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Submitted by Lorenzo Capitanio

Jaques-Dlacroze – The Basic Principles
Topic: hat are the basic principles o! the system o! music education de"eloped by #mile Jacques-Dalcroze$ To %hat e&tent and ho% could these principles ha"e application in your o%n teachin'$ Lorenzo Capitanio (#d)(usic #ducation*+, B-).ons*+, B(us+, Dip(us © /001, 2o"ember+ -ll ri'hts reser"ed+ Lorenzo Capitanio


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INTRODUCTION JAQUES-DALCROZE PHILOSOPHY 2.1 2.2 2., Eurhyth !"# S%&'()* I -r%.!#/t!%0

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* concur %ith Chos9y )4856* su''estin' that Jaques-Dalcroze %as amazed at the technical s9ills displayed by his students. as opposed to the common practice o! his time o! teachin' technique but not emphasisin' musicality+ Labuta and Smith )488./*.0 INTRODUCTION #mile Jaques-Dalcroze )4567-4870* o! S%iss nationality is hi'hly celebrated !or his %or9 in"ol"in' a philosophy !or music education titled Eurhythmics. they displayed di!!iculty %ith e"en the simplest problems o! rhythm.*.1. theory. tonality. and o!ten their sense o! pitch. and Jaques-Dalcroze )48.* continue to su''est. theory.* !ocused on the idea that music history. and other aspects o! the discipline ne"er came to'ether in a comprehensi"e %ay durin' a student:s course o! study+ The student tended to approach harmony. the de"elopment o! Jaques-Dalcroze:s philosophy to%ards music education 're% !rom his concerns as Pro!essor o! harmony and sol!<'e at the conser"atory o! music in =ene"a+ Chos9y )4856* indicates that Jaques-Dalcroze %as alarmed to disco"er many o! his students %ere unable to !eel and e&press music adequately e"en thou'h they demonstrated ad"anced technical s9ills on their instrument+ >urthermore. and intonation %as inaccurate+ Labuta and Smith )488. and per!ormance in much the same %ay 3 /001 Lorenzo Capitanio J/6u*#-D&/"r%7* 8 Th* 9/#!" Pr!0"!-&*# / . that Jaques-Dalcroze %as increasin'ly troubled by se"eral problems %ith the music instruction o! the day+ Jaques-Dalcroze:s primary concern accordin' to Labuta and Smith )488. Jaques-Dalcroze stressed the importance o! trainin' %hat he called the musical !aculties. Labuta and Smith )488.0 JAQUES-DALCROZE PHILOSOPHY -ccordin' to Chos9y )4856*. a system o! educatin' the body to %or9 in harmony %ith the rhythmical comple&ities !ound in music+ This essay %ill discuss the principles o! Jaques-Dalcroze:s philosophy to%ards music education and to %hat e&tent and ho% his principles could be applied to traditional teachin' practices+ 2. ho%e"er %as deeply concerned on their lac9 o! music e&pression+ (ar9 and =ary )488/* a'ree %ith Labuta and Smith )488.* statin'.

Labuta and Smith )488. Jaques-Dalcroze )48. Bachmann )4884*. Spector )4880*. @eene )485/* and (ar9 and =ary )488/* echo similar "ie%s that Jaques-Dalcrozes: method in"ol"es a comple& system o! e&pressin' music throu'h mo"ement %hich emphasises tone and rhythm+ An order to implement Jaques-Dalcorze:s philosophy his method must !ocus on three 9ey areas. postures. Jaques-Dalcroze belie"ed the solution to o"ercomin' the problems %ith modern music teachin'. is that it must !acilitate the natural mo"ement o! the human body+ Jaques-Dalcroze came to disco"er a stron' similarity bet%een rhythm in music and the natural rhythms o! the human body+ Labuta and Smith )488. and because theoretical 9no%led'e %as not internalised their musical e&pression %as %ithout sensiti"ity+ -ccordin' to Chos9y )4856*. and they con"ey or e&press this !eelin' to others throu'h 'estures.* indicate Jaques-Dalcroze reasoned that music be'ins. 4* #urhythmics. !acial e&pression. and 1* Ampro"isation+ 3 /001 Lorenzo Capitanio J/6u*#-D&/"r%7* 8 Th* 9/#!" Pr!0"!-&*# 1 . /* Sol!<'e. %hen human emotion is translated into musical motion+ People sense or !eel the dynamism o! emotion in "arious parts o! the body in the !orm o! muscular tension and rela&ation. (ar9 and =ary )488/*./*. and Juntunen )/004*. and the li9e+ An addition.they approached academic sub?ects as a set o! rules to memorize and symbols to manipulate+ Students %ere unable to hear their harmonic e&ercise. or is 'enerated. @eene )485/*.*.

repetition. Labuta and Smith )488. @eene )485/*. and musical or'anization and e"ents )i+e+. per!ormin'. )/* con"ertin' this attention into concentration. and )7* de"elopin' ability to respond to and e&press all nuances o! sound and !eelin'+ An addition. eurhythmics aims to emer'e physical !le&ibility )easy and accurate mo"ement and ability to e&press onesel! throu'h mo"ement* %ith musical ability )increasin'ly discriminatin' response to musical sound %hether one is listenin' to.1*. the human body is the !irst musical instrument on %hich students should recei"e instruction+ An addition. "ocal. chan'es in dynamics or tempo*C )D* de"elopin' a%areness o! %hich modes o! response are most appropriate in a 'i"en conte&t.1* the concept o! 9inesthesia became the basis o! this peda'o'y+ Students e&plore all aspects o! musical sound "ia immediate physical response+ BThus they must learn to listen intently+ Primary learner ob?ecti"es or eurhythmic trainin' are )4* de"elop attention. Chos9y )4856* and Jaques-Dalcroze )48. consequently. #urhythmics is an approach to music education based on the premise that rhythm is the primary element in music. other people:s response s to music. analysin'. %ritin'. )1* de"elopin' a%areness or relationships amon' personal responses to music.:408*+ 3 /001 Lorenzo Capitanio J/6u*#-D&/"r%7* 8 Th* 9/#!" Pr!0"!-&*# D . melodic contour. and instrumental rhythms+ Labuta and Smith )488. melodic and rhythmic moti"es. and JaquesDalcroze )48.*. and that the source !or all musical rhythm may be !ound in the natural rhythms o! the human body+ An eurhythmics the body is used as an orchestra to e&press physical. readin'.*. 488.2. or creatin' music*E )Labuta and Smith. and contrast.* su''est the human body is the means by %hich inner !eelin' is translated into musical responsi"eness and.1 Eurhyth !"# -ccordin' to Chos9y )4856*. enablin' us to e&press all rhythmic and dynamic aspects o! music physically+ -ccordin' to Labuta and Smith )488. Jaques-Dalcroze belie"es the elements o! rhythm and dynamics are entirely dependent on mo"ement in time and throu'h space+ This mo"ement is represented %ith our muscular system.

and the acuteness o! our bodily sensations+ 2. depends entirely on mo"ement. crescendo. and to reproduce mentally. te&ture. sound. bendin' s%ayin'.* continue to su''est the role o! Dalcroze peda'o'y see9s to e"o9e one:s Binner hearin'E. loo9. ritenuto all the nuances o! ener'y. cra%lin'. %hile it %as inner ear %hich percei"ed sounds.Labuta and Smith )488.1* belie"ed the abo"e actions could be associated %ith rhythm in music. piano. and sound+ This Binner hearin'E also de"elops 9inesthestic ima'ination and memory as students accumulate a "ocabulary o! mo"ement %ith their attendant sensations. there!ore. and this internalisation is as much physical and sensate as it is musical and emoti"e+ Chos9y )4856* states. diminuendo can be realised by our bodies. sin'in'. li9e dynamics. he ad"ocated that the most potent element in music.2 S%&'()* >or Jaques-Dalcroze sol!<'e embraced the elements o! phrasin'. and ima'es+ Students 'radually internalise musical concepts as a result o! e&periencin' them. and s9ippin'+ Jaques-Dalcroze )48. accelerando. dynamics. andante. 'allopin'. melodies in all 9eys )sin'le and simultaneous* and e"ery 9ind and combination o! harmonyC to read and impro"ise "ocallyC to %rite do%n and use the material !or constructin' music himsel!+ -ccordin' to Chos9y )485/* sol!<'e is the unity o! the ear 3 /001 Lorenzo Capitanio J/6u*#-D&/"r%7* 8 Th* 9/#!" Pr!0"!-&*# 7 . runnin'. %al9in'. it %as the body:s neuromuscular system %hich responded physically to music+ Physical responses to music %ould include actions such as clappin'. leapin'. slidin'. turnin'. spea9in'. !orte. s%in'in'. and !orm+ At teaches the student to hear. is rhythm mo"ement+ Fhythm. and !inds its nearest prototype in our muscular system+ -ll the nuances o! time alle'ro. to help students internalise ho% mo"ements !eel. Jaques-Dalcroze called Binner hearin'E the memory o! muscular sensation+ =iddens )/001* a'rees %ith Chos9y )4856* indicatin' that JaquesDalcroze became a%are that. and the nearest related to li!e. timbre. style. conductin'.

that encoura'in' students to impro"ise %as another means o! promotin' music as the embodiment o! human !eelin's and emotions+ Ampro"isation %as in a sense the unity o! sol!e'e and eurhythmics producin' a spontaneous composition. and tonal relationships+ Chos9y )4856*. and tonal memory+ Learnin' melodic and harmonic concepts %as achie"ed in much the same %ay they learnt rhythmic ones: by associatin' mo"ement %ith sound and by respondin' to sound so that by the end o! e&tended Dalcroze trainin' in sol!e'e some students de"elop near-per!ect relati"e pitch+ 2. Labuta and Smith )488. and %ith other melodic percussion instruments+ =iddens )/001* states. I -r%. teachers should be able to play piano accompaniments spontaneously to speci!ic mo"ements impro"ised by the children./*.eddens and oods )488/* and others. . sin' son's %ith syllables.1 G 48. thereby allo%in' rhythms and musical sounds to be e&plored %ithin the conte&t o! the student:s indi"idual personality+ Labuta and Smith )488. a'ree that sol!<'e acti"ities are al%ays a part o! the Dalcroze class+ Jaques-Dalcroze employs sol!<'e to de"elop the "oice and eartrainin'. tonal combinations. %hich assists students to sin' and identi!y inter"als. a%areness o! tonal relationships. impro"isation %ith the "oice. Juntunen )/004*.. read musical scores.edden and oods )488/* and others. and accordin' to Chos9y )4856*.*. Juntunen )/004* and . Jaques-Dalcroze )48. a teacher must be able to impro"ise !reely at the piano in order to create a di!!erent mo"ement !eelin' !or e"ery e&ercise used durin' a class+ >urthermore. Jaques-Dalcroze )48.!#/t!%0 The !inal sta'e to the Jaques-Dalcroze method in"ol"es impro"isation+ Ampro"isation is !undamental !or all Dalcroze teachers.* a'ree su''estin' students 3 /001 Lorenzo Capitanio J/6u*#-D&/"r%7* 8 Th* 9/#!" Pr!0"!-&*# 6 .1*.and body combined %ith the spea9in' and sin'in' "oice as the ideal instrument !or the study o! musical tone. ta9e music dictation and impro"ise "ocally+ Dalcroze emphasised that a !i&ed-Do solmisation system should be used in order to de"elop students: sense o! music pitch.

harmonic. Chos9y )4856*. Jaques-Dalcroze )48. harmony. Juntunen )/004*. 48.0 JAQUES-DALCROZE IN A TRADITIONAL TEACHING PRACTRISE -doptin' Jaques-Dalcroze philosophy )eurhythmics* must e"o9e a shi!t in understandin' !rom traditional teachin' methods )technical mastery* to an a%a9in' o! the human body as the principle tool !or learnin' music. rhythmical 'estures )eurhythmics*. and dynamics in ima'inati"e. t%o or more pianos* combines the principles o! rhythm )eurhythmics* and sol!e'e. . it is at the piano %here the ultimate e&perience o! the Dalcroze method can be %itnessed. phrasin'*.be'in learnin' to impro"ise on instruments and %ith their "oice !rom the be'innin' o! instruction and the primary ob?ecti"e o! impro"isation is to de"elop s9ill in combinin' mo"ement )rhythm*. spontaneous. an e&perience. and spontaneous creati"e per!ormance )impro"isation* are not discrete elements. and rhythmic nature )Jaques-Dalcroze. %hich truly synthesised the techniques o! sol!e'e and eurhythmics+ . and teaches pupils to interpret on the piano and use the musical thou'hts o! a melodic. the techniques o! sin'in' and listenin' )sol!e'e*. understandin' music. and personally e&pressi"e %ays+ -lthou'h. ad"ocate that students must not be tau'ht concepts and rules be!ore they ha"e an e&perience o! the !acts behind them+ >or e&ample. students must e&perience a per!ect 3 /001 Lorenzo Capitanio J/6u*#-D&/"r%7* 8 Th* 9/#!" Pr!0"!-&*# ..1*. rather #urhythmics should be considered as an approach.1*+ =iddens )/001* su''est identical "ie%s statin'. and others. and musical e&pression+ Juntunen )/004* su''ests there are no sets o! rules in the application o! #urhythmics. then proceed pro'ressi"ely accordin' to their subsequent responses+ >urthermore. or a philosophy+ -ccordin' to Juntunen )/004* applyin' eurhythmics must be'in %ith the student present abilities. sound )pitch. the study o! piano!orte impro"isation )at one. but interrelated and o"erlap as a 'lobal e&perience+ At is piano impro"isation.

melody. !orm. Jaques-Dalcroze belie"ed that a person %as not completely musical i! he could not respond physically to music+ The !irst steps traditional teachers can ta9e accordin' to Juntunen )/004* is simply ac9no%led'in' and bein' a%are o! the body in action and in"ol"in' a simple body mo"ement or 'esture durin' acti"e listenin'. impro"isation+ (odern music teachers ha"e a challen'in' tas9 ahead in applyin' Jaques-Dalcroze philosophy+ Success in doin' so %ill rely on a shi!t in attitude !rom -ustralian music educators and the -ustralian society+ 3 /001 Lorenzo Capitanio J/6u*#-D&/"r%7* 8 Th* 9/#!" Pr!0"!-&*# 5 . but rather HA ha"e e&perienced:. current literature clearly indicates that eurhythmics. B(y aim is !or students to say o! their studies not HA 9no%:. sol!<'e and impro"isation are the basis !or Jaques-Dalcroze:s philosophy+ Amplementin' his philosophy requires the teacher to understand the 9inethesitic o! the natural rhythmic mo"ement o! the human body and its association %ith the nature o! musical rhythm+ An addition. such as conductin' or %al9in'+ $.cadence 9inesthesitically be!ore they attempt to play it on a piano or transcribe it on manuscript+ Dalcroze himsel! stated. phrasin'.0 CONCLUSION An conclusion. the combination o! eurhythmics and sol!<'e must combine to e&press students: spontaneous )sound. harmony* and indi"idual artistic creati"ity.1:61*+ @eene )485/* states. and to ha"e created %ithin them the desire to e&press themsel"esE )Jaques-Dalcroze. 48.

1*+ Fhythmic mo"ement. =illespie. L+ (ichael G =ary. #thel )484/*+ HLessons at .eidi )/004*+ Di''in' Dalcroze. Sol!e'e and Ampro"isation )484D*+ An %hythm. -bramson. (ar?a-Leena G resterlund.Music and Education+ =reat Britain: Dalcroze Society. Dalcroze+ London: Constable G Co+.8-80+ 3 /001 Lorenzo Capitanio J/6u*#-D&/"r%7* 8 Th* 9/#!" Pr!0"!-&*# 8 . pp+ D5-7D G 77-78+ Jaques-Dalcroze. Dissol"in' the (ind-Body Dualism: philosophical and practical remar9s on the musical body in action+ Music Education %esearch+ 1)/*..'rt and Education+ )Trans+ >rederic9 Foth%ell*. @+ Ste"en+. Joseph+.ts and Pers ectives+ Prentice-.. -+ Deborah+ )488. -+ James+ )485/*+ ' #istory of Music Education in the United States + . G .+. 2e% Jor9: Ben?amin Bloom.-44./*+ Eurhythmics. G 4. 77-78.all. #mile )48. Fobert (+. #mile )48.ellerau:+ An %hythmics of *a+ues. #n'le%ood Cli!!s. and oods. pp+ 60-.8+ Juntunen. pp+ /.-D4 G 70-68+ =iddens. Lois. /001+ . =+ Da"id+ )488/*+ BStudents Iutcomes o! Teachin' systems !or 'eneral music.Dalcroze + Stuy"esant.8+ Jaques-Dalcroze. or. .0 RE4ERENCES Chos9y. -"on G oods. Ar%in )4880*+ %hythm and &ife: The /or$ of Emile *a+ues. pp+ 668-6. and Smith.ellerau: G HLi!e at . pp+ 8.6-4.ano"er and London: Kni"ersity Press o! 2e% #n'land+ Labuta.all: 2e% Jersey+ (ar9. =rades @-5E in F+ Col%ell )ed+* #and!oo$ of %esearch on Music Teaching and &earning: ' Pro(ect of the Music Educations )ational Conference + 2e% Jor9: Schirmer Boo9s.D+ An'ham. J+ (ichael )/001*+ Dalcroze and Pianoforte Teaching and Performance: Searching for the Elusive U !eat" Paper !or: Piano!orte Peda'o'y Con!erence: (elbourne. -. l+ Charles )488/*+ ' #istory of 'merican Music Education+ Schirmer Boo9s: 2J+ Spector. 66-. 2e% Jersey: Prenctice .edden. pp+ /01-/4D+ @eene.*+ Music Education: #istorical Conte. Da"id )4856*+ Teaching Music in the Twentieth Century. 2e% Jor9: Pendra'on Press.