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Theoretical methods to predict the action of propellers began to develop in the latter part of the nineteenth century.

Perhaps the most notable of these early works was that of Rankine, with his momentum theory, which was closely followed by the blade element theories of Froude. The modern theories of propeller action, however, had to await the more fundamental works in aerodynamics of Lanchester, utta, !oukowski, "unk and Prandtl in the early years of the last century before they could commence their development. Lanchester, an #nglish automobile engineer and selfstyled aerodynamicist, was the $rst to relate the idea of circulation with lift and he presented his ideas to the %irmingham &atural 'istory and Philosophical (ociety in )*+,. 'e subse-uently wrote a paper to the Physical (ociety, who declined to publish these ideas. &evertheless, he published two books, Aerodynamics and Aerodonetics, in )+./ and )+.* respectively. 0n these books, which were subse-uently translated into 1erman and French, we $nd the $rst mention of vortices that trail downstream of the wing tips and the proposition that these trailing vortices must be connected by a vorte2 that crosses the wing3 the $rst indication of the 4horse-shoe5 vorte2 model. 0t appears that -uite independently of Lanchester5s work in the $eld of aerodynamics, utta developed the idea that lift and circulation were related6 however, he

did not give the -uantitative relation between these two parameters. 0t was left to !oukowski, working in Russia in )+.7, to propose the relation L= V8 9/.):

This has since been known as the utta-!oukowski theorem. 'istory shows that !oukowski was completely unaware of utta5s note on the sub;ect, but in recognition of both their contributions the theorem has generally been known by their ;oint names. Prandtl, generally acclaimed as the father of modern aerodynamics, e2tended the work of aerodynamics into $nite wing theory by developing a classical lifting line theory. This theory evolved to the concept of a lifting line comprising an in$nite number of horse-shoe vortices as sketched in Figure /.). "unk, a colleague of Prandtl at 1ottingen, $rst introduced the term 4induced drag5 and also developed the aerofoil theory which has produced such e2ceptionally good results in a wide variety of subsonic applications. From these beginnings the development of propeller theories started, slowly at $rst but then gathering pace through the )+<.s and )+7.s. These theoretical methods, whether aimed at the design or analysis problem, have all had the common aim of predicting propeller performance by means of a mathematical

Figure 7.1

Prandtl5s classical lifting line theory

model which has inherent assumptions built into it. =onse-uently, these mathematical models of propeller action rely on the same theoretical basis as that of aerodynamic wing design, and therefore appeal to the same fundamental theorems of sub-sonic aerodynamics or hydrodynamics. >lthough aerodynamics is perhaps the wider ranging sub;ect in terms of its dealing with a more e2tensive range of ?ow speeds, for e2ample subsonic, supersonic and hypersonic ?ows, both noncavitating hydrodynamics and aerodynamics can be considered the same sub;ect provided the "ach number does not e2ceed a value of round .., to ..<, which is where the effects of compressibility in air start to become appreciable. This book is not a treatise on ?uid mechanics in general, and therefore it will not deal in detail with the more fundamental and abstract ideas of ?uid dynamics. For these matters the reader is referred to References ) to ,. 0n both this chapter and =hapter * we are concerned with introducing the various theoretical methods of propeller analysis, so as to provide a basis for further reading or work. 'owever, in order to do this certain prere-uisite theoretical ideas are needed, some of which can be useful analytical tools in their own right. To meet these re-uirements the sub;ect is structured into two parts6 this chapter deals with the basic theoretical concepts necessary to evolve and understand the theories of propeller action which are then discussed in more detail in =hapter *3 Table /.) shows this structure. The review of the basic concepts will of necessity

be in overview terms consistent with this being a book concerned with the application of ?uid mechanics to the marine propeller problem. Furthermore, the discussion of the propeller theories, if conducted in a detailed and mathematically rigorous way, would not be consistent with the primary aim of this book and would also re-uire many books of this siDe to do ;ustice to them. >ccordingly the important methods will be discussed suf$ciently for the reader to understand their essential features, uses and limitations, and references will be given for further detailed study. >lso, where several complementary methods e2ist within a certain class of theoretical methods, only one will be discussed and references given to the others.

7.1 Basic aerofoil section characteristics

%efore discussing the theoretical basis for propeller analysis it is perhaps worth spending time considering the e2perimental characteristics of wing sections, since these are in essence what the analytical methods are attempting to predict. Figure /.E shows the e2perimental results for a two-dimensional aerofoil having &ational >dvisory =ommittee for >eronautics 9&>=>: 7< thickness form superimposed on an a = ).. mean line. The $gure shows the lift, drag and pitching moment characteristics of the section as a function of angle of attack and for dif- ferent Reynold numbers. 0n this instance the moment coef$cient is taken about the -uarter chord point6 this point is fre-uently chosen since it is the aerodynamic centre under the assumptions of thin aerofoil theory, and in practice lies reasonably close to it. The aerody- namic centre is the point where the resultant lift and drag forces are assumed to act and hence do not in?uence the moment, which is camber pro$le and magnitude related. The lift, drag and moment coef$cients are given by the relationships CL = CB = and C" = M
) AlV E E

Table 7.1 @utline of =hapters / and


Chapter 7 Basic concepts and theoretical methods 1eneral 0ntroduction #2perimental (ingle and =ascade >erofoil =haracteristics Aorte2 Filaments and (heets Field Point Aelocities utta =ondition elvin5s Theorem Thin >erofoil Theory Pressure Bistribution =alculations &>=> Pressure Bistribution >ppro2imation %oundary Layer 1rowth over >erofoil Finite Fing and Bownwash 'ydrodynamic "odels of Propeller >ction Aorte2 and (ource Panel "ethods

Chapter 8 Propeller theories "omentum Theory %lade #lement Theory %urrill >nalysis "ethod Lerbs "ethod #arly Besign "ethods C %urrill and #ckhardt and "organ 'eavily Loaded Propellers 91lover: Lifting (urface "odels 9"organ et al., van-1ent, %reslin: >dvanced Lifting Line Lifting (urface 'ybrid "odels Aote2 Lattice "odels 9 erwin: %oundary #lement "ethods (pecial Propeller Types3 =ontrollable Pitch Bucted Propellers =ontra-rotating (upercavitating

AV ) E D

) AV E E


in which A is the wing area, l is a reference length, V is the free stream incident velocity, the density of the ?uid, L and D are the lift and drag forces, perpendicular and parallel respectively to the incident ?ow, and M is the pitching moment de$ned about a convenient point. These coef$cients relate to the whole wing section and as such relate to average values for a $nite wing section.

Theoretical methods C basic concepts


Figure 7.2

#2perimental single aerofoil characteristics 9&>=> 7<-E.+: 9Reproduced with permission from Reference )):

For analysis purposes, however, it is of importance to deal with the elemental values of the aerodynamic coef$cients, and these are denoted by the lower case letters c) , cd , cm , given by c) = cd = and cm = L D
) cV E E

reference to the simpli$ed case shown in Figure /.G it can be seen that M

cL + , M


= xcp L


) cV E E


M ) cE V E E

in which c is the section chord length and L , D and M are the forces and moments per unit span. Returning now to Figure /.E, it will be seen that whilst the life slope is not in?uenced by Reynolds number, the ma2imum lift coef$cient CLma2 is dependent upon Rn . The -uarter chord pitching moment is also largely unaffected by Reynolds numbers over the range of non- stalled performance and the almost constant nature of the -uarter chord pitching moment over the range is typ- ical. There is, by general agreement, a sign convention of the aerodynamic moments which states that moments which tend to increase the incidence angle are considered positive, whilst those which decrease the incidence angle are negative. "oments acting on the aerofoil can also be readily transferred to other points on the blade section, most commonly the leading edge or, in the case of a controllable pitch propeller, the spindle a2is. Fith

=learly, in the general case of Figure /.G both the lift and drag would need to be resolved with respect to the angle of incidence to obtain a valid transfer of moment. 0n e-uation 9/.,: the term xcp is de$ned as the centre of pressure of the aerofoil and is the location of the point where the resultant of the distributed load over the section effectively acts. =onse-uently, if moments were taken about the centre of pressure the integrated effect of the distributed loads would be Dero. The centre of pressure is an e2tremely variable -uantity6 for e2ample, if the lift is Dero, then by e-uation 9/.,: it will be seen that xcp , and this tends to reduce its usefulness as a measurement parameter. The drag of the aerofoil as might be e2pected from its viscous origin is strongly dependent on Reynolds number, this effect is seen in Figure /.E. The drag coef$cient cd shown in this $gure is known as the pro$le drag of the section and it comprises both a skin friction drag cdf and a pressure drag cdp , both of which are due to viscous effects. 'owever, in the case of a threedimensional propeller blade or wing there is a third drag component, termed the induced drag, cdi , which arises from the free vorte2 system. 'ence the total drag on the section is given by e-uation 9/.<:3 cd = cdf + cdp + cdi 9/.<:

Figure 7.3

"oment and force definitions for aerofoils

The results shown in Figure /.E also show the Dero lift angle for the section which is the intersection of the lift curve with the abscissa6 as such, it is the angle at which the aerofoil should be set relative to the incident ?ow in order to give Dero lift. The propeller problem, however, rather than dealing with the single aerofoil in isolation is concerned with the performance of aerofoils in cascades. %y this we mean a series of aerofoils, the blades in the case of the propeller, working in suf$cient pro2imity to each other so that they mutually affect each other5s hydrodynamic characteristics. The effect of cascades on single aerofoil performance characteristics is shown in Figure /.,. From the $gure it is seen that both the lift slope and the Dero lift angle are altered. 0n the

case of the lift slope this is reduced from the single aerofoil case, as is the magnitude of the Dero lift angle. >s might be e2pected, the section drag coef$cient is also in?uenced by the pro2imity of the other blades6 however, this results in an increase in drag.

7.2 Vortex sheets



The concept of the vorte2 $lament and the vorte2 sheet is central to the understanding of many mathematical models of propeller action. The idea of a vorte2 ?ow, Figure /.<9a:, is well known and is considered in great detail by many standard ?uid mechanics, te2tbooks. 0t is, however, worth recalling the sign convention for these ?ow regimes, which state that a positive circulation induces a clockwise ?ow. For the purposes of developing propeller models, this two-dimensional vorte2 ?ow has to be e2tended into the concept of a line vorte2 or vorte2 $lament as shown in Figure /.<9b:. The line vorte2 is a vorte2 of constant strength 8 acting along the entire length of the line describing its path through space6 in the case of propeller technology this space will be three-dimensional. Fith regard to vorte2 $laments 'elmholtD, the 1erman mathematician, physicist and physician, established some basic principles of inviscid vorte2 behaviour which have generally become known as 'elmholtD5 vorte2 theorems3 ). The strength of a vorte2 $lament is constant along its length. E. > vorte2 $lament cannot end in a ?uid. >s a conse-uence the vorte2 must e2tend to the boundaries of the ?uid which could be at or, alternatively, the vorte2 $lament must form a closed path within the ?uid.

Figure 7.4


of cascade on single aerofoil

These theorems are particularly important since they govern the formation and structure of inviscid vorte2 propeller models.

Figure 7.5 Aorte2 flows3 9a: two-dimensional vorte2 and 9b: line vorte2

Figure 7.

Aorte2 sheet

The idea of the line vorte2 or vorte2 $lament can be e2tended to that of a vorte2 sheet. For simplicity at this stage we will consider a vorte2 sheet comprising an in$nite number of straight line vorte2 $laments side by side as shown in Figure /.7. >lthough we are here considering straight line vorte2 $laments the concept is readily e2tended to curved vorte2 $laments such as might form a helical surface, as shown in Figure /./. Returning, however, to Figure /.7, let us consider the sheet 4end-on5 looking in the direction Oy. 0f we de$ne the strength of the vorte2 sheet, per unit length, over

Figure 7.7

'elical vorte2

the sheet as I 9s: where s is the distance measured along the vorte2 sheet in the edge view, we can then write for an in$nitesimal portion of the sheet, ds, the strength as being e-ual to I d s. This small portion of the sheet can then be treated as a distinct vorte2 strength which can be used to calculate the velocity at some point P in the

neighbourhood of the sheet. For the point P 9x, z : shown in Figure /.7 the elemental velocity dV , perpendicular to the direction r , is given by dV = I d s EJr 9/.7:

7.3 Field !oint "elocities

The $eld point velocities are those ?uid velocities that may be in either close pro2imity to or remote from the body of interest. 0n the case of a propeller the $eld point velocities are those that surround the propeller both upstream and downstream of it. The mathematical models of propeller action are today based on systems of vortices combined in a variety of ways in order to give the desired physical representation. >s a conse-uence of this a principal tool for calculating $eld point velocities is the %iotC (avart law. This law is a general result of potential theory and describes both electromagnetic $elds and inviscid, incompressible ?ows. 0n general terms the law can be stated 9see Figure /.+: as the velocity induced at a point P of radius r from a segment ds of a vorte2 $lament of strength 8 given by 8 d l r d V = |r|G ,J 9/.*:

=onse-uently, the total velocity at the point P is the sum- mation of the elemental velocities at that point arising from all the in$nitesimal sections from a to b. The circulation 8 around the vorte2 sheet is e-ual to the sum of the strengths of all the elemental vortices located between a and b, and is given by


I ds


d V 0n the case of a vorte2 sheet there is a discontinuity in the tangential component of velocity across the sheet. This change in velocity can readily be related to the local sheet strength such that if we denote upper and lower velocities immediately above and below the vorte2 sheet, by ) and E respectively, then the local ;ump in tangential velocity across the vorte2 sheet is e-ual to the local sheet strength3 I =

The concept of the vorte2 sheet is instrumental in analysing the properties of aerofoil sections and $nds many applications in propeller theory. For e2ample, one such theory of aerofoil action might be to replace the aerofoil with a vorte2 sheet of variable strength, as shown in Figure /.*. The problem then becomes to calculate the distribution of I 9s: so as to make the aerofoil surface become a streamline to the ?ow. an inviscid ?ow.

Figure 7.#
vorte2 sheet

(imulation of an aerofoil section by a

These analytical philosophies were known at the time of Prandtl in the early )+E.s6 however, they had to await the advent of high-speed digital computers some forty years later before solutions on a general basis could be attempted. 0n addition to being a convenient mathematical device for modelling aerofoil action, the idea of replacing the aerofoil surface with a vorte2 sheet also has a physical signi$cance. The thin boundary layer which is formed over the aerofoil surface is a highly viscous region in which the large velocity gradients produce substantial amounts of vorticity. =onse-uently, there is a distribution of vorticity along the aerofoil surface due to viscosity and the philosophy of replacing the aerofoil surface with a vorte2 sheet can be construed as a way of modelling the viscous effects in

Figure 7.$ >pplication of the %iotC(avart law to

a general vorte2 filament

To illustrate the application of the %iotC(avart law, two common e2amples of direct application to propeller the- ory are cited here3 the $rst is a semiin$nite line vorte2 and the second is a semi-in$nite regular helical vorte2. %oth of these e2amples commonly represent systems of free vortices emanating from the propeller. First, the semi-in$nite line vorte2. =onsider the system shown in Figure /.)., which shows a segment ds of a straight line vorte2 originating at O and e2tending to in$nity in the positive x-direction. &ote that in practice, according to 'elmholtD5 theorem, the vorte2 could not end at the point O but must be ;oined to some other system of vortices. 'owever, for our purposes here it is suf$cient to consider this part of the system in isolation. &ow the velocity induced at the point P distant r from ds is given by e-uation 9/.*: as 8 sin K d V = ds ,J r E

Figure 7.1%

>pplication of the %iotC(avart law to a semi-infinite line vorte2 filament

Figure 7.11

>pplication of %iotC(avart law to a semi-infinite regular helical vorte2 filament

from which the velocity at P is written as rE and since s = h 9cot K cot L: we have
K =L

VP =

8 ,J

K =.

sin K d s

concept is the same. =onsider the case where a helical vorte2 $lament starts at the propeller disc and e2tends to in$nity having a constant radius and pitch angle, as shown in Figure /.)). From e-uation 9/.*: the velocity at the point P due to the segment ds is given by 8 ,J|a|G

VP = that is

K =L


sin K dK

d =

9d s a:

8 VP = 9) cos L: 9/.+: ,Jh The direction of VP is normal to the plane of the paper, by the de$nition of a vector cross product. 0n the second case of a regular helical vorte2 the analysis becomes a little more comple2, although the

and from the geometry of the problem we can derive from a = ax i + ay ! + az " that a = r sin9K + M:i 9y + y. :! + 9r. r cos9K +


(imilarly, s 9K: = r sin 9K + M:i + r K tan Ni ! + r cos 9K + M:" from which we can derive 8 d = ,J | |a G i ! " r sin 9K + r cos 9K + M: r K tan Ni M: r sin 9K + M: 9y + y. : r. r cos 9K + M: where the scalar a is given by
E GHE O9y + y. :E + r E + . r Er. r cos 9K + M:P

the theoretical solution for an aerofoil in potential ?ow6 however, nature selects ;ust one of these solutions. 0n )+.E, utta made the observation that the ?ow leaves the top and bottom surfaces of an aerofoil smoothly at the trailing edge. This, in general terms, is the utta condition. "ore speci$cally, however, this condition can be e2pressed as follows3 ). The value of the circulation 8 for a given aerofoil at a particular angle of attack is such that the ?ow leaves the trailing edge smoothly. E. 0f the angle made by the upper and lower surfaces of the aerofoil is $nite, that is non-Dero, then the trailing edge is a stagnation point at which the velocity is Dero. G. 0f the trailing edge is 4cusped5, that is the angle between the surfaces is Dero, the velocities are non-Dero and e-ual in magnitude and direction. %y returning to the concept discussed in (ection /.E, in which the aerofoil surface was replaced with a system of vorte2 sheets and where it was noted that the strength of the vorte2 sheet I 9s: was variable along its length, then according to the utta condition the velocities on the upper and lower surfaces of the aerofoil are e-ual at the trailing edge. Then from e-uation 9/./: we have I9T#: = I9T#: = .

'ence the component velocities x , y and z are given by the relations r8 x = ,J tan Ni 9r cos 9K + M:: 9y + y. : sin dK 9K + M : + r E Err. cos 9K + O9y + y. :E + r E . . M:PGHE

= r8 ,J

r r. cos 9K + M: dK + r E Err. cos 9K + O9y + y. :E + r E . GHE M:P

which implies in order to satisfy the

utta condition 9/.)):

= r8 ,J

r tan Ni sin 9K + M: 9y + y. : cos 9K + M: dK GHE E O9y + y. :E + r E + . r Err. cos 9K + M:P 9/.).:


These two e2amples are suf$cient to illustrate the procedure behind the calculation of the $eld point velocities in inviscid ?ow. =learly these principles can be e2tended to include horse-shoe vorte2 systems, irregular helical vortices, that is ones where the pitch and radius vary, and other more comple2 systems as re-uired by the modelling techni-ues employed. 0t is, however, important to keep in mind, when apply- ing these vorte2 $lament techni-ues to calculate the velocities at various $eld points, that they are simply conceptual hydrodynamic tools for synthesiDing more comple2 ?ows of an inviscid nature. >s such they are a convenient means of solving Laplace5s e-uation, the e-uation governing these types of ?ow, and are not by themselves of any great signi$cance. 'owever, when a number of vorte2 $laments are used in con;unction with a free stream ?ow function it becomes possible to synthesiDe a ?ow which has a practical propeller

7.4 The &utta condition

For potential ?ow over a cylinder we know that, depend- ing on the strength of the circulation, a number of possi- ble solutions are attainable. > similar situation applies to

7.5 The "ortex


elvin5s circulation theorem states that the rate of change of circulation with time around a closed curve comprising the same ?uid element is Dero. 0n mathematical form this is e2pressed as D8 = . 9/.)E: Dt This theorem is important since it helps e2plain the gen- eration of circulation about an aerofoil. =onsider an aerofoil at rest as shown by Figure /.)E9a:6 clearly in this case the circulation 8 about the aerofoil is Dero. &ow as the aerofoil beings to move the streamline pattern in this initial transient state looks similar to that shown in Figure /.)E9b:. From the $gure we observe that high- velocity gradients are formed at the trailing edge and these will lead to high levels of vorticity. This high vor- ticity is attached to a set of ?uid elements which will then move downstream as they move away from the trail- ing edge. >s they move away this thin sheet of intense vorticity is unstable and conse-uently tends to roll up to give a point vorte2 which is called the starting vorte2 9Figure /.)E9c::. >fter a short period of time the ?ow stabiliDes around the aerofoil, the ?ow leaves the trail- ing edge smoothly and the vorticity tends to decrease and disappear as the utta condition establishes itself.

Figure 7.12

#stablishment of the starting vorte23 9a: aerofoil at rest6 9b: streamlines on starting prior to condition being established and 9c: conditions at some time after starting


The starting vorte2 has, however, been formed during the starting process, and then continues to move steadily downstream away from the aerofoil. 0f we consider for a moment the same contour comprising the same ?uid elements both when the aerofoil is at rest and also after some time interval when the aerofoil is in steady motion, elvin5s theorem tells us that the circulation remains constant. 0n Figure /.)E9a: and 9c: this implies that 8) = 8E = . for the curves C) and CE which embrace the same ?uid elements at different times, since 8) = . when the aero- foil was at rest. Let us now consider CE split into two regions, CG enclosing the starting vorte2 and C, the aerofoil. Then the circulation around these contours 8G and 8, is given by 8G + 8, = 8E but since 8E then 8, = 8G = ., 9/.)G:

vorte2. (ince this vorte2 has associated with it an anticlockwise circulation it induces a clockwise circulation around the aerofoil. This system of vortices builds up during the starting process until the vorte2 around the aerofoil gains the correct strength to satisfy the utta condition, at which point the shed vorticity ceases and steady conditions prevail around the aerofoil. The start- ing vorte2 then trails away downstream of the aerofoil. These conditions have been veri$ed e2perimentally by ?ow visualiDation studies on many occasions6 the classic pictures taken by Prandtl and Tiet;ens 9Reference <: are typical and well worth studying.

7. Thin theor'


which implies that the circulation around the aerofoil is e-ual and opposite to that of the starting vorte2. 0n summary, therefore, we see that when the aerofoil is started large velocity gradients at the trailing edge are formed leading to intense vorticity in this region which rolls up downstream of the aerofoil to form the starting

Figure /.* showed the simulation of an aerofoil by a vor- te2 sheet of variable strength I 9s:. 0f one imagines a thin aerofoil such that both surfaces come closer together, it becomes possible, without signi$cant error, to con- sider the aerofoil to be represented by its camber line with a distribution of vorticity placed along its length. Fhen this is the case the resulting analysis is known as thin aerofoil theory, and is applicable to a wide class of aerofoils, many of which $nd application in propeller technology. =onsider Figure /.)G, which shows a distribution of

vorticity along the camber line of an aerofoil. For the

Figure 7.13 Thin aerofoil representation of an aerofoil

camber line to be a streamline in the ?ow $eld the component of velocity normal to the camber line must be Dero along its entire length. This implies that Vn + Qn 9s: = . 9/.),: where Vn is the component of free stream velocity normal to the camber line, see inset in Figure /.)G6 and Qn 9s: is the normal velocity induced by the vorte2 sheet at some distance s around the camber line from the leading edge. 0f we now consider the components of e-uation 9/.),: separately. From Figure /.)G it is apparent, again from the inset, that for any point # along the camber line, dz L+ Vn = V dx sin tan ) For small values of L and dz Hdx, which are conditions of thin aerofoil theory and are almost always met in steady propeller theory, the general condition that sin K tan K K holds and, conse-uently, we may write for the above e-uation dz Vn = V L dx 9/.)<:

assume that normal velocity at the chord line will be appro2imately that at the corresponding point on the camber line and to consider the distribution of vorticity along the camber line to be represented by an identical distribution along the chord without incurring any signi$cant error. Furthermore, implicit in this assumption is that the distance s around the camber line appro2imates the distance x along the section chord. &ow to develop an e2pression for Qn 9s: consider Figure /.),, which incorporates these assumptions. From e-uation 9/.7: we can write the following e2pression for the component of velocity dQn 9x: normal to the chord line resulting from the vorticity element dR whose strength is I 9R:3 I 9R:dR dQn 9x: = EJ9x R: 'ence the total velocity Qn 9x: resulting from all the contributions of vorticity along the chord of the aerofoil is given by c I 9R :d R Qn 9x: = R: EJ9 x . =onse-uently, by substituting this e-uation together with e-uation 9/.)<: back into e-uation 9/.),:, we derive the fundamental e-uation of thin aerofoil theory dz I 9R :d R 9/.)7: = V L 9 x R: d x . This e-uation is an integral e-uation whose unknown is the distribution of vorte2 strength I 9R: for a given ) EJ

where L, the angle of incidence, is measured in radians. &ow consider the second term in e-uation 9/.),:, the normal velocity induced by the vorte2 sheet. Fe have previously stated that dzHdx is small for thin aerofoil theory, hence we can assume that the camberCchord ratio will also be small. This enables us to further

Figure 7.14

=alculation of induced velocity at the chord line

incidence angle L and camber pro$le. 0n this e-uation R, as in all of the previous discussion, is simply a dummy variable along the Ox a2is or chord line. 0n order to $nd a solution to the general problem of a cambered aerofoil, and the one of most practical importance to the propeller analyst, it is necessary to use the substitutions c R = 9) cos K: E which implies dR = 9cHE: sin K dK and c x = 9) cos K. : E which then transforms e-uation 9/.)7: into ) dK EJ

a camber line of a given shape and at a particular incidence angle so as to obey the utta condition at the trailing edge. The restrictions to this theoretical treatment are that3 ). the aerofoils are two-dimensional and operating as isolated aerofoils, E. the thickness and camber chord ratios are small, G. the incidence angle is also small. =onditions 9E: and 9G: are normally met in propeller technology, certainly in the outer blade sections. 'owever, because the aspect ratio of a propeller blade is small and all propeller blades operate in a cascade, =on- dition 9): is never satis$ed and corrections have to be introduced for this type of analysis, as will be seen later. Fith these reservations in mind, e-uation 9/.)*: can be developed further, so as to obtain relationships for the normal aerodynamic properties of an aerofoil. From e-uation 9/./: the circulation around the camber line is given by

I 9K : sin K

cos K cos K. :

V dz = L

9/.)/: dx

0n this e-uation the limits of integration K = J corres- ponds to R = c and K = . to R = ., as can be deduced from the above substitutions. &ow the solution of e-uation 9/.)/:, which obeys the utta condition at the trailing edge, that is I 9J: = ., and make the camber line a streamline to the ?ow, is found to be


I 9R:dR

which, by using the earlier substitution of R = 9cHE: 9) cos K:, takes the form 9/.)*: 8= E c c I 9K: sin K dK

I 9K: = EV A.

) + cos K + sin K 9nK:


An sin


in which the Fourier coef$cients A. and An can be shown, as stated below, to relate to the shape of the camber line and the angle of the incidence ?ow by the substitution of e-uation 9/.)*: into 9/.)/: followed by some algebraic manipulation3 ) dz A. = L J E dz

from which e-uation 9/.)*: can be written as 8 = cV + An



9) + cos K:dK

sin K sin9nK:dK

. J





which, by reference to any table of standard integrals, reduces to