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Dyslexia: A Parents' and Teachers' Guide Penulis: By Trevor Payne, Elizabeth Turner Penerbit: Multilingual Matters, 1999 Definition of Specific Learing Difficulties (Dyslexia) Children who have difficulties in reading, writing, spelling or manipulating number, which are not typical of their general level of performance. They may gain some skills in some subjects quickly and demonstrate a high level of ability orally, yet may encounter sustained difficulty in gaining literacy or numeracy skills. Such children can become severely frustrated and may also have emotional and / or behavioural difficulties. 2. Dyslexia, Dyscalculia and Mathematics A Practical Guide (Second Edition) Penulis: Anne Henderson Penerbit: Routledge Taylor & Francis Group London and New York What is Dyslexia? Dyslexia is best described as a combination of abilities and difficulties which affect the learning process in one or more of reading, spelling, writing and sometimes numeracy. Accompanying weaknesses may be identified in areas of speed of processing, short-term memory, sequencing, auditory perception, visual perceptual, spoken language and fine or gross motor skills. Some dyslexia people have outstanding creative skills, other have strong oral skills. Whilst other have no outstanding talents, they can still have dyslexia. Dyslexia occurs despite normal intellectual ability and conventional teaching. It is independent of socio-economic or language background. Miles Dyslexia Centre, Bongor University (2012) Jurnal 1. The evolution of research on dyslexia Anuario de Psicologia, 32(1):3-30 (2001)

It is a specific language-based disorder of constitutional origin characterized by difficulties in single word decoding, usually reflecting insufficient phonological processing. These difficulties in single word decoding are often unexpected in relation to age and other cognitive and academic abilities; they are not the result of generalized developmental disability or sensory impairment. Dyslexia is manifested by variable difficulty with different forms of language, often including, in addition to problems with reading, a conspicuous problem with acquiring proficiency in writing and spelling Annals of Dyslexia by Dr. Reid Lyon (1995) 2. Discrimination of speech sounds by children with dyslexia: Comparisons with chronological age and reading level controls C. Bogliotti a,*, W. Serniclaes b, S. Messaoud-Galusi c, L. Sprenger-Charolles b J. Exp. Child Psychol. xxx (2008) xxxxxx journal homepage: www.elsevi e r .com/ locate/ jecp Dyslexia is characterized by a severe reading impairment without other physiological or psychological problems (Lyon, Shaywitz, & Shaywitz, 2003; Shaywitz, 1998; Stanovich, 1996).