17
WaveParticle Duality and Quantum Physics
1* The quantized character of electromagnetic radiation is revealed by (a) the Young doubleslit experiment. (b)
diffraction of light by a small aperture. (c) the photoelectric effect. (d) the J.J. Thomson cathoderay experiment.
(c)
2 Two monochromatic light sources, A and B, emit the same number of photons per second. The wavelength of A is
A
= 400 nm, and that of B is
B
= 600 nm. The power radiated by source B is (a) equal to that of source A. (b) less
than that of source A. (c) greater than that of source A. (d) cannot be compared to that from source A using the
available data.
(b)
3 Find the photon energy in joules and in electron volts for an electromagnetic wave of frequency (a) 100MHz in the
FM radio band, and (b) 900 kHz in the AM radio band.
(a) E = hf;
h = 6.626
10
34
J
.
s = 4.136
10
15
eV
.
s
(b) E = hf
E = 6.63
10
26
J = 4.14
10
7
eV
E = 5.96
10
28
J = 3.72
10
9
eV
4 An 80kW FM transmitter operates at a frequency of 101.1 MHZ. How many photons per second are emitted by
the transmitter?
P = Nhf; N = P/hf N = 8
10
4
/(6.63
10
34
101.1
10
6
) s
1
= 1.19
10
30
s
1
5* What are the frequencies of photons having the following energies? (a) 1 eV, (b) 1 keV, and (c) 1 MeV.
(a) f = 1/4.14
10
15
Hz = 2.42
10
14
Hz. (b) f = 2.24
10
17
Hz. (c) f = 2.24
10
20
Hz.
6 Find the photon energy for light of wavelength (a) 450 nm, (b) 550 nm, and (c) 650 nm.
(a), (b), (c) E = hc/
= (1240 eV
.
nm)/
(a) E = 2.76 eV (b) E = 2.25 eV (c) E = 1.91 eV
7 Find the photon energy if the wavelength is (a) 0.1 nm (about 1 atomic diameter), and (b) 1 fm (1 fm = 10
15
m,
about 1 nuclear diameter).
(a) E = 1240/0.1 eV = 12.4 keV. (b) E = 1240/10
6
eV = 1.24 GeV.
Chapter 17 WaveParticle Duality and Quantum Physics
8 The wavelength of light emitted by a 3mW HeNe laser is 632 nm. If the diameter of the laser beam is 1.0 mm,
what is the density of photons in the beam?
1. Find the number of photons emitted per second
2. Find the volume containing the photons
3. Density of photons = N/V
N = P/E = (3
10
3
/1.6
10
19
)/(1240/632)
= 9.56
10
15
V = Ac = (
10
6
/4)
10
8
m
3
= 2.36
10
2
m
3
= 9.56
10
15
/2.36
10
2
m
3
= 4.05
10
13
m
3
9* True or false: In the photoelectric effect, (a) the current is proportional to the intensity of the incident light. (b) the
work function of a metal depends on the frequency of the incident light. (c) the maximum kinetic energy of electrons
emitted varies linearly with the frequency of the incident light. (d) the energy of a photon is proportional to its
frequency.
(a) True (b) False (c) True (d) True
10 In the photoelectric effect, the number of electrons emitted per second is (a) independent of the light intensity. (b)
proportional to the light intensity. (c) proportional to the work function of the emitting surface. (d) proportional to the
frequency of the light.
(b)
11 The work function of a surface is
. (b)
. Evidently, hc/
1
<
, but hc/
2
>
.
13* The work function for tungsten is 4.58 eV. (a) Find the threshold frequency and wavelength for the photoelectric
effect. (b) Find the maximum kinetic energy of the electrons if the wavelength of the incident light is 200 nm, and (c)
250 nm.
(a) f
t
=
/h;
= c/f
(b), (c) K
m
= E 
= hc/
f
t
= 4.58/4.136
10
15
Hz = 1.11
10
15
Hz;
t
= 270 nm
(b) K
m
=
(1240/200  4.58)
eV
=
1.62 eV
(c)
K
m
= 0.38 eV
Chapter 17 WaveParticle Duality and Quantum Physics
14 When light of wavelength 300 nm is incident on potassium, the emitted electrons have maximum kinetic energy of
2.03 eV. (a) What is the energy of an incident photon? (b) What is the work function for potassium? (c) What would
be the maximum kinetic energy of the electrons if the incident light had a wavelength of
430 nm? (d) What is the threshold wavelength for the photoelectric effect with potassium?
(a) E = hc/
(b)
= E  K
m
(c) K
m
= E 
(d)
t
= hc/
E = 1240/300 eV = 4.13 eV
= 2.10 eV
K
m
= (1240/430  2.10) eV = 0.784 eV
t
= 1240/2.10 nm = 590 nm
15 The threshold wavelength for the photoelectric effect for silver is 262 nm. (a) Find the work function for silver. (b)
Find the maximum kinetic energy of the electrons if the incident radiation has a wavelength of 175 nm.
(a), (b) See Problem 14 (a)
= 1240/262 eV = 4.73 eV
(b) K
m
= (1240/175  4.73) eV = 2.36 eV
16 The work function for cesium is 1.9 eV. (a) Find the threshold frequency and wavelength for the photoelectric
effect. Find the maximum kinetic energy of the electrons if the wavelength of the incident light is (b) 250 nm, and (c)
350 nm.
(a) f
t
=
/h;
t
= hc/
(b), (c) K
m
= E 
f
t
= 1.9/4.136
10
15
Hz = 4.59
10
14
Hz;
t
= 653 nm
(b) K
m
= (1240/250  1.9) eV = 3.06 eV
(c) K
m
= 1.64 eV
17* When a surface is illuminated with light of wavelength 512 nm, the maximum kinetic energy of the emitted
electrons is 0.54 eV. What is the maximum kinetic energy if the surface is illuminated with light of wavelength
365 nm?
1. Find
= E  K
m
2. Find K
m
for
= 365 nm
= 60
o
.
Use Equ. 178; h/m
e
c = 2.43 pm
= 2.43
0.5 pm = 1.215 pm
19 When photons are scattered by electrons in carbon, the shift in wavelength is 0.33 pm. Find the scattering angle.
Use Equ. 178
= cos
1
(1  0.33/2.43) = 30.2
o
20 The wavelength of Comptonscattered photons is measured at
= 90
o
. If
/0.015
= 2.43 pm;
= 162 pm = 0.162 nm
21* Compton used photons of wavelength 0.0711 nm. (a) What is the energy of these photons? (b) What is the wave
length of the photon scattered at
= 180
o
? (c) What is the energy of the photon scattered at this angle?
Chapter 17 WaveParticle Duality and Quantum Physics
(a) E = hc/
(b) Use Equ. 178;
f
=
i
+
(c) E = hc/
E = 1240/0.0711 eV = 17.44 keV
= 2
10
24
kg
.
m/s. p
f
= 8.72
10
24
kg
.
m/s. p
e
= (p
f
 p
i
) = 18.0
10
24
kg
.
m/s.
23 An Xray photon of wavelength 6 pm that collides with an electron is scattered by an angle of 90
o
. (a) What is the
change in wavelength of the photon? (b) What is the kinetic energy of the scattered electron?
(a) Use Equ. 178
(b)
E = hc/
i
 hc/
f
= 2.43 pm = 0.00243 nm
/(
/collision)
/collision = 4.86 pm
N = 200/4.86 = 42
25* True or false: (a) The de Broglie wavelength of an electron varies inversely with its momentum. (b) Electrons can
be diffracted. (c) Neutrons can be diffracted. (d) An electron microscope is used to look at electrons.
(a) True (b) True (c) True (d) False
26 If the de Broglie wavelength of an electron and a proton are equal, then (a) the velocity of the proton is greater
than that of the electron. (b) the velocity of the proton and electron are equal. (c) the velocity of the proton is less than
that of the electron. (d) the energy of the proton is greater than that of the electron. (e) both
(a) and (d) are correct.
(c) p
e
= p
p
. m
p
> m
e
.
27 A proton and an electron have equal kinetic energies. It follows that the de Broglie wavelength of the proton is (a)
greater than that of the electron. (b) equal to that of the electron. (c) less than that of the electron.
(c) p
p
2
/2m
p
= p
e
2
/2m
e
; p
e
< p
p
so
e
>
p
.
28 Use Equation 1713 to calculate the de Broglie wavelength for an electron of kinetic energy (a) 2.5 eV, (b)
250 eV, (c) 2.5 keV, and (d) 25 keV.
(a), (b), (c), (d) Use Equ. 1713 (a)
= 1.23/2.5
1/2
nm = 0.778 nm (b)
= 0.0778 nm
(c)
= 0.0246 nm (d)
= 7.78 pm
29* An electron is moving at v = 2.5
10
5
m/s. Find its de Broglie wavelength.
Find p = mv;
= h/p = h/mv
= 6.626
10
34
/9.11
10
31
2.5
10
5
m = 2.91 nm
30 An electron has a wavelength of 200 nm. Find (a) its momentum, and (b) its kinetic energy.
Chapter 17 WaveParticle Duality and Quantum Physics
(a) p = h/
(b) Use Equ. 1713; K = (1.23/
)
2
,
in nm
p = 6.626
10
34
/2
10
7
kg
.
m/s = 3.31
10
27
kg
.
m/s
K = 3.78
10
5
eV
31 Find the energy of an electron in electron volts if its de Broglie wavelength is (a) 5 nm, and (b) 0.01 nm.
(a), (b) K = (1.23/
)
2
,
in nm (a) K = 6.05
10
2
eV (b) K = 15.1 keV
32 A neutron in a reactor has kinetic energy of about 0.02 eV. Calculate the de Broglie wavelength of this neutron
from Equation 1712, where mc
2
= 940 MeV is the rest energy of the neutron.
Use Equ. 1712;
K
K
2
6
10 86 . 2
10 1880
1240
where
is in nm and K in eV
= 0.202 nm
33* Use Equation 1712 to find the de Broglie wavelength of a proton (rest energy mc
2
= 938 MeV) that has a kinetic
energy of 2 MeV.
For protons,
= 2.86
10
2
/
K
,
in nm, K in eV
= 2.02
10
5
nm = 20.2 fm
34 A proton is moving at v = 0.003c, where c is the speed of light. Find its de Broglie wavelength.
Find p;
= h/p = h/m
p
v = (h/m
e
c)(c/v)(m
e
/m
p
)
= 2.43(1/0.003)(0.511/938) pm = 0.441 pm
35 What is the kinetic energy of a proton whose de Broglie wavelength is (a) 1 nm, and (b) 1 fm?
(a), (b) K = (2.86
10
2
/
)
2
, K in eV,
= h/mv
= 6.626
10
34
/4.35 m = 1.52
10
34
m
37* The energy of the electron beam in Davisson and Germers experiment was 54 eV. Calculate the wavelength for
these electrons.
Use Equ. 1713
= 0.167 nm
38 The distance between Li
+
and Cl

ions in a LiCl crystal is 0.257 nm. Find the energy of electrons that have a
wavelength equal to this spacing.
K = (1.23/
)
2
K = 22.9 eV
39 An electron microscope uses electrons of energy 70 keV. Find the wavelength of these electrons.
Use Equ. 1713
= 4.65
10
3
nm = 4.65 pm
40 What is the de Broglie wavelength of a neutron with speed 10
6
m/s?
Chapter 17 WaveParticle Duality and Quantum Physics
10
34
/(1.67
10
27
10
6
) m = 3.97
10
13
m = 0.397 pm.
41* Suppose you have a spherical object of mass 4 g moving at 100 m/s. What size aperture is necessary for the object
to show diffraction? Show that no common objects would be small enough to squeeze through such an aperture.
For diffraction, the diameter of the aperture d
. So d
6.626
10
34
/(4
10
3
100) = 1.66
10
33
m. This is many
orders of magnitude smaller than even the diameter of a proton.
42 A neutron has a kinetic energy of 10 MeV. What size object is necessary to observe neutron diffraction effects?
Is there anything in nature of this size that could serve as a target to demonstrate the wave nature of
10MeV neutrons?
From Problem 32,
= 2.86
10
2
/
K
d
d = 9.04
10
6
nm
10 fm ~ nuclear diameter
43 What is the de Broglie wavelength of an electron of kinetic energy 200 eV? What are some common targets that
could demonstrate the wave nature of such an electron?
From Equ. 1713 one finds that
2
(x) for the state n = 4 of a particle in a box.
45* (a) Find the energy of the ground state (n = 1) and the first two excited states of a proton in a onedimensional box
of length L = 10
15
m = 1 fm. (These are the order of magnitude of nuclear energies.) Make an energylevel diagram
for this system and calculate the wavelength of electromagnetic radiation emitted when the proton makes a transition
from (b) n = 2 to n = 1, (c) n = 3 to n = 2, and (d) n = 3 to n = 1.
(a) E
1
= h
2
/8mL
2
= 3.28
10
11
J = 205 MeV; the energy level diagram is
shown
(b) For n = 2 to n = 1,
E = 3E
1
so
= 1240/615
10
6
nm = 2.02 fm
(c) For n = 3 to n = 2,
E = 5E
1
and
= 3
2.02/5 fm = 1.21 fm
(d) For n = 3 to n = 1,
E = 8E
1
and
= 3
2.02/8 fm = 0.758 fm
Chapter 17 WaveParticle Duality and Quantum Physics
46 (a) Find the energy of the ground state (n = 1) and the first two excited states of a proton in a onedimensional box
of length 0.2 nm (about the diameter of a H
2
molecule). Calculate the wavelength of electromagnetic radiation emitted
when the proton makes a transition from (b) n = 2 to n = 1, (c) n = 3 to n = 2, and (d) n = 3 to n = 1.
(a)
L
)
mc
(
) (hc
=
E
2 2
2
1
8
, L in nm, E in eV
E
2
= 4E
1
; E
3
= 9E
1
(b), (c), (d)
= 1240/
E
meV 5.12
)(0.04)
10
8(9.38
) (1240
8
2
1
= =
E
E
2
= 20.5 meV; E
3
= 46.1 meV
21
= 8.07
10
4
nm
= 80.7
m;
32
= 48.4
m;
31
= 30.3
m
47 (a) Find the energy of the ground state and the first two excited states of a small particle of mass 1
g
confined to a onedimensional box of length 1 cm. (b) If the particle moves with a speed of 1 mm/s, calculate its
kinetic energy and find the approximate value of the quantum number n.
(a)
L
)
mc
(
) (hc
=
E
2 2
2
1
8
E
2
= 4E
1
; E
3
= 9E
1
(b) E = 1/2mv
2
; n
2
= 1/2mv
2
/E
1
J
10
5.56
)
10
)(
10
9
10
8(
)
10
3
10
(6.626
55 
2
2  16 9 
2
8 34
1
= =
E
E
2
= 2.22
10
54
J; E
3
= 5.03
10
54
J
E = 5
10
16
J; n = 3
10
19
48 A particle is in the ground state of a box of length L. Find the probability of finding the particle in the interval
x =
2
(x)
x;
(x) =
1
(x) = (2/L)
1/2
sin (
x/L)
(a) Evaluate P(x) at x = L/2; P = P(x)
x
(b) Repeat as in (a) for x = 2L/3
(c) Repeat as in (a) for x = L
P(x) = (2/L) sin
2
(
x/L)
P = (2/L)(0.002L) = 0.004
P = (2/L)(0.75)(0.002L) = 0.003
P = 0
49* Do Problem 48 for a particle in the first excited state (n = 2).
Repeat procedure of Problem 47 with P(x) =
2
(x) =
2
2
(x) = (2/L) sin
2
(2
2
(x) =
3
2
(x) = (2/L) sin
2
(3
and
x
2
for the first excited state (n = 2) for a particle in a box of length L, and (b) find
x
2
.
Proceed as in Example 178, replacing
1
(x) with
2
(x).
(a)
2
0
2
2
2
0
2
sin
2 2
sin
2
) (
L
d
L
dx
L
x
L
x
x
L
.
(b)
2 2
2
2 2
2
0
3
2
2
2
0
2
321 . 0
8
1
3
1
sin
2 2
sin
2
) ( L L d
L
dx
L
x
L
x
x
L
,
_
. We have used
1
1
]
1
,
_
,
_
4
2 cos
2 sin
8
1
4 6
sin ;
8
2 cos
4
2 sin
4
sin
2 3
2 2
2
2
d d
.
53* (a) Find
for the second excited state (n = 3) for a particle in a box of length L, and (b) find
x
2
.
We proceed as in the preceding problem. Now the integrals over
extend from 0 to 3
.
(a)
= L/2. (b)
x
2
= (1/3  1/18
2
)L
2
= 0.328L
2
. (Note that
x
2
2
(x) versus x for this
state. (b) What is the expectation value
for this state? (c) What is the probability of finding the particle in
some small region dx centered at x = 1/2L? (d) Are your answers for (b) and (c) contradictory? If not, explain.
(a) The probability density is shown
(b)
(x) = A
e
x/a
, where A and a are constants. (a) Find
the normalization constant A. (b) Calculate the probability of finding the particle in the region a
a.
(a) We evaluate
a A aA dx e A dx e A dx x
a x a x
1 ; 2 2 1 ) (
2 / 2
0
2 / 2 2
0
2
.
Chapter 17 WaveParticle Duality and Quantum Physics
(b)
865 . 0 1
1
2 ) (
2 / 2
0
2
e dx e
a
dx x P
a x
a a
a
.
56 A particle in a onedimensional box of length L is in its ground state. Calculate the probability that the particle
will be found in the region (a) 0 < x < 1/2L, (b) 0 < x < L/3, and (c) 0 < x < 3L/4.
The probability density is given by P(x) = (2/L) sin
2
(
d
L
L
P
.
(b)
196 . 0
4
3
3
1
sin
2
2
3 /
0
d P
.
(c)
909 . 0
2
1
4
3
sin
2
2
4 / 3
0
+
d P
.
57* Repeat Problem 56 for a particle in the first excited state of the box.
For the first excited state, i.e., for
2
(x) = (2/L) sin
2
(2
go from 0 to
, 0 to 2
/3, and
0 to 3
/2 for parts (a), (b), and (c), respectively. The other change is that the factor (L/
) is replaced by (L/2
).
(a)
2
1
sin
2
2
2
0
d
L
L
P
.
(b)
402 . 0
8
3
3
1
sin
1
2
3 / 2
0
+
d P
.
(c)
75 . 0
4
3
sin
1
2
2 / 3
0
d P
.
58 (a) For the wave functions
. = n /L), x (n 2/L = (x)
n
.. 3, 2, 1, sin
corresponding to a particle in
the nth state of a onedimensional box of length L, show that
x
2
= (L
2
/3)  [L
2
/(2n
2
2
)]. (b) Compare this result
for
n >> 1 with your answer for the classical distribution of Problem 51.
Chapter 17 WaveParticle Duality and Quantum Physics
We proceed as in Problem 52(b), now replacing the argument (n
x/L) by
.
(a)
,
_
2 2
2 2 2
0
3
3
2
2
1
3
1
sin
) (
2
) (
n
L d
n
L
L
x
n
.
(b) For large values of n, the result agrees with the classical value of L
2
/3 given in Problem 51.
59 The wave functions for a particle of mass m in a onedimensional box of length L centered at the origin (so
that the ends are at x = L/2) are given by
.. = n /L), x (n 2/L = (x)
n
. 7, 5, 3, 1, cos
and
.. = n /L), x (n 2/L = (x)
n
. 8, 6, 4, 2, sin
. Calculate
and
x
2
d
L
dx
L
x
x
L
x
L
L
) sin 1 (
2
cos
2
) (
2 2
2 /
2 /
3
2
2 2
2 /
2 /
2
=
,
_
1
1
]
1
,
_
+
2
2
3 3
3
2
2
1
12
1
4 24 12
2
L
L
.
Note: The result differs from that of Example 178. Since we have shifted the origin by
x)
2
= L
2
/4 from
x
2
as given in
Example 178.
60 Calculate
and
x
2
for the first excited state of the box described in Problem 59.
,
_
,
_
2 2
L
= x (see Note of Problem 59)
61* Can the expectation value of x ever equal a value that has zero probability of being measured?
Yes
62 Explain why the maximum kinetic energy of electrons emitted in the photoelectric effect does not depend on
the intensity of the incident light, but the total number of electrons emitted does.
In the photoelectric effect, an electron absorbs the energy of a single photon. Therefore, K
max
= hf 
,
independent of the number of photons incident on the surface. However, the number of photons incident on the
surface determines the number of electrons that are emitted.
63 A sixsided die has the number 1 painted on three sides and the number 2 painted on the other three sides. (a)
What is the probability of a 1 coming up when the die is thrown? (b) What is the expectation value of the number
that comes up when the die is thrown?
(a) P(1) = 1/2. (b)
= (3
1 + 3
2)/6 = 1.5.
64 True or false: (a) It is impossible in principle to know precisely the position of an electron. (b) A particle that
is confined to some region of space cannot have zero energy. (c) All phenomena in nature are adequately
described by classical wave theory. (d) The expectation value of a quantity is the value that you expect to
Chapter 17 WaveParticle Duality and Quantum Physics
measure.
(a) False (b) True (c) False (d) False; it is the most probable value of the measurement.
65* It was once believed that if two identical experiments are done on identical systems under the same
conditions, the results must be identical. Explain why this is not true, and how it can be modified so that it is
consistent with quantum physics.
According to quantum theory, the average value of many measurements of the same quantity will yield the
expectation value of that quantity. However, any single measurement may differ from the expectation value.
66 A light beam of wavelength 400 nm has an intensity of 100 W/m
2
. (a) What is the energy of each photon in
the beam? (b) How much energy strikes an area of 1 cm
2
perpendicular to the beam in 1 s? (c) How many
photons strike this area in 1 s?
(a) E
ph
= hc/
(b) E = IAt
(c) N = E/E
ph
E
ph
= 1240/400 eV = 3.1 eV
E = 100
10
4
1 = 0.01 J = 6.25
10
16
eV
N = 6.25
10
16
/3.1 = 2.02
10
16
67 A mass of 10
6
g is moving with a speed of about 10
1
cm/s in a box of length 1 cm. Treating this as a one
dimensional particle in a box, calculate the approximate value of the quantum number n.
1. Write the energy of the particle
2. Write the expression for E
n
3. Solve for n
E = 1/2mv
2
E
n
= n
2
h
2
/8mL
2
n = 2mvL/h = 3.02
10
19
68 (a) For the classical particle of Problem 67, find
x and
p)/h
_
?
(a)
x = 10
4
10
2
m = 10
6
m;
p = 10
4
(mv) = 10
4
10
9
10
3
kg
.
m/s = 10
16
kg
.
m/s.
(b)
p/h
_
= 10
22
/1.05
10
34
= 0.948
10
12
.
69* In 1987, a laser at Los Alamos National Laboratory produced a flash that lasted 1
10
12
s and had a power
of 5.0
10
15
W. Estimate the number of emitted photons if their wavelength was 400 nm.
N = E/E
ph
= (P
t)/(hc/
) N = (5
10
3
1.6
10
19
eV)/3.1 eV = 10
22
70 You cant see anything smaller than the wavelength
2
eV,
in nm K = 151 eV
71 A common flea that has a mass of 0.008 g can jump vertically as high as 20 cm. Estimate the de Broglie
wavelength for the flea immediately after takeoff.
1.
2gh m = p
2.
= h/p
p = 1.584
10
5
kg
.
m/s
= 6.626
10
34
/1.584
10
5
m = 4.2
10
29
m
72 The work function for sodium is
= 2.3 eV. Find the minimum de Broglie wavelength for the electrons
Chapter 17 WaveParticle Duality and Quantum Physics
emitted by a sodium cathode illuminated by violet light with a wavelength of 420 nm.
1. Use Equ. 173 to find K
max
2. Use Equ. 1713 to find
K
max
= (1240/420  2.3) eV = 0.652 eV
nm 1.52 = 0.652 1.23/ =
73* Suppose that a 100W source radiates light of wavelength 600 nm uniformly in all directions and that the eye
can detect this light if only 20 photons per second enter a darkadapted eye having a pupil 7 mm in diameter. How
far from the source can the light be detected under these rather extreme conditions?
1. At a distance R from the source, the fraction of the light energy entering the eye is A
eye
/4
R
2
= r
2
/4R
2
.
2. Find the number of photons emitted per second
3. Solve for R from 20 = 3.02
10
20
r
2
/4R
2
N = P/E
ph
= 100/[(1240/600)
1.6
10
19
]
= 3.02
10
20
/s
R = 6800 km (neglects absorption by atmosphere)
74 Data for maximum kinetic energy of the electrons versus wavelength for the photoelectric effect using
sodium are
= hf
th
, where f
th
is the threshold frequency for emission of electrons. Here f
th
= 0.5
10
15
Hz;
= 2.07
eV.
(b) See (a). f
th
= 0.5 PHz.
(c) h/e is the slope of the straight line divided by e. The slope is 4.2/10
15
eV/Hz; so h/e = 4.2
10
15
V/Hz, which
gives the value of h as 4.2
10
15
eV
.
s, in fair agreement with the exact value of 4.136
10
15
eV
.
s.
75 The diameter of the pupil of the eye under roomlight conditions is about 5 mm. (It can vary from about 1 to 8
mm.) Find the intensity of light of wavelength 600 nm such that 1 photon per second passes through the pupil.
I = P/A = E/At = hc/
At; evaluate I
I = 1240/(600
2.5
2
10
6
) eV/m
2
.
s
= 1.68
10
14
W/m
2
Chapter 17 WaveParticle Duality and Quantum Physics
76 A light bulb radiates 90 W uniformly in all directions. (a) Find the intensity at a distance of 1.5 m. (b) If the
wavelength is 650 nm, find the number of photons per second that strike a surface of area 1 cm
2
oriented so that
the line to the bulb is perpendicular to the surface.
(a) I = P/A = P/4
R
2
(b) N = IA/E
ph
I = 90/4
2.25 W/m
2
= 3.18 W/m
2
N = [3.18
10
4
/1.6
10
19
(1240/650)] = 1.04
10
15
77* When light of wavelength
1
is incident on the cathode of a photoelectric tube, the maximum kinetic energy of
the emitted electrons is 1.8 eV. If the wavelength is reduced to
1
/2, the maximum kinetic energy of the emitted
electrons is 5.5 eV. Find the work function
1.8 eV = 1240/
1

; 5.5 eV = 2480/
1

= 1.9 eV
78 A photon of energy E is scattered at an angle
of
From Equ. 178,
, + )
m
h
= cos  (1
c
e
and
.
)
m
E
+
E
=
)  (
m
hc
+
hc
=
)
m
h
+
hc
=
hc
= E
cos  (1
c
1 cos 1
c
1 cos  (1
c
2
e
2
e e
79 A particle is confined to a onedimensional box. In making a transition from the state n to the state n  1,
radiation of 114.8 nm is emitted; in the transition from the state n  1 to the state n  2, radiation of wavelength
147 nm is emitted. The groundstate energy of the particle is 1.2 eV. Determine n.
1.
E = n
2
E
1
 (n  1)
2
E
1
= (2n  1)E
1
= hc/
2. Solve for n
2n  1 = 1240/1.2
114.8 = 9
n = 5
80 A particle confined to a onedimensional box has a groundstate energy of 0.4 eV. When irradiated with light
of 206.7 nm it makes a transition to an excited state. When decaying from this excited state to the next lower
state it emits radiation of 442.9 nm. What is the quantum number of the state to which the particle has decayed?
1. Find E
f
, energy of the final state
2. E
f
= n
2
E
1
; solve for n
E
f
= (0.4 + 1240/206.7  1240/442.9) eV = 3.6 eV
n
2
= 9; n = 3
81* When a surface is illuminated with light of wavelength
= 0.8
is used the maximum kinetic energy increases to 1.76 eV, and for
wavelength
= 0.6
the maximum kinetic energy of the emitted electrons is 2.676 eV. Determine the work
Chapter 17 WaveParticle Duality and Quantum Physics
function of the surface and the wavelength
.
1. Use Equ. 173
2. Solve for
3. Evaluate
1240/
= 1.2 eV +
; 1240/0.8
= 1.76 eV +
(1550  1240)/
= 310/
= 0.56 eV;
= 553.6 nm
= 1.04 eV
82 A simple pendulum of length 1 m has a bob of mass 0.3 kg. The energy of this oscillator is quantized to the
values E
n
= (n + 1/2)hf
0
, where n is an integer and f
0
is the frequency of the pendulum. (a) Find n if the angular
amplitude is 10
o
. (b) Find
)
Set
L
g
2
h
) + (n = E
2
1
and solve for n
(b) For
E = 10
4
E,
n = 10
4
n
E = 0.3
9.81
1(1  cos 10
o
) = 0.0447 J
n = 1.35
10
32
n = 1.35
10
28
83 (a) Show that for large n, the fractional difference in energy between state n and state n + 1 for a particle in
a box is given approximately by (E
n + 1
 E
n
)/E
n
.
(b) Using the above, the percentage difference is 0.2%.
(c) Classically, the energy is continuous. For very large values of n (see, e.g., Problem 67) the energy difference
between adjacent levels is infinitesimal.
84 In 1985, a light pulse of 1.8
10
12
photons was produced in an AT&T laboratory during a time interval of
8
10
15
s. The wavelength of the produced light was
; then F =
p/
t = Nh/
t F = (1.8
10
12
6.626
10
34
/2.4
10
6
10
15
)
N =
0.0621 N
85* This problem is one of estimating the time lag (expected classically but not observed) in the photoelectric
effect. Let the intensity of the incident radiation be 0.01 W/m
2
. (a) If the area of the atom is 0.01 nm
2
, find the
energy per second falling on an atom. (b) If the work function is 2 eV, how long would it take classically for this
much energy to fall on one atom?
(a) P = IA
(b) t = E/P
P = 10
2
10
20
J/s = 6.25
10
4
eV/s
t = 2/6.25
10
4
s = 3200 s = 53.3 min