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Winter 2006

a) Show from Hamiltons principle that Lagrangians that dier only by a total time derivative of some function of the coordinates and time are equivalent in the sense that they yield the same Euler-Lagrange equations of motion. Suppose Lagrangians L1 and L2 dier by a total time derivative of the form L2 = L1 + d f (qi (t), t) dt

The Euler-Lagrange equations for L2 are derived from L1 2f 2f L2 = + q j + qi qi qi qj qi t L2 L1 f = + q i q i qi Then d L2 L1 d L1 2f 2f d f L2 = + q j + qi dt q i qi dt q i qi qj qi t dt qi L1 d L1 df d f + = qi dt q i qi dt dt qi L1 d L1 = qi dt q i As a result, both L1 and L2 yield the same Euler-Lagrange equations. Note that it is perhaps more straightforward to consider the change in the action

t2 t2

S2 =

t1

L2 dt =

t1

df (L1 + ) dt = dt

t2

t1

In other words, the additional of a total time derivative only changes the action by a surface term. So long as we do not vary the path at its endpoints (qi (t1 ) = qi (t2 ) = 0) we end up with the same equations of motion.

b) Show explicitly that the gauge transformation A A + of the potentials in the charged-particle Lagrangian (12.12) merely generates another equivalent Lagrangian. We start with the Lagrangian L = mc2 e 1 u2 /c2 + u A e c

However, for = (x(t), t), the above is just the total time derivative L = e d c dt

As a result the Lagrangian changes by a total time derivative. Thus the gauge transformed Lagrangian is equivalent to the original one in the sense of part a). 12.9 The magnetic eld of the earth can be represented approximately by a magnetic dipole of magnetic moment M = 8.1 1025 gauss-cm3 . Consider the motion of energetic electrons in the neighborhood of the earth under the action of this dipole eld (Van Allen electron belts). [Note that M points south.] a) Show that the equation for a line of magnetic force is r = r0 sin2 , where is the usual polar angle (colatitude) measured from the axis of the dipole, and nd an expression for the magnitude of B along any line of force as a function of . Taking a spherical coordinate system with the z axis pointing north, the magnetic dipole moment of the earth can be represented by m = M z . This gives rise to a magnetic eld 3 r( r m) m M B= = 3 ( z 3 cos r ) 3 r r To obtain the equation for a line of magnetic force, we rst resolve the above into sin . This gives spherical coordinate components using z =r cos B= M ) (2 cos r + sin r3 (1)

We now note that the equation for a line of magnetic force can be written parametrically as r = r(), = (). In this case, the tangent to the curve is given by dr d = r + r (2) d d

Since this tangent vector must point in the same direction as B , we may take components of (1) and (2) to obtain ratios of r and 2 cos dr/d 1 dr = = sin rd/d r d This gives rise to the separable equation dr/r = 2 cot d which may be integrated to yield r() = r0 sin2 From (1), the magnitude of the magnetic eld is M 1 + 3 cos2 B= r3 Along the line R = r0 sin2 , this becomes M 1 + 3 cos2 B () = 3 sin6 r0 (3)

b) A positively charged particle circles around a line of force in the equatorial plane with a gyration radius a and a mean radius R (a R). Show that the particles azimuthal position (east longitude) changes approximately linearly in time according to 3 a 2 (t) = 0 B (t t0 ) 2 R where B is the frequency of gyration at radius R. Since the magnetic eld is non-uniform, the gyrating particle will pick up a drift velocity. We may use the general expression for the drift velocity vD = 1 1 2 c B ) (v 2 + 2 v )(R B Rc

where Rc is the radius of curvature vector. So long as the particle mainly circles around a line of force, we assume the particles velocity is almost entirely perpendicular to the lines of force. Thus vD

2 )) = B a2 v ( r ( 2 B R c 2Rc

(4)

where we have used the fact that the magnetic eld in the equitorial plane points ( in the z ) direction and that the radius of curvature vector points along r . The radius of curvature can now be obtained from the equation for the magnetic

force lines r = r0 sin2 . However, we take a shortcut given by the relation right after (12.60) in Jackson c R B = B Rc for a curl-free eld B . In the equitorial plane, the magnitude of the magnetic eld is B = M/cr3 and the perpendicular gradient direction is the r direction. The above relation then gives R Rc = 3 where R is the distance from the center of the earth (taken as the mean radius). Substituting this into (4) gives vD = 3a2 B 2R

. As a result, a This drift velocity (in the equitorial plane) is given by v = R simple integration gives 0 = 3 2 a R

2

B (t t0 )

(5)

c) If, in addition to its circular motion of part b), the particle has a small component of velocity parallel to the lines of force, show that it undergoes small oscillations in around = /2 with a frequency = (3/ 2)(a/R)B . Find the change in longitude per cycle of oscillation in lattitude. So long as v v , we can ignore its eect on the drift velocity. On the other hand, by conservation of energy and of ux through orbits of the particle, we have 2 2 B (z ) 2 2 B (z ) v 2 + B v0 a = v 2 + v ,0 B0 B0 where z is the coordinate parallel to the eld line. Using the geometrical relation 2 (z/R) valid near the equitorial plane, and substituting it into (3), we obtain B (z ) M 1 + 3 sin2 (z/R) R3 cos6 (z/R) z 1+3 R 9 z 1+ 2 R

2 1 /2

M 3 R M 3 R

1 1 2

z R

9 2

B a R

z2

This can be written in terms of an eective conservation of energy equation 2 E=1 2 mv + V (z ) where 1 V (z ) = m 2 3 B a 2R

2

z2

a B R

2 2 2 T = = 3B

R a

(6)

2

B T = 2

a R

over one complete oscillation in lattitude. d) For an electron of 10 MeV kinetic energy at a mean radius R = 3 107 m, nd B and a, and so determine how long it takes to drift once around the earth and how long it takes to execute one cycle of oscillation in latitude. Calculate the same quantities for an electron of 10 keV at the same radius. Note that B = eB/mc, while to a good approximation the strength of the magnetic eld is B0 = M/R3 . As a result B = eM ecM = 3 mcR ER3

where E is the relativistic energy of the electron, E = mc2 = mc2 + KE . Here KE = ( 1)mc2 is the kinetic energy of the electron. Solving this for velocity gives 2KE/mc2 + (KE/mc2 )2 v=c 1 + KE/mc2 which may be substituted into the relation v v = B a to get a= mc2 R3 2KE/mc2 + (KE/mc2 )2 eM

The time for an electron to drift once around the earth ( = 2 ) can be obtained from (5). The result is 2 4 R 1 T2 = 3 a B

In addition, the period for a lattitude oscillation is given by (6). Using M = 8.1 1025 gauss-cm3 , R = 3 109 cm, e = 4.8 1010 statcoul, c = 3 1010 cm/s and mc2 = 511 keV, 1 eV = 1.6 1012 erg, as well as KE = 10 MeV gives 10 MeV : B = 2.6 103 s1 , T2 = 110 s, a = 1.2 107 cm

T = 0.30 s

Although the radius of gyration is rather large (120 km), it is less than half a percent of the distance from the center of the earth. As a result, the gradient of the magnetic eld is still quite small over the orbit of the electron, and hence the approximations we have used are still valid. On the other hand, for KE = 10 keV, we nd instead 10 MeV : B = 5.2 104 s1 , T2 = 5.7 104 s, 12.13 a = 1.1 105 cm T = 1.50 s

a) Specialize the Darwin Lagrangian (12.82) to the interaction of two charged particles (m1 , q1 ) and (m2 , q2 ). Introduce reduced particle coordinates, r = x1 x2 , v = v1 v2 and also center of mass coordinates. Write out the Lagrangian in the reference frame in which the velocity of the center of mass vanishes and evaluate the canonical momentum components, px = L/vx , etc. The two particle Darwin Lagrangian reads L= q1 q1 q2 1 1 4 4 2 1 2 +m2 v2 ) r12 + [v1 v2 +(v1 r )(v2 r )] (7) m1 v1 + m2 v2 + 2 (m1 v1 2 2 8c q2 2r12 c2

As a result, the individual terms in the Lagrangian (7) become 1 1 1 1 2 2 m1 v1 + m2 v2 = M V 2 + v 2 2 2 2 2 3 4 4 (m1 v1 + m2 v2 ) 1 m2 m1 m3 1 + m2 4 4 2 2 2 = M V + 6 V v + 4 ( V v ) v + v 8c2 8c2 M M3 m2 m1 2 V v v v1 v2 = V 2 + M M m 2 m1 (v1 r )(v2 r ) = (V r )2 + (V r )(v r ) (v r )2 M M

where = m1 m2 /M is the reduced mass. For vanishing center of mass velocity (V = 0) the Lagrangian becomes

3 1 2 1 m3 q1 q2 q1 q2 2 1 + m2 4 L = v + 2 v [v + (v r )2 ] 3 2 2 8c M r 2M rc

(8)

3 q1 q2 1 m3 1 + m2 2 v v [v + (v r ) r] 2 3 2c M 2M rc2

(9)

b) Calculate the Hamiltonian to rst order in 1/c2 and show that it is H= p2 2 1 1 + m1 m2 + p4 q1 q2 2 r 8c 1 1 + 3 3 m1 m2 + q1 q2 2m1 m2 c2 p2 + (p r )2 r

[You may disregard the comparison with Bethe and Salpeter.] The Hamiltonian is obtained from the Lagrangian (8) by the transformation H = p v L. Note, however, that we must invert the relation (9) to write the resulting H as a function of p and r. We start with 1 1 m3 + m3 q1 q2 q1 q2 2 H = p v v 2 2 1 3 2 v 4 + + [v + (v r )2 ] 2 8c M r 2M rc2 q1 q2 1 1 m3 + m3 q1 q2 2 p2 [v + (v r )2 ] (p v )2 2 1 3 2 v 4 + + = 2 2 2 8c M r 2M rc (10) Since we only work to rst order in 1/c2 , we do not need to completely solve (9) for v in terms of p. Instead, it is sucient to note that v= 1 p+O 1 c2

Inserting this into (10) gives (to order 1/c2 ) H= p2 1 m 3 + m3 q1 q2 q1 q2 2 1 3 3 2 p4 + + [p2 + (p r )2 ] 2 8c M r 2M rc2 p2 1 1 1 q1 q2 q1 q2 p4 1 = [p2 + (p r )2 ] + + 3 + + 2 3 2 m1 m2 8c m1 m2 r 2m1 m2 rc2

a) Derive the Euler-Lagrange equations of motion. Are they the Maxwell equations? Under what assumptions? The variations of the Lagrangian density are L 1 = J, A c L 1 = A ( A ) 4

This leads to the Euler-Lagrange equations 1 1 J + A = 0 c 4 or 4 J (11) c This can be recognized as the equation of motion for the vector potential A in the Lorenz gauge A = 0. To see this, recall that if we dene F = A A then the Maxwell equation F = (4/c)A becomes A = A ( A ) = which yields (11) provided A = 0. b) Show explicitly, and with what assumptions, that this Lagrangian density diers from (12.85) by a 4-divergence. Does this added 4-divergence aect the action or the equations of motion? The dierence between this alternative Lagrangian density and the standard Maxwell Lagrangian density L0 = can be expressed as 1 1 F F A A 16 8 1 = A A 8 1 1 = (A A A A ) ( A )2 8 8 where the last line follows by simple manipulation of derivatives. This demonstrates that the alternative Lagrangian density diers from the correct one by a 4-divergence so long as we are restricted to Lorenz gauge, A = 0. L = Finally, we recall that the action is the four-dimensional integral of the Lagrangian density. In this case, since the integral of a 4-divergence gives a surface term, the action is only aected by a possible surface term. Assuming the vector potential A falls o suciently at innity, this surface term will in fact vanish, so the action is actually unchanged. This then demonstrates that the equations of motion are unaected by the addition of a 4-divergence to the Lagrangian density. 1 1 F F J Am u 16 c 4 J c

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