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CLASSROOM DISCUSSION IN TEACHING ENGLISH FOR SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS TO IMPROVE THE ABILITY OF LISTENING By Dra.

Sri Endang Kusmaryati, M.Pd. (The Lecturer of English Education Department, FKIP UMK Kudus)

Abstract Language is an important tool of communication. The primary function of language is for interaction and communication. Listening is one of the important parts in teaching English because it includes one of four basic language skills. The writer found that most of students of senior high school still get some difficulties in studying listening. It may be caused many factors including the limited students’ vocabularies and also their understanding of grammar. Besides the method used by the teacher in teaching English may also one of the reasons. Concerning to this condition, the writer thinks it would be better to use some learning strategies that invites the students to be active in teaching learning process. In addition, the most appropriate approach to solve the problem is by using Classroom Discussion. In this approach, the students get a big opportunity to express their own ideas and it can arouse their motivation to involve in a discussion in the classroom. By using Classroom Discussion it is hoped the students can develop their conceptual understanding, communication skills and thinking processes, and also involvement and engagement. And at last the students’ ability of listening may be improved.

A. Introduction As an international language, English is world-widely spoken to communicate to each other in every field. We can not deny that many information are served in English. Therefore we must be able to master English in order to follow the new information. Mastering English is so important moreover we have to improve our quality of human resources with excellent English. Our government has made a policy by deciding English as the first foreign language that is studied after our mother tongue. As a realization, in the lowest level of our education which is identical with elementary school English is set up to be introduced to the students although it is just as a local content. By introducing English in the basic level it is hoped that the students will be easy to prepare English in the higher level of education later. In the senior high school level, English is described more detail in every main skill including listening, speaking, reading, and writing. Senior high school students who have studied English for more than eight years and perhaps mastered the four main skills are still having great problems due to lack of listening acquisition. Listening becomes one of the most important skills that must be mastered by students because we can acquire language firstly by listening then we try to communicate them to others. By listening also we are be able to know the new vocabularies and how to pronoun them. We can not only learn about the pronunciation of sound but also in grammar. Some English teachers said that most of students are still difficult in improving listening. One of the reasons may be caused by the technique which is not appropriate and it makes the learning and teaching process is not so interesting. Those conditions

B. Listening for such a general comprehension means not stopping for every word. 3. 2. Listening is different from hearing. So. four times more than we write". Predicting and guessing. . we pay conscious attention to what is being said in order to understand it. It is expected to help them in improving listening ability and then they can communicate with others by using English well. Listening for a gist is not a lazy option. Listeners are able to pick up the topic of the spoken text very quickly. when we listen. then to read and finally to write. not analyzing everything that the speaker includes in the spoken text. While hearing. Identifying the topic.should motivate the English teacher to apply a model of learning which focus on the learner. There is distinction between listening and hearing. attention to sounds or speech pattern. As a prospective English teacher we are not only demanded to be able to help our students especially in their learning process but also apply and choose the appropriate model of teaching. Listeners sometimes guess in order to try and understand what is being talked about. whereas listening is psychological process. So. Classroom discussion is one of studentcentered learning models in which the teacher and student and others students can talk with one another and share ideas or opinion in the classroom."Listening is the most common communicative activity in daily life: we can expect to listen twice as much as we speak. When we learn our native language. Listening for general understanding. we usually learn to listen first. M. The Ability of Listening. There are four main skills of English that we need to complete communication. Sometimes they look forward. proceeds through identification and recognition of specific auditioning signals and ends in comprehension. and S. and changed in the inner car into nerve impulse that travels to the brain. When listening. when we hear. and sometimes they make assumption or guess the content from their initial glance of half hearing-as they try to apply their schemata to what is in front of them. According to Morley in Mawas (2008:185). hearing is a process in which the sound waves entering the outer ear. We usually called listening for a gist. They are: 1. listening to the essence of the spoken text. the hearer has willingness and competence to understand what is said. Physiologically. Heinich and others (1985:146) said that hearing is physiological process. 2007:24). we don't need to pay conscious attention to what is being said because we don't need to understand it (Helgesen. According to Harmer (2002:201) listening skills are divided into six skills. then to speak. trying to predict what is coming.Brown. the hearer just hearing what is said. Listeners are able to take in a stream of discourse and understand the gist of it without worrying too much about details. Their subsequent listening helps them to confirm their expectations of what they have predicted. especially if they have first identified the topic. As Browns (2001: 248) said that the purpose of teaching listening at school is to catch a word in context in order to communicate well. Their schemata help them to grasp the idea of what the speaker talking about. This ability allows them to process the text more effectively as it progresses. The psychological process of listening begins with someone's awareness of an.

In contrast to listening for gist we often listen to the spoken text because we want specific details. Listening for specific information. a greeting. we are concentrating when the particular item that interests us comes up such as where the accidents take place or the name of the directors of film. A person might be listening for specifics or for gist. This is usually the case with spoken instruction or directions. question. the listeners actually hear that John was not at school today. students can improve their listening skills through a combination of extensive listening and intensive listening. Listening of both kinds is especially important since it provides the perfect opportunity to hear voices other than the teacher's enable students to acquire excellent speaking habits as a result of the spoken English they absorb. it is a mistake to wait until learners are at intermediate level or above to begin working on it.The listeners have made a choice not to attend to every detail. but it can be understood from the situation that the speaker told. Meanwhile. comprehension check. and helps to improve their own pronunciation. Inference is different from other types of listening. The first types is intensive listening (listening for perception of the components. discourse markers. etc. Catching specific details may help you grasp the gist. etc. phonemes. words. The second types is responsive listening (listening to a relatively short stretch of language. of a larger stretch of language). in the middle of listening tasks design for some other purpose. in both cases we almost ignore all the other information until we come to the specific items we are looking for. according to Harmer (2002:228). but to use their processing powers to get more of a top down of what is going on. intonation. but if the speaker says things indirectly or happens to use vocabulary. Inference is a higher level listening skills. For example. etc. or with the description of scientific procedures. Brown (2004:120) divided listening into four performance types. Indeed. Sometimes we listen in order to understand everything we read in detail. global understanding of spoken language). we are usually combining different types of listening. command. so they need to learn to make inferences or listening between the lines. it happens when sometimes when someone gives us their address and telephone numbers and we write down all the details. Your global understanding of a situation may help you pick put specific of information. 6. The last types is extensive listening (listening to develop a top-down. 4. When we listen to a news programme or a film review. However. Six skills in listening above are the important elements that should be mastered in order to increase our ability in listening. Listening for detailed information. . beginning learners" are lack the large vocabulary and grammatical knowledge that they have later. Next is selective 'listening (processing stretches of discourse such as short monologues for several minutes in order to "scan" for certain information). Inference usually happen when you are listening for some other purpose and the content doesn't state the information explicitly. in order to make an equally short response. Of course. the listeners need to infer the meaning. 5. when we listen. We listen in a concentrated way to everything that is said. Inference.

In conversations class. In Senior high school. and facilitator for the students. They can also listen to tapes of authentic material. provided that it is comprehensible. We can also extend story-telling possibilities by role-playing. These provide ideal listening material. including Senior high school.com/teaching. the students can be asked to predict what is coming next. 2.. Therefore. It gives them an opportunity to find a range of different characters. Reading aloud allows them to hear a clear spoken version of written text. students really listen for answers they themselves have asked for. The advantages of taped material are: it allows students to hear a. we invite a colleague to come to our class and hold a conversation with them. Students can arrange the questions themselves. (2) The . occupation. First is intensive listening using taped material. tapes are extremely cheap and machines to play them are relatively inexpensive. It usually takes place outside the classroom. At any stages of the story. Listening in a language teaching-learning process processes important contribution to other language skills and of course it must be taught in language teaching. provide excellent listening material.1. The teacher can also read or act cut dialogues either by playing two parts or by inviting a colleague into the classroom. however. According to http:/www/thefreedictionary. The activity of the teacher is as the informer. rather than adopting other people's questions. in turn. teachers are ideally placed to tell stories. variety of different voices apart from just their own teacher's. Moreover. director. or be asked to describe people in the story or pass comment on it in some other way. Listening skill can support the students to master the other language skills. There are two kinds of intensive listening. which. when taped material contains written dialogues or extracts from plays. Intensive listening. teaching English in Senior high school is very important. Teachers use taped material and increasingly material on disk when they want their students to practice listening skills. In story telling. especially where real people talking. English becomes one of the subjects of final national examination. ideally telling. they offer a wide variety of situations and voices. Students then have the chance to watch the interaction as well as listen to it. Extensive listening Extensive listening is where a teacher encourages students to choose what they listen to and to do so for pleasure and general language improvement. practice. Students can also have their own copies of level. C. Interviews are one of the most motivating listening activities. The motivational power of such kind activity increases when students make their own choices about what they are going to listen to. A lot of simplified readers are now published with an audio version on tape. All of the teaching activities is centered on the students in order to make the better learning environment. The subjects can be English or any other subject. In such situations. Teaching is the interaction between the teacher and the students in learning process. Teaching English for Senior High School Students English as an international language is taught in all levels of school. Materials for extensive listening can be found from many sources. Second is intensive listening with "live" listening. or profession of a teacher. some definitions of teaching are : (1) The act.

As a language mastering. reading. and how they engage with their learning. 2. Where the teacher shares control of the classroom and students are allowed to experiment with learning. Student Centered Learning A paradigm change in learning process from teacher centered learning to student centered learning is expected can support students to be active in building knowledge. providing with knowledge. and analytical exposition. “teaching is showing or helping some someone to learn how to do something. the writer concludes that teaching is the interaction of teacher and students in the activities of transferring knowledge or skill to achieve the expected goals. It is used in the field of politic. Understand and express transactional and interpersonal text in the form of giving advices. pain and pleasure. KTSP is an operational curriculum that the school arranges and applies based on the situation and condition of the school itself. basic competencies. It requires that our planning. listening. Teachers become facilitators. economic. Understand and express transactional and interpersonal text in the form of giving and asking opinion. D. Indonesian people learn English to face the globalization today. time allotment. It is a shared knowledge and shared authority between the students and teacher. teaching. Based on those definitions above. English is the first foreign language taught in Indonesia. Understanding and express transactional and interpersonal text in the form of functional or monolog text of reports. and attitude. Our government has made a policy that English is studied from kindergarten up to collage. 3. and instrument of teaching and learning. indicators. the academic calendar and the syllabus. science and technology.” Teaching at school is the interaction between teaches and students with a learning environment arranged the teacher to achieve the expected goals. activities that impart knowledge or skill. Student centered learning is a way of thinking about student learning. Badan Standar Nasional Pendidikan. By this process they can get understanding deeply and finally can increase students quality.activities of educating or instructing. It consists of the school education goal and the contents of school curriculum. giving instructions. teaching and learning activity. 4. narrative. material source. speaking and listening which is identical with spoken language are to be the most important purpose. guiding in the study of something. teaching material. and writing. what they experience. Teaching English in Senior High School is usually based on KTSP (Kurikulum Tingkat Satuan Pendidikan) and classical system with local – content material. expressing relief. Syllabus is the elaborated standard of competencies and basic competencies into the teaching material and indicators of competency goal to be assessed The purpose of English teaching commonly is the master the four main skills of English including speaking. helping students access . behavior. (2006:5) defines syllabus as plan of teaching and learning of a subject containing the standard of competencies. Based on Syllabus of KTSP the purposes of teaching English are for the students to: 1. Meanwhile according to Brown (2001: 15). Communicate English both oral and written by using appropriate language variety fluently and accurately. and other. and assessment focuses on the needs and abilities of our students – how they learn. system of assessment. English is one of the international languages which most widely used in the world. expressing satisfaction and dissatisfaction. causing to know or understand.

d. predict. f. classify data and analyze relationships. They gain confidence in themselves as they take on new responsibilities and become competent problem-solvers. testing the options and effectiveness of the solutions. Student Centered Learning is a way of connecting class topics with students‟ lives. offering students choices in their learning. Hall and Saunders (1997) found that students had increased participation. students work in groups or individually to explore problems and take initiatives that allow them to discover their own meaningful information. interpret. planning. exciting. plan. developing interpersonal skills and independence. Reflection. This excitement generally translates into better engagement. but were slower in their study initially. cross-curriculum skills. helping the students to arouse their motivation. Students have higher achievement when they have confidence in themselves and when they attribute success to their own abilities and not to luck or help. motivation and grades in a first year information technology course In addition. and problem solving. c. Student centered learning includes a variety of active strategies. i. Hence. Student centered learning enables students to develop the necessary work place skills and attributes expected of people in a knowledge society. Learning how to learn encourages students to inquire. refining and improving their work. Student-centered learning is recognition that different people learn in different ways and that learning requires active engagement by the students. Research suggests that student centered learning is effective for every member of the classroom. longer retention of knowledge and greater motivation to learn. students are given choices and are included in the classroom decision-making. because it takes into account their diverse learning needs and greatly increases students‟ retention of both knowledge and skills. which compared traditional and activating instruction. Research skills – where students need to find relevant information. Working with others. organize and use knowledge to solve problems and the motivators. however is it an effective approach to learning? A six-year study in Helsinki. Problem solving by Identifying the problem. values and attributes that promote lifelong learning and allow students to adapt and transfer their learning across subject boundaries. test and draw conclusions. Students are excited when they discover something for themselves. team building.e. Equally. Recognition of interdisciplinary knowledge and generic. that it was more interesting. Students learn how to learn through discovery. and it boosted their confidence. There are two possibilities are able to be done in Student-centered learning they are. found that the activating group developed better study skills and understanding. and interests and when the students themselves are actively engaged in constructing their own knowledge. that involve students in doing and thinking about what they are doing. e. . ask questions. b. The key elements in Student Centered Learning are: a. It is based on the idea that learning is meaningful when topics are relevant to the students‟ lives. they felt there was more respect for the student in this approach.information. needs. 94% of the students would recommend it to others over the more conventional approach (Hall and Saunders 1997). inquiry. Students in a UK University elaborated on the impact of student-centered learning on them. The use of student centered learning appears to be reflective of today‟s society where choice and democracy are important concepts. Students are given the responsibility for learning.

and autonomy to think and inquire 6 Assessment Lends itself to more Lends itself to authentic and procedures traditional paper and pencil performance assessment and selected response procedures and processes procedures and processes E. choice. This does not characterized by democratic mean authoritarian. k. Learning to Teach. Communication Technology as an integral learning tool. These ideas need to be evaluated.for ones own learning. the issues and the problems. actions. Teacher centered and student centered are two different classifications. flexibly tied to predetermined curriculum curriculum standards and standards and goals goals. looking for alternatives. predetermined standards involves students in planning. The writer uses Classroom Discussion as the model in teaching English listening. behavioral. processes. Table 1. 3 Students‟ role Students often in passive Students most often in active roles listening to teacher or roles.and participating in specified skills investigative and problem solving activities 4 Planning tasks Mainly teacher dominated.g. and provides specified knowledge and them with autonomy and skills choice. The Comparison of Teacher-Centered and Student-Centered model No Feature Teacher-centered models Student-centered models 1 Theoretical Social learning. Using Information. j. practicing teacher. Encourages innovation and creativity through deep learning and requires students to think about their learning. Generating numerous ideas. Responsibility. Arends (2004: 25) in his book. Classroom Discussion as a Model of Student Centered Learning In teaching English. and goals. Balance of teacher and tightly connected to students input. Develop tolerance. reading. explains that there are the comparison of Teacher centered and Student centered models of Instruction. The information below is the comparison between teacher centered and student centered learning in the different features. i. and responsibility to the group. the teacher needs to use such model in order to make the students mastering the material that the teacher gives to them. environments structured. understanding and respect of other‟s opinions. h. interacting with others. constructivist foundation and information-processing theories theories 2 Teacher‟s Teacher designs lessons Teacher establishes condition roles aimed at accomplishing for the students‟ inquiry. 5 Learning For the most part. tightly Loosely structured. Classroom Discussion is one of student centered models in which the teacher and students and other students talk with one another and share ideas and opinion in . uses procedures encourages and accepts that support acquisition of students‟ ideas. Cognitive.

this could be formal assessment from the teacher. Classroom Discussion Conceptual understanding Communication skills and thinking processes Involvement and engagement From the figure we can see that classroom discussion is a model of student centered learning. a) that the giving of marks and grades are overemphasized. Negotiate assessment need to be quite specific here. i. teachers and parents are included in evaluating a variety of forms of assessments. Assessment in Classroom Discussion is useful in the process of teaching. an important aspect of SCL. b) pupils are compared with one another which highlights competition rather than personal improvement. grades during the year that do not add to end of year mark . Assessment procedures should be clearly linked to the content.  Expert assessment. describes the shift in the power relationship between the student and the teacher. Students. 1997).e. which emphasizes feedback to students on their learning. In summary. in addition. Arends (2004:25) said that classroom discussion is a model of the student centered learning. The effectiveness of using classroom discussion requires an understanding of several important topics pertaining to classroom discussion. and the others have a much broader definition which includes both of these concepts but. Examples of formative assessment include feedback on essays. By developing more formative assessment in your courses you can provide a focus for the student by highlighting their learning gaps and areas that they can develop.  Self assessment – could be done as a reflective journal  Peer assessment if the task is designed for a particular target group. Expectations of quality and breadth of students' thinking Black (1999) summarized some of the difficulties highlighted in the literature in the area of assessment. an assessment for judgment or accreditation. or assessment from an outside professional source. for example. What will be assessed and how? Assessment becomes an ongoing activity that drives instruction. written comments on assignments. would „enhance their (student) learning‟ (Brown. get members of the target group to assess it. The use of the written examination is still a strong practice in today‟s Universities and is primarily a summative assessment. while the giving of advice and the learning function are underemphasized.the classroom. rather than a culminating event. It describes the procedures the teacher uses to encourage verbal interchange among students. The addition of more formative assessment. While others see it as the student doing more than the teacher (active versus passive learning). He also explains the concept of self-assessment as essential activity to help students „take responsibility for their learning‟. it appears that some views student-centered learning as the concept of the student‟s choice in their education.

A model. If you are aware of class discussion. you might consider moving your assessment practice slightly up the teacher/student-centered continuum.. as the situations in which teacher and students or students and other students talk with one another and share ideas and opinions. which are in turn negotiated with the lecturer. depending on their learning gaps. Don‟t be afraid to ask a question if you do not understand something or follow the thread of the discussion.. in addition. but open dialog provides an excellent learning situation. not just something you made up. A teaching model has a theoretical basis or philosophy behind it and encompasses specific teaching steps designed to accomplish desired education outcomes. This can add choice in what to study and. Joyce and weil (1972) and Joyce. Don‟t get upset. Sometimes students are afraid to discuss in class. teacher can select the approach that best achieves a particular class of students. Gibbs (1995:1) describes the range of choices available to students in relation to assessment as „. or the models that can be used in tandem to promote the students motivation. choice in how the student will be assessed. attitudes or skills. Remember to respect others opinions and reactions. for helping students to learn specific kinds of knowledge. It is an overall plan. or pattern. look over your textbook and notes before coming to class. . therefore. The concept of negotiation of learning also addresses the unique change in relationship between lecturer and student in their definition of student-centered learning. With sufficient choices. Peer and self-assessment both give some control and responsibility back to the student. Open dialog is important in the classroom. how the judgments are made and by whom these judgments are made‟. involvement and achievement. A single approach or method is no longer adequate. follow what everyone is saying. The addition of more formative assessment encourages a more student-centered approach. The contract can also highlight the manner in which the student would like to be assessed in order to demonstrate that they have reached the goals. The suggestions above may seem a large jump from your current practices. Keep an open mind. as defined here. what criteria and standards are to be used. Learning contracts/negotiated contracts are goals set by the student.. To take part in a discussion. Make certain that your opinion is based on facts and evidence. go ahead and say it. how do we give students some autonomy and decision-making in an area such as assessment? Brown (1994) highlight a range of suggestions on how lecturers can involve students in the assessment process.and multiple-choice questions/answers for feedback only. emphasizing „an increased sense of autonomy in the learner‟ definition of student-centered learning. The word of discussions can be described in more detail. (2004: 25) teacher needs many approaches to meet their goals with a diverse population of students. When something is said that you feel should be noted or discussed more. Questions employed to stimulate discussion are usually at a higher cognitive level. Answering questions can be quite beneficial in a classroom situation. Choice is one of the key terms in relation to student-centered learning. and academic freedom is highly regarded. An example of a small but significant change is to provide a choice of essay topics and exam questions as a manageable starting point. as more than a specific method or strategy. Students may or may not agree with you. In practice. write it down. According to Arends. weil and Calhoun (2003) in Arends (2004) labeled each of these approaches a teaching model. Think about your opinion and ideas before coming into the classroom. If you have a different opinion from your teacher.

The teacher also motivates and stimulates the participants to contribute their ideas. e. The third purpose. Every students can exanimate of knowledge level and administrate of lesson material. Not all topics are principles. the teacher should make a excellent plan for his/her successful classroom discussion process although spontaneity and flexibility are important in it. The discussion method can support students efforts about the development of social attitude and democratic attitude for all students And the disadvantages in discussion are as follows: a. The discussion method involves all students in learning process. most of the students have the requirements in doing the discussion. Doing discussion must have both sides of advantages and disadvantages. The second purpose. a discussion result is not useful b. Maybe. some important things should be understood by the teacher as the leader in a discussion. According to Suryosubroto (2002: 185). The participants have to join the discussion b. The member group will be motivated by the present another member c. in fact. Thus. In another opinion. Based on Arends‟ (2004: 420) mentioned the five steps in planning the discussion. so the discussion will run well. F. The discussion is a conversation by some people united in a group to exchange opinion each other about a problem or look for problem solving to get solution and truth on a problem. They are: . The Application of Classroom Discussion in Teaching Listening In applying the classroom discussion. However. d. but something is only characteristic problems to discuss in a discussion. Suryosubroto (2002: 181) said that a discussion needs some steps. but the matter needs to practice their democratic life. d. f. The discussion needs specific skills c. there is different of view so the students can give different opinion. the discussion can motivate the students by using their knowledge and experience to solve a problem without another people opinion. c. agree or disagree must be obtained by respect. arouses the participants‟ confidence in discussion d. the discussion gives possible for students to learn participate by asking to solve a problem together Deciding to do the discussion in the class. The discussion does not look for a winner and offend or discourage another opinion. the students can practice to give opinion about a problem. Enkoswara (1984: 75) stated that there are some principles in using discussion models: a. the teacher sometimes does not make planning because the teacher thinks that discussion can not really be planned at all for it relies on spontaneous and unpredictable interactions among the students. the advantages using discussion method are : a. b. The students will influence every students of suggestion they give idea in their class. The conclusion result is richer than individual result. the students are able to give real opinion orally.In teaching English especially in senior high school. Question or problem must be appropriate with the participants‟ level c. e. They are: a. The discussion method needs many times so. The teacher as a leader. Roestiyah (2008: 6) stated that there are some purposes in a discussion. The first purpose. b.

choosing one of approach in a discussion can really influence the two things of planning for discussion above. The approach is applied by giving the information on a particular topic to read or listen and then brief question and answer sessions about the information can provide teacher with a mean of checking the students‟ understanding. It can also arouse the students‟ motivation to complete their reading assignments or to listen carefully when the teacher talking. In addition. and in classroom discussion itself. Through dialogue about shared experiences.  Inquiry or problem-based discussion This other approach in classroom discussion is part of some types. The teacher also predicts how some students will want to talk all the time whereas others will be unenthusiastic to say anything. the teacher helps the students to be conscious of their own reasoning processes and teach them to monitor and evaluate their own learning strategies. the description of a puzzling event. teach teaching skill and share the experience to the students.1. Make a plan A lesson plan for a discussion consists of objectives and a content outline. Choose an approach Classroom discussion is one of the models in an approach named student centered learning. 4. 2. Three approaches that can be used in the classroom discussion are :  Recitations It is mostly used in reading and listening teaching.  Sharing-based discussion It will help the students to form and express thoughts and opinions independently. ideas are developed or expanded and questions are raised for future study. 3. In this type of discussions. This is done in order the teacher can check for students‟ understanding of reading assignments or presentations through recitations. the appropriate of using the physical space is one of important things because it can influence the students‟ behaviors and . there are three approaches or different kinds of discussion. Consider purpose Teacher should be sure about the purpose of discussion before applying the approach in the class. It includes the considerations in how particular students in the class will respond differently to various kinds of questions. Use physical space appropriately In a classroom discussion. and what these experiences mean. The plan should include not only the targeted content but also a wellconceived focus statement. and/or a list of questions. Consider students A excellent teacher will consider the students‟ activities when he/she has to apply the classroom discussion in the class. This is done by giving the puzzle situations to the students that are not immediately explainable. Teacher encourages the students to ask questions because they are curious about the puzzle given by the teacher. 5.

Teacher relates the beginning discussion questions b. they may keep silent much so that . The five phases of Arends idea in classroom discussion can be applied in the teaching of listening. Teacher responds the ideas given by the students e. The phases are: 1. The teacher gives the appropriate text contain missing words c. Teacher keeps records of the discussion f. U-shape seating pattern and circle seating pattern. The students who are taught by using Classroom Discussion are easy to answer the questions even though at first in the teaching and learning process. Teacher helps the students to end the discussion b. Teacher asks some question related to the text c. Teacher explains the discussion text e. Teacher monitors the students‟ interactions b. Teacher expresses his/her own ideas 4. The teacher play the cassette then replay it four times b. teacher gives the explanation to the students about the advantages and the disadvantages in doing the discussion in order they can minimize and decrease the disadvantages and maximize the use of classroom discussion as a model in student centered learning. Teacher explains the purposes of the discussion f. There are two recommended seating patterns. Teacher focuses to the students‟ prior knowledge or experience c. Hold the discussion a. End the discussion a. Debrief the discussion In this phase. It occurs because they obtained their confidence to express their ideas in their class. Teacher get the students set to participate and respond to the discussion 2. Teacher explains the important role about the discussed text for the students 5. Clarify aims and establish set a. The teacher get the students to write down the missing words d. The teacher invites the students joining the discussion relate the text e. Teacher encourages the students‟ participations 3. G.their communication both of with the teacher and with their friends. It also makes the students not to get many difficulties in communication by using English. they are. d. Teacher gives the chance to the students to presents their ideas d. Teacher describes the puzzling situation that has been given in the previous phase. Conclusion In the Classroom Discussion it is hoped most of the students get their motivation when they try to answer the questions during the discussion. Focus the discussion a. Teacher makes the summarize of discussion c.

Kansas: Mc Graw Hill Brown.W.Inc. In this case they need to practice their democratic life. 2003. Besides the students are able to express their real opinions orally. Best. New York: Mc Graw Hill. Ready to Write. Christine. BIBLIOGRAPHY Arends. Brannan. Perencanaan Pengajaran Berdasarkan Pendekatan Sistem. Gerot. 2007. and they can practice how to solve the problems together. Linda and Wignel. Research in Education. Brown. Douglas. bob. they can freely express and share their ideas and opinion about the problems that has been faced. Oemar. Making Sense of Functional Grammar. the students have more motivation to use English in communication with their friends as Soetopo (2005:156) said that the students can practice how to express their ideas or opinions. The teacher serves only as the motivator and facilitator and also monitors in doing the discussion.there have only few ideas and opinions come from the students. H. Language Assessment Principles and Classroom Practices. It is also mentioned by Roestiyah (2008:6) that the discussion can motivate to develop the student‟s braveries to use their knowledge and their experience to solve a problem without other‟s opinion. 2000. And sometimes most of the students are still ashamed to express their ideas and opinions. Beside that they can work together with their friends to solve the problems. the students will enjoy the discussion In Classroom Discussion. Brown. San Francisco: Addison Wesley Longman. Jakarta: Bumi Aksara . New Jersey: Prentice Hall Inc. Principles of Language Learning and Teaching Fourth Edition. the students will be more active in learning process.1995. A Writer’s Workshop Crafting Paragraph. they can also appreciate the other opinions of other students. 2000. Douglas. Second Edition. Learning to Teach Seventh Edition. H. Discussion involves all students in learning process. By applying the Classroom Discussion and giving them some examples and motivation to make them clear with the materials. and it can increase the student‟s participation individually. Douglas. New York: Pearson Education. And at last the discussion gives possibility for students to learn to participate by asking to solve a problem together. Karen and Root. 2004. There may be different of view so the students can give different opinion. In the classroom discussion. 2002. It is indicated that only few students who present their ideas and opinion. New York: Pearson Education. Australia: Antipodean Educational Enterprise Hamalik. Thus. Teaching by Principle: An Interactive Approach to Language Pedagogy. New York: Addison Wesley Longman. Blanchard. H.J. 2003. Richard I. the students can practice to give opinion about a problem. 1981. Building Essays. Peter.

Harmer. 2000.uni. Definition of Student-Centered Learning. . dan Beberapa Komponen Layanan Khusus. Available at http:// www. . The Practice of English Language Teaching. Jakarta: Rineka Cipta. Richard. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 2001. Jakarta: Rineka Cipta Suryosubroto. Roestiyah. Literacy in Language Teaching.Jeremy. 2002: Process Belajar Mengajar Siswa Wawasan Baru: Beberapa Metode Pendukung. Third Edition completely revised and up dated. 2008: Strategi Belajar Mengajar.html Retrieved on 21st November 2008. England:Longman Kern.intime.edu/model/center_of_learning_files/definition.