that there is adequate time to make up and respond to the work PARTICIPATION Participation and discussions are included in student grading and evaluation. The instructor will clearly communicate expectations and grading policy in the course syllabus. Students who are unable to participate in the online sessions for personal, professional, religious, or other reasons are encouraged to contact me to discuss alternatives. STATEMENT OF ACADEMIC CONTINUITY For any of us, things happen. In the event of issues (serious personal matters, no access to the internet, or other extraordinary circumstances) preventing active participation in, and/or the delivery of this online course, we‘ll do our best to make accommodations. If it happens to your course instructors or the School of Education‘s platform goes down, for example, we may have to change the normal academic schedule and/or make appropriate changes to course structure, format, and delivery. ACCOMMODATIONS FOR STUDENTS WITH DISABILITIES If you are a student with a documented disability who requires an academic adjustment, auxiliary aid or other similar accommodations, please contact Jennifer Eddinger in the Disability Services Office at 410-516-9734 or via email at soe.disabilityservices@jhu.edu. STATEMENT OF DIVERSITY AND INCLUSION Johns Hopkins University is a community committed to sharing values of diversity and inclusion in order to achieve and sustain excellence. We believe excellence is best promoted by being a diverse group of students, faculty, and staff who are committed to creating a climate of mutual respect that is supportive of one another‘s success. Through its curricula and clinical experiences, the School of Education purposefully supports the University‘s goal of diversity, and, in particular, works toward an ultimate outcome of best serving the needs of all students in K-12 schools and/or the community. Faculty and candidates are expected to demonstrate a commitment to diversity as it relates to planning, instruction, management, and assessment. Whew! Let‘s Get Started!

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Session 1: Getting Oriented, Learning About Each Other, Digging In
Session Dates: January 13th – 19th 2014 Due Date: Jan. 18th

Photo Credit 1: Fred Mednick

INTRODUCTION There‘s a lot to absorb for this course and a lot to do for this first week. All of it is designed to accomplish two objectives: (1) help you get organized technologically so that you can familiarize yourself with the various required tools you‘ll need to be successful, and (2) build a community by helping you to get to know – and being comfortable with – each other. INTRODUCTION I have prepared several video introductions for this course, but they all seemed to fall short, so please forgive me if I show you a photograph and speak from the heart. I will also be in touch with each one of you and will arrange for a video-conference (free, of course) soon, so that we can have a more personal set of conversations. For now, allow me to introduce this course with a photograph I took in Kabul, Afghanistan in early 2004. For almost 10 years, I‘ve been asking colleagues to tell me what they notice.

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Since I started teaching this course, I have been thinking about the image once again. In many ways, the questions it raises are at the heart of this course. Some of you may notice the women in blue burqas. Others may notice the woman in jeans and a headscarf. You may notice the mannequins in wedding dresses. And some of you may visit the gates (whether they are opening or closing) or the appearance of accessibility behind the thin, but perhaps inaccessible, storefront window. Still others might wonder about what the women might be thinking, or if they are communicating with each other, or how distant it all feels from one‘s own experience. This course is about all those thoughts. Introduction to Global Urban Education seeks to understand education from a global perspective. It is designed to stimulate conversations amongst people you may never meet, from countries you may never visit, and whose experience you may never share. It is about gaining a global perspective on your work in your own back yard. It is about mirroring your experience in the company of colleagues, about examining the data of comparative education systems in order to see your own more clearly. This course may challenge you to wonder aloud if the gates of your education system are opening or closing, about inclusion or exclusion, tradition and modernity. It‘s also about education in emergencies, how education affects global issues, and how those issues affect global education. Most of all, this course is about teachers. I founded Teachers Without Borders in 2000 because I believe teachers are they key to social change on a global scale. At over 59 million, teachers are the largest professionally trained group in the world. They know who is sick or missing or orphaned by AIDS. They have their ear to the ground. Every day, they take the commun ity‘s pulse. Unfortunately, their voices are rarely heard. More often than not, they are demonized as the problem, rather than the solution. In far too many cases, teachers are the subjects of attack. Thank you for taking the time to grapple with these issues. I‘ll do my very best to be there for you, to hear you. Brains are evenly distributed around the world and the students in Introduction to Global Urban Education have been a shining example. ACTIVITIES Take the Survey Please take the short survey designed for colleagues in this course to learn more about each other. We‘ll post the results of the survey, but feel free to reach out to your classmates informally. Optional: Set up a Blog All to often, learning tends to evaporate once a course comes to a close. I'm trying to avoid this. This course should be just the beginning of a global collaboration by encouraging you to allow the public to read your work. You can use any blog service that you like: WordPress, Blogger, and Tumblr are all good examples. If you‘re new to blogging, there are plenty of great tutorials and great advice to help you get started.

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Fill out the Google Doc This Google Doc is designed to ensure that you have access to each other and, if you choose to have a blog, to share your blogs. I am working on a means by which your blogs will appear on a separate site.

DISCUSSION POST: ―OUTSIDE MY WINDOW‖ Please post to the Discussion Space for Session 1: Outside My Window Please include your name in the title and then any sub-title you want. Example: Maria Cervantes: A View of a Courtyard in Quito ―What do you see outside your window? How has your view affected your perspective on education?‖ If at all possible, I would love it if you would attach a photogr aph, drawing, or – if truly inspired – upload a video to YouTube or Vimeo and send in the link. I have been asking this question for several years for a book about the power and impact of teachers on global development. Be as creative as you would like. Speak from the heart. Start with what you actually see outside your window: Here are some prompts: Do you see bars on windows? Open fields? Do you have a window at all? You might pick a time of day, perhaps the morning, as students arrive. How do they get there? Or the afternoon, as they leave. What do they do next? 
 Next, reflect on your perspective. What are the obstacles along the way? What are your daily rituals? What do you worry about? What are students' biggest worries? 
 What challenges and/or opportunities do you face? If you had the power (even a magic wand) to change education globally, what would you do? Would you work at the level of the school, the district, the government, or on a global scale? Would you focus on policy? Pedagogy? An entirely new design for learning? Again, images or video welcome! NOTE: There are some examples from this very same course, offered earlier this year linked in the callout box. Please keep your post to two pages maximum. READINGS

• • •

Comparative Education: Exploring Issues in International Context (PowerPoint) Comparative Education - Carla Piper, Ed.D. Nacho Man - Fred Mednick (a humorous piece)

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Infographic - World Bank

Session 2: Comparative Education (Part II)
Session Dates: January 20th – 26th 2014 Discussion Due: January 24th INTRODUCTION The field of Comparative Education is loosely defined as the analysis of global educational systems, as well as the process of lending, borrowing, and sharing of what and how one learns, thereby influencing the creation and development of each nation‘s educational systems and policies. That's the classic objective view. Subjectively, a field seemingly obscure and academic has turned into a heated global conversation, a political football, a global development agenda, an economic yardstick, and a cultural trophy. One thing for sure: it's complicated - made more complex by hundreds of variables, deeply nuanced cultural references, and power relationships. We can no longer discuss issues such as these without talking about the influence of (and visibility made possible by) the internet on comparative educational systems, global achievement testing, and global educational development: public data reports, micro blogs, texts, games, videos with multilingual subtitling, maps, open educational resources, library repositories, interoperable platforms, Skype, infographics, visual data, TED talks, and news feeds. A subject as old as curiosity itself, comparative education has been shaped by pressing needs (survival) and traveled via campfire tales, oral traditional wisdom, Biblical stories, Silk Road narratives, Bedouin scrolls, and missionary journals. They appear on 14th century plates of moveable type, 17th century archives of ―grand tours‖ (for European men of means only at the time), and letters, followed by aerograms, faxes, email, and tweets. In the 20th and 21st centuries, edu-tours and global student exchange programs have accelerated the frequency and speed of first-hand experiences with education around the world. My offering ("Nacho Man") attempts to shed light on the issue in lighter, more humorous terms. I hope you will forgive my somewhat breezy tone, but I wrote it with the deepest of respect for the field and its pioneers. Today, comparative education has also entered a new phase. Sharing ideas has become accessible, ubiquitously available, and increasingly affordable. Is it adaptable and adoptable? It remains to be seen. We can no longer discuss issues such as these without talking about the influence of (and visibility made possible by) the internet on comparative educational systems, global achievement testing, and global educational

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development: public data reports, micro blogs, texts, games, videos with multilingual subtitling, maps, open educational resources, library repositories, interoperable platforms, Skype, infographics, visual data, TED talks, and news feeds. We'll comb through the data and reports to determine if and when such comparisons are useful, misleading, or (you fill in the blanks). I also hope that you'll see the connections to your own work and come to grips with the issues it raises. Next, please view the presentation by Dr. Eric Rice, my dear colleague at Johns Hopkins University READINGS These readings touch on different perspectives of comparative education, global measurements, and the connection between education and development. There‘s a lot here. You may be surprised to see older documents (the UNESCO document and one from Dr. Fernando Reimers). These are not legacy readings from an old syllabus, but deliberate choices. I‘m interested in hearing what you think of them alongside of documents focusing on future strategies and technology.
1. 2.

Learning - The Treasure Within: UNESCO (the meaning of education) Where are 60 Million Teachers? The Missing Voice in Educational Reforms Around the World.: Fernando Reimers, PhD Harvard 1999 Education Strategy 2020: ‫ | ال عرب ية‬中文 | English | Français | Português | Русский | Español: World Bank (position paper) Equipping Every Learner for the 21st Century: Cisco (power of the internet) The Khan Academy: Educational website (instructional videos)

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4. 5.

DISCUSSION POST: Immediate Reaction Due: January 24th Post your response to the readings and respond to at least one other colleague‘s post. What strikes you about these readings? Do they speak to you? Is there something you disagree with? Something you feel is missing? Do they challenge an assumption you‘ve had or introduce an entirely new perspective? WRITING: EDITORIAL Due: January 26th Write an editorial designed for teachers you know, convincing them to care about comparative education. Each of the readings points to a different perspective that can guide you as you write. 1. Is this about the impossibility, today, of living in isolation?

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2. Is about the need to learn from and with education practices from around the world? 3. Is it about the need to prepare students for a globally competitive world? 4. Why should any of this matter? 5. How might comparative education impact one's ‗window‘? In your post, please demonstrate that you have read these articles. You don‘t have to site each one, but you should validate the themes and approaches these articles represent. This assignment is designed both to clarify perspectives on comparative education and lead toward its role in guiding you as a practitioner (in your own backyard or around the world). Regarding citing sources: though we won‘t take points off for the citation format you use, the preferred citation style for this course is the APA Format. Here is a Quick Guide to APA Format to guide you along.

Session 3: International Testing, Part I
Session Dates: January 27th – February 2nd 2014 Due Dates: Discussions and comments by Feb. 2nd INTRODUCTION The TIMSS (Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study) and Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) tests and comparisons are all over the news and beg questions like: ―Is our country competitive in the global arena?‖ ―What is the state of teaching and learning in our country?‖ In this session, you can look at data in order to discover patterns, draw conclusions, and ask questions about what it all means to us as educators. TIMSS is a source for ―reliable and timely data on the mathematics and science achievement of 4th- and 8th-grade students compared to that of students in other countries. TIMSS data have been collected in 1995, 1999, 2003, 2007, and 2011.‖ (http://nces.ed.gov/Timss/)

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The PISA test is ―an international study that was launched by the OECD in 1997. It aims to evaluate education systems worldwide every three years by assessing 15-year-olds' competencies in the key subjects: reading, mathematics and science. To date over 70 countries and economies have participated in PISA.‖ (http://www.oecd.org/pisa/) READINGS and REVIEW I know, this list looks huge, but it‘s to give you a sense of the field. We‘re only asking that you familiarize yourself with these readings. Draw some conclusions and share them. The writing portion clarifies this more. Also, please know that these readings extend into Session 4.
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PISA 2009 Key Findings TIMSS Science Report and TIMSS Mathematics Report World Bank Database and Infographic What the OECD says about successful countries U.S. Education vs. The World - Infographic "Today's Assignment," Louis Menand, The New Yorker

Here is some context for navigating all this so that you don't get intimidated:
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The short video is a nice introduction, but please peruse the PISA findings to draw your own conclusions Take a broad look at the TIMSS reports to see whether your assumptions still hold true The World Bank database is very interactive. Dig a little to see if you see patterns The OECD report should stimulate conversation about whether the success stories can work where you live The Louis Menand piece from The New Yorker discusses a comparative education view of homework

DISCUSSION: EDUCATION IN MY COUNTRY Due: Feb. 2nd Consider the following: What conclusions do you draw about how education in your country is doing when compared to the rest of the world? What in the readings surprises you? Worries you? Angers or inspires you? Include at least one statistic that supports your point of view and site the source Provide at least two responses to your colleagues as well. These responses should cite the source for your response.

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Session 4: International Testing, Part II
Session Dates: February 3rd – 9th 2014 INTRODUCTION This week, we continue to look at International Testing by examining the data in relationship to the country in which we currently live and work. Part One focused on a survey of the field, particularly the global measurements and the criteria used in TIMSS and PISA tests. We've looked at the characteristics of those educational systems (based upon these tests) considered to be the most successful, as well as the components missing in those countries that do poorly. All of this raises issues about equity, funding, the value of the tests themselves for determining policy, and the relative merits, risks, and liabilities of the tests themselves. This is comparative education writ large - accessible and formidable. Part Two is devoted to looking at it all from the perspective of one‘s own country. Is all of this fair? Unfair? What are your conclusions after reading through the reports? Can the successes in Norway, for example, be adapted for X country (yours)? Why would you want to adapt such lessons for your country? If convinced they have value, how would you go about it? What key elements must be in place or change in order to make change that can be sustained and scaled? Beside highlighting the ―stars,‖ as well as those countries that are not performing well (based upon these tests), what do these tests do to advance or hold back the field of global comparative education? OBJECTIVES By the end of this session, learners will be able to:  Discuss the data from International Tests
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Formulate hypotheses regarding relative national successes on international exams Describe the relevance of international comparisons for their own practice

READINGS: None. Last week was heavy enough and is necessary for this week VIDEO: Yong Zhao, on Catching Up or Leading the Way: American Education in the Age of Globalization: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tNpZ60IJ42o DISCUSSION: BORROWING IDEAS or FILLING GAPS DUE: February 7th

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Choice 1 Welcome to the tyranny of the urgent. Imagine that you have been just asked by an education leader to make a case for a more global approach to your country‘s educational system. In order to make a strong case, you have been tasked with choosing ONE powerful idea your country should borrow from another country. In no more than two paragraphs, what would it be? Choose a policy, a subject, or an approach. Why? How might it fit? Choice 2 What idea might you borrow from another country to improve education where you live and teach? Why? How would you implement it? What must be in place this idea to take root? How might that idea be adapted to fit your context? How would you measure whether this borrowed idea was successful? Include at least three statistics from last week‘s reading and/or this week‘s readings that supports your point of view.

Session 5: Education and the Global Development Agenda
Session Dates (Extended): February 10th – 23rd 2014 NOTE: This session includes a collaborative activity to create a presentation on the Millennium Development Goals. DUE DATES:   Discussions: February 15th – 23rd Collaborative Presentation: February 26th (extends into Session 6)

INTRODUCTION A European NGO once merged the definition of comparative education with education and development in this way: ―an active learning process, founded on values of solidarity, equality, inclusion and co-operation. It enables people to move from basic awareness of international development priorities `and sustainable human development, through understanding of the causes and effects of global issues, to personal involvement and informed action.‖ In other words, what we learn we share. By sharing, we're enabled to act. By acting, we serve. Let‘s see how this works in the real world. We‘re going to move from the window of how your country stands (educationally) in comparison with other countries — to a global view of education and development through the lens of the Millennium Development Goals.

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According to the United Nations, the 8 Millennium Development Goals ―…form a blueprint agreed to by all the world‘s countries and all the world‘s leading development insti tutions. They have galvanized unprecedented efforts to meet the needs of the world‘s poorest.‖ Access to high-quality education is widely recognized as a universal human right. MDGs focus on national self-reliance, sound policy, sustainability, educational access, and global transparency. We've all heard about breakthroughs in health, e-government, girls‘ education, transparency, and the rule of law, as well as the impact of technology on accessibility, affordability, and availability of information. The U.N‘s Millennium Development Goals are a source for global comparisons in terms of the connection between education and development. If you're not familiar with them, you'll certainly know why they inspire hope AND highly emotional conversation. We'll look at the MDGs, particularly those that refer to education, though I strongly believe ALL MDGs are about education or, at the very least, cannot be achieved without education. We‘ll study the role of stakeholders and shareholders in the MDG debate: NGOs, nation states, corporations, global agencies, academics, and individuals. Session 5 addresses themes in which the theoretical and has real consequences for the practical, research is compared to reality, and when education meets development. The consequences are enormous. We will focus on the United Nations Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), to be reached (theoretically) by 2015. The optimists are downright giddy with the progress we’ve made. More children than ever are attending school. While global diseases have become increasingly difficult to identify and treat, public health successes in areas such as hygiene and immunization have defied prediction. Public-private partnerships and individual philanthropy have grown into a formidable force for change. Technological advances have enabled, stimulated, accelerated, improved, and scaled the capacity to create and sustain low-cost, low-maintenance solutions to vexing problems. UNESCO has astutely evaluated the degree to which such solutions can lower barriers, rather than promote empty promises. Researchers and development practitioners often ask: Is it accessible? Available? Affordable? Acceptable? Adaptable? Adoptable? With rapid advances in technologies, evaluators and policy makers must choose amongst multiple solutions and determine whether they are both efficient and effective, whether they are portable and supportable, whether they invade privacy, secure data, balance access with privacy, and respect culture. These technologies are also borderless. Throughout the civil unrest in Egypt this past summer, one of the students in ―Introduction to Global Urban Education‖ was tweeting about education and the disruption of schools directly from Tahrir Square. Global events can be reported in unedited form, from multiple sources. The world is watching. The pessimists are not behind. On a good day, critics argue that the development world has failed to make the distinction between capacity building and global aid, and in the gap between the two, terrible things

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happen. Harsher views point to corrupt leadership, fake civil society organizations, a lack of protection for teachers and students, the gap wholesale disregard for the priority of education, and a dependence on foreign aid rather than taking on the responsibilities of the state. This critical view is not limited to issues within countries. From the outside-in, critics expose "poverty pornographers" who descend upon a country in crisis with high-definition cameras and a prurient interest in nothing but war, famine, and disease; international organizations that play to our heartstrings in order to get to our purse strings, yet mismanage funds and the public trust; "fabulous ideas" that have introduced new tragedies, rather than help ameliorate them. These critics claim that "noblesse oblige" and the "white man's burden" are simply new forms of an old colonial model: irrational and impulsive educational imports, poorly tested educational ―solutions,‖ technological evangelism, and corporate advertising/market penetration thinly disguised as "social" responsibility. In Haiti, very few NGOs are officially registered, though thousands claim they work there. Millions of dollars have poured into the country, but no one can account for it. Three years after the earthquake, a physicist and mathematician calculated that there is enough rubble still clogging the streets of Port-au-Prince to build a four-lane highway to Los Angeles and back again. Palagunmi Sainath‘s Everybody Loves a Good Drought; Stories from India’s Poorest Districts, paints a withering picture of a development-is-its-own-disaster syndrome: ―Development is the strategy of evasion. When you can‘t give people land reform, give them hybrid cows. When you can‘t send children to school, try non -formal education. When you can‘t provide basic health to people, talk of health insurance. Can‘t give them jobs? Not to worry, just redefine the words ―employment opportunities." Don‘t want to do away with using children as a form of slave labor? Never mind. Talk of ‗improving the conditions of child labor!‘ It sounds good. You can even ma ke money out of it (Sainth, 1996).‖ Ross Coggins introduces Graham Hancock‘s book, The Lords of Poverty: The Power, Prestige, and Corruption of the International Aid Business, with a poem entitled: The Development Set; it's painful, but it‘s worth reading. OBJECTIVES By the end of this session, learners will be able to:
  

Describe the major players in international development as it relates to education Describe the setting of goals for international development as it relates to education Argue for policy options for reaching educational goals

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Consider one‘s own perspective on education and development

ACTIVITIES This session has several elements, so it is important to proceed in sequence:
 

Depending upon the size of the class, you will be working in groups of 4-5 colleagues each on one Millennium Development Goal. Details to be announced. The team approach is always more complicated, but it can also propel forward a whole new set of ideas and relationships. Teams are described in the Teams tab (blue main-heading tab on your left) You‘ll be working from a template using Google Present, a free collaborative tool very much like Powerpoint. Inside each team is a template for your project. This term, we are going to focus on three of the MDGs focusing on access to education, poverty, and women‘s empowerment. Links to the groups and templates are available inside the course platform. You will, however, be able to post discussion items at any group

 

READINGS
  

Millennium Development Goals (UN) – required review Education Strategy: Improving Lives Through Learning (USAID) Issues in Basic Education in Developing Countries: An Exploration of Policy Options for Improved Delivery, Joseph P. G. Chimombo. Centre for Educational Research and Training, University of Malawi TED Talk: http://www.ted.com/talks/charles_leadbeater_on_education.html ―To Build a Nation, Build a Schoolhouse‖ New York Times interview with Amartya Sen

 

ON GLOBALLY COLLABORATIVE GROUPS Groups can be really frustrating because of lack of communication or clarity. After you have introduced yourselves, talk frankly about protocols. I‘ll post more links to guidelines for group-work to help you along the way. In the meantime, here‘s what I have learned over the years: in groups, some colleagues immediately gravitate toward a leadership role, while others like to play a supporting role. Some wish to focus on numbers; others on stories. Many groups take on these roles:     Organizers: People valued for their ability to manage Creators: People who create content (numbers, stories, and pictures) Distillers: People who transform complex ideas into forms we can all understand Presenters: People who put it all together for public presentation

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Technologists: People who get technology and can solve problems for everyone

You can collaborate inside your groups (chat, news, updates) and, of course, use the comment function of Google Present. Instructions can be found on each slide of the template. (a) You need to work together to present a picture of the MDG, along with resources for teachers (b) Keep in mind that each of you also has a slide to express your own perspective.
a. CUSTOMIZE: Revise this template to suit your group and work together to create it b. PERSONALIZE: Each person in the group also has her/his own slide c. PUBLICIZE: Post the link. You can all post the presentation link on your blogs. Your professor and mentors need to know what that link is, so make certain that you communicate to us. To share your public link, click on the blue Share button at the top-right corner of the Google Presentation, and choose: ―Public on the web.‖

GROUP ASSIGNMENT: Please designate one person (who especially enjoys technology) should take on the responsibility for coordinating the Google Presentation and making certain that it is public. An organizer type may be good at collecting individual slides and sending them to this person to format and publicize.

Session 6: Education in Emergencies
Session Dates: February 24th – March 2nd 2014 DUE DATE for Assignment: March 4th   CEU Students: Optional Hopkins Students: Required

INTRODUCTION Professor Dana Burde of the Saltzman Institute of War and Peace Studies at Columbia University writes about how borders in post-conflict regions are notoriously porous, subjecting whole countries to the likes of organized crime, which feeds on teetering states and makes it close to impossible to reconstruct or revitalize education. Education, in fact, can bolster a society to resist such these forays into a country's ability to survive, and open up the kinds of borders that can allow a country to thrive. Imagine if it all came tumbling down in an earthquake, the damage of which could also be mitigated - through education.

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In short, the field of emergency education is enormous and complex. Institutions, worldwide, must cope with new intra- or international thugs, human trafficking, dwindling resources, youth-targeted paramilitary recruitment campaigns, war, and a capricious susceptibility to the ravages of climate change. Fragile states cannot maintain their schools and protect education. The refugee population, worldwide, is growing alongside a youth bulge. Teachers, students, and schools are often unable to establish normalcy, no less participate in an information age. In several cases, well-intentioned NGOs, well-resourced individuals, and global agencies attempting to fill the gaps end up absolving governments from the responsibility of taking care of their own people.‖ Even ―natural‖ disasters can be ―national disasters‖ (floods made worse by policies that allow for clear-cutting a forest, unreinforced school buildings that kill teachers and students in an earthquake). And though they represent the clearest connection to a healthy future, the voice of teachers is rarely heard. But there‘s hope, and working across borders can make a difference. Global teacher networks, free Open Educational Resources (OER), and both public-private and globallocal partnerships have addressed insurmountable challenges effectively and creatively. In this module on education in emergencies, we will focus on the work of the Interagency Network for Education in Emergencies (INEE) because they are responsible for establishing the standards that govern coordination support for prevention, planning, and global aid. Today, when an emergency breaks out, INEE has made it mandatory for educators to be part of first-responder teams. That‘s incredible, really. We will only touch the surface in a field that reaches into every aspect of development: human rights, policy, water...a long list of issues for which the voice of teachers is central. They know who is sick or missing or orphaned by AIDS. They count the children in emergencies, create child-friendly spaces, and provide desperately needed psychosocial support for families. Johns Hopkins University and Teachers Without Borders have every intention of extending this module into the realm of whole courses. For many of you, this module will be painful. Some of you have experienced national and natural disasters, even more painful because so many could have been prevented. Let's do our best to read and write from the heart and, along the way, start along the path for both understanding the field and, if possible, making a difference. REQUIRED and RECOMMENDED READINGS
    

Interagency Network on Education in Emergencies: INEE) (review website) INEE Minimum Standards (required) and INEE Toolkit (review) Education Under Attack UNESCO (review) Schools as Battlegrounds: Human Rights Watch (PDF) – (review) UNICEF Education in Emergencies: A Resource Toolkit: UNICEF (review)

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The Sphere Project – Key documents that form the Humanitarian Charter (review)

DISCUSSION: BURNING ISSUE What is a burning issue for you from the readings? What do you find compelling? What is missing? Please be aware that the field of Education in Emergencies can be highly emotional. This is a time to speak from the heart, ask questions, and to look around for those whose postings do not have a response and reach out. ASSIGNMENT Briefly review links from INEE‘s Toolkit Themes, which focus on very practical pocket guides and tools for practitioners of education in emergencies: 2 pages maximum: For the writing assignment below, please choose one Thematic Area from the list. There are a couple of choices (1) a personal one and (2) an activist one. Customize the assignment (details below) to fit your needs. All of this information is also located on the Inter-Agency Network for Education in Emergencies (INEE) website. In one or two paragraphs, please reflect (personally or professionally) about why you have chosen this thematic area. Is it something you are simply curious about or that strikes you as entirely new? Is it a personal or professional experience that drives you to learn more or to express yourself? Are you suspicious about current efforts in this area? Would you have chosen a different thematic area had you not taken this course? What does this thematic area inspire you to do? Expand the curriculum? Introduce this to your classroom? Get involved? Change policy? Expose an injustice? Why? How? Show us not only what you would do, but also how you would do it. For example... you may have chosen education financing because your country now faces a crisis. You may note that only 2% of funds in humanitarian aid go to education, yet education has been shown to be the key to development. How might the financing modalities included in this theme help your situation? Clearly, with a strong voice as an active change-maker, you seek to act. What protocols would you use? NOTE: You might want to consider the questions Michael J. Gibbons of American University asks his students to consider as they explore the field of education in emergencies: 1. What happens to education when an emergency occurs?
2. What policies exist to guide official, humanitarian and community education

preparedness, response and recovery actions?
3. What practices and resources have been developed to support education in

emergencies?

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4. Who and what are the key players, structures and institutions involved with

education in emergencies and what roles do and should they play? We have added this question: What role can educators play in both policy and in the classroom to prevent disasters from happening or, at least, help mitigate against them?

Session 7: Global and Glocal Education
Session Dates: March 3rd – 9th 2014 Due Date: March 11th (extended) INTRODUCTION We‘ve explored comparative education; national education comparisons (achievement testing); education and development (teacher training, policy, national priorities); emergency education (global aid, national and natural disasters affecting education). Now it‘s time to explore glocal education (intersection of global and local and the world in your classroom – the needs of refugees students and families); and global education (the world for your classroom). OBJECTIVES   Incorporate international content into one‘s own educational context Tie together course strands into a view of education in a global context

READINGS You have been the creators of these resources; just look at the link from the slide in the Millennium Development Goals slide presentation. It points to the resources for your consideration and use. Please review and add to global education resources students have created: http://bit.ly/15gftRl WRITING: ―Global and Glocal Education‖ (2.5 pages maximum)

Global Education (the world IN your classroom)
What from this course would you bring into your classroom to serve the global diversity you see every day? Example: you may want to focus on differentiated instruction or services for integrating refugees into your classroom by reaching out to local immigration agencies, civil-society organizations, or the faith-based community. You might want to adapt an INEE Toolkit theme or Pocket Guide. You might describe an issue at your

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school and then design a survey for parents to see how much they knew about services that can help them and their children succeed. Add any resources you have gathered to this Google Document

Global Education (the world FOR your classroom)
The goal is to find a project or set of resources that will enhance the subject you teach (and how you teach it) through global education and connections. Create a guide for educators in your school or setting so that they can appreciate what you have provided. For example, you may choose to review the curriculum/lessons at Journeys in Film to see if you might be able to implement it. If there is room for improvement, describe what you would do differently or how you would enhance the lesson. You might even create a new lesson plan based upon the films they list or any others you know of.

Global Education: (Teachers Without Borders)
Imagine you are the Executive Director of Teachers Without Borders. You have a global network (www.twbglobal.org, as well as our Facebook and LinkedIn pages…) and hundreds of thousands of off-line members who download resources every month. You don‘t have much money at all. What is the one thing you would do, based upon what information you‘ve gathered on the organization, to increase its impact? Focus on the teacher‘s voice? Highlight excellent NGO activities and teacher heroes? Would you charge to be a member? (Currently it‘s free). What would you get rid of? What‘s confusing? What‘s powerful? I am asking for an open and honest critique of the organization.

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HOPKINS STUDENTS ONLY:
The remainder of the term will be spent working in teams (for three or four weeks each) on global projects in education and development (from the perspective of a nongovernmental organization) and comparative education (to extend research into crossborder analysis of educational methodologies, curriculum, and school reform). All work produced by your team will be made available on the Teachers Without Borders new website (in June 2014). We will attribute your scholarship directly to individuals of the team, unless you tell me otherwise.
 

Session 8 (4 weeks): education and development vis a vis policy or NGO effectiveness Session 9 (3.5 weeks): comparative education and classroom-based global education

Session 8: Girls‘ Education, NGOs, and Universities (4 Weeks)
Session Dates: March 10th – April 7th 2014
PLEASE READ THE ENTIRE SESSION 8 DESCRIPTION BEFORE DOING ANYTHING ELSE DUE DATE: April 10th (extended) INTRODUCTION Session 8 (four weeks including Spring Break) will address one of the most pressing issues of our time — girls‘ education. After we orient ourselves to the subject (and its implications for everything we have studied thus far), we will address additional perspectives offered by universities or NGOs. If ―Girl Rising‖ is showing on campus or near you, do what you can to see this extraordinary film about the indisputable impact of educating girls. ―Girl Rising‖ follows the stories of 9 girls, each paired with a writer who helps tell that girl‘s story and bring forth a different dimension of girls‘ education. Please also the Girl Rising Curriculum produced by the Pearson Foundation. PRESENTATION Girl Rising trailer: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BJsvklXhYaE

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Girl Rising has also released one of the nine stories -- ―The Nepal Chapter‖ -- the story of Suma, a Nepalese girl who enrolled in school after being rescued from indentured slavery. View the video below: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=L32OeswN47U

OBJECTIVES   To examine how non-governmental organizations (NGOs) in developing countries can serve as the nexus of global development and national progress. To connect a pressing global education development issue with research on NGO or university theories of change.

ACTIVITIES (TEAMS) 1. Join a Team: I have created Session 8 teams: 2 JHU Teams and 2 NGO Teams. Minimum – 3 persons per team, and no more than 5 total, so these are first-come first served.   The JHU team(s) conducts its research exclusively at/about Hopkins The NGO team(s)Arrange for a time to meet face-to-face or online in order to organize your response to the team assignment.

2. Descriptions of Teams JHU Team: The central question is: ―What role do universities in the United States play in advancing girls‘ education worldwide, particularly in the arena of policy?‖ Investigate and catalog Johns Hopkins University projects, programs, grants, initiatives and other resources that seek to address girls‘ education in the area of access/equity, public health, or education in emergencies. SAIS, School of Public Health and the Center for Refugees and Disaster Response should be hotbeds of activity. Conduct at least 3 interviews with Hopkins representatives to determine the research behind the gap they are trying to fill, how the program addresses those gaps, and how it is evaluated. Draw comparisons and contrasts between what you have learned from JHU contacts and programs, and research metrics evaluating university programs. Interview Prompts and Possible Questions
  

What drove Hopkins to create such a program? What gap is it trying to fill? What makes the program successful? Which programs haven‘t been successful? Why not? How does the program identify the challenges or roadblocks to success? How might a theory of change clarify those issues?

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   

Does the program or initiative interact with NGOs to build capacity? If so, how? How does the program or initiative identify current and future opportunities and threats? How does the program or initiative address and negotiate power relationships and stakeholder pressures? How is the program evaluated?

NGO Team: The central question is this: ―How do NGOs demonstrate their impacts in the area of (1) equity and access or (2) education in emergencies?‖ You have $50,000 to award to an NGO operating in, or for, Haiti. Funds are to be used for the improvement of services and programs. To begin your search for an NGO, these sites can be of assistance, though there are many:
 

NGO Aid Map Development Directory - Haiti

Keep in mind that the research on NGOs in Haiti is not altogether rosy. The Advocacy Progress Planner will be of special importance here. Read the articles and review both global development databases and transparency websites/networks to determine if you can glean a TOC from various women‘s organizations. Look closely at the Advocacy Progress Planner and make your decision on your organization of choice based upon three criteria you determine to be the organization‘s clear advantage. Is it the organization‘s track record? Its follow through on equitable policies? Its focus on local leadership? Its transparency? Its impacts and clear reporting? Its judicious use of funds? Its ability to scale and sustain itself? Its partnerships? Complete the readings soon using the schedule below. It will help a great deal 3. Conduct discussions in your group to stay organized 4. Write the paper REQUIRED READING and WEB REVIEWS March 10th – 16th Convention on the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women. Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women – CEDAW Mednick, F. (2014) Case Study: Girls‘ Education and the Millennium Development Goals Nordland, R. (July 20, 2013). Despite Education Advances, A Host of Education Woes New York Times Storify Resources: ―Educating Girls‖

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United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization. World Atlas of Gender Equality in Education. Retrieved from http://www.uis.unesco.org/Education/Documents/unesco-world-atlasgender-education2012.pdf and corresponding interactive database, eAtlas of Gender Equality in Education. Retrieved from http://www.app.collinsindicate.com/atlas-gender-education/en-us

March 17th – April 6th I am introducing research and the structure for Theories of Change (TOCs) in order to provide a structure for your research paper. A TOC is a scaffold or set of guidelines for developing strategies, designing programs, challenging assumptions, addressing roadblocks, forecasting issues, communicating results, and measuring impacts. Often called logic models or outcome maps, TOCs diagram a logical sequence of essential components in the supply chain of change. Organizations can use theory of change models at any stage in their development. A TOC is based upon outcomes or positive changes an organization seeks to achieve for the community it serves (increased knowledge, greater access to services, living conditions, personal health practices, for example). By providing evidence of critical practices, principles, resources, and other inputs and outputs necessary for affecting specific outcomes, a TOC makes a contribution toward understanding and addressing macro issues facing education and development. TOCs are often presented as a visual diagram, accompanied by a narrative. The Advocacy Progress Planner can serve as your guide for your paper, whether you are focusing on Hopkins research (policy) or NGO research (services and programs)

Aspen Institute. (2013). Advocacy Planning and Evaluation Program (APEP). Washington, D.C.: Retrieved from http://planning.continuousprogress.org/. Center for Civic Partnerships. Theory of change (2013). Sacramento, CA. Retrieved from http://www.civicpartnerships.org/---!theory-of-change/c6i2#!theoryof-change/c6i2 Gender Audit (2010). Interaction. Retrieved from http://www.interaction.org/sites/default/files/Gender%20Audit%20Handbook%2020 10%20Copy.pdf

Recommended Readings

SEE Model (Simulations in Equity for Education). World Bank

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 

UN Girls' Education Initiative (UNGEI) Global Advisory Committee (video) UNICEF Girls‘ Education Campaigns, UNICEF

TEAM ASSIGNMENT (PAPER) Instructions for the Paper (Due April 10th)  5-7 page paper, including 1 paragraph on each person‘s contribution, but not including references    Cite research from readings and Advocacy Progress Planner, where appropriate I suggest that teams use Google Docs for collaboration Upload the final report to your team space

Session 9: Global Research and Local Practice – Safe Schools
Session Dates: April 7th - May 2nd
Paper Due: May 9th INTRODUCTION Session 9 (3.5 weeks) focuses on curriculum building, based upon comparative educational research. What works? What has failed? Why? What are theoretical or contextual underpinnings of safe school programs (physical, social-emotional, digital, and community safety) OBJECTIVES   To incorporate global research on safe schools into a curriculum handbook of use in your local setting To determine the degree to which existing programs in safe schools are informed by global research

REQUIRED READING and WEB REVIEWS

This is entirely independent research on safe schools. Include all resources in the References section of your paper. DISCUSSION Due: April 14th

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What opportunities and challenges does your community face as it attempts to create safe schools? What resources are available? Are programs in your community informed by global practices? If so, how? If not, do they need to be? If that need is not filled, what might work? ASSIGNMENT
Due: May 9th

Choose a particular problem regarding safe schools in your community. Write a 57 page paper outlining existing programs in one‘s community, then – in larger and larger circles – national and global programs. Determine the value of a global perspective and expand the discussion prompt. List all research consulted in the reference portion of your paper. Please upload it to the Gradebook.

Selected Bibliography
Chimombo, J.P.G. (2005) ―Issues in Basic Education in Developing Countries: An Exploration of Policy Options for Improved Delivery.‖ Journal of International Cooperation in Education. Vol. 8, No.1, pp. 129-152. Retrieved Feb. 7, 2013, from http://home.hiroshima-u.ac.jp/cice/chimombo8-1.pdf. Cisco Systems: ―Equipping Every Learner for the 21st Century.‖ Retrieved Feb. 7, 2013 from http://www.cisco.com/web/about/citizenship/socioeconomic/docs/GlobalEdWP.pdf. International Commission on Education for the Twenty-first Century. (ND). ―Learning: The Treasure Within – Report to UNESCO.‖ Retrieved Feb. 7, 2013, from http://www.unesco.org/delors/delors_e.pdf. Loveless, T. (2012). The 2012 Brown Center Report on American Education: How Well are American Students Learning. Washington, DC: Brown Center on Education Policy. Mbozi, Emmy H. (ND). Comparative Education. African Virtual University Word | PDF Menand, Louis. (2012). ―Today‘s Assignment.‖ The New Yorker, retrieved Feb. 7, 2013 from http://www.newyorker.com/talk/comment/2012/12/17/121217taco_talk_menand Ravitch, D. (2012). ―Schools We Can Envy.‖ New York Review of Books, March 8, 2012, retrieved Feb. 7, 2013 from http://www.nybooks.com/articles/archives/2012/mar/08/schools-we-canenvy/?pagination=false Sainath, P. (1996). Everybody loves a good drought: stories from india‘s poorest districts. New Delhi, Penguin

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Sen, Amartya, (2002). ―To Build a Nation, Build a Schoolhouse‖ New York Times, May 27, 2002, retrieved Feb. 7, 2013 from http://www.nytimes.com/2002/05/27/opinion/tobuild-a-country-build-a-schoolhouse.html. Sullivan-Owomoyela, J. (2006). ―Inter‐ Agency Network for Education in Emergencies Minimum Standards for Education in Emergencies, Chronic Crisis, and Early Reconstruction: A Uganda Case Study.‖ USAID: Retrieved Feb. 7, 2013 from http://www.beps.net/publications/Uganda_Minimum_Standards_Case_Study%20_FI NAL.pdf. Tucker, Mark S. (2011) ―Standing on the Shoulders of Giants: An American Agenda for Education Reform,‖ (Washington, D.C.: National Center on Education and the Economy, May 2011). Villegas-Reimers, E. & F. Reimers. (1996). Where are 60 Million Teachers? The Missing Voice in Educational Reforms Around the World. Prospects, vol 1, Sept. 1996, pp. 469-492. UNICEF. (ND). ―Education in Emergencies: A Resource Toolkit.‖ Kathmandu, Nepal: Regional Office for South Asia. Retrieved Feb. 7, 2013 from http://bit.ly/1041NST United Nations. (1989). Convention on the Rights of the Child. Retrieved Feb. 7, 2013 from http://www2.ohchr.org/english/law/pdf/crc.pdf. U.S. Agency for International Development. (2005). ―Education Strategy: Improving Lives through Learning.‖ Retrieved Feb. 7, 2013 from http://www.ungei.org/resources/files/usaid_education_policy05.pdf.
SELECTED VIDEOS

Best Practices in Global Education: Slideshare presentation by Primary Source Catching Up or Leading the Way: American Education in the Age of Globalization. Keynote at Asia Society‘s A World Class Education conference on July 11, 2009, DC. Education Innovation in the Slums. Charles Leadbeater. TED Talk, April 2010) PISA – Measuring Student Success Around the World (video) Protecting Education (Review media clips) Schools as Battlegrounds: Human Rights Watch (PDF) – http://www.hrw.org/en/worldreport-2011/schools-battlegrounds Time for School Series (video series from WBGH); PDF of complete transcript

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