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Part B – Paper 1 – General Ship Knowledge (3 hrs, 50% pass

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Function (1) : Controlling the operation of the ship and care for persons on board at the operational level Competence : Maintain seaworthiness of the ship Criteria : Actions to ensure and maintain the watertight integrity of the ship are in accordance with accepted practice. tability conditions comply with the !M" intact stability criteria under all conditions of loading. Ship Construction 1. General knowledge of the principal structural members of a ship and the proper name for the various parts.

1. Brac et – s!pport the girder, etc ". B!l heads – a #ertical partition $etween co%part%ents 3. &enter girder – 'n lie! o( longit!dinal, pro#ide longit!dinal strength i. )ongit!dinal (ra%ing in *B – +. ,loor – - #ertical athwartships %e%$er in wa. o( the do!$le/$otto%. 't will r!n (ro% the center girder o!t to the %argin plate on either side o( the #essel. 5. ,ra%e – 'nternal s!pport %e%$er (or the shell plating. 0essel %a. $e (ra%ed longit!dinall. or trans#ersel.. 1. G!sset – triang!lar plate (or 2oining angle $ar to a plate 3. 'ntercostals Side girder – - side girder in the (ore and a(t line sited either side o( the eel. 'ntegral connection with the tan top and the ship4s $otto% plating and rigidl. connected $. (loors 5. Keels – center line plate (ro% ste% to the stern (ra%e. i. ,lat plate eels – Generall. !sed eel. &enter girder is attached to the eel and inner $otto% plating $. contin!o!s welding and no scallops per%itted ii. *!ct eels – a (or% o( (lat plate eel with tow center girder. 6(ten (itted $etween collision $!l head and (orward engine roo% $!l head to pro#ide t!nnel (or pipes and additional $!o.anc.. 7. )ightening holes – holes c!t into (loors or intercostals to red!ce weight and to pro#ide access to tan areas 10. )ongit!dinal – - (ore and a(t strength %e%$er connecting the athwartships (loors. 't %!st $e contin!o!s (or ship 8 "15%. -dditional longit!dinal are to $e (o!nd in po!nding area 11. 9argin plate – a (ore and a(t plate sited at the t!rn o( the $ilge. :he !pper edge is nor%all. (langed to allow connection to the tan top plating, while the opposite

ra%es                                         )ong@ girders   Pillars Shell plating   2. -. 15. *a%age control plan – ship s!$/di#ision la. ca!sed $.loors . an angle/$ar connection. 1". Sheer stra e – the contin!o!s row o( shell plates on a le#el with the !pper%ost contin!o!s dec .o!t o( the ship ii. the panting $ea%s. plan – hold and tan di%ension and capacit. S. Panting $ea%s – athwartships %e%$ers in the (orepart introd!ced to red!ce the in . 1+. angles and (langes. ha#ing all the (loors 2oining at right angles.o!t to assess the s!r#i#a$ilit. !p to the collision $!l head. #ar. o!t tendenc. 't pro#ides an end seal to the do!$le $otto% tan s.end is sec!red to the inside o( the shell plate $. Plans and drawings – to show the %ain details o( o!tline and constr!ction i. 13. Ship propulsion systems. 9e%$ers co%pensating stress   =ac ing >ea#. Shell eApansion plan – ill!strate $oth the side and $otto% plating as a contin!o!s whole and shows the n!%$ering o( plates and lettering o( . Panting stringers – internal hori<ontal plates sec!red to the shell plating and $raced 撐牢 athwartships $. capacit. 3. i#. iii.. o( the ship in case o( e%ergenc. B9 *r. o( the shell plating. general arrange%ent / general la.ing water press!re on the $ow. Basic ship types. Hull nomenclature術語 main dimensions and tonnages on!board plans and drawings. Scantlings – !sed to indicate the thic ness o( plates./ doc ing                                                                              Po!nding Panting weight press!re Stress Sag Bea% nee Bea%s B!l heads *ec s . ?ater )ocal >og .

the arrange%ent o( s!perstr!ct!res. $!t are onl.ste% plan – $allast s. Sheer plan – an ele#ation which shows the (ore and a(t o!tline o( the ship.  Panting stringers. in(or%ation cargo sec!ring %an!al. wash plates or pillars. Panting stresses is an in and o!t %otion o( the plating in the $ows o( a ship and is ca!sed $. "..and . '1((1 1((") i. the sheer o( the dec s..  :o sti((en the 2oint $etween each $ea% and the inner edge o( the stringer.and . etc ". (1771. $oo let – ship4s sta$ilit. 't ca!ses da%age to the $otto% and girder at the $ow. Ai. si%ilar to dec stringers. #ii. sta$ilit. #iii. the conto!r o( ste% and stern. and s!pported $. (itted at alternati#e (ra%es. $e shaped or g!ssets (itted. . the plate edge %a.. iA. are laid on each tier o( $ea%s. A.. showing the structural arrangements which resist the stresses in (1). Panting stress  :iers o( panting $ea%s are (itted (orward o( the collision $!l head $elow the lowest dec . &escribe the circumstances which cause panting and pounding stresses. plate stra es (or re(erence p!rposes. (ire control plan shall $e endorsed and appro#ed $. Po!nding stresses is eAist when ships is pitching.. 177". classi(ication societ. Ship4s $ows li(t clear o( the water and co%e down hea#il.ste% plan / $ilge s.plan / show the arrange%ent o( )S. #ast e$am %uestions 1.B. $ea% nees. ii. !neC!al water press!re as the $ow passes thro!gh s!ccessi#e wa#es.ste% and piping arrange%ent )S. S etch a transverse section thro!gh the forward part o( a large cargo #essel.ste% and piping arrange%ent $ilge s. :iers o( $ea%s are spaced " %eters apart #erticall. stowage plan – cargo stowage arrange%ent $allast s.#. :hese are si%ilar to dec $ea% and are connected to (ra%es $. #i. 177+) i.

the stringers are 2oined $. (1770) i. )ist the str!ct!ral %e%$ers o( a ship which are designed to resist the %ain longit!dinal stresses in a ships h!ll. )ongit!dinal stressG hogging. -t inter%ediate (ra%e witho!t $ea%s.or a large cargo #essel. so strengths o( the parts is %ade greater a%idships iii. >!ll is strengthen at a$o!t the hal(/depth o( the ship to resist the shearing stress . (ra%ed $otto% is !sed. FF State $rie(l.1 %eters apart. clear holds witho!t tween dec – to load and discharge cargo C!ic l. . )arge hatches with steel co#ers (or sa(et. the stringer is s!pport $. is %aintained in these %e%$ers to ena$le the% to per(or% their designed (!nction. strong cell!lar do!$le $otto%. showing and na%ing all the %ain co%part%ents.  3. Po!nding stress is resisted $.  :he o!ter $otto% plating co#ering the (lat o( the $otto% %!st $e thic ened. ii. (lat plate called DBreasthoo sE.  -t (ore ends. Sloping side tan s at the $ilge – assist in handling $!l cargo since it helps the sel(/tri%%ing o( cargo +. (1770) i.ii. a $ea% nee o( hal( its depth. )arge. S etch a longit!dinal section o( a $!l carrier. sagging ii. :opside tan – ena$le water $allast to $e carried high !p to red!ce G9 #. how str!ct!ral contin!it. Bngine place a(t i#. longit!dinall.  :he connections o( the shell and inner $otto% girder/wor are %ade stronger  Plate (loors are (itted at alternate (ra%es  )ongit!dinal are stronger than nor%al  Side girders are no %ore than ". FF BAplain the reasons (or this arrange%ent o( co%part%ents. )ongit!dinal wor in the do!$le $otto%G  *ec stringer and sheer/stra e thic en  *ec girder and longit!dinal $!l head  Special steel (or sheer/stra e and $ilge stra e  )ongit!dinal (ra%es and $ea%s in the $otto% and !nder the strengthen dec  Stress is greatest a%idships. iii.

(177". strong i( an ad2acent part which has to resist the sa%e stress is wea . which are s!n en co%part%ents in the do!$le $otto%. ?hen %aterial has to $e c!t awa. SC!are corners sho!ld $e a#oided as (ar as possi$le since it has $een (o!nd that these are alwa. water press!re. re(rigerated container water. po!nding./doc ing and shear stresses. ship sweat.. *raw a s etch showing the contact $etween a steel hatch cover and the hatch coa%ing indicating how watertightness is achie#ed. 5.  Steel t!$e.s a so!rce o( wea ness. sho!ld $e grad!all. >ence. dr. S etch a cross section o( a r!dder carrier. as there wo!ld $e a tendenc. Bilge wellG when the cell!lar do!$le $otto% eAtends o!t to the ship4s side there are no proper $ilges. 'n this case the holds drain into $ilge well. (or the% to tear awa.177+) 3. stern t!$es (1771) i. 5. end. :he (ore end with (lange $olted to a(ter pea $!l head and a large n!t in a(t end  'nside t!$e. (177") . S etch a transverse midship section o( a general cargo ship constr!cted on a combined framing system. Stern t!$eG to s!pport the sha(t and to %a e a watertight 2oint where the sha(t enters the h!ll. :he. etc 1. where the. co%pensations %!st $e %ade to preser#e contin!it.. Parts which are #er. 't is to collect water (ro% rain. it is i%portant to %aintain str!ct!ral contin!it. tapered o(( 逐漸變細 and %erge into the wea er parts. )ist the (!nctions o( G $ilge wells. a $rass $!sh which has groo#es in it  Strips o( lign!% #itae in groo#es act as $earing (or sha(t  St!dding $oA to pre#ent water getting into h!ll ii. strong co%pared to the neigh$oring parts sho!ld not $e ended s!ddenl.!nctions o( longit!dinal (ra%ingG =esist hogging and sagging.'t is !seless to %a e one part #er. (1771. o( strength. )ist the (!nctions o( longitudinal framing.1773) . cargo sweat.

*o!$le $otto%G resist po!nding.i.1775) i. Bilge pipes are (itted with non/ret!rn #al#e to a#oid hold (looding iii. BAplain the reasons (or this arrange%ent o( co%part%ents.ater pressure. =ac ing – =esisted $. ( hip rac#ed by wave action or rolling. local stresses. tan side $rac ets and $ea% nees. :his ena$les the hatch co#ers to $e raised (or rolling and stowage. (loor. (1773) 10. ii.o!t o( the $ilge piping arrange%ent in a general cargo ship with the engine roo% a%idships. etc 11. :he hatches are %ade watertight $. :he lower rollers are %o!nted on an eccentric $!sh which ena$les the% to $e raised or lowered. r!$$er 2ointing.177+) . '1((-) iii. S etch a longitudinal section o( a 0)&& showing and na%ing all the main compartments. we$ (ra%es or cantile#er (ra%es. -lso./doc ing stresses. S!ction are !s!all. trans#erse $!l head. $eing p!ll down $. tri% $. placed at the a(t end o( each hold since ship nor%all. 7. shell plating and pillar. Hot pass thro!gh deep tan . dr. #i$ration and po!nding. FF BAplain the reason (or separate pipelines to each $ilge. *raw a s etch showing the la. cleats and cross/2oint wedges.) . or lowered so that the. the stern and water can $e collected at the a(t end o( the $ilges i#. rac ing. hea#. weights. Sketch a transverse section through a cargo vessel showing and naming the structural members which resist* +acking stresses and . (1773.loorG resist water press!re. (1773. can $e sec!red and %ade watertight. Separate pipelines to each $ilge sinceG 12. tresses come on the corners. do!$le $otto% tan s and oil (!el $!n ers ii. )ist the (!nctions o( (loors and do!$le $otto%s in a general cargo ship.

(or s%all ship and sailing ships /ongitudinal system – has longit!dinal (ra%e at the $otto%. Plate (loor and trans#erse $ea%s 橫 梁 are (itted at inter#als to gi#e trans#erse strength. (1771) 15. pillar and shell plating (water pressure push$in the side and bottom of ship) 13. spaced trans#erse we$.. S etch and list o!t the #ario!s part o( a general dr. sides and dec s. See section 3 1+. . (1773) . (1771) 15. ii. 9ostl. *raw s etches showing the transverse stresses which can $e eAerted on a ship4s h!ll and na%e the structural members which resist these stresses. container. 17. longit!dinal girder. FF )ist the three basic types of ship construction. o( a plate (loor.以防 漏. 't pro#ides considera$le trans#erse strength to resist the rac ing stress. iii. their si<es. spaced trans#erse (ra%es to hold the plan s 支架 F 厚木板 together so that the sea%s 接縫 co!ld $e ca!l ed 填 . na%ing the %ain str!ct!ral %e%$ers. s!pported $. FF *escri$e the #ario!s t. (ra%es and (loors. S etch a trans#erse section o( a do!$le $otto% tan in wa. ?ater press!re – =esisted $. also $ea%. Strong longit!dinal strength resists hogging and sagging stresses (or long ships. widel. (1775) i. descri$e the %ain drawings and plans a#aila$le on $oard ship. S etch a trans#erse section o( a do!$le $otto% tan in wa. and their !sage.. trans#erse (ra%es on the ship side where longit!dinal stresses are s%aller. o( a $rac et (loor. dec . S etch a transverse midship section o( a general cargo ship constr!cted on a combined framing system.pes o( container. FF State the preca!tions that sho!ld $e o$ser#ed on &ontainer Stowage $e(ore and a(ter operations in a cell!lar container ship. (1773) i. $!l heads and $.i#. (1771) 11.ransverse system – closel. 0ombination system – longit!dinal (ra%es in the $otto% and strength dec . )ist and $rie(l. )ist the (!nction o( G longit!dinal $!l heads and longit!dinal (ra%ing (1771) 13.