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# NATIONAL

EXAMINATIONS 98 -CIV -B4

-MAY

2002

Engineering Hydrology
3 Hours Duration

Notes:

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If doubt exists as to interpretation of any question, the candidate is urged to submit a clear statement of any assumptions made with the answer paper. Candidates may use one of two calculators, a Casio FX-991 or a Sharp EL-540. This is a closed book examination.

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Equations, graph paper and any other required material are provided with this examination. Any five questions constitute a complete examination. Only the first five questions as they appear in your examination book will be marked. All questions cany equal weight.
Each part of a question carries equal weight.

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6. 7.

This examination paper consists of eight pages, including this cover page and two pages of probability paper. (The horizontal scale of the probability paper is in percent.)

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using sketches where 1. 4) . Estimate the volume required for this facility. State any assumptions used. 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 2. A storage facility is to be built to reduce peak flows from this watershed to 25 m3ls. 4 25 6 45 8 35 10 25 14 15 16 10 18 5 Time (hours) O Flow (m3/s) 5 I) 2 5 12 20 Calculate the 4 hour unit hydro graph for the watershed using hydro graph ordinates of m3/s for the times listed. appropriate.Briefly answer each of the following (5 to 10 lines each). Calculate the direct runoff in mm from the watershed. and the runoff coefficient for the 2) watershed Calculate the runoffhydrograph that would have resulted if the storm lasted 8 hours 3) instead of 4 hours.

8 3. May 2002 Page 3 of 8 3.0 6.3 2. He has also detennined that if a flood greater than this value occurs once in a 5 year period the facility can be repaired and the operation will be profitable over the 5 year period.5 12 13 3 4 5 7.3 6.6 5.3 3.5. Year Flow Year 6 7 8 9 10 Flow 3.5 5.3 4. 10 and 100 year return period floods.98 -CIV -B4.0 8.1 Year 11 Flow Year 16 17 18 19 Flow 7. The following annual floods were recorded at a river gauging site. What is the probability that the annual flood will be larger than 11 m31sat least once in the next 5 years? A fishing camp operator is proposing to upgrade his dock near this gauge.5 4.0 4.0 9.0 2. the operator will lose money.3 5. If a larger flood occurs. detennine the 2.0 14 15 a) b) Using probability paper. What is the probability that the operator will be profitable in a given 5 year period? c) Plotting position: Risk(R): Probability p = m / (n+ 1) m = rank (from largest to smallest) p = probability of exceedance n = number of years ofrecord R= l-(l-p)D ofExceedance: p = I/ Tr Tr = Return Period (years) .4 2 4.7 11. and has detennined that his facilities could withstand floods up to 11 m3/s.

The total width of the stop log bays is 10 m. ~S ~t = change in storage over time period (m3). The 100 year design stonn inflow hydrograph to the lake is provided below. May 2002 Page 4 of 8 4. and the elevation of the bottom of the stop log bays is 100 m.98 -CIV -B4. Assume weir flow over the stop logs. The outlet of the dam is controlled by stop logs.5). Continuity equation . where I = average inflow over time period (m3/s). Time period (hours) Inflow (m3/s) 5 10 Time period (hours) 20-25 25-30 30-35 35-40 [nf1ow (m3/s) 240 255 Time period (hours) 40-45 45-50 50-55 55-60 Inflow Time period Inflow (m3/s) 25 15 (rn3/s) 130 (hours) 0-5 5-10 10-15 60-65 65-70 70-75 75-80 90 60 50 160 225 180 10 15-20 40 5 Assuming no initial outflow from the lake. Weir flow equation: Q = C L h3/2where Q = discharge (m3/s). and that the lake can be considered to have vertical sides. L = weir length (m). A dam at a lake outlet is being considered for rehabilitation hydroelectric power development. C = weir coefficient (use 1. to provide storage for The lake has an area of 10 krn2. detern1inethe outflow hydrograph from the dam and the maximum elevation the lake will reach for the 100 year inflow hydrograph. and h = head over the weir (m) I -0 = ~S / ~t. O = average outflow over time period (m3/s). and = time period (sec). and an initial stop log elevation of 105 m.

The following hydrograph was measured at the upstream end of a river reach.5~t) C2 = (K -Kx + 0. where Co = ( C1 = ( -Kx + 0.2.98 -CIV -B4.5 ~t) / (K -Kx + 0.5 ~t) / (K -Kx Co + C1 + C2 = 1 II' 12 = Inflows to reach at times 1 and 2 respectively from reach at times 1 and 2 respectively 01 . No calculations are required.5 ~t) / (K -Kx Kx + 0. but explain your answer in tenns of the parameters used for the Muskingum routing method. The Muskingum routing equations are: 02 = Co 12 + C1 II + C2 01 . May 2002 Page 5 of 8 5.5~t) + 0. What would the peak discharge at the end of the reach be using the time lag routing method? c) . a) Calculate the hydro graph at the end of the reach using the Muskingum routing method. O2 = Outflows ~t = time step b) How would you detemline the hydro graph at a point two thirds of the way downstream for the same inflow hydro graph.5!:1t) + 0. given that the parameters K and x were determined to be K = 12 hours and x= 0.

a) porosity piezometric surface storage coefficient transmissi vi ty specific yield hydraulic conductivity 2) .6.