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Larynx • • • • AKA voice box Larger in men than women (“Adam’s apple”) Connects pharynx with trachea Composed

of many different cartilages

Skeleton: Three single/non-paired cartilages 1. Thyroid • Hyaline • Fusion of lower 2/3 forms laryngeal prominence (“Adam’s apple”) • May ossify ! become bone • Superior border and horns attach to hyoid bone by the thyrohyoid membrane 2. Cricoid - Strong, complete ring of cartilage, may ossify - Inferior to thyroid cartilage - Connected to thyroid cartilage by the median cricothyroid ligament - Inferiorly connected to 1st tracheal ring by the cricotracheal ligament 3. Epiglottic - Leaf shaped - Inferiorly attached to thyroid lamina by the thyroepiglottic ligament Three non-paired cartilages 4. Arytenoid - Anterior: vocal process (posterior attachment for vocal ligament) - Lateral: muscular process - Superior apex: corniculate cartilage - May ossify 5. Corniculate - Attach to apex of arytenoid 6. Cuneiform - Do not attach to other cartilages 7. Others are fibrocartilage

Oblique line

Cornu=horn

Posterior View

Cricothyroid 2. Arytenocorniculate Boundaries of Inlet • Anterior: epiglottis • Lateral: aryepiglottic fold/vocal fold • Posterior-inferior: mucous membrane between arytenoid cartilage.Sagittal Section Posterior to the left. anterior to the right Joints of the Larynx 1. corniculate and cuneiform cartilages . Cricoarytenoid 3.

Inlet: swallowing . mouth and sinuses to change the quality of the sound Innervation • Sensory .Below vocal cords: inferior laryngeal nerve (branch of recurrent laryngeal nerve) • Motor .Rima glottidis: space between the vocal folds.Resonates sound through pharynx.Move the hyoid bone to assist in swallowing .Attached to hyoid . size of space varies (i.Above vocal cords: internal laryngeal nerve (branch of superior laryngeal nerve) .Elevate during swallowing.Alter the length and tension of vocal cords . depress after • Intrinsic .Recurrent laryngeal nerve to all intrinsic muscles except cricothyroid .Length and tension of vocal cords alters pitch .Control laryngeal inlet Function • Sphincters .e during coughing.Muscles • Extrinsic . sneezing etc) • Phonation .

Trachea Length: 9-13 cm Width: 2-2. bifurcation into main bronchi On deep inspiration.5 cm 15-20 cartilages Semicircular rings of cartilage: posteriorly deficient Muscle posteriorly Angle of Louis: T4/T5. region between C6 and the lower manubrium can lower up to 5cm • Cervical and thoracic portion Blood Supply • Bronchial arteries • Inferior thyroid arteries • Inferior thyroid veins Lymph • Paratracheal nodes • Deep cervical nodes Innervation • Vagus nerve • Sensory and secretions: recurrent laryngeal nerve • Sympathetic innervation to trachealis and blood vessels • • • • • • • .

Thymus gland 2. Aorta • Ascending • Arch • Descending (thoracic) 1. Thoracic duct 4.Structures in the Mediastinum 1. Esophagus 3. Thoracic sympathetic trunks . Azygos venous system • Hemiazygos vein • Accessory hemiazygos vein 5. Superior vena cava 4. Vagus nerves and recurrent laryngeal nerves 6. Trachea 2. Heart and pericardial sac 3. Brachiocephalic veins 5. Phrenic nerves 7.