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A service is the action of doing something for someone or something. It is largely intangible (i.e. not material). A product is tangible (i.e. material) since you can touch it and own it. A service tends to be an experience that is consumed at the point where it is purchased, and cannot be owned since it quickly perishes. A person could go to a caf one day and have excellent service, and then return the next day and have a poor experience. !o often marketers talk about the nature of a service as" Insepara !e" from the point where it is consumed, and from the provider of the service. #or example, you cannot take a live theatre performance home to consume it (a $%$ of the same performance would be a product, not a service). Inseparability of production and consumption of the service is being produced at the same time that the client is receiving it (e.g. during an online search, or a legal consultation). Intangi !e" and cannot have a real, physical presence as does a product. #or example, motor insurance may have a certificate, but the financial service itself cannot be touched i.e. it is intangible. &ith intangibility the service cannot be touched or viewed, so it is difficult for clients to tell in advance what they will be getting. "erisha !e" Is that once it has occurred it cannot be repeated in exactly the same way. #or example, once a '(( metres )lympic final has been run, there will be not other for * more years, and even then it will be staged in a different place with many different finalists. &ith perishability unused capacity cannot be stored for future use. #or example, spare seats on one aero plane cannot be transferred to the next flight, and query+free times at the reference desk cannot be saved up until there is a busy period. Varia i!it# $%eter&geneit#'" ,he human involvement of service provision means that no two services will be completely identical. #or example, returning to the same garage time and time again for a service on your car might see different levels of customer satisfaction, or speediness of work. !ervices involve people, and people are all different. ,here is a strong possibility that the same enquiry would be answered slightly differently by different people (or even by the same person at different times). It is important to minimi-e the differences in performance (through training, standard+setting and quality assurance). ()* MARKETING OF SERVICES ' S+ ,MS - SEM III - ACA.EMIC +EAR /0(0-/0(( - MMK CO11EGE .ompiled by #aculty" /. A. $0.osta 12' 23'24 55667 dcosta.l.a8gmail.com !ource of .ompilation" &eb
Its elements are the basic. pr&75ct6 and pr&m&ti&n* .hink about another common mix + a cake mix. <owever. etc. the marketing mix elements are price6 p!ace. courteous. and do not take ownership of it.osta 12' 23'24 55667 dcosta.com !ource of . then users may assume that the services provided by the centre are slapdash. If the information centre looks shabby and disorgani-ed. the engineer or his equipment.MARKETING MANAGEMENT Right &2 &3nership + is not taken to the service.) indicate the quality of the service. All cakes contain eggs. or if the website is difficult to navigate with broken links. . &estern economies have seen deterioration in their traditional manufacturing industries.he people running the service are more likely to inspire confidence in the service if they are responsive.ompiled by #aculty" /. or guarantees of faster service at certain times of day). . web pages. #or example.SEM III . )bviously. if a ramshackle library is providing a consistently good service then its users will become convinced of its quality + but it may take longer to convince them.he problem of perishability is sometimes overcome by pricing strategies or other incentives to use the service at .ompilation" &eb > . and a growth in their service economies.MS .ACA. times (e. also known as the 5:.herefore the marketing mix has seen an extension and adaptation into the extended marketing mix for services. flour. and sugar. process and people. the library building. cheap rate phone calls. :eople often try to overcome some of these difficulties by ensuring that the physical manifestations of the service (the people running it.l.MMK CO11EGE . What is marketing mi4? Marketing mi4 is probably the most famous marketing term. .EMIC +EAR /0(0-/0(( . 9ou cannot sell it on once it has been consumed.he concept is simple. !o for a sweet cake add more sugar= ()* MARKETING OF SERVICES S+ . $0. . and competent. an engineer may service your air+conditioning. you can alter the final cake by altering the amounts of mix elements contained in it. tactical components of a marketing plan. Also known as the F&5r "s. printed search results. A. but you do not own the service. reliable.s + physical evidence.unpopular. milk.a8gmail.g. since you merely experience it.
)nce this is achieved. to include people.ompiled by #aculty" /. to include physical evidence (such as uniforms. spaghetti.s palette. !ome commentators will increase the marketing mix to the Five "8s.he offer you make to you customer can be altered by varying the mix elements.ACA. Another way to think about the marketing mix is to use the image of an artist.elecom and !ky . $0.e. the price is increased. as is every marketing mix. A.g.l.MARKETING MANAGEMENT It is the same with marketing mix.%. !avoy <otel rooms.he price charged for products and services is set artificially low in order to gain market share.harge a high price because you have a substantial competitive advantage.MMK CO11EGE .oncept of the Barketing Mix in '276.unard .ruises. the whole customer experience e. and the price inevitably falls due to increased supply. !uch high prices are charged for luxuries such as . or livery) and process (i.he marketer mixes the prime colours (mix elements) in different quantities to deliver a particular final colour. a visit the $isney &orld). .com !ource of .he term was coined by @eil <. "enetrati&n "ricing . )thers will increase the mix to Seven "8s.his is a no frills low price. . .his approach was used by #rance . !o for a high profile brand.here are many ways to price a product. "rice .ompilation" &eb 4 .osta 12' 23'24 55667 dcosta. Ec&n&m# "ricing . <owever. etc.SEM III . and .a8gmail. !upermarkets often have economy brands for soups.he . . "remi5m "ricing Cse a high price where there is uniqueness about the product or service. "rice Skimming .he cost of marketing and manufacture are kept at a minimum. increase the focus on promotion and desensiti-e the weight given to price.his approach is used where a substantial competitive advantage exists. )nce other manufacturers were tempted into the market and the watches were produced at a lower unit cost. the advantage is not sustainable. Aorden in his article . . facilities. .MS . other marketing strategies and pricing approaches are implemented. Banufacturers of digital watches used a skimming approach in the '25(s. . ()* MARKETING OF SERVICES S+ .EMIC +EAR /0(0-/0(( . ?very hand painted picture is original in some way.oncorde flights.he high price tends to attract new competitors into the market.
ycle (:/.). physical entity that they may be buying or selling. As with @eil <. !ome see processes as a means to achieve an outcome.MMK CO11EGE .e. :lace is also known as channe!6 7istri 5ti&n6 &r interme7iar#* It is the mechanism through which goods andDor services are moved from the manufacturerD service provider to the user or consumer.ompiled by #aculty" /. looks at the products or services that customers @??$ throughout their lives. <owever. Gead more. ()* MARKETING OF SERVICES S+ . .SEM III . !ervices tend to be produced and consumed at the same moment. is the product more complex than you first thoughtE The "r&75ct 1i2e C#c!e $"1C' is based upon the biological life cycle..MS . "h#sica! Evi7ence "h#sica! Evi7ence is the material part of a service. "r&m&ti&n Another one of the *:. focuses upon the creation of and delivery of lifetime value to the customer i. or 5:.com !ource of . the basic ingredients are always the same. A. &hen you buy a car. so a consumer tends to rely on material cues. a seed is planted (introduction)F it begins to sprout (growth)F it shoots out leaves and puts down roots as it becomes an adult (maturity)F after a long period as an adult the plant begins to shrink and die out (decline). of the person consuming it.hink of it like a cake mix.. marketing communications has its own .promotions mix. for example + to achieve a 4(H market share a company implements a marketing planning process.MARKETING MANAGEMENT "!ace Another element of @eil <. and aspects of the customer experience are altered to meet the .a8gmail.osta 12' 23'24 55667 dcosta.l.s marketing mix.. Aorden.s. "r&75ct • • • #or many a pr&75ct is simply the tangible. Aorden. .s the product + simple= )r maybe not./.here are a number of perceptions of the concept of process within the business and marketing literature. 9ou buy a new car and that. "e&p!e "e&p!e are the most important element of any service or experience. "r&cess "r&cess is another element of the extended marketing mix.individual needs..his includes all of the tools available to the marketer for . !trictly speaking there are no physical attributes to a service. $0.EMIC +EAR /0(0-/0(( .s Barketing Bix is "!ace. <owever if you vary the amounts of one of the ingredients.marketing communication. #or example. Gead more..ompilation" &eb * .. the final outcome is different.. The C5st&mer 1i2e C#c!e $C1C' has obvious similarities with the :roduct /ife . .ACA.s is pr&m&ti&n.
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