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Content Objective Introduction Different Types of Governance Pros & Cons Bangladesh Cambodia Singapore Conclusion References 5 8 10 14 18 20 21 3 4

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Objective
The objective of this report is to raise awareness and educate readers about the different forms of governance. Throughout this report, I will report my findings on the different forms of governance, the pros and cons of governance and the economic status of the 3 chosen Asian countries. To summarize my report, I will first summarize my findings and then comment on how governance aids a country, economically. The reason why I have decided to create a report to gather my findings is because it would be too wordy for a leaflet, too much for a brochure and too boring for a video. I have researched on the possible ways of presenting my findings and I found out that a report is the most appropriate method.

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Introduction
Governance may seem a very hard concept to grasp for a lot of people, but it is not too confusing. The first thing that came to my mind when researching was, “What is governance?” That was the question for me to start off my research for this report. According to the United Nations website, ‘governance’ is explained as the “institutions refer to such bodies as parliament and its various ministries.” To explain it in my own words, it is simply an organization that has bodies of congress and different departments. Governance plays an important role in our society nowadays, especially towards our country. The government makes most of the economic decisions. Like taxes, subsidies, exchange rate and etc. But in every country, they adapt different types of governance.

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Different Types of Governance
There are a wide range of the types of governance, or perhaps, a little too much. There are a total of 16 different types of governance but not all country adapts all of it. Here are the 16 different types of governance: 1. Anarchy means “no rule” from the Greek word and refers to a society without government because it’s an impractical if not impossible condition; it is generally used in a looser sense of chaos. 2. Authoritarian is less a form of government than a description, this term connotes an oppressive form of rule in which citizens’ rights are restricted, putatively for the society’s security and stability. A single head of state often dominates a country with authoritarian rule, but it’s likely that more than one person has significant power. 3. Autocracy is a government that is led by one person with dictatorial power. 4. Cabal refers not to a form of government but to the machinations of an insurrectionary group (rebellion), or to the group itself. The term is often used by conspiracy theorists; it has an unfortunate association with paranoid delusions about secret societies and behind-the-scenes manipulation of government affairs. 5. Communism is a social system characterized by the common ownership of the means of production and subsistence and by the organization of labour for the common advantage of all members.

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6. Dictatorship refers to an autocratic rule by one or more people. The word has negative connotation and is rarely or ever used by such a government. 7. Federation is a form of government in which subordinate jurisdictions such as states or provinces reserve some sovereignty and/or rights under a national government. 8. Junta refers to a post-revolutionary government and carries a sense of a tightly controlled government. It can be known as Junto in Spanish. 9. Democracy is a term that is interchangeable with republic but democracy refers to a system of government, which the elected representatives carry out the will of the people. 10. Monarchy is a government led by a person usually selected by hereditary succession. However, the ruler’s authority may vary from nominal (a figurehead) to absolute (a despot). Most current monarchies are technically constitutional, or limited monarchies, meaning that the ruler is subject to laws that protect citizens’ rights. 11. Oligarchy refers to the fact that a nation’s wealthiest people generally have an inordinate influence on governance because of their ties to elected officials. The implication is that a government is so influenced that it’s corrupted and predicated on the oligarchy’s self-interest.

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12. Regime from the Merriam-Webster’s Collegiate Dictionary meant “Lawful control over the affairs of a political unit.” Oddly neutral, considering that the connotation is invariably of a repressive dictatorship. 13. Republic is where a government whose authority is based on citizen voters represented by elected officials chosen in free elections, as opposed to a monarchy or a dictatorship. 14. Theocracy is where a government controlled by religious authorities. The connotation is that the government is repressive and intolerant of values that conflict with the dominant theology. 15. Totalitarian describes a dictatorial government. The word “total” gives out an impression that the government wants to have control over the people. 16. Tyranny is a condition in which a nation is under the rule of a tyrant, whom seizes power illegally and governs with few or no checks and balances. Among the sixteen types of governance, the most commonly adapted ones are Democracy, Constitutional Monarchy and Republic. Even though Communism is adapted but Democracy, Constitutional Monarchy and Republic are much more in use.

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Pros and Cons
Listing down all 16 pros and cons of the different types of governance can be too confusing. Therefore, I have decided to focus on the 4 types of governance that is much more commonly adapted by countries. Which are: Communism, Constitutional Monarchy, Democracy and Republic. Theoretically, communism might sound like a pretty nice existence; a life where everyone is equal, has all of their needs met, and all are working for a better life. But in practice, communism never leads to such a reality. During their work in progress, commonly two classes form; a ruling class and a worker class. In the two-class system, resources are divided, but the ruling class usually receives far more than their fair share. Resulting in a fact that food lines and scarce resources tend to emerge. In theory, democracy includes equal participation in the proposal, development and passage of legislation into law. In its purest form seems to be the way to go, at least until the politicians get involved. Then, it gets a little less equal. The peoples’ representatives may become corrupt or they become out of touch with their constituents. It seems to be the best choice people have to preserve their natural rights and freedoms. There are more than two dozen Monarchies in use today, most of which are constitutional monarchies, where the head of state’s duties are spelled out. The problem with monarchy is that it’s most often nothing more than a dictatorship. Though the people do not have to make any decisions themselves, they are totally subject to the whims of their leader.

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Republican is where the citizens have a say in the direction of the country or freedom of speech. The people in a republic are able to vote for their best interests. In turn, the leaders in power will have to ensure the prosperity and satisfaction of the citizens in order to stay in power. There is respect for other races in religions. Under a dictatorship or monarchy, as the leader has absolute power and it is possible that racial or religious discrimination can occur, still. In a republic where democracy is important, leaders are more inclined to cater to all races and religions, however minor, in the state or country. Instability as leaders might change regularly. The new leaders will result in a change in direction for the country, which over time may lead to instability in the country. Racism might still occur since some countries with a racial majority could vote in favour of leaders of their race, resulting in discrimination towards other races. In conclusion, the four types of governance all have advantages and disadvantages. But no matter which type of governance is adapted, racial or religious discrimination can still occur; some politicians will still be corrupted; some people will never be treated equally.

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Bangladesh
Bangladesh is a country located in South Asia with a population of 154.7 million. It is one of the world’s most densely populated countries, with its citizens crammed into a delta of rivers that empties into the Bay of Bengal. With a population of 154.7 million and its poverty deep and widespread, almost half of the population live on less than one dollar a day. But Bangladesh has reduced population growth and improved the health and education system. The major employer is agriculture, but the demand for jobs are too much and it couldn’t be met. So, many Bangladeshis like other citizens from other countries in the region start to seek word aboard, sometimes illegally. Bangladesh tries to diversify its economy with industrial development as their main priority. Overseas investors have provided funds into manufacturing and the energy sector. With the collapse of a garment factory in 2013 resulting in the loss of more than 1,000 lives, it has brought workers out onto the streets to demand better conditions. Even though Bangladesh has spent 15 years under military rule and democracy was brought back in the 1990, the political scene remains unpredictable. From my research, Bangladesh adapts parliamentary democracy. The Bangladesh Parliament can also be known as Jatiyo Shangshad in Bengali. It is composed of 350 members, 300 directly elected members under a single member constituency system and there are 50 reserved seats for woman.

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In 2012, the GDP (USD) of Bangladesh is worth a total of $115.6 billion with a population of 154.7 million. There are five main sectors that contribute to the country’s economy which are: quality garment design and production, ICT and business services, pharmaceuticals and life sciences, agribusiness and leather products. In 2007, a total of USD 9.3bn of exports from the quality garment design and production was earned. Most garment and textiles businesses invest in Bangladesh for a few reasons: 1) Cost and quality; products are produced on time, reliably and competitively, 2) The garments and textiles cluster as Bangladesh has real strength in depth of its local supplier base, 3) Large amount of skilled labours, 4) There are training and technical development facilities that support the industry. There are also opportunities that exist in the ICT and business services in Bangladesh, which includes: 1) Direct investment in your own ICT and business/financial services, established in any of the major districts of Dhaka, and in other major city conurbations, 2) Outsourcing of ICT and business services to existing established Bangladesh businesses, 3) Opportunities in telecoms infrastructure and services. Bangladesh is a country that has a huge amount of potential to build a pharmaceuticals and life sciences workforce for international companies.

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1) The World Trade Organisation’s (WTO) Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights Agreement (TRIPs) agreement permits Bangladesh to reverse-engineer patented generic pharmaceutical products to sell locally and export to markets around the world, 2) Bangladesh is developing a strong manufacturing and technically experienced industrial base with growth in excess of 10% most years, 3) Thanks to the country’s quality of its tertiary education, the scientific talent pool is not only plentiful but also offers excellent cost/quality opportunities, 4) Bangladesh also offers significant potential for Research and Development (R&D), contract research outsourcing (CRO) and clinical trials development. There are a variety of vegetable that were grown in Bangladesh, yet for such a fertile land there are huge gaps in local resources and underutilisation of the country’s agricultural capacity. Therefore, it presents huge opportunities for investors seeking to export agricultural products, or to meet the rapidly growing local demand. The opportunities include: 1) Cold storage facilities to serve all stages of the supply chain, and especially for fresh produce for export, 2) Fresh produce production for local and export markets, 3) Production of fertilizers and cultivation of seeds, 4) Eco-friendly jute production, with the support of several jute industry technology development institutes, 5) Shrimp farming, 6) Halal foods, 7) Milk and dairy products,

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8) High value added-value foods for export, including herbs, spices, nuts and pulses. Other than that, Bangladesh has a long established tanning industry that already produces around 2 to 3% of the world’s leather from a ready supply of raw materials. Three major keys to enable the business factors are: 1) Attractive export incentives, 2) Tariff and quota free access t major markets such as the European Union, 3) A skills pool and rural/industrial locations to support foreign investors. In conclusion, Bangladesh is a country that has the 5 major sectors that supports as the base of the economy. The sectors provide possible business opportunities to investors that seek to invest in the sectors in Bangladesh.

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Cambodia
Cambodia or known as the Kingdom of Cambodia is a country located in the middle of South East Asia with a population of 14.86 million citizens. The country shares its border with other three countries, which are: Thailand, Vietnam and Laos. Cambodia can be known for its cruel genocide in the past known as the Khmer Rouge. While the Khmer Rouge took over Cambodia, they’ve set up policies that ignored human life and created repression and genocide. They’ve turned the country into a huge detention centre, which later then became a graveyard for approximately 2 million people, including their own members and even some senior leaders. Even after years of the cruel regime of Khmer Rouge, nearly two million Cambodians died from diseases due to the lack of medicines and medical services, starvation, execution, or exhaustion from overworking at the countryside under extreme condition. Ten of thousands were made widows and orphans, and those who lived through the regime were traumatized by their experiences. Several hundred thousand Cambodians fled their country and became refugees.

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(Photo 1; picture shows the amount of workers working in the garment sector in Cambodia.) The main industry that supports Cambodia’s economy is the garment sector as it employs around half a million people and accounting for almost 80% of exports. According to investvine.com, Cambodia’s textile industry grew by 32%. Even though the garment sector in Cambodia has been casted under “for poor labour conditions and safety issues” recently, reported exports worth $1.56 billion in the first half of 2013, which is a 32% growth over the first half of 2012. The main factor that drove investors or buyers to Cambodia was because of the factory collapse in Bangladesh that sparked international concerns about the garment sector and the rising labour costs in China. However, wages have also been raised in Cambodia and conflicts between factory businesses and labour unions are widespread. Even though the garment industry is Cambodia’s largest foreign exchange earner, it is not trouble free. The sector comprises more than
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300 factories, employing around 340,000 workers, of which 91% are female; some are even child labour. In 2012, the Cambodian apparel workers resorted to strike several times demanding higher wages. Currently, the minimum wage for a worker in the industry is $61 a month, which is very low to cope with the rising living expenses in Cambodia, the Free Trade Union of Workers, the country’s largest trade union, argues. The revenue of exports including manufacturing products, milled rice and agro-industrial products such as cassava amounted to $289.2 million more than the first quarter of 2012. The amount was supported by the rise of exports in agricultural products, which increased from 41.52% to $147.1 million in the first quarter of 2013 compared with $103.9 million in the first quarter of 2012. The director general of the Cambodia Chamber of Commerce, Nguon Meng Tech, attributed the garment sector’s success to long-term government support, and said the government’s policy helped attract investors to the country. Nguon Meng Tech also said that while some investors were initially afraid of doing business Cambodia, they were persuaded when they saw the stability of Cambodia’s economy. Another factor that leads to export growth, according to Nguon Meng Tech, is that it was all thanks to the increased direct access to international markets, as Cambodian products had previously been primarily exported only to neighbouring countries before shipping internationally.

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It’s very obvious that even though Cambodia has suffered from a devastating regime by the Khmer Rouge, it’s slowly starting to get better as the garment sector of the country is aiding the country, economically. Even though the sector has its pro and cons, the improvement of the country’s economy status is really obvious. Also, it’s seen that the government is trying their best to help provide job opportunities to the citizens of Cambodia.

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Singapore
Singapore is a wealthy country located in South-east Asia that has a total of 5.312 million citizens, it’s mostly known for its conservatism of its leader and its strict social controls. Singapore is just a causeway and a bridge away from the southern tip of Malaysia. Singaporeans are encouraged to “Speak Good English” in place of a local slang known as “Singlish”. Chinese people make up Singapore’s population by 75% while the Malays and Indians make up much of the remainder. There are many foreign workers employed in Singapore. According to a government forecast published in 2013, by 2030 immigrants will make up approximately 50% of the population. The People’s Action Party known as PAP has been the dominant force since independence from Malaysia in 1965 and it regularly wins over 60% of the vote despite it's a multi-party country. Electronics manufacturing and financial services support Singapore’s strong economy and has weathered regional crises that include the 1997 Asian markets slump, the 2003 Sars virus widespread and the 2009 worldbanking crisis. As mentioned, Singapore’s major sector is the electronics industry, which leads Singapore’s manufacturing sector which numbers for 48% of total industrial output. To stabilize its competitive position despite the rising wages, the government is seeking to promote higher value-added activities in the manufacturing and services sectors.

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Singapore is considered a global financial hub as the nation banks offers world-class corporate bank account facilities. That includes various currencies, e-banking (internet banking), telephone banking, checking accounts, savings accounts, debit and credit cards, fixed term deposits and wealth management services. Other than the banking sector, Singapore is promoting and developing its biotechnology industry. Hundred of millions of dollars were invested into the sector to build up infrastructure, fund research and development and to employ top international scientists to Singapore. On the 8th June 2006, GlaxoSmithKline(GSL) has announced that they are investing another SGD$300 million to build another plant to produce pediatric vaccines, its first such facility in Asia. The baking and biotechnology sector seems great but Singapore is the pricing centre and leading oil trading hub in Asia. The oil industry makes up 5% of Singapore’s GDP which is worth a total of $274.7 billion in 2012, with Singapore being one of the top three export refining centres in the world. In 2007, Singapore exported a whopping 68.1 million tonnes of oil. The oil industry has caused to the promotion of the chemical industry as well as oil and gas equipment manufacturing. Singapore has 70% of the world market for both jack-up rigs and for the conversion of Floating Production Storage Offloading units. It has 20% of the world market for ship repair, and in 2008 the marine and offshore industry hired almost 70,000 workers.

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Conclusion

Even though Cambodia and Bangladesh’s main sector is garment, but I think Bangladesh should focus more on its ICT sector rather than the garment sector as the recent factory collapse matter has gained international attention. Also, Cambodia should not focus mainly on the garment factory. I see an opportunity in the travel sector in Cambodia as tourists can get to travel around Angkor Wat and see changes from the past Cambodia to the present Cambodia. It serves as a constant reminder that any country can change a lot throughout the help from the government and its citizen. Even though Singapore is doing much better than Cambodia and Bangladesh, I feel like Singapore should also focus on other sectors other than the banking, biotechnology and oil industry. But it’s evident that the three major sectors aid the nation’s economy really well. In conclusion, the three countries have rather stable economy and political situation. Occasional strike happens in Cambodia and Bangladesh due to the work environment and issues but the government tries it best to resolve the issue hence making the country’s political situation stable.

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