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In Partial Fulfillment of the requirements For the Award of Degree of Bachelor of Commerce – Banking & Insurance

SAKSHI AGRAHARI ROLL NO.1 VIDYAVARDHINI’S K.M. College of Commerce Vasai Road (W), Dist. – Thane, Maharashtra – 401 202


I Miss SAKSHI AGRAHARI the student of Third Year Bachelor of Commerce (Banking & Insurance) (Semester V) (2013-2014) hereby declare that I have completed the project on THE ROLE OF COST

The information submitted is true and original to the best of my knowledge.

Signature of Student: ________________________

Name of student:


Roll No. :


__________________ ______________ COURSE CO-ORDINATOR PRINCIPAL __________________ _________________ INTERNAL EXAMINER EXTERNAL EXAMINER .UNIVERSITY OF MUMBAI CERTIFICATE This is to hereby certify that Miss SAKSHI AGRAHARI of Third Year Bachelor of Commerce (Banking & Insurance) (Semester V) (2013-2014) has completed project on the role of cost efficiency model in Indian commercial banks under the guidance of Prof.

I would also like to express my gratitude to my friends and colleagues who have been support in my effort to explore this area of study.V. eagerness and professional approach in guiding me through the careful details of the project. As I completed this enlighting journey. I would like acknowledge and thank my Guide and Companions. College of Arts. K. S. put my best foot forward and made this story a successful.Acknowledgment “Success is always to be found on the other side of fear” Milestones achieved in the journey of life are never achieved alone. College of Commerce& E.A. KELKAR” for this continuous faith and University of Mumbai who has given this opportunity to do this project in this curriculum.M. Mrs. So.S. who helped me. . SUPRIYA MHATRE who inspired me to work well on the topic and seeing to it that my performance is up to the mark. Prof. and this is one exception.A. first of all I would like to thank our college “Vidyavardhini’s. S . I am very grateful to my Project Guide. College of Science’’ and principle of the college “Dr. I would really like to thank her for her support.

Most banks operate under a system known as fractional reserve banking where they hold only a small reserve of the funds deposited and lend out the rest for profit.INTRODUCTION A bank is a financial institution and a financial intermediary that accepts deposits and channels those deposits into lending activities. known as the Basel Accords. either directly by loaning or indirectly through capital markets. banks are highly regulated in most countries. Banking in its modern sense evolved in the 14th century in the rich cities of Renaissance Italy but in many ways was a continuation of ideas and concepts of credit and lending that had its roots in the ancient world. a number of banking dynasties have played a central role over many centuries. A bank is the connection between customers that have capital deficits and customers with capital surpluses. The oldest existing bank was founded in 1472. . They are generally subject to minimum capital requirements which are based on an international set of capital standards. In the history of banking. Due to their influence within a financial system and the economy.

George). Lucca. India‟s Rs 77 trillion (US$ 1. It is followed by Berenberg Bank of Hamburg (1590) and Sveriges Riksbank of Sweden (1668). . Banco di San Giorgio (Bank of St. which was an order on a banker desiring him to pay the money of the note to a third person. which has been operating continuously since 1472. In ancient India there is evidence of loans from the Vedic period (beginning 1750 BC). set up by Giovanni di Bicci de' Medici in 1397. establishing branches in many other parts of Europe. Siena. there was considerable use of these instruments. One of the most famous Italian banks was the Medici Bank. Merchants in large towns gave letters of credit to one another. an instrument called adesha was in use. Italy. have insulated Indian banks from the global financial crisis. Venice and Genoa. The earliest known state deposit bank.HISTORY Banking in the modern sense of the word can be traced to medieval and early Renaissance Italy. Reserve Bank of India (RBI). The Bardi and Peruzzi families dominated banking in 14th century Florence. The oldest bank still in existence is Monte dei Paschi di Siena. During the Buddhist period. Later during the Maurya dynasty (321 to 185 BC).30 trillion)-banking industry is well at par with global standards and norms. Prudent practises and conventional framework adopted by the regulator. headquartered in Siena. to the rich cities in the north like Florence. which corresponds to the definition of a bill of exchange as we understand it today. Italy. was founded in 1407 at Genoa.

milk. In the Indian Banking System. Entry of Joint stock banks and development of Cooperative movement have taken over a good deal of business from the hands of the Indian money lender. suffer the indignities of foreign rule and the pangs of partition. it has had to control miles and miles of difficult terrain. Of this. since banks began to be regulated by the RBI after 1st March 1966. But to do so. Indian banks can confidently compete with modern banks of the world. Of the total. which control over 70 per cent of India‟s banking sector. Indian banking is the lifeline of the nation and its people. 26 are public sector banks. along with some small industries and selfemployment driven activities. 20 are private banks and 41 are foreign banks. Today. usury. The sector has translated the hopes and aspirations of millions of people into reality.6 trillion (US$ 1. Generally. But.35 trillion (US$ 158. especially for agricultural and agriculture-based operations including farming.The country has 87 scheduled commercial banks with deposits worth Rs. The Reserve Bank is responsible . have lost his menacing teeth. or lending money at a high rate of interest. 2013. was widely prevalent in rural India.71. personal finance etc. cattle.9. who although still exist. Cooperative banks exist side by side with commercial banks and play a supplementary role in providing need-based finance. hatchery.16 billion) as per the recent statistics. 41 banks are listed with a total market capitalisation of Rs.21 trillion) as on 31 May. Before the 20th century. these banks are also regulated by the RBI after amendment to the Banking Regulation Act 1949. co-operative banks are governed by the respective co-operative acts of state governments. Banking has helped in developing the vital sectors of the economy and usher in a new dawn of progress on the Indian horizon.

the Reserve Bank was nationalized and given broader powers. After this. respectively. viz. in 1895 in Lahore and Bank of India. the market expanded with the establishment of banks such as Punjab National Bank. During the last 30 years since nationalization tremendous changes have taken place in the financial markets as . At that point of time. This was followed by Bank of Hindustan. The first fully Indian owned bank was the Allahabad Bank. The first of three was the Bank of Bengal. The Reserve Bank of India formally took on the responsibility of regulating the Indian banking sector from 1935. Banking in India originated in the first decade of 18th century with The General Bank of India coming into existence in 1786.. A couple of decades later. it is crucial to maintain balance between efficiency and stability. and due to which banking activity took roots there and prospered. the other two presidency bank. which obtains charter in 1809. the Indian government established three presidency banks in India. in 1906. foreign banks like Credit Lyonnais started their Calcutta operations in the 1850s. Calcutta was the most active trading port. innovation and technological upgradation. The three presidency banks were subsequently amalgamated into the Imperial Bank of India (IBI) under the Imperial Bank of India Act. the Bank of Bombay and the Bank of Madras. As the banking institutions expand and become increasingly complex under the impact of deregulation. mainly due to the trade of the British Empire. and it also regulates credit limits to state cooperative banks on behalf of primary co-operative banks for financing SSI units. 1920 – which is now known as the State Bank of India.for licensing of banks and branches. which was established in 1865. in Mumbai – both of which were founded under private ownership. were established in 1840 and 1843. Both these banks are now defunct. By the 1900s. After India‟s in dependence in 1947.

Rapid advancement of technology has contributed to significant reduction in transaction costs. have been put in place for promoting and enhancing the efficiency of banks. therefore. serious problem have emerged reflecting in a decline in productivity and efficiency. and erosion of the profitability of the banking sector. asset reconstruction and securitization. The massive and speedy expansion and diversification of banking has not been without its strains. The acceptance of the Narasimham Committee recommendations by the Government has resulted in transformation of hitherto highly regimented and over bureaucratized banking system into market driven and extremely competitive one. The process of institution building has been strengthened with several measures in the areas of debt recovery. mass banking etc. There has been deterioration in the quality of loan portfolio which.well as in the banking industry due to financial sector reforms. in turn. consolidation. The banks have shed their traditional functions and have been innovating. Inadequacy of capital has been accompanied by inadequacy of loan loss provisions resulting into the adverse impact on the depositors‟ and investors‟ confidence. in line with international standards. improving and coming out with new types of services to cater emerging needs of their customers. convergence. set up Narasimham Committee to look into the problems and recommend measures to improve the health of the financial system. The Government. Prudential norms. facilitated greater diversification of portfolio and improvements in credit delivery of banks. The banking industry is entering a new phase in which it will be facing increasing competition from non-banks not only in the domestic market but in the international markets also. Despite this commendable progress. Banks have been given greater freedom to frame their own policies. The operational structure of . has come in the way of bank‟s income generation and enchancement of their capital funds.

in the sample of banks in advanced economies and emerging markets analyzed in this paper. the banking system in India will give a good account of itself only with the combined efforts of cooperative banks. . Moreover. the market share of cooperative banks in terms of total banking sector assets increased from about 9 percent in mid. Gradual deregulation that is being ushered in while stimulating the competition would also facilitate forging mutually beneficial relationships. leading to very fast electronic fund transfer. The electronic age has also affected the banking system. whereas the new private banks have the clout of massive capital. In a number of countries. the expertise in developing sophisticated financial products and use of state-of-the-art technology. the share of cooperative banks has been increasing in recent years. the private bank sector has become enriched and diversified with focus spread to the wholesale as well as retail banking. lean personnel component. which would ultimately enhance the quality and content of banking. With the emergence of new private banks. However. In the final phase. regional rural banks and development banking institutions which are expected to provide an adequate number of effective retail outlets to meet the emerging socio-economic challenges during the next two decades.banking in India is expected to undergo a profound change during the next decade.1990s to about 14 percent in 2004. they are among the largest financial institutions when considered as a group. the development of electronic banking has also led to new areas of risk such as data security and integrity requiring new techniques of risk management. Cooperative (mutual) banks are an important part of many financial systems. The existing banks have wide branch network and geographic .

mobile banking. the State Bank of India and its group banks. the report forecasts that the pace of expansion in the balance-sheets of banks is likely to decelerate. In terms of ownership. 8 In the Indian . Bank assets are expected to grow at an annual composite rate of 13. 90. It is expected that there will be large additions to the capital base and reserves on the liability side.INDUSTRY SCENARIO OF INDIAN BANKING INDUSTRY: The growth in the Indian Banking Industry has been more qualitative than quantitative and it is expected to remain the same in the coming years. massive manpower and lack of modern technology. As far as foreign banks are concerned they are likely to succeed in the Indian Banking Industry. which are the base of the Banking sector in India account for more than 78 per cent of the total banking industry assets. Scheduled banks comprise commercial banks and the cooperative banks. nonscheduled banks and scheduled banks. The total assets of all scheduled commercial banks by end-March 2010 are estimated at Rs 40. The Public Sector Banks(PSBs). regional rural banks and private sector banks (the old/ new domestic and foreign). which is governed by the Banking Regulation Act of India. The Indian Banking industry. They are leaders in Internet banking. phone banking. ATMs.000 crores.000 branches spread across the country.4 per cent during the rest of the decade as against the growth rate of 16. commercial banks can be further grouped into nationalized banks.7 per cent that existed between 1994-95 and 2002-03. That will comprise about 65 per cent of GDP at current market prices as compared to 67 per cent in 2002-03. 1949 can be broadly classified into two major categories. Unfortunately they are burdened with excessive Non Performing assets (NPAs). On the other hand the Private Sector Banks are making tremendous progress. These banks have over 67. Based on the projections made in the "India Vision 2020" prepared by the Planning Commission and the Draft 10th Plan.

As far as the present scenario is concerned the Banking Industry in India is going through a transitional phase. and banks from the Public Sector include Punjab National bank. ANZ Grindlays Bank. UCO Bank. the Public Sector Banks (PSB) s found it extremely difficult to compete with the new private sector banks and the foreign banks. Vijaya Bank. The first phase of financial reforms resulted in the nationalization of 14 major banks in 1969 and resulted in a shift from Class banking to Mass banking. ABN-AMRO Bank. Citibank are some of the foreign banks operating in the Indian Banking Industry. Eight new private sector banks are presently in operation. These banks due to their late start have access to state-of-the-art technology. The 20 nationalized . Allahabad Bank among others. the State Bank Of India (SBI) and its 7 associates accounted for a 25 percent share in deposits and 28. After the second phase of financial sector reforms and liberalization of the sector in the early nineties. which in turn helps them to save on manpower costs and provide better services. SBI Commercial and International Bank Ltd. The manufacturing sector also grew during the 1970s in protected environs and the banking sector was a critical source.1 percent share in credit. Since then the number of scheduled commercial banks increased four-fold and the number of bank branches increased eight-fold. ING Vyasa Bank. Bank of Rajasthan Ltd. The new private sector banks first made their appearance after the guidelines permitting them were issued in January 1993. This in turn resulted in a significant growth in the geographical coverage of banks. American Express Bank Ltd.Banking Industry some of the Private Sector Banks operating are IDBI Bank. Oriental Bank. Every bank had to earmark a minimum of their loan portfolio to sectors identified as “priority sectors”. During the year 2000. The next wave of reforms saw the nationalization of 6 more commercial banks in 1980.

On the one hand. Vysya Bank are said to be on the lookout.5 of credit during the same period. CURRENT SCENARIO: The industry is currently in a transition phase.7 percent. Over the last two years. which are the mainstay of the Indian Banking system. For instance. Bank of Punjab. Centurion Bank. 3. regional rural banks and other scheduled commercial banks accounted for 5.9 percent and 12. PSBs. The share of foreign banks (numbering 42). excessive non Performing Assets (Npas) and excessive governmental equity.41 percent.banks accounted for 53.2 percent of the deposits and 47.2 percent respectively in deposits and 8. Anagram Finance and Bank of Madura. the PSBs. The UTI bank. falling revenues from traditional sources. lack of modern technology and a massive workforce while the new private sector banks are forging ahead and rewriting the traditional banking business model by way of their sheer innovation and service.85 percent respectively in credit during the year 2000. which currently account for more than 78 percent of total banking industry assets are saddled with NPAs (a mind-boggling Rs 830 billion in 2000). the industry has witnessed several such instances. INDUSIND Bank. Therefore one of the means for them to combat the PSBs has been through the merger and acquisition (M& A) route. 3. HDFC Banks merger with Times Bank Icici Bank‟s acquisition of ITC Classic.14 percent and 12. The PSBs are of course currently working out challenging strategies even as 20 percent of their massive employee strength has dwindled in the wake of the successful Voluntary Retirement Schemes (VRS) schemes. are in the process of shedding their flab in terms of excessive manpower. while on the other hand the private sector banks are consolidating themselves through mergers and acquisitions.Global Trust Bank . The private players however cannot match the PSB‟s great reach great size and access to low cost deposits.

Meanwhile the economic and corporate sector slowdown has led to an increasing number of banks focusing on the retail segment. debit cards. phone banking. Automatic Teller Machines (ATMs) and combined various other services and integrated them into the mainstream banking arena. Banks in India have been allowed to provide fee-based insurance services without risk participation. foreign banks. mobile banking. . The FDI rules being more rationalized in Q1FY02 may also pave the way for foreign banks taking the M& A route to acquire willing Indian partners. following India‟s commitment to the W To agreement in respect of the services sector. invest in an insurance company for providing infrastructure and services support and set up of a separate joint venture insurance company with risk participation. have been permitted to open up to 12 branches a year with effect from 1998-99 as against the earlier stipulation of 8 branches. Talks of government diluting their equity from 51 percent to 33 percent in November 2000 has also opened up a new opportunity for the takeover of even the PSBs. Many of them are also entering the new vistas of Insurance. Also. while the PSBs are still grappling with disgruntled employees in the aftermath of successful VRS schemes. including both new and the existing ones. Banks with their phenomenal reach and a regular interface with the retail investor are the best placed to enter into the insurance sector.merger however opened a pandora‟s box and brought about the realization that all was not well in the functioning of many of the private sector banks. anywhere banking. Private sector Banks have pioneered internet banking.

The bank had eight branches. due to the absence ofwelldeveloped equity and bond markets. Hong Kong. where the company was registered under the Indian law and was not registered in England. the corporate sector depends heavily on banks tomeet its financing needs. in emerging markets such as India. they take a leadingrole in developing other financial intermediaries and markets. because of their inadequate capacity to manage financial risks. Yokohama and Singapore. but was carrying on business in England. with an agency for the purchase of bullion at San Francisco. . Hankow. Inemerging economies. who prefer assured income and liquidityand safety of funds. Banks today are important not just from the point of view of economic growth.[1] after successfully operating for 20 years. Shangai. Commercial Bank of India then was winded up as directed by the Master of the Rolls. viz: London. exclusive of the head office at Bombay. The bank failed in the crash of 1866. First.INDIAN COMMERCIAL BANK The Commercial Bank of India. under the corresponding section of the Companies Act of England. in 1845 of the British Raj period. Calcutta. banks cater to the needsof a vast number of savers from the household sector. but also financial stability. also known as Exchange Bank was a bank which was established in Bombay Presidency (now Mumbai). banks are special for three important reasons. Finally. Forms of banking have changed over the years and evolved with the needs of the economy. Second. Foochow. Banks have played a critical role in the economic development of some developed countries such as Japan and Germany and most of the emerging economies including India.

of deposits of money from the public. repayable on demand or otherwise. Section 5(b) of the BR Act defines banking as. These are: (i) maintaining deposit accounts including current accounts. Banks thus compete not only among themselves. technological innovation and globalization. this competition has only grown in intensity. 'a banking company is a company which transacts the business of banking in India. and order or otherwise. DEFINITION OF BANKS In India. This module provides some basic insights into the policies and practices currently followed in the Indian banking system. The first two chapters provide an introduction to commercial banking in India and its structure. by cheque. According to Section 5(c) of the BR Act. non-bank intermediaries have begun to perform many of the functions of banks. 'accepting. but also with nonbank financial intermediaries. seek newer sources of income and diversify into non-traditional activities.' Further. 1949. and withdraw able. the definition of the business of banking has been given in the Banking Regulation Act. and (iii) collect cheques for the bank‟s customers.The transformation of the banking system has been brought about by deregulation.' This definition points to the three primary activities of a commercial bank which distinguish it from the other financial institutions. . for the purpose of lending or investment. Globally. draft. While banks have been expanding into areas which were traditionally out of bounds for them. (BR Act). this has forced the banks to introduce innovative products. (ii) issue and pay cheques. and over the years.

brokerage. mail transfers and telegraphic transfers. locker facility etc. issuance of travelers‟ cheques & gift cheques. as opposed to interest income earned from the lending activities. selling insurance products. Banks also undertake various para-banking activities including investment banking services. offering depository services. selling mutual funds. They can be put into two broad categories :( a) Other basic banking activities and (b) Para-banking activities. Banks earn fees by offering these services to the customers. wealth management services. While the services offered assist the banks to attract more depositors and borrowers. The former includes provision of remittance facilities including issuance of drafts. etc. .OTHER ACTIVITIES OF COMMERCIAL BANKS As a continuation of their main deposit taking and lending activities. they also manage to increase their income in the process. banks pursue certain activities to offer a number of services to customers.

. Banks derive income from the spread or difference between buying and selling rates of foreign exchange. Some banks.OTHER BASIC BANKING ACTIVITIES FOREIGN EXCHANGE SERVICES Banks undertake foreign exchange transactions for their customers. including leading public sector banks. In addition to the direct foreign exchange related income on buying and selling of foreign exchange. which are derived from the foreign exchange market or the interest rate market. issuance of guarantees. arising out of currency and interest rate fluctuations. These services include the establishment of letters of credit. income is generated in related services while undertaking the main foreign exchange business. Leading banks provide customer specific products and services which cater to risk hedging needs of corporates at domestic and international locations. These include products such as options and swaps. The foreign exchange contracts arise out of spot (current) and forward foreign exchange transactions entered into with corporate and non-corporate customers and counterparty banks for the purpose of hedging and trading. etc. These are tailor made products designed to meet specific risk hedging requirements of the customer. private sector banks and local branches of foreign banks earn significant income from foreign exchange related transactions. document collection services.

banks are at the core of the payment and settlement systems. with a wide network of branches. Banks such as State of Bank of India. facilitate transfer of value between payer and a beneficiary by which the payer discharges the payment obligations to the beneficiary. are able to earn significant income by offering these services to government departments. etc. PAYMENT AND SETTLEMENT SYSTEMS As stated in Chapter 1. and the Payment and Settlement Systems Regulations 2008.BANKS' SERVICES TO GOVERNMENT Banks offer various types of services to government departments including direct and indirect tax collections. . Banks also undertake other related businesses like distribution of Government and RBI bonds and handling public provident fund accounts.35 The Board for Regulation and Supervision of Payment and Settlement Systems (BPSS)is a sub-committee of the Central Board of RBI and is the highest policy making body on the payment system. banks. The payment and settlement systems. The payment and settlement systems enable two-way flow of payments in exchange of goods and services in the economy. as a mechanism. to make payments to one another. The Board is assisted by a technical committee called National Payments Council (NPC) with eminent experts in the field as members. governments. which constitute a very important part of the commercial banks' functions. in any economy. remittance facilities. 1. payments of salaries and pensions. The RBI has the power to regulate the payment system under the provisions of the Payment and Settlement Systems (PSS) Act 2007. Government departments pay fees to banks for undertaking this business. etc. companies. This mechanism is used by individuals.

debit card). RBI is looking after the operations of the clearing house. MICR stands for Magnetic Ink Character Recognition (MICR). It acts as central meeting places for bankers to exchange the cheques drawn on one another and to claim funds for the same. the receiver of the cheque has to deposit the cheque in his bank account. and electronic forms(giving electronic instructions to the banker who will make such a payment on behalf of his customers.MICR clearing and (c) High Value clearing. demand drafts). PAPER BASED CLEARING SYSTEMS The primary paper based payment instrument is the cheque.There are two types of payments: paper based and electronic. If the beneficiary has an account in the same bank in the same city then the funds are credited into his account through internal arrangement of the bank. (b) Non. A clearing house is an association of banks that facilitates payments through cheques between different bank branches within a city/ place. city code. Generally one bank is appointed as in-charge of the clearing operations. The paper based clearing systems comprise: (a) MICR Clearing. If the beneficiary has an account with any other bank in the same or in any other city. however. Such operations are called 'clearing operations'. bank code and branch code are given. Payments can be made in Indian paper based forms (in the forms of cash. This is done through information contained in the bottom strip of the cheque where the cheque number. To get the actual payment of funds. . In the four metros and a few other major cities. cheque. The process of cheque payment starts when a payer gives his personal cheque to the beneficiary. credit card. MICR is a technology for processing cheques. then his banker would ensure that funds are collected from the payer's banker through the means of a 'clearing house'.

now the funds are available to customers on T+1 (transaction day + 1 day) or T+2(transaction day + 2 days) basis. however. First. In case of High Value Clearing. Different forms of electronic payment systems are listed below. it takes 2-3 days for themoney to come to the beneficiary's account.37 . the bank customers would get their cheques realized faster. cheque clearing cycle is completed on the same day and the customer depositing the cheque is permitted to utilize the proceeds the next day morning. if a cheque is to be paid within the same city (local cheque). faster realization is accompanied by a reduction in costs for the customers and the banks. Cheque truncation has several advantages. Third.Generally. asT+0 (local clearing) and T+1 (inter-city clearing) is possible in Cheque Truncation System (CTS). Finally. the electronic payment systems are faster and safer than paper based systems. the banks have the additional advantage of reduced reconciliation and clearing frauds Electronic Payment Systems Payments can be made between two or more parties by means of electronic instructionswithout the use of cheques. it is also possible for banks to offer innovative products and services based on CTS. Second.36 The introduction of 'Speed Clearing' in June 2008 for collection of outstation cheques has significantly brought down the time taken for realization of outstation cheques from 10-14days. CHEQUE TRUNCATION Cheque Truncation is a system of cheque clearing and settlement between banks based on electronic data/ images or both without physical exchange of instrument. which is available only in some large cities. Generally. 3.

money can reach the beneficiary instantaneously. As the name suggests.000 branches as at end-September 2009 are participants in the RTGS. Though the system is primarily designed for large value payments. The electronic payment systems comprise large value payment systems as well as retail payment mechanisms. More than 60. Therefore. introduced in India in March 2004. Electronic Clearing Service (ECS) is a retail payment system that can be used to make bulk payments/ receipts of a similar nature especially where each individual payment is of a repetitive nature and of relatively smaller amount. The retail payment system comprises Electronic Clearing Services (ECS). National Electronic Funds Transfer (NEFT) and card based payment systems including ATM network. there are some electronic payment systems which are exclusively for retail payments. bank customers have the choice of availing of the RTGS facility for their time critical low value payments as well. The system which was operationalised with respect to settlement of transactions relating to inter-bank payments was extended to customer transactions later. The RTGS system is maintained and operated by RBI and provides a means of efficient and faster funds transfer among banks facilitating their financial operations. Electronic Funds Transfer (EFT) is a system whereby anyone who wants to make payment to another person/ company etc.Real Time Gross Settlement (RTGS) system. This facility is meant for companies and government departments to make/ receive large volumes . can approach his bank and make cash payment or give instructions/ authorization to transfer funds directly from his own account to the bank account of the receiver/ beneficiary. In addition. RBI is the service provider for EFT. is a system through which electronic instructions can be given by banks to transfer funds from their account to the account of another bank. funds transfer between banks takes place on a 'real time „basis.

For instance. ECS (Debit) is mostly used by utility companies like telephone companies. one entity/ company would make payments from its bank account to a number of recipients by direct credit to their bank accounts. Payments of repetitive nature to be made to vendors can also be made through this mode. . government departments. The payments are affected through a sponsor bank of the Company making the payment and such bank has to ensure that there are enough funds in its accounts on the settlement day to offset the total amount for which the payment is being made for that particular settlement. Similarly. companies make use of ECS (Credit) to make periodic dividend/ interest payments to their investors. employers like banks.of payments rather than for funds transfers by individuals. to receive the bill payments directly from the bank accounts of their customers. electricity companies etc. etc make monthly salary payments to their employees through ECS (Credit). The ECS is further divided into two types ECS (Credit) to make bulk payments to individuals/ vendors and ECS (Debit) to receive bulk utility payments from individuals Under ECS (Credit). The sponsor bank is generally the bank with which the company maintains its account. The ECS facility is available at a large number of centres. a consumer (individuals as well as companies) can opt to make bill payments directly into the account of the electricity provider/ company/ board from his own bank account. Instead of making electricity bill payment through cash or by means of cheque.

National Electronic Funds Transfer (NEFT) system. To widen the geographical coverage of ECS beyond the existing ECS centres andto have a centralized processing capability. The actual bill would be sent to the consumer as usual at his address. is a nationwide funds transfer system to facilitate transfer of funds from any bank branch to any other bank branch. 2009. Ninety one banks with over 61. Thereafter. The beneficiary gets the credit on the same day or the next day depending on the time of settlement. introduced in November 2005. the utility company would advise the consumer's bank to debit the bill amount to his account on the due date of the bill and transfer the amount to the company‟s own account. 2008.000 branches participated in NEFT as at end of September 2009.For this purpose. The actual charges depend upon the amount and the banker-customer relationship. The banks generally charge some processing fees for electronic fund transfers. In a bid to encourage customers to move from paper-based systems to electronic systems. pay orders etc. The settlement cycle under the ECS has been reduced to T+1 day from earlier T+3 days across the country. The NECS is a nationwide system in which as many as 114 banks with 30. maintains the account.780 branches participated as at the end of September. providing details of the bank account from which the monthly/ bi-monthly bill amount can be directly deducted. the National Electronic Clearing Service (NECS) was operationalised with effect from September 29. just as in thecae of other services such as demand drafts. the consumer has to give an application to the utility company (provided the company has opted for the ECS (Debit)scheme). which again is generally the bank with whom the company receiving the payments. RBI has rationalised and made transparentthe charges the banks could levy on . This is done by crediting the account of the sponsor bank.

replacement card fee. hotels. additional card fee. RBI has encouraged the setting up of National Payment Corporation of India (NPCI) to act as an umbrella organization for operating the various retail payment systems in India. interest on revolving credit. RBI on its part has extended the waiver of its processing charges for electronic modes of payment up to the end of March 2011.38 As the Indian economy develops. this rising demand would be met by the issuance of credit cards. interest on delayed payment. NPCI will be an authorized entity under the Payment & Settlement Systems Act and would. In order not to be involved with day-to-day operations of the retail payment system. it is expected that the retail market will increasingly seek shortterm credit for personal uses. petrol pumps. restaurants. railway bookings. Banks earn income not only as issuers of credit cards. The card user is required to pay only on receipt of the bill and this payment can be either in full or partially in installments. annual fee. be subjected to regulation and supervision of RBI. and to a large extent. utility bill payments. charges on over limit accounts and late payment fee. etc. charge slip/ statement retrieval fee. Issuance of credit card is a service where the customer is provided with credit facility for purchase of goods and services in shops. . cash advance fee. but also as acquirers where the transaction occurs on a point of sale terminal installed by the bank. therefore. The fees may vary based on the type of card and from bank to bank. etc. Banks issuing credit cards earn revenue from their customers in a variety of ways such as joining fee. Credit/ Debit cards are widely used in the country as they provide a convenient form of making payments for goods and services without the use of cheques or cash.customers for electronic transactions. NPCI has since become functional and is in the process of setting up its roadmap. The merchant establishment who accepts credit card payments claims the amount subsequently from the customer's bank through his own bank.

Debit Card is a direct account access card. a number of banks have launched their inward remittance products which facilitate funds transfer on the same day/ next day. Unlike a credit card. for managing their receivables and payments across the country. as an individual. electronic clearing services. CASH MANAGEMENT SERVICES AND REMITTANCES Many banks have branches rendering cash management services (CMS) to corporate clients. Cash management products include physical cheque-based clearing. central pooling of country-wide collections. banks offer their corporate clients custom-made collection. dividend and interest . the entire amount transacted gets debited from the customer's account as soon as the debit card is used for purchase of goods and services. can remit funds into India through normal banking channels using the facilities provided by the overseas bank. ATMs can be used for payment of utility bills. an NRI can also remit funds through authorised Money Transfer Agents (MTA). payment and remittance services allowing them to reduce the time period between collections and remittances. balance enquiry and several other banking transactions which the banks owning the ATMs might want to offer. Under cash management services. deposit of cheques and cash into accounts. in the case of a debit card. In addition to cash withdrawal. funds transfer between accounts. Alternately. The amount permitted to be transacted in debit card is to the extent of the amount standing to the credit of the card user's account Automated Teller Machines (ATMs) are mainly used for cash withdrawals by customers. NRI REMITTANCES NRI. thereby streamlining their cash flows. Further.

The RBI has advised banks that they should adopt adequate safeguards so that para-banking activities undertaken by them are run on sound and prudent lines. In order to broad base the Primary Dealership system. The two primary objectives of the PD system are to: • strengthen the infrastructure in the government securities mar ket to make it vibrant.remittance services and Internet-based payment products. . liquid and broad based. In 1995. with prior approval of RBI. PRIMARY DEALERSHIP BUSINESS Primary Dealers can be referred to as Merchant Bankers to Government of India. Banks can undertake certain eligible financial services either departmentally or by setting up subsidiaries. which comprised independent entities undertaking Primary Dealer activity. which would (a) contribute to price discovery. Such services provide customers with enhanced liquidity and better cash management. • improve secondary market trading system. the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) introduced the system of Primary Dealers (PDs) in the Government Securities Market. banks were permitted to undertake Primary Dealership business in 2006-07. it is necessary to have a license from the RBI. PARA-BANKING ACTIVITIES The Reserve Bank of India (RBI) has allowed the Scheduled Commercial Banks (SCBs) to undertake certain financial services or para-banking activities and has issued guidelines toSCBs for undertaking these businesses.(b) enhance liquidity and turnover and (c) encourage voluntary holding of government securities. To do primary dealership business.

As per the Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI) (Merchant Bankers) Rules. merchant banking service is any service provided in relation to issue management either by making . It can be seen that all these services are capital market related services. These services are offered to governments. 1992. To do PD business departmentally.1. Here. helping investors purchase securities and providing financial advice and support services. 1992 and SEBI (Merchant Bankers) Regulations. it is important to draw the distinction between Merchant Banking and Investment Banking. These activities include issuing securities (underwriting) for companies. non-profit institutions and individuals. A number of commercial banks have formed subsidiaries to undertake investment banking services. the government securities market) can apply for primary dealership. companies.A bank can do PD business either through a subsidiary or departmentally. managing portfolios of financial assets. A subsidiary of scheduled commercial bank dedicated predominantly to the securities business (particularly.000 crores • Minimum CRAR of 9 per cent • Net NPAs of less than 3 per cent and a profit making record for the last three years INVESTMENT BANKING/ MERCHANT BANKING SERVICES Investment Banking is not one specific function or service but rather an umbrella term for arrange of activities. only banks which do not have a partly or wholly owned subsidiary undertaking PD business and fulfill the following criteria can apply: • Minimum net owned funds (NOF) of Rs. trading securities (stocks and bonds).

underwriter and portfolio manager. advisor or rendering corporate advisory service in relation to such issue management. consultant. Investment banking has a large number of players: Indian and foreign. consists of preparation of prospectus and other information relating to the issue. one area foreign banks still dominate is global mergers and acquisitions. etc. .arrangements regarding selling. consultant. tie up of financiers and final allotment and refund of the subscription for debt/ equity issue management and acting as advisor. determining financial structure. the Indian investment banking firms (including investment banking arms of Indian commercial banks) have generally succeeded in holding their own as they are able to service both small and large customers. Fees are charged by the merchant banker for rendering these services. project advisory and business and financial advisory. This. the term 'Investment Banking' has a much wider connotation and has gradually come to refer to all types of capital market activity. However. However. merchant banking services also include advisory services on corporate restructuring. co-manager. On the other hand. Banks and Financial Institutions including Non Banking Finance Companies (NBFCs) providing merchant banking services are governed by the SEBI Rules and Regulations stated above. broking and asset management as well as a host of specialized corporate advisory services in the areas of mergers and acquisitions. The large foreign investment banks such as Goldman Sachs and Merrill Lynch (which are standalone investment banks) have entered India attracted by India's booming economy. In addition. loan restructuring. inter alia. debt or equity restructuring. market making. buying or subscribing securities as manager. Investment banking thus encompasses not merely merchant banking but other related capital market activities such as stock trading.

BANK SPONSORED MUTUAL FUNDS Indian banks which have sponsored mutual fund business so far include ICICI Bank. however. The advantage that banks enjoy in entering the mutual fund businesses is mainly on account of their wide distribution network.MUTUAL FUND BUSINESS A number of banks. 2009. . Banks have entered the mutual fund business. As per AMFI (Association of Mutual Funds in India) data. 417. Money Market Mutual Funds (MMMFs) come under the purview of SEBI regulations.5 percent. and State Bank of India in the public sector. HDFC Bank and Kotak Mahindra Bank in the private sector. have to seek necessary clearance from RBI for undertaking this additional activity before approaching SEBI for registration. total assets under management of all mutual funds in India amounted to Rs. Other banks have entered into distribution agreements with mutual funds for the sale of the latter's mutual fund products. both in the private and public sectors have sponsored asset management companies to undertake mutual fund business. for which they receive fees. Banks and Financial Institutions desirous of setting up MMMFs would. 300 crores as on March 31. sometimes on their own (by setting up a subsidiary) and sometimes in joint venture with others. of which bank sponsored mutual funds accounted for 15.

6% or more. • Bank should have made net profit for the last three consecutive years. This would be subject to their satisfying the eligibility criteria prescribed by Pensions Fund Regulatory and Development Authority (PFRDA) for Pension Fund Managers. only subject to the banks maintaining 'arm's length' relationship with the subsidiary.PENSION FUNDS MANAGEMENT (PFM) BY BANKS Consequent upon the issue of Government of India Notification dated May 24. • Level of net NPAs should be less than 3%. . • Performance of the bank's subsidiaries. The RBI has issued guidelines for banks acting as Pension Fund Managers. • CRAR should be not less than 11% during the last three years. Banks intending to undertake PFM should obtain prior approval of RBI before engaging in such business. Banks may lend their names/ abbreviations to their subsidiaries formed for PFM. and not departmentally. According to the guidelines. the banks complying with the following eligibility criteria (as also the solvency margin prescribed by PFRDA) may approach the RBI for necessary permission: • Net worth of the bank should be not less than Rs. banks will be allowed to undertake PFM through their subsidiaries only. In order to provide adequate safeguards against associated risks and ensure that only strong and credible banks enter into the business of PFM. • Return on Assets (ROA) should be at least 0. should be satisfactory. if any. banks have been advised that they may now undertake Pension Funds Management (PFM) through their subsidiaries set up for the purpose.500 crores. for leveraging their brand names and associated benefits thereto. 2007.

A committee constituted by the PFRDA has selected State Bank of India(SBI). paved the way for the establishment of National Securities Depository Limited (NSDL) and later the Central Depository Services (India) Limited (CDSL). Custodial depository services means safe keeping of securities of a client and providing services incidental thereto. Transfer of securities is done through simple account transfers. and includes: • maintaining accounts of securities of a client. Expressions of Interest were received from seven public sector entities. The enactment of the Depositories Act. These two institutions have set up a national infrastructure of international standards that handles most of the securities held and settled in dematerialized form in the Indian capital markets. As a depository participant of the National Securities Depository Limited (NSDL) or Central Depository Services (India) Limited (CDSL). In response.PENSION FUND BUSINESS BY BANKS Pension Fund Regulatory and Development Authority (PFRDA) had invited Expressions of Interest from public sector entities for sponsoring Pension Funds for Government employee son 11th May 2007. . • collecting the benefit of rights accruing to the client in respect of the securities. UTI Asset Management Company (UTIAMC) and Life Insurance Corporation (LIC) to be the first sponsors of pension funds in the country under the new pension system (NPS)for government employees. in August 1996. DEPOSITORY SERVICES In the depository system. The method does away with the risks and hassles normally associated with paperwork. a bank may offer depository services to clients and earn fees. securities are held in depository accounts in dematerialized form.

Banks that do portfolio management on behalf of their clients are subject to several regulations. No bank should introduce any new portfolio management scheme (PMS) without obtaining specific prior approval of RBI. In addition to high net worth resident Indians. either directly or indirectly. and • maintaining and reconciling records of the services referred to in sub-clause(a) to (c). 1993 and those issued from time to time. non-resident Indians (NRIs) form a major chunk of the customer base for personal wealth management industry in India. The following conditions are to be strictly observed by the banks operating PMS or similar scheme: • PMS should be entirely at the customer's risk. WEALTH SERVICES MANAGEMENT/ PORTFOLIO MANAGEMENT A number of banks and financial institutions are seeking a share in the fastgrowing wealth management services market. Currently. • Funds should not be accepted for portfolio management for a period less than one . without guaranteeing. a pre-determined return. a high net worth individual can choose from among a number of private sector and public sector banks for wealth management services.having a bearing on the benefits or rights accruing to the client. They are also to comply with the guidelines contained in the SEBI (Portfolio Managers) Rules and Regulations.• keeping the client informed of the action taken or to be tak en by the issuer of securities.

specifying „Insurance' as a permissible form of business that could be undertaken by banks under Section 6(1) (o) of the BR Act.Year Portfolio funds should not be deployed for lending in call/ notice money. banks were advised to undertake insurance business with a prior approval of the RBI. 2000. At present. . However. Indian partners (either alone or jointly) hold at least 74% of Indian insurance joint ventures. Laws and regulations governing insurance companies currently provide that each promoter should eventually reduce its stake to 26% following the completion of 10 years from the commencement of business by the concerned insurance company. • Banks should maintain clientwise account/ record of funds accepted for management and investments made and the portfolio clients should be entitled to get a statement of account. A number of banks (both in public and private sectors) have entered into joint venture partnerships with foreign insurance companies for both life and non-life insurance business. BANCASSURANCE With the issuance of Government of India Notification dated August 3. and any transactions between the bank's investment account and client's portfolio account should be strictly at market rates. inter-bank term deposits and bills rediscounting markets and lending to/ placement with corporate bodies. insurance business will not be permitted to be undertaken departmentally by the banks. • Banks' own investments and investments belonging to PMS clients should be kept distinct from each other. • PMS clients' accounts should be subjected by banks to a separate audit by external auditors. This is because the maximum holding by foreign companies put together cannot exceed 26% of the equity of Indian insurance ventures.

The advantage that banks have in entering the insurance business is mainly on account of their wide distribution network. some banks distribute Third Party Insurance Products. ICICI Bank and HDFC Bank have promoted joint ventures in both life and non-life business. INSURANCE JOINT VENTURES PROMOTED BY BANKS Some of the insurance joint ventures promoted by banks have become leaders in the insurance business. for which they are paid a commission. while State Bank of India (SBI) has promoted a successful joint venture in life business. Banks are able to leverage their corporate and retail customer base for cross selling insurance products. Banks collect fees from these subsidiaries for generating leads and providing referrals that are converted into policies. The personnel involved in selling these insurance products have to reauthorized by the IRDA regulations to act as specified persons for selling insurance products. banks distribute life insurance products and general insurance products through their branches. Banks have entered into agency agreements with life and non-life companies to distribute their various insurance products. In addition. With a view to provide “one stop banking" to their customers. .

The study found that private sector banks are more efficient than public sector banks with average cost efficiency score 73. Among other factors associated positively and significantly with the efficiency are the size and profitability of banks and suggesting that banks with higher ROA exhibits higher efficiency scores. with Life Insurance Corporation of India being able to distribute only 1. The study has examined the impact of merger activity on the cost efficiency of Indian banks by employing OLS model and found the positive and significant impact of merger activity on efficiency. while the other new life insurance ventures were able to sell 18.28% of total new life insurance premium. an attempt is also made to examine the determinants of cost efficiency of banks by employing panel data least square regression model.4 for public sector banks as of 76. . new business sold through banks accounted for 7.3 for the private sector banks in the country.15% of its total new business premium through banks. 2007-08. The findings of this study suggest that the dominant source of cost inefficiency among Indian commercial banks is allocative efficiency rather than technical inefficiency.LIFE INSURANCE POLICIES SOLD BY BANKS According to IRDA Annual Report.20% of their new business premium through banks. A STUDY OF COST EFFICIENCY OF INDIAN COMMERCIAL BANKSThis paper investigates the cost efficiency of Indian public and private sector banks over the period 1990-2008 with unbalanced panel data by employing nonparametric data envelopment analysis technique (DEA). out of the total new life insurance business premium acquired by all the life insurance companies during 2007-08. In this paper.

in a parallel computer with processors will Cost efficiency also has applications to human services. Maximizing cost efficiency in a marketing campaign is highly desirable for a business since the greatest product exposure is achieved for the least amount of financial investment. an algorithm that can be solved in time using the best known sequential algorithm and be considered cost efficient. A parallel algorithm is considered cost efficient if its asymptotic running time multiplied by the number of processing units involved in the computation is comparable to the running time of the best sequential algorithm. or due to the establishment of a bad pricing policy. recent analyses of the efficiency of banking institutions have given rise to a number of studies centre mostly on cost efficiency (see the survey by Berger and Humphrey. One of the most important economic dimensions for ensuring the success of a company is the efficiency with which it uses its resources. in the context of parallel computer algorithms. . A goal of media marketing that is aimed at minimizing advertising expenses incurred while maximizing product publicity to a target market in terms of breadth and frequency of exposure. which is indicative of the added importance the existence of inefficiencies on the revenue side.Cost efficiency (or cost optimality). 1997). refers to a measure of how effectively parallel computing can be used to solve a particular problem. However. either due to the choice of a composition of production that is not the most suitable given the prices of services. Aware of the importance of this subject. the empirical evidence available has shown that profit inefficiency is of greater quantitative importance than cost inefficiency. For example.

and ii) the comparison of the efficiency of the banking sectors of different countries. 1997. seems to be a much more suitable way of making comparisons at international level. 1997. including 14 from the European Union. after describing the sample used. This is therefore the context of this study. which aims to analyze profit efficiency and cost efficiency in a sample of 16 countries of theOECD. .). different specializations/quality of production. the few studies made have analysed exclusively technical efficiency or cost efficiency (Alen and Rai. Fecher and Pestieau. to the extent to which it takes into account the different degree of competition and the effect of the composition of output on the revenue side. etc. Section 2 describes the concepts of cost efficiency and profit efficiency. as well as the specification of the frontier functions estimated. gives the empirical results in terms of cost and profit efficiencies. In this sense. Section 3. different intensities of competition. Japan and the United States. The paper is structured as follows. section 4 contains the conclusions of the study.. The problem presented by these studies is that. the results may be biased by the influence on costs of such diverse factors as different regulatory environments. which cause bias in the measurement of efficiency.In the international context. the estimation of the alternative profit frontier. there are two areas in which the empirical evidence available is very limited: i)the measurement of profit efficiency and its comparison with cost efficiency. To sum up. by centering exclusively on the cost side. Pastor et al. 1993. etc. Finally.