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98-Civ-BS (May 2002): WATER

3 Hours Duration


1 If doubt exists as to the interpretation of any question, the candidate is urged to submit with
the answer paper, a clear statementof any assumption(s)made. 2. This is an open book exam although sufficient information is provided to answer all questions without additional referencematerial. 3. Candidatesmay use one of two calculators, the Casio or Sharp approved models. 4. There are five sections to this exam (parts A, B, C, D and E) with percentage weightings as indicated. All questionswithin eachrespective section are worth equal marks but may not be of equal difficulty .The following is a suggested time allocation for the exam parts:
Part Part Part Part Part A: B: C: D: E: 15 minutes 15 minutes 45 minutes 60 minutes 45 minutes

5. The exam table of contentsis as follows:
Part A: General Knowledge -Water Part B: General Knowledge -Water Part D: Numerical Problems Part E: Treatment Process Design Equations and Useful Information Table of Atomic Weights Dissociation Constants at 25°C . . . Quality and Treatment I Quality and Treatment n (10% Weight) (20% Weight) (25 % Weight) (25 % Weight) (20% Weight)

2 3 4 6 7 11 12 13 13

Part C: Measurement and Mass Balance Theory

Inorganic carbon species as a function ofpH at 0.005 M TIC 6. Indicate what you are solving for in any intennediate steps to a solution.

7. Neat well-annotated answerswill tend to collect more marks.
8. Clearly define your notation and method of approach. 9. Clearly work through ideas, conceptsand specify applied formulae before substituting in any numbers. 10. Do !!Q! erase"false starts", instead strike a line acrossthe section of the page that still permits the work to be read and continue on.


(May 2002) -Page 1 of 13

BODs 2. 1. Indicating how it relates to or impacts on water/wastewater treatment design. and b. Be brief and to the point. Flocculation 8. Colifonns 6. SVI pH 9.Name:c Part A: General Knowledge -Water Quality and Treatment I (10% Weight) In three short points indicate your understanding of any 4 out of the 10 terms listed below by: a. Defming the term (or acronym). 5. Nitrate 3. Hardness 4. monitoring and/or operation. voc 10. Trihalomethane 7. Note that a lengthy verbose answer is not better and will work against you in time and marking -point form is preferred. GAC 98-Civ-B5 (May 2002) -Page 2 of 13 .

You have injected a dye at the inlet to a water treatment reactor. What is the purpose of increasing the number of media types in a rapid filter? 7. You would like to know if the mixing conditions are plug flow or completely mixed. How might water turbidity affect the performance of both a UV disinfection unit process? a chlorine disinfection unit process? 6. State two distinct methods for phosphorus removal from wastewater? 5. Note that a lengthy verbose answer is not better and will work against you in time and marking -point form is preferred. Algae in stabilization ponds or reservoirs may cause hardnessremoval during daylight hours on hot summer days when their metabolic activities are high. Be brief and to the point -a correct answer requires only a couple of short statements and/or sketch. What do you measure and illustrate what are you looking for in the data from those measureinents? 3. Give two distinct interpretations for the organic content in a water sample if you were to measurezero BOD for that water sample? 2.Name: Part B: General Knowledge -Water Quality and Treatment II (20% Weight) Answer the following 7 questions. State two distinct methods for ammonia removal from wastewater? 4. Explain how this may happen? 98-Civ-BS (May 2002) -Page 3 of 13 . 1.

98-Civ-BS (May 2002) -Page 4 of 13 . b. What are the residual(s) that are being produced in treating the wastewater? c. Activated sludge plant for domestic wastewater treatment. The certificate of approval specifies effluent water quality objectives of (I) BODs. and (5) coliform counts. What would you measureto test whether or not your suspicions are well founded? Figure I. (4) TP (total phosphorus).I8H20) is dosed at the location shown.Name: Part c: Measurement and Mass Balance Theory Answer questions 1 and 2. (25 % Weight) The municipal biological wastewater treatment plant shown below (Figure I) consists ofunit processes labelled (a) to (i). The unit process(e) is not performing well. With respect to the 5 water quality objectives indicate where and how the treatment plant reduces the levels of these parameters in the wastewater. (2) total suspendedsolids. You suspectthis"might involve unanticipated denitrification within (e). Alum (A12(SO4)3 . (3) TKN (total Kjedal1 nitrogen). a. I.

Name: vss measurements can be used to make an assessment of the biomass levels in an activated sludge treatment system. measurements of similar VSS levels may consist of quite different levels of ~ microorganisms and Monod kinetics relate to these active microorganisms. How would this change of "XalXv" be reflected in measurements of specific oxygen uptake rate (SOUR) as HRT increased for this system? Figure 2. For the bioreactor system shown in Figure 2. determine the effect of increasing HRT on the fraction of active biomass in a VSS measurement(i. effluent biodegradable dissolved organic matter (S). 98-Civ-B5 (May 2002) -Page 5 of 13 . the inanimate VSS (Xi) is produced as a result of endogenous decay: rj =(l-!d)Xakd where rj = specific = fraction production of the active decay rate ofXj biomass (mg VSS/L/d) that is biodegradable (typically -0. reactor volume (V) and effluent dissolved organic matter (S). A completely mixed bioreactor with influent flow (Q). find an expressionfor "XaIXy"). However. reactor biomass (Xv). a. influent biodegradable dissolved organic matter (Si). and from mass balance consideration.e. b. Therefore VSS measurements(Xv) from the aeration basin of an activated sludge process should really be divided into active microorganisms (Xa) and inanimate volatile suspended solids (Xu: Xv =Xa +Xi Assuming no influent VSS.8) fd ~ = endogenous rate (l/d).

alkalinity . and HCO3. an ideal clarifier and neglect endogenousdecay). Bacterial metabolism consumes oxygen at a rate of 100 kg 02/d. and if the biomass yield coefficient (Y) is 0. Given a and J3are both 0. (Note: Assume steady state operation. the tap water saturation dissolved oxygen concentration is 10 mg O2/L.90 and the Arrhenius constant (eA) is 1. The pH of the water is 7. Determine the total hardness. Solids analysis on influent and effluent sludge from a digestion process revealed that 70 percent of the influent suspendedsolids were volatile.Name: Part D: Numerical Problems Answer 2 out of the 4 following problems. The influent dissolved oxygen concentration is 0 mg O2/L and the effluent is 2 mg O2/L. if the COD change (Si-Se) across the bioreactor is 300 mg COD/L. Determine the percent total susDended solids (TSS) reduction for the sludge digestion process.concentrations for the following water. 2.5 % of its weight (as VSS). 98-Civ-B5 (May 2002) -Page 6 of 13 . Figure 3. At 15 °C. If the biomass will accumulate phosphorus at 3.30 mg VSS/mg COD. The thought is to add an anaerobic pre-stage to the existing activated sludge treatment process (Figure 3) to promote enhanced biological phosphorus removal. A 100 m3 completely mixed aeration basin in a biological treatment process is receiving an influent flow of 1000 m3/d. Cl-. The wastewater temperature is 15 °C. while 10 percent of the effluent suspendedsolids were volatile. what is the estimated 20 °C tapwapter KLa for the aeration system.02. analyzedat 25 °C. 4. (25% Weight) 1 Sludge digestion is a process that can reduce only the volatile component of solids.9. A wastewatertreatment plant owner is considering an upgrade to meet new effluent discharge regulations on phosphorus. Modified treatment system for phosphorus removal. estimate the maximum influent phosphorus concentration for a 1 mg P/L phosphorus discharge limit. 3.

Schematic of the activated sludge process with notation for biomass concentration (X). 98-Civ-BS (May 2002) -Page 7 of 13 . An aeration basin with an HRT of 8 hours and a solids concentration of 2 9 VSS/L is to be maintained. Solids settling characteristics were detennined experimentally and the data are provided in Figure 5. underflow (u). wastage (w) and recycle (r) lines. Subscripts distinguish values of quantities between influent (i). dissolved organic matter concentration (S).000 m3/d. Figure 4. (20 % Weight) 1. flow rate (Q). The biosolids cannot typically compress to more than approximately 17 9 VSS/L in the clarifier .Name: Part E: Treatment Process Design Answer lout of the following 2 problems. Assuming that the sludge waste flow rate is zero and that the clarifier perfonnance is ideal. The design wastewater influent flow rate (QJ is 125. estimate a possible clarifier design area along with the respective recycle ratio (QrlQi) that would be required to maintain the treatment process as specified. effluent (e). Clarifier Design Problem A cylindrical clarifier is to be designed for hindered settling based on ideal plug flow and the observed settling characteristics of activated sludge solids sampled from a conventional secondarybiological wastewater treatment process (Figure 4). and volume V.

From the influent water supply.Name: 250 '0 I Ne 00 00 > cn ~ ~ = ~ rIJ '0 . What should be the liquid volume of the plug flow reactor for 99% coliform removal? d. Disinfection Unit ProcessDesign: A chlorination disinfection process is to be designed according to the schematic diagram represented in Figure 6. The supply water flow rate is Q = 20 Lis and the plug flow reactor is just a Y2filled 1. There is no chlorine in the water supply. b. an experiment of coliform survivability with chlorination was performed (Figure 8). 2. For this disinfection process.25 mg/L is required. Graph from experimental data and best-fitted trend line for the gravity flux (Kg VSS/m2-d) for the settling characteristics of the activated sludge solids (g VSS/L) for problem 111-1. Further. a breakpoint curve was generated (Figure 7). What is the chlorine supply line concentration (Cs) necessaryto achieve your required dosage(CD) if the chlorine supply flow (q) is equal to 0.Q 00 200 150 100 50 o~ 0 0 5 Biosolids 10 concentration 15 20 25 X (g VSS/L) Figure 5.1 percent of the wastewaterflow Q? c.2 meter diameter sewer pipe. What length of sewer pipe is required for the plug flow reactor? 98-Civ-BS (May 2002) -Page 8 of 13 . a. Select a chlorine dosage (CD) for a free residual chlorine level (CR) of 0.25 mg/L. a free chlorine residual of 0.

where: residual C = chlorine concentration. showing chlorine residuals resulting from respective doses. 98-Civ-B5 (May 2002) -Page 9 of 13 . Cs = chlorine supply concentration. chlorine CD = chlorine dosage. and q = supply flow (LIs). concentration. Schematic of the disinfection process.Name: Figure 6. An experimentally derived breakpoint chlorination curve for the water. CR = chlorine Q = wastewater flow (LIs). Figure 7.

Name: Chlorine Residual (mg/L) time {min) for 99% Colilorm Removal Figure chlorine 8. given either a combined or free 98-Civ-B5 (May 2002) -Page 10 of 13 . removal from the wastewater. Data from batch tests for coliform residual.

NL = limiting flux.U = P6o1Pl0 d _9_0--=-1. A = surfacearea)_1 st Order Reaction Kinetics (r = -kC): ~ c. Q = flow rat~)Critical Settling Velocity (9-=.67 98-Civ-B5 (May 2002) -Page 11 of 13 .Name: Equations and Useful Information Conversion factors Generalized Reactor Mass Balance 1 m3 = 103L 1 cm3 = 1 mL = 10-3L Hydraulic Retention Time (HRT or e) ( v= volume.flow rate.~~ Clarifier design (Q = clarifier influent flow. I = exp(-ke) Plug Flow =~ 1 Completely Mixed 1 ~ ) n Series of n CM Reactors Ce Ci C -!-= C. X clarifier influent solids concentration..!)d U 1. I 1+=-Yrs -kdX Biomass growth kinetic with endogenous decay: rx Monod kinetics Gas Transfer Arrhenius TemperatureRelationship Grain size distribution ra =aKLa(f3Cs -0) kT = k 20 e A (T-20) ES = PIO . A = surface area)- Solids Retention Time (SRT or ex) N=Cu velocity) QX ~ NLA Solids Flux JC = conc.

Symbol.. 'Proposed symbol and name 98-Civ-B5 (May 2002) -Page 12 of 13 .SeeA~dix Atomic D.. and 107 to 109 have been endorsed by a committee or the American OJemical Society.105. Atomic Number. Ytterbium Yttrium.) Atomic Actinium Aluminum Americium Antimony Argon Arsenic Astatine Barium Berkelium BeIyllium Bismuth Boron Bromine Cadmium Calcium CaIifomium Carbon Cerium Cesium OUorlne O\romium Cobalt Coppex: Curium Dysprosium Einsteinium Erbium Europium Fermium F1uorine Francium Gadolinium Gallium Germanium Gold Hafnium Hahnium Hassium Helium Holmium Hydrogen Indium Iodine Iridium Iron Krypton Lanthanum Lawrencium Lead U thi um Lutetium Magnesium Manganese Meitnerium Mendelevium Mercw'Y Molybdenum N eod ymi um Neon NeptU11ium Nickel Nielsbohrium Niobium Nitrogen Nobelium Osmium Oxygen Palladium . Ph(?8phorus Platinum Plutonium Polonium Potassium Praseodymium Promethium Protactinium Radium Radon Rhenium Rhodium Rubidium Ruthenium Rutherfordium Samarium Scandium Seaborgiuml Selenium Silicon Silver . and Atomic Weight (Atomic weights are given to four significant figures for elements below atomic number 104.Name: Table of Atomic Weights ~ Elements by Name. Zinc Zin:onium aNames or elements 104. The IUPAC recommends different names ror elements 104 to 108. Sodium Strontium Sulfur Tantalum TeChnetium Tellurium Terbium Thallium Thorium Thulium T1I1 1itanium Tungsten Uranium Vanadium Xenon .

8 7.9 X .0 3.OH ~ H+ + ~H.Name:.3 X 10-13 2. + 50J. anaerobic digestion..9.8 6.3 analyses Analyses Tastes.9 7..~ H+ + p9t KOH ~ K+ + ol:l~HjCOOH NaOH ~ H2504 ~ HS04 ~ HzSOJ ~ HSOj" ~ ~ H. + OHH. 4. Sulfurous acid HS.8 X 10-10. Nitrification Potassium hydroxide Propionic acid Sodium hydroxide Sulfuric acid ..pH Conqol.3 x 10-7 4. neutralization Coagulation.2 X 10-10 6. nutrient Ana1ys~ 4.~ H+ + S2HOCl~:H+ + oaHNO3 ~ H+ + NO3 HN~ ~ H+ + NOi HaO4 ~ H+ + aO4 ~H.1 3~2 7.(hydrogen sUlfide) Hypochlorous Nitric acid .2 4.0 4.2 12..2 x 10-1° 7.Anaerobic digestion Analyses..5 X 10-' .4 10. odors Buffer.2 x 10-8 4.9.9 --3 1.005 M TIC 98-Civ-B5 (May 2002) -Page 13 of 13 .10-1 0.OH3PO4 ~ H+ + H2PO4 H2PO4 ~ H+ + In>>O1HPO1.29 --7 9.3 NH3 + H1O ~ NH: Ammonia Boric Butyric Carbonic acid acid acid + OH. x ~o~ .Strong 1..2 .3:>< 10-$ Strong (base) 12.2 X 10-2 1.9 1.7 1.8 X 10-' 5. 2. toxicity Disinfection Nitrification.8 X 10-13 Strong (base) 1.75 X 10-::4 9. 1. .1 X 10-8 --3 . + 501H+ + H503 H. Nitrous acid Perchloric acid' Phenol Phospboricacid acid Analyses Toxicity Fluoridation Odor. analyses Dechlorination Strong' 1.7 X 10-2 6. H.1 7..7 x 10-11 Strong 7. Hydrochloric acid Hydrocyanic add Hydrofluoric acid Hydrosulfuric acid: H3B~ ~ H+ + H1BO3 CJH7COqfl ~ H~ + c. Dissociation Constants at 25°C CH3COOH ~ H+ + CB3~O- 4.5 X 10-3 6.1. + ~H5COO:: Na..7 9. ( HF ~ H++ FH2S ~ H+ + HS~ . corrosion.3 X 10-8 Inorganic carbon species as a function of pH at 0. + HSO.H7COOH2CO: ~ H+ + IitO3 HCO3 ~ H+ + cot Ha ~ H+ + aHCN ~H+ + CN.5 -1.10 5. 1.