29 views

Uploaded by Zubayr Moro

Good resource for (international) students preparing for STEP examinations

- Like the Least Square Methods but without a Trial and Error Procedure
- Using MS Excel for Chemistry, Graphing
- C3
- functon
- 163392278-Psi-SACS.pdf
- Drill PMR
- PRO E Tips n Tricks
- EC3sh_B
- 802SCBPD0102en.pdf
- 1llgffdfdfdvvfs
- Coordinate Geometry
- MCAMX4 Quick Ref Card
- math final questions
- Transformations of Graphs - Solutions
- Chapter 8
- Graphs of Functions and Parametric Form
- Discriminant-analysis_explained.epub
- Graphing Functions Using Transformations
- Ch 10
- Mate Matic As

You are on page 1of 11

Hobson

5.9.1 5.9.2 5.9.3 5.9.4 5.9.5 5.9.6 5.9.7 Symmetry Intersections with the co-ordinate axes Restrictions on the range of either variable The form of the curve near the origin Asymptotes Exercises Answers to exercises

UNIT 5.9 - GEOMETRY 9 CURVE SKETCHING IN GENERAL Introduction The content of the present section is concerned with those situations where it is desirable to nd out the approximate shape of a curve whose equation is known, but not necessarily to determine an accurate plot of the curve. In becoming accustomed to the points discussed below, the student should not feel that every one has to be used for a particular curve; merely enough of them to give a satisfactory impression of what the curve looks like. 5.9.1 SYMMETRY A curve is symmetrical about the x-axis if its equation contains only even powers of y . It is symmetrical about the y -axis if its equation contains only even powers of x. We say also that a curve is symmetrical with respect to the origin if its equation is unaltered when both x and y are changed in sign. In other words, if a point (x, y ) lies on the curve, so does the point (x, y ). ILLUSTRATIONS 1. The curve whose equation is x2 y 2 2 = x4 + 4 is symmetrical about to both the x-axis and the y axis. This means that, once the shape of the curve is known in the rst quadrant, the rest of the curve is obtained from this part by reecting it in both axes. The curve is also symmetrical with respect to the origin. 2. The curve whose equation is xy = 5 is symmetrical with respect to the origin but not about either of the co-ordinate axes. 5.9.2 INTERSECTIONS WITH THE CO-ORDINATE AXES Any curve intersects the x-axis where y = 0 and the y -axis where x = 0; but sometimes the curve has no intersection with one or more of the co-ordinate axes. This will be borne out by an inability to solve for x when y = 0 or for y when x = 0 (or both).

1

ILLUSTRATION The circle x2 + y 2 4x 2y + 4 = 0 meets the x-axis where x2 4x + 4 = 0. That is, (x 2)2 = 0, giving a double intersection at the point (2, 0). This means that the circle touches the x-axis at (2, 0). The circle meets the y -axis where y 2 2y + 4 = 0. That is, (y 1)2 = 3, which is impossible, since the left hand side is bound to be positive when y is a real number. Thus, there are no intersections with the y -axis. 5.9.3 RESTRICTIONS ON THE RANGE OF EITHER VARIABLE It is sometimes possible to detect a range of x values or a range of y values outside of which the equation of a curve would be meaningless in terms of real geometrical points of the cartesian diagram. Usually, this involves ensuring that neither x nor y would have to assume complex number values; but other kinds of restriction can also occur. ILLUSTRATIONS 1. The curve whose equation is y 2 = 4x requires that x shall not be negative; that is, x 0. 2. The curve whose equation is y 2 = x x2 1 requires that the right hand side shall not be negative; and from the methods of Unit 1.10, this will be so when either x 1 or 1 x 0.

5.9.4 THE FORM OF THE CURVE NEAR THE ORIGIN For small values of x (or y ), the higher powers of the variable can often be usefully neglected to give a rough idea of the shape of the curve near to the origin. This method is normally applied to curves which pass through the origin, although the behaviour near to other points can be considered by using a temporary change of origin. ILLUSTRATION The curve whose equation is y = 3x3 2x approximates to the straight line y = 2x for very small values of x. 5.9.5 ASYMPTOTES DEFINITION An asymptote is a straight line which is approached by a curve at a very great distance from the origin. (i) Asymptotes Parallel to the Co-ordinate Axes Consider, by way of illustration, the curve whose equation is y2 = x3 (3 2y ) . x1

(a) By inspection, we see that the straight line x = 1 meets this curve at an innite value of y , making it an asymptote parallel to the y -axis. (b) Now suppose we re-write the equation as x3 = y 2 (x 1) . 3 2y

Inspection, this time, suggests that the straight line y = 3 meets the curve at an innite 2 value of x, making it an asymptote parallel to the x axis. (c) Another way of arriving at the conclusions in (a) and (b) is to write the equation of the curve in a form without fractions, namely y 2 (x 1) x3 (3 2y ) = 0,

3

then equate to zero the coecients of the highest powers of x and y . That is, The coecient of y 2 gives x 1 = 0. The coecient of x3 gives 3 2y = 0. It can be shown that this method may be used with any curve to nd asymptotes parallel to the co-ordinate axes. Of course, there may not be any, in which case the method will not work. (ii) Asymptotes in General for a Polynomial Curve This paragraph requires a fairly advanced piece of algebraical argument, but an outline proof will be included, for the sake of completeness. Suppose a given curve has an equation of the form P (x, y ) = 0 where P (x, y ) is a polynomial in x and y . Then, to nd the intersections with this curve of a straight line y = mx + c, we substitute mx + c in place of y into the equation of the curve, obtaining a polynomial equation in x, say a0 + a1 x + a2 x2 + ...... + an xn = 0. In order for the line y = mx + c to be an asymptote, this polynomial equation must have coincident solutions at innity. But now let us replace x by equation

1 u

a0 un + a1 un1 + a2 un2 + ...... + an1 u + an = 0 This equation must have coincident solutions at u = 0 which will be the case provided an = 0 and an1 = 0. Conclusion To nd the asymptotes (if any) to a polynomial curve, we rst substitute y = mx + c into

4

the equation of the curve. Then, in the polynomial equation obtained, we equate to zero the two leading coecents; (that is, the coeecients of the highest two powers of x) and solve for m and c. EXAMPLE Determine the equations of the asymptotes to the hyperbola x2 y 2 2 = 1. a2 b Solution Substituting y = mx + c gives x2 (mx + c)2 = 1. a2 b2 That is, x2 1 m2 a2 b2 2mcx c2 2 1 = 0. b2 b

Equating to zero the two leading coecients; that is, the coecients of x2 and x, we obtain 1 m2 2mc = 0 and = 0. 2 2 a b b2 No solution is obtainable if we let m = 0 in the second of these statements since it would imply a12 = 0 in the rst statement, which is impossible. Therefore we must let c = 0 in the b second statement, and m = a in the rst statement. The asymptotes are therefore b y = x. a In other words, x y x y = 0 or + = 0, a b a b as used earlier in the section on the hyperbola.

5.9.6 EXERCISES 1. Sketch the graphs of the following equations: (a) 1 y =x+ ; x (b) y= (c) y2 = (d) y= (e) y (x + 2) = (x + 3)(x 4); (f) x2 y 2 25 = y ; (g) y = 6 e2x . 2. For each of the following curves, determine the equations of the asymptotes which are parallel to either the x-axis or the y -axis: (a) xy 2 + x2 1 = 0; (b) x2 y 2 = 4 x2 + y 2 ;

6

1 ; x2 + 1

x ; x2

(x 1)(x + 4) ; (x 2)(x 3)

(c) y= x2 3x + 5 . x3

3. Determine all the asymptotes of the following curves: (a) x3 xy 2 + 4x 16 = 0; (b) y 3 + 2y 2 x2 y + y x + 4 = 0. 5.9.7 ANSWERS TO EXERCISES 1.(a)

y

6

-x

1.(b)

y 5 6

1.(c)

y

6 1

O

1

-x

1.(d)

y

6

-x

1.(e)

y

6

-x

1.(f)

y

6 5

O

5

-x

1.(g)

y

6

0.9

-x

10

- Like the Least Square Methods but without a Trial and Error ProcedureUploaded byJoseph Stanovsky
- Using MS Excel for Chemistry, GraphingUploaded byMichael Shavlik
- C3Uploaded byMatthew Deacon
- functonUploaded byjeffrey
- 163392278-Psi-SACS.pdfUploaded byNabigh Nabiyl
- Drill PMRUploaded byHanafizar Hanafi Napi Atan
- PRO E Tips n TricksUploaded byGraham Moore
- EC3sh_BUploaded byJosh Zngr
- 802SCBPD0102en.pdfUploaded byTrường Văn Nguyễn
- 1llgffdfdfdvvfsUploaded byKelli Flores
- Coordinate GeometryUploaded byBimalendu Das
- MCAMX4 Quick Ref CardUploaded bySALVATOREBURRINI
- math final questionsUploaded byapi-360582097
- Transformations of Graphs - SolutionsUploaded bywolfretonmaths
- Chapter 8Uploaded byNg Wei Liang
- Graphs of Functions and Parametric FormUploaded byEbookcraze
- Discriminant-analysis_explained.epubUploaded bysakthiprime
- Graphing Functions Using TransformationsUploaded byArief Azaraz
- Ch 10Uploaded byVincents Genesius Evans
- Mate Matic AsUploaded byAnthony Cruz Valle
- 9701_y07_sm_31Uploaded byHubbak Khan
- Dmu Space AnalysisUploaded byOnur ATASEVEN
- C2_MATLABUploaded byDiana Carolina Leon
- 9789048137756-c2Uploaded byRodney Paul
- H02 - Analysis - DianUploaded byDian Ratri C
- Manual Unigraphics Nx - 03 Form FeaturesUploaded byjonyan
- 2D AutoCAD 2009 CortoUploaded byRamon Alejandro Porras Hernandez
- Artikel 1Uploaded byMuhammad Alim
- Generating Cutter PathsUploaded byRazvan Chirila
- Physics Jan 2010 Mark Scheme Unit 3Uploaded bydylandon

- Thalidomide StructureUploaded byZubayr Moro
- Brookes_MUploaded byZubayr Moro
- GCSE Computing OCR Teaching GuideUploaded byZubayr Moro
- Handbook of Mathematical Functions, With Formulas, Graphs, and Mathematical TablesUploaded byJeff Pratt
- p1q5Uploaded byZubayr Moro
- A-Level Chemistry NMR SummaryUploaded byZubayr Moro
- Pigeonhole PrincipleUploaded byZubayr Moro
- WorkbookUploaded byCanh Luu
- Suggestions for A2 Computing ProjectsUploaded byZubayr Moro
- TRANSFORMATIONUploaded byBurhan Basit
- Ibuprofen StructureUploaded byZubayr Moro
- Hardware Tutorial Solution 03Uploaded byTaqi Shah
- LNAT 2010 Practice Paper Mark SchemeUploaded byZubayr Moro
- LNAT Practice Test 2010 Paper 1Uploaded byBpobpo Bpo
- AQA Certificate in MathsUploaded byZubayr Moro
- 10 June_ERUploaded byZubayr Moro
- AQA GCSE Additional Maths 09 June Paper (Foundaion)Uploaded byZubayr Moro
- 02_Jan Chains, Rings & SpectroscopyUploaded byZubayr Moro
- 2814-01Jan10Uploaded byNteeez27
- 12_June_ERUploaded byZubayr Moro
- 11_June_ERUploaded byZubayr Moro
- AQA COMP4: Project 4Uploaded byZubayr Moro
- Rich Text Editor FileUploaded byZubayr Moro
- MIT18_03SCf11_app7Uploaded byZubayr Moro
- Comparison of Board Content Chemistry A-LevelUploaded byZubayr Moro
- Optical IsomersUploaded byZubayr Moro
- Python as a Teaching LanguageUploaded byZubayr Moro
- 02 MayUploaded byZubayr Moro
- AQA-MFP2-TEXTBOOKUploaded byjennyc605

- Advanced Higher Mechanics Unit 1 Notes COMPLETEUploaded byRyan_Hoyle95
- quad001.pdfUploaded byKumar Sujeet
- Kannada NumbersUploaded byEmily Foster
- lecture8_cramers_rule.pdfUploaded byVinodKumarTummalur
- 고유변형도_추출_방법Uploaded byNick Fuller
- 1304.4627.pdfUploaded byhendra lam
- Textbook of Linear Algebra by Jim HefferonUploaded byCSF511112
- Linear and NonLinearProgramming18903341XUploaded bysomeone4248
- NCERT Class IX SolutionUploaded byRouble Paul
- Pages From [S. S. Quek, G.R. Liu] the Finite Element Method (BookZZ.org) 2-3Uploaded bymehdiq
- ANN.ch2-Adaline and MadalineUploaded byAlfredo Valle Hernández
- Complex CrouUploaded bygautamee
- Quadratic FuntionsUploaded byMustafaAsim
- Love Maths2Uploaded bytaruna5
- Master's Theorem(2)Uploaded byyashdhingra
- 0605045Uploaded bypreeminentinception
- kumarUploaded byComsip400
- Algebra Assignment 5- Quadratic 3- Medium LevelUploaded bys91
- Quadratic Equations (PPT)-SMK JUGRAUploaded byAzizah Shahidan
- notes-19-1Uploaded byAudrey Hannah Nieva Castle
- Application of Mathematical Tools in GeophysicsUploaded byAbdul Wahab Khan
- Chapter 3 FractionsUploaded byfayyzal
- 3.2Problems on 3 Variables and LagrangesUploaded byShubham
- concept map activity directionsUploaded byapi-315580041
- 43_Vertical_and_Horizontal_Asymptotes.pdfUploaded byJashandeep Singh Kochhar
- Principal-Stresses-3D-Example.pdfUploaded byScribd1212121212
- pdf-4Uploaded byAhui Chung
- EC2253 U1 NotesUploaded byrahuman
- 192444832Uploaded byAnonymous tpVfikO26
- Msqe Pea 2017Uploaded byDebayan Bairagi