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Introduction

CVEN9884
ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING SCIENCE 1,

& CVEN4703
ADVANCED WATER QUALITY,

2014

Dr Martin Andersen m.andersen@unsw.edu.au

Structure of Courses
• Weekly Lectures & exercises • Assignments • Final exam

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2. 3.5%) Final exam (25%) issued on: 12 March issued on: 26 March during exam period th th due on: 25 March due on: 11 April th th Aquatic Chemistry Literature review and presentation (25%): Final exam (25%) submission at designated times through semester during exam period Advanced Water Quality 2 . 4.5%) Assignment 2 (12.5% Assignment 2: 12.Course Material • Morel & Hering: Principles and Applications of Aquatic Chemistry (1993) • Lecture Notes • Recommended Textbooks – Appelo & Postma: Groundwater. 25/03 issued on: Wed. & Morgan: Aquatic Chemistry (1996): Evaluation CVEN9884 Environmental Engineering Science 1 1.5% Assignment 3: 25% Exam: 50% issued on: Wed. 23/05 Aquatic Chemistry Microbiology CVEN4703 Advanced Water Quality Assignment 1 (12. 5/03 TBA due on: Fri. Geochemistry and Pollution (2005) – Stumm. 26/03 due on: Fri. 12/03 due on: Tues. Assignment 1: 12. 11/04 issued on: Wed.

Program: CVEN9884 Week 1 Units A1 Date 5 of March th th Topic Fundamentals of Aquatic Chemistry Tools for Solving Problems in Aquatic Chemistry Lecturer M. Andersen M. Stuetz R. H20 room 611) M. H20 room 611) 19 of March 26 of March nd th th M. Andersen 6 7 A7+8 9 of April 16 of April 23 of April rd th th Solid Precipitation and Dissolution + Surface Chemistry NON-TEACHING WEEK ! MID-SEMESTER BREAK Introduction to Microbiology Health Related Microbiology Microbial Systems Microbial Processes Microbial Processes II Presentations M. Stuetz R. Stuetz Last 6 weeks lectures in CLB3 Program: CVEN4703 Week 1 2 3 4 Date 5th of March 12th of March 19 of March 26th of March nd th Topic Fundamentals of Aquatic Chemistry Tools for Solving Problems in Aquatic Chemistry + computer lab exercise (12:00. Andersen Computer labs Civil Engineering Room 611 8 9 10 11 12 13 M1 M2 M4 M5 M6 28 of April 5 of May 12 of May 19 of May 26 of May 2 of June th th th th th th R. Andersen 2 A2 12 of March + computer lab exercise (12:00. Stuetz R. Andersen 5 A6 2 of April + computer lab exercise (12:00. H20 room 611) pH and Alkalinity and Gas Exchange Reduction-Oxidation (Redox) Chemistry Complexes in Aqueous Solutions + computer lab exercise (12:00. Stuetz R. Andersen First 6 weeks lectures in Law Th G23 3 4 A3-4 A5 pH and Alkalinity and Gas Exchange Reduction-Oxidation (Redox) Chemistry Complexes in Aqueous Solutions M. Stuetz R. H20 room 611) Solid Precipitation and Dissolution + Surface Chemistry NON-TEACHING WEEK MID-SEMESTER BREAK Water quality problem 1: Arsenic in subsurface derived drinking waters Water quality problem 2: Blue green algae in marine & freshwaters Water quality problem 3: Acid sulfate soils and associated water quality implications Water quality problem 4: Organic toxicants in benthic sediments Water quality problem 5: Radionuclides in subsurface waters Lecturer Andersen Andersen Andersen Andersen Lectures in Law Th G23 5 2 of April th Andersen 6 7 9 of April 16 of April 23 of April rd th Andersen Computer labs Civil Engineering Room 611 8 9 10 11 12 30 of April 7 of May 14th of May 21st of May 28th of May th th Pham Pham Pham Pham Pham Lectures in Law Th G23 3 .

building (H20): approx. 11:30 to 13:00 • 2-4 persons per computer • Use input file (tutorial description) uploaded to Moodle or sent to you by email Program Today: 1) Introduction 2) Unit 1: The Fundamentals 3) Unit 2: Solving problems: The Tools 4 .Computer labs • 12th March and 2nd of April (and maybe more TBA) • Computer labs are in room 611 of the Civil Eng.

2 0.05 0. 20 .02 0. 30 .heart diseases taste. 50 250 175 300 50 0.5 0. gangrene Alzheimer? bone disease? Allergy 6 . .01 0.10 negligible . cancer.Why Aqueous Chemistry ??? WHO: Standards for drinking water Constituent Contribution Highest Comment to mineral Admissible nutrition (%) Concentration (mg/l) Mg SO4 Na Cl NO3NO2F As Al Ni Cu Zn Cd Pb Cr 3 .bone disease mottled teeth Black-foot disease.1 0..15 10 . safe < 600 blue babies/cancer -..003 0.1 1.1 0.05 Mg/SO4 diarrhea -..10 1-4 2 .50 ca..30 5 ..

people are exposed to a too high arsenic concentration in their drinking water 6 .01 mg/L. WHO: “This figure is “historic” due to the limited ability to analyse lower concentrations of arsenic in water.Case Study The arsenic problem in Bangladesh Arsenic in drinking water WHO's limit for arsenic in drinking water is 0.” WHO: Drinking arsenic-rich water over a long period (5-20 years) results in arsenicosis or arsenic poisoning World wide ~100 mill.

Sources of arsenic Natural • Sulfide minerals arsenopyrite FeAsS pyrite (Fe(S1-x. Kinniburgh / Applied Geochemistry 17 (2002) 517–568 7 .G.L.Asx)2) Anthropogenic • Pesticides • Wood preservatives • Colours and dyes • Fly ash • Iron oxides hematite goethite • Silicate minerals biotite amphibole The Global Arsenic Problem P. Smedley. D.

Arsenicosis colour changes on the skin Arsenic Poisoning WHO: 10 µg/L •Symptons after 10 yr •Black foot disease •Skin cancer •Kidney cancer •Gangrene In Bangladesh ~ 35 to 77 million people live in affected areas with > 10 µg/L 8 .

” 9 .Arsenicosis Cancers skin bladder kidney lung WHO: “Approximately 1 in 100 people who drink water containing 0.05 mg arsenic per litre or more for a long period may eventually die from arsenic related cancers.

BGS. national aid organisations.pdf http://www.int/water_sanitation_health/dwq/arsenic3/en/index.unicef.The problem • Prior to the 1980’ties 250.000 infant deaths per year related to pathogens in surface water sources • 1980’ties onwards groundwater was developed as a “safe” alternative (by UNICEF. etc.who.org/bangladesh/Arsenic.html Scientists and Engineers need to understand the Problem • What processes cause high As concentrations in groundwater ? • By understanding the processes can we find safe groundwater ? • Will this water also be safe in the future ? • Can we rely on natural processes to remove or attenuate the As ? 10 .) • Mid 1990’ties first signs of chronic arsenic poisoning starts showing • Largely ignored for a decade due to a blame game More information: http://www.

Arsenic concentration in groundwater Profile from Red River in Vietnam WHO’s limit ? Arsenic in solution As(5) As(3) 11 .

Surface Complexation of Arsenic Sources and possible release mechanisms for As 12 .

Kinniburgh / Applied Geochemistry 17 (2002) 517–568 13 . 2007. Geochimica Cosmochimical Acta Vol.G. D. 71 The Australian Angle ? ? P.L.Correlation between Fe2+ and As Data from the Red River Plains in Vietnam Postma et al. Smedley.

WA Dieke Postma Steve Appleyard 14 . WA As ? 2Fe2+ + 5H2O + ½O2 → 2Fe(OH)3 + 4H+ Perth.Perth.

Arsenic in inland rivers of MDB ? Source: http://www.org.gif Arsenic in the Maules Creek Catchment Mt Kaputar Mt L Mt Kaputar Mt L Nandewar Range Nandewar Range Maules Creek Maules Creek Namoi River B B 15 .au/images/mapTowns80.irnnsw.

2 As [ug/L] 0 0 10 20 30 Mt Kaputar Mt L Nandewar Range 13.0 10 Maules Creek Depth [m] 20.The Maules Creek Catchment Arsenic conc.decision makers 16 . µg/L Health limit 10 µg/L 25. managers. engineers.6 20 B 30 22.8 What is the leason for water engineers and scientist ??? • Important to have a good understanding of natural aqueous chemistry • Continual monitoring of water quality parameters and foresight for emerging problems • Consider effects of changing management practises • Relevant for: • Scientists.8 36.