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1 The Old Rules of Marketing and PR Are Ineffective in an Online World 3

Only GM offered a way to check out all of the companys SUV models in one place. In fact, the three sites are so similar that theyre effectively interchangeable. At each site, being marketed to with a string of messages that had been developed in a lab or via focus groups. struck with the odd feeling that all of the big three automakers sites were designed and built by the same Madison Avenue ad guy. These sites were advertising to me, not building a relationship with me. They were luring me in with one-way messages, not educating me about the companies products. Automakers have become addicted to the crack cocaine of marketing: big budget TV commercials and other offline advertising. Edmundss cool Car Space,4 a free consumer-driven social networking and personal page site with features such as photo albums, user groups based on make and model of car, and favorite links, was excellent in helping me narrow down choices. For example, in the forums, I could read more than 2,000 messages just on the Toyota FJ Cruiser. I could see pages where owners showed off their vehicles. Prior to the Web, organizations had only two significant choices to attract attention: Buy expensive advertising or get third-party ink from the media. Web is not TV.

Advertising: A Money Pit of Wasted Resources 6


Organizations that understand the New Rules of Marketing and PR develop relationships directly with consumers like you and me. When we about the new rules and compare them to the old rules, I dont mean to suggest that all organizations immediately drop their existing marketing and PR programs and use this books ideas exclusively. Moreover, Im not of the belief that the only marketing worth doing is on the Web. If your newspaper advertisements, Yellow Page listings, media outreach programs, and other programs are working for you. Worse, if you are trying to apply the game plan that works in your mainstreammedia-based advertising and PR programs to your online ones, you will not be successful.

In the old days, traditional, nontargeted advertising via newspapers, magazines, radio, television, and direct mail were the only ways to go. But these media make targeting specific buyers with individualized messages very difficult. Yes, advertising is still used for megabrands with broad reach and probably still works for some organizations and products (though not as well as before).

One-Way Interruption Marketing Is Yesterdays Message 7


Advertising also works in many trade publications. However, for millions of other organizations, for the rest of us who are professionals, musicians, artists, nonprofit organizations, churches, and niche product companies, traditional advertising is generally so wide and broad that it is ineffective. Big media advertising buys may work for products with mass appeal and wide distribution. reaching large numbers of people with a message of broad national appealjust doesnt work for niche products, local services, and specialized nonprofit organizations. The Web has opened a tremendous opportunity to reach niche buyers directly with targeted messages that cost a fraction of what big-budget advertising costs. the advertisers job is to craft a commercial to get you to pay attention, when youd really rather be doing something else, like quickly grabbing some ice cream before the show resumes. advertising, in all forms, has traditionally relied on getting prospects to stop what they are doing and pay attention to a message. Moreover, the messages in advertising are productfocused one-way spin.

Web marketing is about delivering useful content at just the precise moment that a buyer needs it. Advertising is about great creative work. Advertising agencies that excel in creative TV ads simply believe they can transfer their skills to theWeb.

The Old Rules of Marketing 8 Public Relations Used to Be Exclusively about the Media 8

They are following outdated rules. The Old Rules of Marketing _ Marketing simply meant advertising (and branding). _ Advertising needed to appeal to the masses. _ Advertising relied on interrupting people to get them to pay attention to a message. _ Advertising was one-way: company-to-consumer. _ Advertising was exclusively about selling products. _ Advertising was based on campaigns that had a limited life. _ Creativity was deemed the most important component of advertising. _ It was more important for the ad agency to win advertising awards than for the client to win new customers. _ Advertising and PR were separate disciplines run by different people with separate goals, strategies, and measurement criteria. None of this is true anymore.

Public Relations and Third-Party Ink 9


The Web has transformed the rules, and you must transform your marketing to make the most of the Web-enabled marketplace of ideas. PR people used lots of jargon and followed strict rules. If you werent part of the in crowd, PR seemed like an esoteric and mysterious job that required lots of training, sort of like being a space shuttle astronaut or court stenographer.

Yes, the Media Are Still Important 10


PR people occupied their time by writing press releases targeted exclusively to reporters and editors and by schmoozing with those same reporters and editors. And then they crossed their fingers and hoped (Oh, please write about me . . . ) that the media would give them some ink or some airtime. Only the best PR people had personal relationships with the media and could pick up the phone and pitch a story to the reporter for whom they had bought lunch the month before. Today, organizations are communicating directly with buyers. The media are critically important for many organizations. Public relations work has changed. PR is no longer just an esoteric discipline where great efforts are spent by companies to communicate exclusively

to a handful of reporters who then tell the companys story, generating a clip for the PR people to show their bosses. Now, great PR includes programs to reach buyers directly.

Press Releases and the Journalistic Black Hole 11 The Old Rules of PR 11
Jargon was rampant. Whats the news? journalists would think as they perused the release. The vast majority of organizations dont have instant access to mainstream media for coverage of their products. The Old Rules of PR _ The only way to get ink and airtime was through the media. _ Companies communicated to journalists via press releases. _ Nobody saw the actual press release except a handful of reporters and editors. _ Companies had to have significant news before they were allowed to write a press release. _ Jargon was okay because the journalists all understood it. _ You werent supposed to send a release unless it included quotes from third parties, such as customers, analysts, and experts. _ The only way buyers would learn about the press releases content was if the media wrote a story about it. _ The only way to measure the effectiveness of press releases was through clip books, which noted each time the media deigned to pick up a companys release. _ PR and marketing were separate disciplines run by different people with separate goals, strategies, and measurement techniques. For these lucky few, the media may still be the primary mouthpiece. _ If you are J.K. Rowling and you issued a press release about, say, a new Harry Potter book, the news will be picked up by the media. _ If Apple Computer CEO Steve Jobs announces the companys new iPhone at a trade show, the news will be picked up by the media. _ If Brad Pitt and Angelina Jolie issue a press release about adopting another baby, the news will be picked up by the media. _ If President Obama announces his pick to fill a vacancy on the U.S. Supreme Court, the news will be picked up by the media.

Learn to Ignore the Old Rules 13

Public relations is not just about speaking through the media, although the media remain an important component. Marketing is not just about one-way broadcast advertising, although advertising can be part of an overall strategy.

2 The New Rules of Marketing and PR 15


Web to tell cycling enthusiasts compelling stories, to educate them, to engage them in conversation, and to entertain them. The content is valuable and authentic compared to the marketing messages that appear on so many other sites. Our goal is education, What I really like about this web site is how it gives off the aura of legitimacy, being based in fact, not fluff, We take as gospel that people have to see the product five different ways [for us] to really get the credibility. . As the costs of production and distribution fall, especially online, there is now less need to lump products and consumers into one-size-fits-all containers.

The Long Tail of Marketing 17


In an era without the constraints of physical shelf space and other bottlenecks of distribution, narrowly targeted goods and services can be as economically attractive as mainstream fare. Customers who bought this item also bought

Tell Me Something I Dont Know, Please 18

The new rules are just as important for public relations. online content in all of its forms is causing a convergence of marketing and PR that does not really exist offline. The company targets consumers and builders who might want to plan and build a concrete patio, pool deck, or drivewaythis audience makes up the business-to-consumer (B2C) component of The Concrete Network as well as the concrete contractors who comprise the business-to-business (B2B) component. The companys Web content, combined with a comprehensive direct-to-consumer news release strategy, drives business that site averaged 550,000 visitors per month in 2005 and 850,000 in 2006. In 2009, against a backdrop of an economic crisis and a dramatically slower construction market and 40 percent less searches in the concrete category, the site is garnering over 1,000,000 visitors per month.

Bricks-and-Mortar News 19.


Dont sit there and leave this [as] just a part of your list of good intentions, Businesses will live or die on original content. If you are creating truly useful content for customers, youre going to be seen in a great light and with a great spirit youre setting the table for new business. But the vast majority of businesses dont seem to care. At The Concrete Network, were on a mission. Get down to the essence of what your product solves and write good stories about that and publish them online.

Advice from the Company President 21


Every business has information that can contribute to the education of the marketplace

The New Rules of Marketing and PR 23


To succeed in long-tail marketing and PR, we need to adopt different criteria for success. before we move on, let me explicitly state the New Rules of Marketing and PR _ Marketing is more than just advertising. _ PR is for more than just a mainstream media audience.

_ You are what you publish. _ People want authenticity, not spin. _ People want participation, not propaganda. _ Instead of causing one-way interruption, marketing is about delivering content at just the precise moment your audience needs it. _ Marketers must shift their thinking from mainstream marketing to the masses to a strategy of reaching vast numbers of underserved audiences via the Web. _ PR is not about your boss seeing your company on TV. Its about your buyers seeing your company on theWeb. _ Marketing is not about your agency winning awards. Its about your organization winning business. _ The Internet has made public relations public again, after years of almost exclusive focus on media. _ Companies must drive people into the purchasing process with great online content. _ Blogs, online video, e-books, news releases, and other forms of online content let organizations communicate directly with buyers in a form they appreciate. _ On theWeb, the lines between marketing and PR have blurred.

3 Reaching Your Buyers Directly 25


The frustration of relying exclusively on the media and expensive advertising to deliver your organizations messages is long gone. People use the ZeroTrash Facebook page to organize events and to connect local storeowners with residents. Facebook was instrumental in launching the ZeroTrash First Saturday movement, where storeowners and volunteers walk the city and pick up trash on the first Saturday of each month. The storeowners love it because people support local stores and keep the shopping areas clean. but many executives and entrepreneurs still struggle to find the right mix of traditional advertising and direct communication with buyers.

The Right Marketing in a Wired World 26


We are moving our advertising investments to the mediums that have the greatest relevance to our target buyers and sellers, and to where the return on our investment is most significant, In 2008, we found that our online investments provided a return that was substantively higher than our more traditional TV media

investments. All these media allow organizations to deliver the right information to buyers, right at the point when they are most receptive to the information.

Let the World Know about Your Expertise 27


The company develops software that gives salespeople important information and guidance, specific to the sales opportunities they are managing and the people they are selling to. I rely on getting into the consumers mind and feeling their pain and their frustration, It is easy to write what I think, but much more difficult to write about what my buyers are thinking. With these guys, my target market, if they dont do anything now, they physically cant play the game that they love in future years.

Develop Information Your Buyers Want to Consume 28


Marketers at the organizations successfully using the new rules recognize the fact that they are now purveyors of information, and they manage content as a valuable asset with the same care that a publishing company does. One of the most important things that publishers do is start with a content strategy and then focus on the mechanics and design of delivering that content.

Buyer Personas: The Basics 29


publishers carefully identify and define target audiences and consider what content is required in order to meet their needs. Publishers consider all of the following questions: Who are my readers? How do I reach them? What are their motivations? What are the problems I can help them solve? How can I entertain them and inform them at the same time? What content will compel them to purchase what I have to offer? Companies that understand the new rules of marketing and PR have a clearly defined business goal to sell products, to generate contributions, or to get people to vote or join. These successful organizations arent focused on the wrong goals, things like press clips and advertising awards.

Tell Your Organizations Story Directly 32


I had been disappointed with the lack of attention that my site was getting both from customers and the media,

Know the Goals and Let Content Drive Action 33


Working from the perspective of the companys desire for revenue growth and customer retention (the goals), rather than focusing on made-up metrics for things like leads and web site traffic, yields surprising changes in the typical marketing plan and in the organization of Web content.

6 Audio and Video Drive Action 75 Digging Digg Video 75


Audio and video on the Web are not new. The migration of audio and video from online backwaters to the forefront with valuable content happened because of sites like YouTube and iTunes, with easy ways for people to view and listen. In addition, high-speed Internet connections became the norm, and the technology to create and upload audio and video became simple enough that anybody can do it Many organizations are creating video to showcase their expertise and provide valuable information to buyers in an easy-to-understand medium. Many marketers are reluctant to focus on video because they dont see how a video on YouTube or on their company web site will lead to a sale.

What University Should I Attend 76


Many organizations encourage their customers or fan bases to produce videos for them. These customer-generated video efforts often take the form of contests and can be highly successful, especially for a product or service that has a visual impact. The job of blogging and posting videos paid 150,000 Australian dollars for a six-month gig. We learned that if you hit the sweet-spot of the right story at the right time, it will travel like a tsunami all the way around the globe,

The Best Job in the World 77


Traditional media (a Reuters exclusive) broke the story, which immediately went viral because it was a chance to have the coolest job in the world at a time when everyone else was getting laid off. Radio spectrums can support only a finite number of stations, and radio signals have limited geographic range. To support the technical infrastructure of radio, broadcasters need large audiences and lots of advertising to pay the bills (or donors, in the case of public radio). The second major development was the availability of those podcast feeds through iTunes. Now all iPod users can simply subscribe to a feed (usually at no cost), and then every time they plug their iPod into their computer, the new shows from the feeds they subscribe to automatically download and are copied to the iPod.

Audio Content Delivery Through Podcasting 79


The term podcasting confuses some people. A podcast is simply audio content connected to an RSS feed. The medium does not specially require iPods, although thats how the word was derived. Marketers can easily develop a show that targets their buyers personas and can thus regularly deliver updated content that is welcome and useful to the audience. By appealing to a niche market and delivering audio that people have chosen to hear, an organization is seen as a thought leader and is first choice for listeners looking to make a purchase Podcasters are a different breed; theyre like you and me, TV and commercial radio and MTV-type people work and talk from on high. Podcasting is different. In each episode, the band debates and discusses wacky topics, and plays exclusive tracks of their music not available anywhere. Podcasting is almost exactly mirroring the Internet of a decade ago,

Putting Marketing Back in Musicians Control 80


Music is a classic example of a long-tail business. Before the Web came along, bands that didnt have a major label behind them couldnt hope to get national or global attention.

Podcasting has become a real part of the social networking thing,

Grammar Girl Podcast 83


Mignon Fogarty, creator of the Grammar Girl podcast and founder of the Quick and Dirty Tips podcast network, has been podcasting since 2006. Grammar Girl provides short, friendly tips to improve writing. Covering the grammar rules and word choice guidelines. The Grammar Girl podcasts have now been downloaded more than twenty million times. Fogarty has dispensed grammar tips on Oprah and appeared on the pages of the New York Times, the Wall Street Journal, and USA. Today. Grammar Girls Quick and Dirty Tips for Better Writing is a New York Times bestseller. Having an established network of people is really valuable when youre launching something new, Podcasting and online video are great ways to connect with an audience and develop a following who will be eager to buy your products.