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OMF010001 System Information


Wireless Wireless Curriculum Curriculum Development Development Section Section


Course Contents

System Information Overview Parameters Introduction Case Study Introduction to BSS Timers


System Information Overview
System information (SYS INFO) contains network parameters sent to MS through air interface(Um), including network identity parameters, cell selection parameters, system control parameters and network function parameters. By reading system information, MS can access the network, perform cell selection, fully utilize various services provided by the network, and achieve favorable cooperation with the network. SYS INFO can be divided into two parts: SYS INFO sent on BCCH, including SYS INFO 1, 2, 2BIS, 2TER, 3, and 4, which are used by MS in idle mode. SYS INFO sent on SACCH, including system information 5, 5BIS, 5TER, and 6, which are used by MS in dedicated mode. Additionally Huawei BSC supports the system information 7 and 13 to support GPRS.

BCCH system information belongs to common channel information. SACCH system information basically belongs to TRX management information. Common channel and TRX management information should be selected in order to observe all the system information when tracing on the layer 3 messages of radio interface. Version G2BSC3203.0520B onwards, the system information 1, 2, 2TER, 3, 4, 5, 5TER, and 6 are default when system information is transmitted to cells. System information 2BIS and 5BIS are conditionally transmitted on GSM1800 cells. It will be explained in the following section.


CA table). Due to the restriction of cell channel description format.RACH Control Parameter (random access channel control parameter) The maximum number of cell frequencies configured in CA(Cell Allocation) is 64. the frequencies of a cell cannot be configured unlimitedly.Cell Channel Desc. (cell channel description format) . ! ! Content Content "SYS INFO 1 . 4 .e. bit4. The formats of cell channel description are determined respectively by Cell Channel Description’s second byte Format ID (bit8. bit2). bit7. bit3.SYS INFO 1 ! ! SYS SYS INFO INFO 1 1 " It contains random access control information (RACH) and cell frequency allocation table (i.. It is transmitted on BCCH..

SYS INFO 1 - CA Description Format

Bit8 Bit7 Bit4 Bit3 Bit2 0 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 X 0 1 1 1 1 X X 0 0 1 1 X X 0 1 0 1

Format Type bit map 0 1024 range 512 range 256 range 128 range variable bit map

The above cell channel description formats correspond to different requirements on the configured frequencies in a cell.

The CA ( channel allocation ) table frequency restriction is caused by different description format; frequency here refers to M1800 frequency. M900 frequency is not restricted, because it can always use the format “bit map 0”. Currently, Huawei BSC is able to select the formats automatically. The priority set for the formats are shown as follow: A. Bit map 0 B. Variable bit map C. 1024 range D. 512 range E. 256 range F. 128 range Only when the previous bitmap format is not satisfied can the judgement of next bitmap format goes on. If none of the above formats is satisfied, format “1024 range” is used in the program by default. This format can deliver up to 16 frequencies. No matter how the frequencies are configured, they can be sent to BTS. But due to the restriction of description format, some frequencies cannot be delivered to MS, this will cause assignment failure.


SYS INFO 1 - RACH Control Parameter


These control parameters include:
" " " " " "

Maximum re-transmitting times (MAX retrans) Extended transmission timeslots (Tx_interger) Cell Bar access (CBA, CELL_BAR_ACCESS) Common access control level(AC) Call reestablish permitted (RE) Emergency call permitted (EC)

These parameters will be explained in the following sections.


! !

" It

contains access control information (RACH), network color code

permitted (NCC Permitted), and neighbor cell frequency allocation list (BA1 list). It is transmitted on BCCH. Generally speaking, SYS INFO 2, 2BIS, 2TER contains different parts of the neighbor cell BCCH frequencies. Via reading and decoding BA1 list, MS can perform cell reselection in idle mode. For a MS of GSM900 PHASE I, it only reads the neighbor cell BCCH frequencies defined in SYS INFO 2, and ignores those carried by 2BIS and 2TER.
! !

Content Content

INFO 2 - - Neighbor Cell Desc. - - NCC permitted - - RACH Control Parameter

Neighbor cell description describes all the neighbor cells’ BCCH ARFCN. Currently, Huawei supports 32 neighbor cells at most. Except the fifth bit (BA_IND) and sixth bit (EXT_IND) of the second byte, the coding format of neighbor cell description is the same as cell channel description. Extended indication (EXT_IND) is transmitted in system information 2 and 5. It indicates whether there are BCCH frequencies of neighbor cell transmitted in system information 2BIS and 5BIS. It has one bit. If it is set to “0”, this indicates system information 2 and 5 have carried all the BCCH frequencies (the same band as serving cell’s )in the BA table. If it is “1”, it means system information 2 and 5 carries only part of the content of BA table. BA table indication (BA_IND) is transmitted in system information 2 and 5. It has one bit and it is used to tell the MS to decide whether to use the data of BA1 or BA2 table. In other words, if the current neighbor cell relationship and BA2 table are modified during the conversation of MS, BA_IND in system information 5 should be set to “1” instead of “0”. It instructs MS to re-decode the neighbor cell frequency shown in the system information to get the latest information. Network Color Code Permitted (NCC Permitted) is transmitted on system information 2 and 6. It has eight bits.The eight bits are used to show if the particular NCC codes are permitted for the MS to access. If bit N is set to “0” (0<=N<=7), the MS will not measure the BCCH of the cell with NCC=N at all. Thus, the MS will not handover to the cell with NCC=N.


SYS INFO 2BIS carries the rest of the BCCH frequencies in the BA1 list that are from the same band as in SYS INFO 2. So.. Note 2: For GSM1800 cell.Neighbor Cell Desc. it will send system message 2BIS.BA1 table can be completely delivered to the MS using system information 2. And for GSM900 cells all these 32 neighbor cells’ BCCH can be transmitted via System Information 2 while using bit map0.RACH Control Parameter (Same as that in SYS INFO 1. Therefor. ! ! Content Content SYS INFO 2BIS . It is optional and transmitted on BCCH. it is not necessary use System Information 2BIS. 8 . As the number of frequencies in BA1 list carried by SYS INFO 2 is limited.. when the number of configured neighbor cells with the same band is more than 16. .SYS INFO 2BIS ! ! SYS INFO 2BIS " 2BIS contains RACH control data and neighbor cell BCCH frequencies (part of BA1 list).) Note 1: Currently Huawei GSM BSS supports up to 32 neighbor cells.

! ! Content Content "SYS INFO 2TER . it is unnecessary for single band MS to read. Only dual band MS can read this information. 9 . the coding of other information is the same with cell channel description.Neighbor Cell Desc.. Since this information carries BCCH frequencies that belong to different band as those in SYS INFO 2. and single band 900 or 1800 MS will ignore it. (extended) Except the fifth bit (BA_IND). sixth.SYS INFO 2TER ! ! SYS INFO 2TER " 2TER contains neighbor BCCH frequencies (part of BA1 list). and seventh bit (Multi-band reporting) of the second byte. It is transmitted on BCCH.

RACH and parameters related to cell selection..Cell Option BCCH .. cell identity.RACH Control Parameter 10 ..Cell Selection Parameter . It is transmitted on BCCH.SYS INFO 3 ! ! SYS INFO 3 " It contains LAI.LAI( location area identity) . It is one of the most important information in SYS INFO. ! ! Content Content "SYS INFO 3 ..Cell Identity .Control Channel Desc ...

and Location Area Code (LAC). For example. 11 . MS decodes the CGI. And LAI includes Mobile Country Code (MCC). According to the received SYS INFO. It consists of three decimal numbers. It consists of two decimal numbers. At the same time. Please note that the value range of CI is 0X00010XFFFE. 0X0000 and 0XFFFF are reserved for other use. Mobile Network Code (MNC). it can judge whether the current location area is changed. SYS INFO 3. and 4 contain all or part of the information of CGI. China is 460. and decide whether it can register in the network based on the MCC and MNC indicated by CGI. so as to decide whether it is necessary to start the location updating process. 01 is for China Unicom. 00 is for China Mobile. LAC and CI are planned by each GSM network operator. They consist of two bytes. 6. MNC is allocated by the country. MCC is allocated globally.Cell Identity and Location Area Identity Cell Global Identity (CGI) consists of Location Area Identity (LAI) and Cell Identity (CI).

Attach-Detach allowed) Common Control Channel Configuration (CCCH-CONF) Access Granted Blocks Reserved (BS_AG_BLKS_RES) Paging Channel Multi-frames (BS-PA-MFRAMS) Periodic Location Updating Timer (T3212) They will be explained in details later. ! Control channel description includes the following parameters " " " " " IMSI Attach-Detach Allowed (ATT.Control Channel Description. 12 .

Cell Option ! Cell option contains the following parameters: " " " Power control indication (PWRC) Discontinuous transmission (DTX) Radio link timeout 13 .

It includes the following parameters: " " Cell Selection Hysteresis Maximum power level of control channel (MS_TXPWR_MAX_CCH) " Minimum receiving level of MS permitted to access (RXLEV_ACCESS_MIN) " " Additional reselection parameter indicator (ACS) Half-rate supported(NECI) 14 .Cell Selection Parameter ! Cell selection parameters indicate how the MS will behave after the MS is powered on.

RACH. 15 . When the system supports cell broadcast function.. LAI. ! ! Content "SYS INFO 4 .. Cell Selection Parameter.(parameters related to cell reselection) Among them. CBCH together with the CBCH MA describe the configuration of CBCH and the relevant frequency information.. It is transmitted on BCCH.CBCH Channel Desc.SYS INFO 4 ! ! SYS INFO 4 " It consists LAI.CBCH Mobile Allocation(optional) . cell selection parameters and optional CBCH channel information.SI4 Rest Oct.RACH Control Parameter .. and RACH Control Parameter have been explained above..LAI .Cell Selection Parameter . (optional) ..

CBCH channel description includes: channel type and TDMA offset. When CBCH Channel Desc. explains the CBCH channel configuration situation. Absolute Radio Frequency Channel Number (ARFCN).CBCH Channel Desc. When system supports cell broadcast. CBCH MA is also needed. is in frequency hopping mode. CBCH mobile configuration contains sequence of frequency hopping channels and cell channel description. Mobile Assignment Indication Offset (MAIO). Hopping Sequence Number (HSN). 16 . Hopping channel indication (H). Training Sequence Code (TSC). Timeslot Number (TN). CBCH Channel Desc. and CBCH MA These two parameters are optional.

it means MS will use the relevant parameters in SI4 Reset Oct.SI4 Rest calculate Cell Reselection Parameter C2. C2 is obtained by the calculation of a series of parameters. it means MS should extract cell reselection related parameter PI and C2 calculation related parameters from the residual bytes of system information 7 or 8. If ACS is “Yes”. ! It contains the following parameters: " " " " " " Cell reselection parameter indicator (PI) Cell Bar Qualify (CBQ) Cell Bar Access (CBA) Cell_Reselect_Offset (CRO) Temporary_Offset (TO) Penalty_Time (PT) Cell reselection is conducted on the basis of C2 value. 17 . If Cell Selection Parameter “ACS” is set as “No”.

Corresponding to System Information 2(System Information 2 describes BA1).such as they are modified for radio network optimization purpose.Neighbor Cell Desc. report the relevant information of neighbor cells in measurement report. In special cases. their contents can be different. MS can read the frequency described in SYS INFO 5 in dedicated mode. the contents of BA1 and BA2 are the same.SYS INFO 5 ! SYS INFO 5 " It describes the neighbor cell BCCH frequencies(BA2 list). it only recognizes the neighbor cell frequency information described by SYS INFO 5.. ! ! Content Content "SYS INFO 5 . It is used when MS is in the dedicated mode. for 900 MS of PHASE 1. and use it as the basis for handover. Different from SYS INFO 2. It is mandatory and is transmitted on SACCH. Generally. and ignores that carried by SYS INFO 5BIS and 5TER. Similarly. 18 .System Information 5 is part of the BA2 table.

! Content " SYS INFO 5BIS . SYS INFO 5 BIS carries the rest BCCH frequencies in the BA2 that are belong to the same band as SYS INFO 5 for transmitting to MS. Corresponding to System Information 2BIS(2BIS is for BA1).Neighbor Cell Desc. the content of 5BIS is part of the content of BA2 table. The neighbor cells’ frequencies which belong to the same band as the serving cell BCCH will be put into 5BIS for transmitting to the MS while there is no room in System Information 5. It is optional and is transmitted on SACCH. 19 .These frequencies are part of BA2 list.SYS INFO 5BIS ! SYS INFO 5 " 5 BIS describes neighbor cells’ BCCH frequencies.. as the number of frequencies which can be described by SYS INFO 5 is limited. Generally. It is used when MS is in dedicated mode.

The neighbor cells’ frequencies which belong to the different band (900. It is transmitted on SACCH channel. ! ! Content "SYS INFO 5TER . 20 .SYS INFO 5TER SYS INFO 5 "5 ! ! TER describes neighbor cells’ BCCH frequencies. It is used when MS is in the dedicated mode.these frequencies are also part of the BA2 list. It carries the BCCH frequencies of neighbor cells whose band are different from the serving cell’s. only dual band MS can read this information. and single band GSM900 or GSM1800 MS will ignore it..(2TER is for BA1)the content of the 5TER is part of the content of BA2.Neighbor Cell Desc. 1800)from the serving cell in the BA2 will be put into 5TER for transmitting to the MS. Similarly.(Extended) Corresponding to System Information 2TER.

. and some parameters transmitted on describing functions of the cell. It is also one of the most important information Content Content "SYS INFO 6 . It is in system information.LAI . It is used for dedicated mode. cell identity.Cell Option . ! ! SACCH..SYS INFO 6 ! ! SYS SYS INFO INFO 6 6 " It describes LAI.Cell Identity .NCC Permitted Including part of the contents of SYS INFO 2 and 3... 21 .

Course Contents System Information Overview Parameters Introduction Case Study Introduction to BSS Timers 22 .

Introduction to SYS INFO Parameters ! Huawei GSM System Information Parameters: " " " " Network Identity Parameters System Control Parameters Cell Option Parameters Network Functional Parameters 23 .

it decodes the CGI information. 24 . and decides whether it can stay in the cell according to the MCC and MNC indicated by CGI.Network Identity Parameter — CGI ! Network identity parameters mainly include cell global identity (CGI) and base station identity code (BSIC). it judges whether the current location area is changed. CGI=MCC+MNC+LAC+CI " Once MS receives SYS INFO. Ensure that the MS can report correct neighbor cells’ information to the network during conversation. so that MS can accurately select the network expected by subscribers and operators. The adoption of this coding scheme can achieve the following objectives: 1. Ensure that the network can know the real-time position of MS. At the same time. 3. As a global cellular mobile communication system. 2. and cell. MS will report the new LAI information to the network. Ensure that MS can correctly identify the current network. so that network can perform handover to keep continuous conversation for the mobile subscribers when necessary. so that the network can know exactly the LA in which MS is currently located. so as to decide whether to execute location updating. During the location updating process. so that the network can normally connect various service requests with the MS. GSM conducts strict coding for each GSM network in every country. and even every location area. BTS. so as to ensure that each cell corresponds to a unique number all over the world.

Its functions include: 1. According to GSM specification. and report the result to the network.Network Identity Parameter — BSIC ! BSIC=NCC+BCC " In GSM system. Since BSIC attends the coding process of information bit of random access burst. In special circumstance. when there are two or more cells using the same BCCH in the neighbor cells. TSC has eight fixed formats. which is called BSIC. Practically it is still possible that a same BCCH is re-used in the surrounding cells. MS must measure the BCCH signals of neighbor cells in dedicated mode. But to correctly read the information on the downlink common signaling channel. So one of the functions of BSIC is to inform MS of the TSC adopted by the common signaling channel of this cell. MS can identify two cells with the same BCCH by the help of BSIC. Network operators can use parameter “ NCC Permitted” to control MS to report the neighbor cells with NCC permitted in the serving cell only. it must measure the BCCH level of the neighbor cell and report it to BTS according to BA2 on SACCH. 25 . For cells using the same BCCH in a relevant near distance. it is necessary to control MS to merely report those cells that have neighbor relationships with the serving cell. it can be used to avoid the case that BTS takes the RACH transmitted from MS in a neighbor cell as the access signal of the MS from the serving cell. their BSIC must be different so that MS can identify two neighbor cells with same BCCH. When MS is in dedicated mode. The higher three digits of BSIC are used for the above purpose. BSIC is transmitted on Synchronous Channel (SCH) of each cell. effort should be made to make sure that BCCH of neighbor cells different from the serving cell’s BCCH to reduce the interference. If MS have read SCH. including their respective BSIC. Since MS sends measurement report which contains contents of maximum 6 neighbor cells each time. which are represented by 0~7 respectively. In network planning. 2. BSC can rely on BSIC to distinguish these cells and avoid wrong handover or even handover failure. 3. each BTS is allocated with a color code. MS must get TSC adopted by common signaling channel. it is considered as being synchronous with that cell. 4. TSC number adopted by common signaling channel of each cell is the BCC of this cell.

MCC indicates the home country of GSM PLMN. It indicates the home country of the mobile subscriber. MCC of China is 460 (decimal). MCC source is allocated and managed by International Telecommunication Union (ITU). LAI. modification is prohibited once it has been set in the network. IMSI of MS. MS uses the received information as the important basis for network selection. ITU Recommendation E. As the unique country identity standard.).Mobile Country Code MCC !Definition " MCC consists of 3 decimal numbers. Due to the special meaning of MCC.212 (blue book) regulates the MCC number for every country. !Format " MCC is composed of 3 decimal numbers. It shows the resident country of the mobile subscriber. 2. When MS logs on the network or applies for a certain service. it must report IMSI to the network (When TMSI is unavailable. The network uses the MCC in IMSI to judge whether this subscriber is international roaming subscriber. MS IMSI also contains MCC. MCC is used in international mobile subscriber identity (IMSI) and location area identity (LAI). 26 . It is periodically transmitted in system information of each cell. 1. The coding range is decimal 000-999.

). If a country has more than one GSM PLMN. LAI. The network judges whether this subscriber is roaming subscriber according to MNC in IMSI. MNC is allocated by relevant telecommunication management department of the country. different networks must have different MNC. China have two GSM networks. IMSI also contains MNC. and uses it as one of the important parameters for addressing subscriber HLR. MNC indicates the network number of GSM PLMN. MNC is used in international mobile subscriber identity (IMSI) and location area identity (LAI).Mobile Network Code MNC !Definition " MNC is used to uniquely identify a specific GSM PLMN network in a certain country (decided by MCC). Different operators can share the same MNC. modification is prohibited once it has been set in the network. Here. The coding range is decimal 00-99. One operator can have one or more MNC (which regard to the scale provided by the service. Due to the special meaning of MNC. MS uses the received information as the important basis for network selection. Their MNC are 00 and 01 respectively. which are operated by China Mobile and China Unicom. it must report IMSI to the network (When TMSI is unavailable. It is periodically transmitted in system information of each cell. It shows the home GSM PLMN network of the subscriber.). Currently. When MS logs on the network or applies for a certain service. !Format " MNC is composed of two decimal numbers. 27 .

It increases the signaling load in the system. try to make use of the geographical distribution and behaviors of mobile subscribers to allocate the LA. This will lead to the strong load on CCCH. The size of location area (LA) is one of key factors in the system. the chances for MS to update location increase. call setup failure will occurs. While making LA planning. it is recommended to set the TRX number to within 300 in one location area. and seldom modified during the operation. MS will inform network of the current location area via location update. But one traffic channel will be reduced. 0408. which is composed of two bytes. 28 . then reduce the size of LA and vice versa. One location area can contain one or more cells. when network conducts MS paging. Please note that LAC in cell parameters must be in consistent with that in MSC. If the LA coverage is too small. the whole area covered by each GSM PLMN is divided into different location areas. the traffic is not heavy. If the LA coverage is too large. So the TRX number in one LA can be larger than this value. The calculation of LA is related with the paging strategies of different manufacturers. and network use it for paging. Otherwise. It is essential to monitor PCH load and the increase of traffic in a long term. If Huawei equipment is employed. When MS is power-on or LAC of current cell is found to be different from its originally stored contents. LAC is used to identify different location areas. PCH capacity can be increased by adding one extended BCCH channel. The adjustment of LA size has no unified standard. the same paging information will be transmitted in a lot of cells. It is generally recommended to set the LA as large as possible. In the early stage of network construction. If the CCCH signaling load is heavy because of too big LA coverage. !Format " LAI contains LAC. so as to achieve the objective of reducing the times of location update in boundary between location areas.Location Area Code LAC !Definition " To locate the location of MS. and 1111). The available range is from 0001H to FFFEH. Code group 0000H and FFFFH cannot be used (please refer to specification GSM0303. LAC adopts hexadecimal coding. Generally the allocation and coding of LAC is set at the early stage of network construction. Operating departments can decide whether to adjust the size according to the currently running network.

the network operator needs to allocate one code for each cell. CI value should not be changed during the operation of the system. MS cannot make calls in this cell. The available range is from 0 to 65535. !Format " CI is composed of 16 bits. Cell identity. But it should be ensured that one location area cannot have two cells with the same CI. is used for identity of each cell in the world. Value from 0 to 65535 (decimal) can be obtained. There is generally no restriction for the allocation of CI. CI is usually determined in network system design. Except for some special cases. Please note that one location area is not permitted to have two or more cells using the same CI. which is the cell identity (CI). together with LAI. CI on MSC should be the same as that on BSC. transmitted in system information of each cell. Otherwise.Cell Identity CI !Definition " To uniquely identify each cell in the GSM PLMN. (specification 0303). 29 . Cell Identity (CI) is one part of Cell Global Identity (CGI).

!Format " NCC is composed of 3 bits. In many cases. 30 .Network Color Code NCC !Definition " NCC is part of BSIC. with coding capacity of 8. it is generally regulated that adjacent GSM PLMN select different NCC. transmitted on synchronous channel of each cell. But their network planning are independent from each other. MS uses it to distinguish adjacent BTS that belong to different GSM PLMN. To ensure that adjacent BTS with same frequency have different BSIC. NCC and BCC together constitute BTS identity code (BSIC). Adjacent or close cells with the same BCCH frequency must have different BSIC. different GSM PLMN employs the same frequency resource. Special attention should be paid to the configuration of cells in boundary areas.

Adjacent or close cells using the same BCCH must have different BSIC. It means that adjacent cells cannot use the same BCCH with the service cell. The available range is from 0 to 7. All of them have taken distance principle into consideration to avoid collisions of adjacent cells with the same BCCH and same BSIC. According to the requirements of GSM specification. When defining BCC. !Format " BCC is composed of 3 bits. Generally this consistency must be ensured by manufacturers. When causes BSIC/BCCH collision. BSIC includes BCC and NCC which is transmitted on SCH. otherwise. and also the simplest one. expand the value range.used to identify different cell with the same BCCH in the same GSM system. 3. 1. For its function.BS Color Code BCC !Definition " BCC is part of BSIC. in order to avoid the BSIC/BCCH collision. BCC planning has three solutions. TSC of BCCH in each cell should be the same with BCC of the cell. The advantage is that the number of BCC used is kept to the smallest. 2. However. a new BCC can be selected without modifying the BCC of original cells around. This solution is frequently used. select one of the BCC that has been used by other cell. ensure at the same time that BCC selected will not cause BSIC/BCCH collision with adjacent cell. BCC is part of BSIC. try to assign the value from 0. The advantage of this solution is that it can ensure BCC be even distributed in the whole network. 31 . this solution is time-consuming and troublesome. if done manually. That is to use the same BCC within one cluster. we can use automatic distribution tools. Based on the existing BCC set. please refer to above sections. Allocate BCC according to its reuse model. inter cell handover might be failure. So when adding a new BTS.

the values of these parameters directly affect the traffic load and signaling flow of each part of the system. "Radio Deviation Indication Deviation Channel Description Mobile Allocation "Neighbor "NCC "MS Permitted MAX re-trans There are a lot of parameters in GSM system. value ranges. The following will elaborate on the definitions. On the other hand.System Control Parameters "ATT "CCCH-CONF "BS-AG-BLKS-RES "BS-PA-MFRAMS "T3212 "Cell "Tx-integer "CBA "Common Access Control Class (T3122) "Wait-for-indication "MBR "ECSC "Power "Power "CBCH "CBCH Channel Description format Link Timeout Cell Desc. and effects on the system of these system control parameters. It aims to maintain favorable cooperation between MS and BTS.they are usually transmitted to MS from BTS via Um interface. 32 . Therefore. proper configuration of these parameters is important to the favorable and stable operation of the system.

IMSI attach process is opposite to detach process. if the MS is called. It is the process that MS informs the network that it has entered the service area (usually a power-on process) or SIM card has been inserted into MS. No Content It is “Attach-Detach allowed” (ATT) in Huawei data the management system. Note that ATT configuration of different cells in the same LAI must be the same. MS will not start IMSI attach process. Otherwise MS will start location update process (replacing IMSI attach process). It is used to inform MS whether IMSI attach-detach is allowed in this cell. upon receiving the location update or IMSI attach process. the network will indicate that this IMSI subscriber is in working state. After entering service state again. It is because IMSI detach process will be started when MS is power-off in the cell with ATT as 1. The network will record that this subscriber is in non-working state and reject all the called connection requests of this subscriber. 33 . Thus network processing time and resource are saved. the call connection will be rejected. or the SIM card is being taken out from MS. this subscriber will not be called normally until MS starts the location update process. If it is set to “Yes”.ATT ! ! Value range: Yes. network will not process the connection to the subscriber called when MS is power-off. ! Recommendation Yes Detach process (IMSI) refers to the process that MS informs the network that it is shifting from working state to non-working state (usually a power-off process). if it is in the same LAI when it was power-off (thus the LAI update process will not be started) but in different cells. upon receiving the notice from MS. In this case. Otherwise the network will process the connection even though the MS has been powered off. the network will indicate that the IMSI subscriber is in non-working state. MS will test whether the current location area (LAI) is the same with the latest LAI recorded in MS. Therefore. and ATT of this cell is set as 0. If yes. MS will start IMSI attach process. When MS is power-on again.

one combined CCCH is recommended (in a system with few paging messages in location area). Special attention should be paid to PCH in CCCH. Currently CCCH can be configured according to actual traffic load. it is configured according to the number of TRX in the cell. it is recommended to use a combined CCCH as the common control channel. Moreover. CCCH can be carried by either one or multiple physical channels. Which combination mode to be adopted in the cell depends on CCCH_CONF. 2 noncombined CCCH. the more the physical channels used as CCCH. When TRX quantity in the cell is 3 or 4. When CCCH is a physical channel which combined with SDCCH. In GSM system.CCCH-CONF ! Value range: 1 non-combined CCCH. If the paging load is very heavy. For others. CCCH and SDCCH can share one physical channel. the paging traffic of cell can be distributed via multiple CCCH physical channels or other ways. CCCH is shared. the higher the capacity. Configuration of CCCH_CONF is specified according to the traffic model. AGCH and RACH. the common control channel mainly include Access Granted Channel (AGCH) and Paging Channel (PCH). CCCH configuration determines the capacity of PCH. 1 combined CCCH. the capacity of CCCH is the lowest. when TRX quantity in the cell is 1 or 2. and 36 respectively. 27. ! ! Unit: None Recommendation: When there is one TRX in the cell. According to the configuration of traffic channel and traffic model. 3 non-combined CCCH. Generally PCH capacities of various cells under one LAC must be the same. 18. 3. This model is closely related to the cell location and environment. For other cases. When CCCH is a physical channel which does not combined with SDCCH. the capacity is higher. 34 . ! Content: It is “Common Control Channel Configuration”. it is recommended to use a non-combined CCCH as the common control channel. It serves to send the access granted (immediate assignment) and paging message. According to experiences. 4 non-combined CCCH.The number of CCCH message blocks in one corresponding BCCH multi-frame are 9.

this parameter actually assigns the proportion of AGCH and PCH on CCCH. After CCCH configuration complete. among CCCH message blocks. 3. It is the number of CCCH channel message blocks that are reserved for access granted channels(AGCH). when AGCH has been occupied. 2. The network operator can adjust this parameter to balance the traffic of AGCH and PCH by referring to the following principles: 1. If AGCH blocks reserved is set as 0. 2 or 3 (when CCCH_CONF is one of other values) for BS_AG_BLKS_RES. observe the statistics of AGCH overload and adjust BS_AG_BLKS_RES properly. which are reserved for AGCH. the system information of each cell includes a configuration parameter. so as to increase the capability of paging and improve the system performance. Note: In Huawei system. ! Recommendation: 2 As downlink CCCH includes both AGCH and PCH. then the immediate assignment would be sent only when there is an idle CCCH downlink channel. PCH can be used to send the immediate assignment command if it is free. it is necessary to set the number of blocks. Generally it is recommended to select 1 (when CCCH_CONF is 001). it affects the time of MS’s response to the paging. To let MS know such configuration information. 0~7 (others) Unit: Block Content: It is also called Access Granted Blocks Reserved. a fixed capacity reserved for AGCH is necessary. Principle for BS_AG_BLKS_RES: make this parameter as small as possible without causing overload of AGCH. which is the number of access granted blocks reserved (BS_AG_BLKS_RES). During operation.BS-AG-BLKS-RES ! ! ! Value range: 0~2 (1 combined CCCH). Therefore. 35 .

Therefore. Note: 1. In the operation. The value of this parameter should be as smallest as possible as long as it will not cause overload on PCH. Besides. and the lifetime of MS battery will be longer. Therefore. In the network. ! Recommendation: 2 This parameter specifies how many paging sub-channels are assigned in a cell. resulting in cell reselection. which makes the sending of paging messages more even in the time and space). DSC will decrease by 4. any paging must be sent in all cells within this location area. In same location area. but will not exceed initially value. When MS camps on a cell. MS only monitors the paging sub-channel it belongs to while ignoring contents of others. When it becomes larger. it is set as 6 or 7 (6 or 7 multi-frames are used as a loop of paging group). One paging block (four consecutive CCCH timeslots) can bear two IMSI pagings or four TMSI pagings or one AGCH immediate assignment message. 36 . In the area where the PCH bears a medium or large load.BS-PA-MFRMS ! ! ! Value range: 2 9 Unit: Multi-frame period (51 frames) Content: It is Paging Channel Multi-frames. the downlink signaling link will be announced failure. it is set as 4 or 5. DSC initialized to be close to 90/N (N is BS_PA_MFRMS. but the buffer that buffers paging message in each BTS is increased. In idle mode. there will be more paging sub-channels in the cell and accordingly there will be less MS in each paging sub-channel. 2. all cells in the same location area should have the same or nearly the same PCH capacity (number of paging subchannels). with the value range: 2~9). If DSC<=0. it is often set as 2. when MS decodes the message on paging sub-channel. For the area with a small load. If decoding fails. the bearing capability of PCH will be much more(theoretically the capacity of PCH does not increase. It defines the number of multi-frames used as a loop of paging subchannels. DSC will increase by 1 for one successfully decoding. the PCH load should be measured regularly and the value of it should be adjusted properly according to the load.

it will store it in SIM card. the location update process will be triggered. The shorter the period the better the performance. but it will bring more signaling load for system. When the time exceeds T3212 value. and small T3212 (3 hours. Note that this value should be smaller than the period by which the network queries the IMSI attached subscriber. MS will make periodic location update controlled by parameter T3212. the processing capabilities of MSC and BSC should be considered. increase the value T3212. the network will not process the paging of this MS. Once MS read T3212 from system info.. Otherwise. 2 hours) for the area with a little traffic. besides. 20 (for suburban area) MS will make location update when detecting the change of location. the following situation occurs: When MS has not done any operation in a certain time. When MS reselects a different location area. also the flows of A interface. On setting of this parameter. So. If any overload occurs. and it is not yet the time for periodic location update. it is recommended to set T3212 as 0 (no periodic location update). Large T3212( 16 hours 20 hours) is recommended for the area with much traffic. It defines the period length of location updating. Generally larger value for continuous covered urban area while smaller in the suburb. the network will set IMSI flag of MS as detach.T3212 ! ! ! Value range: 0~255 Unit: 6 minutes Content: It is Periodic Location Update Timer. countryside or the place with poor coverage. once there is a call for the MS. If it reselects in the same location area. For the area where the traffic exceeds the system capacity. the network will voice the calling subscriber that the called MS is out of service area or has been powered off. it’s necessary to conduct long-term measurement on the processing capability and flow of each entity in the system. because its query result shows that MS has not done any operation. To set the value of T3212 properly. MS will make a non-periodic location update and reset T3212 in the new cell. 37 . Thus. before MS initiates another round of periodic location update. then the timer value will be remainder of the original one divided by the new T3212. Um interface as well as those of HLR and VLR. Abis interface. ! Recommendation: 30 (for urban area).

4 hour). and T3212 value of the adjacent cell B is set to 8 (0. MS reselects B when the periodic location update status in A is 3/4. 3/4. the status will change to 3/8. The system query time is set to 1 hour. and they are in the same location area. 38 . MS reselects so frequently that the final equivalent time is greater than system query time. At this time. it can be seen that in cell A.e. MS reselection status changes to “7/4”. The above analysis shows that if the above case occurs (the probability is high).Application of T3212 LAC “Ping-pong Reselect” A T3212=4 B T3212=8 Even if T3212 setting is less than the system(MSC) query time. The system will still sometimes voice “The subscriber you dialed is powered off”. and the MS periodic location update status in B changes to 3/8. If MS stays in B for some time and the location update status reaches 7/8. T3212 value of cell A is set to 4 (0. i. If MS reselects to B at this time. then MS reselects A.8 hour). Thus the subscriber will be considered as a power-off subscriber within certain time even it is in normal idle mode. instead of 7/8. though T3212 values of both cells are smaller than the system query time.

Cell Channel Description Format


Value range: Bitmap,
variable length






Content: That is CA table. Presently, the parameter
has been automatically selected by the program according to actual CA configurations.

Message element is actually the available absolute frequency number list of a serving cell, i.e. CA table, with 17 bytes. Specifically, there are altogether 124 bits from D3 bit of the 2nd byte to D0 bit of the 17th byte, which are respectively marked as carriers 124, 123, 122......3, 2, 1. If No. N is 1, then No. N carrier belongs to this cell.


Application of CA Table

Module ID 2 2

Cell ID 51 52

Effective Effective Effective Effective Effective frequency 0 frequency 1 frequency 2 frequency 3 frequency 5


45 49

59 62

68 71

77 80

86 89

... ...









This table describes all the effective frequencies configured in a cell.

Each cell has a record, i.e. CA table. CA table indicates effective (available) frequencies for the specified cell and maxi. 64 frequencies can be configured. The actual domain is configured according to the TRX frequency configuration and no vacant is allowed amidst. BSC sends the cell CA to MS via system message. To obtain a standard data configuration, it is recommended to set the effective frequency 0 in CA as BCCH. CA table is sent in certain description format. Different formats has different extra requirements on the CA table. It is determined by the cell channel description format.


Radio Link Timeout

! ! !

Value range: 4~64, the step size is 4 Unit: SACCH period (480ms) Content: This parameter is used for MS to decide down-link
disconnection in case of SACCH decoding failures.


Recommendation: 20~56

Once assigned with a dedicated channel, MS will start counter S. From then on, S will decrease by 1 when a SACCH message fails to be decoded, and will increase by 2 when decoded correctly. When S decreases to 0, there will be a radio link failure. This allows either re-establishment or release of the connection. If the value of this parameter is too small, the radio link will easily get failed which will result in call drops. If it is too large, MS will not release for a long time which will lower the availability of resources (this parameter functions for the downlink).

For area with little traffic (remote area), it is recommended to be between 52~62. For area with light traffic and large coverage(suburb or countryside), it is recommended to be between 36~48. For area with heavy traffic (urban), it is recommended to be between 20~32. For the area with very heavy traffic (area covered by microcell), it is recommended to be between 4~16. For the cell with obvious coverage hole or the area where the call drops is serious during movement, this parameter can be increased appropriately in order to increase the possibility to resume the conversation.

Note: Radio link timeout is the parameter used to judge the downlink failure. Likewise, the uplink will be monitored at BTS, either based on the uplink SACCH error or based on the receiving level and quality of the uplink.


usually an outgoing cell handover will occur. when MS stays near point P and makes a conversation.Application of Radio Link Timeout Poor coverage P A Q B Impact of radio link timeout If cell A and B are adjacent to each other. If it is too large. 42 . assume that one MS moves from point P to point Q during a conversation. it is likely that the radio link will be timeout before the handover starts. If the value of parameter “radio link timeout” is too small and the quality of signal at the edge of cells A and B is poor. thus the resources utilization rate is lowed. though the voice quality is unacceptable. the network still has to wait for a long time before the related resources can be released. thus resulting in call drops.

neighbor relationship should be modified according to the data of driver test and traffic measurement. after the commission of network. Table BA1 describes BCCH frequencies of the adjacent cells to be measured when the MS is in idle mode.e.). reset and verify it. For GSM network. ! Table BA2 describes BCCH frequencies of the adjacent cells to be measured when the MS is in dedicated mode.Neighbor Cell Description ! ! I. 43 . Besides. MS keeps on measuring the BCCH signal levels of the serving cell as well as the neighbor cells. and network is in the ever-changing environment.g. MS extracts the information from system information and use it as basis for neighbor cell measurement. neighbor cell description information will be broadcast periodically in system information of each cell. network operator must strictly follow the changed cell neighbor relationship. There are table BA1 and table BA2. This information lists the BCCH of all neighbor cells. the neighbor cell relationship must be configured in accordance with the topology design that has been planned. network operator must modify the neighbor cell description information according to the real situation. since the actual network topology structure is often greatly different from the theoretical calculation result. During the network construction. When network’s architecture is changed (e. Moreover. Adding BTS or changing the network frequency configuration. Huawei BA tables. Improper neighbor cell description is usually one of the important reasons of call drop. In order to know the adjacent cells. the neighbor relationship between cells is finalized when designing the network topology.

B. call drop could be avoided because of the good quality of cell C signals. then when MS passes from A to C. only one handover happens. Assume that the interference in cell D is rather serious. theoretically. What’s more. If A and C are regarded as adjacent cells here. call drop is likely to occur during this period.Application of Neighbor Cell Description B A D C A B C D Actual Neighbor Cells Theoretical Neighbor Cells In theoretical calculated neighbor cell relationship. Assume that one MS moves from cell A to cell C during the conversation. A and C have overlapping coverage. the coverage of A. MS needs twice of cross-cell handovers. and D is not the case as the theory. that is to add BCCH of C and A respectively to the neighbor cell description of A and C. C. But in fact. cell A and cell C are not adjacent cells. 44 .

If the antenna of BTS is located too high. 45 . this method is not recommended. But it must be ensured that there are no cells. In real situation. If MS is in dedicated mode in the shady area and moves from this area towards B and C. using the same frequency and same BSIC with cell B and C. It is over shooting. call drop is unavoidable. over shooting phenomenon will occur.Application of Neighbor Cell Description B A C A Part of the signals from cell A leaks out and covers some areas far away from this cell. or the transmitting power is too large. because coverage is the major problem at that time and the antenna height is very high. and adjust the transmitting power of the BTS to eliminate the BTS covering the shady area. BTS built at the early stage of GSM construction usually have this problem. which are neighbor cells of cell A. Generally. The best solution for this phenomenon is to adjust the location and downtilt of the antenna. So one more simple and applicable method is to add BCCH of B and C to the neighbor cell description of cell A (no need to add A’s BCCH to B and C). since there are no BCCH of cell B and C in cell A’s neighbor cell description. it is hard or even impossible to change the location of antenna.

NCC Permitted ! ! Value range: Check box. Content: Network Color Code. The above function can be implemented by making MS only measure the cells whose NCC are selected. But each report can only include max. In working status. therefore. MS only needs to compare the measured NCC of the adjacent cell with parameter NCC Permitted. MS will report M. If a neighbor cell with NCC permitted. Thus it is necessary to make MS only report the potential target cells for handover. BSIC is transmitted continuously on SCH of each cell and the higher three bits of BSIC are NCC. It lists NCC that need be measured by MS. If it is in this set. six adjacent cells. to be sent in system messages 2 and 6. MS needs to measure adjacent cells BCCH signals and report them to network. instead of reporting all according to the signal level (usually MS does not report the signals of cells from other GSM PLMN).R. 46 . otherwise it will discard the measurement result. Of the neighbor cell to the network. ! Recommendation: Subject to the concrete conditions. including options 0~7. Parameter “NCC Permitted” lists the NCC of the cells that MS needs to measure. MS will report it to BTS. Note: Improper setting of this parameter will lead to lots of call drops.

Set to 4: For areas with ordinary traffic (non-busy area in the city) and the cell radius less than 3km. Re-trans Times. If the network does not send Immediate Assignment or Immediate Assignment Extend message. i. no new access attempt will be allowed. the network is incapable of controlling the access time of MS. MS MAX. it will give up the access.MS MAX Re-trans ! ! ! Value range: 1.e. Thus in heavy traffic spot. Within T3122. the network allows MS to send several channel requests before receiving an immediate assignment message so as to have a higher access probability. it will stop T3120 and start T3122.”. MS will return to idle mode if it fails to receive an immediate assignment command after the max. The larger this value. the other is the network can recognize none of them due to mutual-interference. MS will start T3126. Set to 2: For micro-cellular Set to 1: For microcellular with heavy traffic or with obvious congestion. 47 . As RACH is an ALOHA channel. 7 Unit: Times Content: One of the parameters of random access control information. After MS sends channel request. If MS still fails to receive a response from the network after T3126 is timeout. it is unavoidable that several MS may simultaneously make an access request and cause collision which will lead to two results: one is when one request signal level is obviously higher than those of other access signals. After initiating immediate assignment process. MS will resend channel request message (contains one new random reference). and restart T3120 with a random value. And 4 or more is recommended to set for satellite transmission BTS. MS will resend the channel request message at a certain time interval. To make sure that the system can correctly receive the access request and increase the access success rate. retrans times. the access request with higher level will be handled. When timer is timeout and “MAX re-trans” is reached. When MS initiates immediate assignment. but the heavier the loads of RACH and SDCCH. As the traffic increasing. When timer is timeout while RACH resend times is not more than “MAX re-trans. 2. the higher the call setup success rate. it will send the “channel request” message to the network via RACH. ! Recommendation: Set to 7:For areas with low traffic (suburban or rural area) and the cell radius more than 3 km. access request loss due to collision will increase too. 4. It is the upper limit of times that MS is allowed to send “Channel Request” in one immediate assignment procedure. MS keeps monitoring messages on BCCH and CCCH group it belongs to. it will start timer T3120 and wait on the downlink CCCH and BCCH. If MS receives the access rejection.

then parameter T can be changed to make parameter S larger. 14.577ms) ! Content: Extended Transmission Timeslots(T). 32. value T should be as small as possible. a random value can be selected for parameter T for the cell with unknown traffic to ensure the minimum value of S. It mainly affects the execution efficiency of the immediate assignment process. The value of this parameter is related to CCCH configuration mode. S+1. 50 Unit: Number of RACH timeslots (equivalent to one timeslot. S+T-1}. During the operation. used to calculate the number of timeslots in the interval between two channel requests sent by MS. If AGCH or SDCCH of the cell is overloaded. so as to reduce satellite transmission delay). MAX(T. …. 0. both work together to determine parameter S. Select 32 for satellite transmission. 8)--1}. set the S with a larger value. 16. 1. 48 . …. parameter S should be as small as possible (in order to shorten the access time of MS) when parameter T is fixed. The range of value T can be specified according to the above principles (multiple values can be selected for parameter T corresponding to various values of parameter S). When the number of RACH collisions is small. It is set to reduce the collisions on RACH. Generally. When the RACH collisions is serious. 20. ! Recommendation: 25 (If the cell immediate assignment success rate is low. The number of timeslots (excluding the timeslot from where the message is sent) from MS starts the immediate assignment process to the first channel request message sent is a random value in the set {0. 25. value T should be large.Tx-integer ! ! Value range: 3~12. And the number of timeslots between any two adjacent channel request messages is a random value in the set {S. but AGCH and SDCCH must not be overloaded. until AGCH or SDCCH of the cell is not overloaded.

Generally. 20 6. value T should be selected to make S as small as possible (in order to shorten MS access time). 14. 10. 11. the interval range between channel request messages sent by MS will increase and RACH collisions will be reduced. collisions on RACH will be reduced and the availability of AGCH and SDCCH will increase. 32 S Combined CCCH Non-combined CCCH 55 76 109 163 217 41 52 58 86 115 When T becomes larger. 25 7. resulting in deterioration of access performance of the entire network. 49 . 12. but AGCH and SDCCH must not be overloaded.Calculation of S T 3. 50 4. But the increase of both will prolong the access duration of MS. 9. 16 5. When value S becomes larger. the interval between channel request messages sent by MS will increase. 8.

! Recommendation: Yes Cell access permitted is the parameter that the network operator can set. 50 . which can be realized by setting the parameter as “No” (CBQ should be “No”). worked together with CBQ to set the priority status of the cell in idle mode for cell selection and reselection. thus it is set as “Yes”. Usually all cells allow MS to access. the operator may want a cell to be used for handover service only. But in the special cases.CBA ! ! ! Value range: Yes (0). No (1) Unit: None Content: Cell Bar Access.

MS will not initiate the cell reselection process according to GSM specification. Usually micro cell is adopted in order to have a better access performance with the limited frequency resources. And usually dual-layer network is adopted in order to reduce the handover times when MS moves at a high speed. the network will force MS to hand over to cell A. As cell A usually have a small capacity. In this way. 51 . site A is established to cover the entire area A. MS will reselect the micro cell when the conversation ends. it will be congested in the above case. The solution is to set the cell bar access of cell A as “No”. certainly CBQ should also be set as “No” to prohibit MS from accessing cell A directly and only permit MS to enter the coverage area of cell A by HO. If MS stays close to cell A and at the edge of micro cell when the conversation ends. Generally MS works in the micro cell (this can be realized by setting the priority and proper reselection parameters of the cell). that is.Application of CBA A D B C CBQ(A)= “NO” CBA(A)= “NO” Assume that area D in the diagram is a hot spot. When MS moves at a high speed during the conversation. as the signal quality of cell A is much better than that of micro cell.

thus reducing the traffic of the cell. etc. and has nothing to do with access priority. Some cells with extremely heavy traffic may be congested during busy hour. For example. but most of them will lower the availability of equipment resources. GSM specification 0211 requires to assign an access level for each common GSM subscriber. when the cell suffers traffic overload or congestion. alternatively allow the access of MS with odd access levels and those with even access levels. For example.Common Access Control Class ! Value range: Check box.…till level 9 forbidden ! Content: One of the parameters of random access control information. which are stored in the SIM cards of MS. Abis interface flow overload. 52 . resulting in a large number of RACH collisions. to permit or forbid the network access of some common level users. at intervals of five minutes. During installation and commission of BTS or during maintenance test for some cells. 0~9 bits of “AC”. GSM specifications provide a variety of ways for dealing with the overload and congestion. 1000000000 indicates to allow the access of subscribers with the levels other than 0.lever 1 forbidden. For example. AGCH flow overload. The common access level is divided into levels 0~9. ! Recommendation: 000000000 In some special cases and areas. To solve this problem. i. Therefore. they all can be set to “1” to prohibit the access of subscribers. “1” stands for forbidden and “0” for permitted. The network operator can set the access control parameter (C0-C9) properly to control the traffic inside the cell. For example. emergency status occurs or a serious fault occurs to a GSM PLMN. Ci can be set as 0 to prohibit MS with this access level from accessing this cell (change of Ci will not affect MS in dedicated mode). including level 0 forbidden. the operator expects to prohibit all or part of MS from sending access requests or paging response. values of C0-C9 in the cell can be changed periodically. It is used for load control of ordinary subscribers.e.

For subscribers with the access levels 0-9. For subscribers with the access levels 11-15. permitting or forbidding the network access of some special level users. which usually have higher access priority. their access right is also applicable to the home PLMN and visit PLMN. 11~15 bits of “AC”. Otherwise it indicates to allow the access. which are also stored in the SIM card of the subscriber. 13 and 14.…till level 15 forbidden ! Content: I. GSM specifications have reserved five special access levels 11-15. For subscribers with the access levels 12. including level 11 forbidden. When a bit is 1.level12 forbidden.e. their access right is applicable to the area of the country to which the PLMN belongs. “1” stands for forbidden and “0” for permitted. It is used for load control. which respectively corresponds to 15 access levels in bit mapping mode (C10 is used for permitting emergency call). ! Recommendation: 00000 For some special subscribers. it indicates not to allow MS with the corresponding level to access then cell.Special Access Control Class ! Value range: Check box. their access right is only applicable to the home PLMN. 53 . Subscribers with the access level 11-15 have a higher access priority than those with the access levels 0-9. The access level control parameter consists of 16 bits: C0-C15. A special subscriber can have one or multiple access levels (between 11 and 15) at the same time.

MS is forced to wait for a time to originate a new call attempt after its first call attempt fails. When there is shortage of radio resource in the network. the network will send immediate assignment rejection message to MS.Its timing length is 0-255 seconds. Even for the same cell. !Format " T3122 is 8-bit binary.T3122 !Definition " When the network receives “channel request” message sent by MS. if system temporarily has no idle radio channel. if T3122 is too large. only after T3122 is timeout MS can send a new channel request. the average network access time will increase. It is generally recommended to set to 10-15 seconds. radio resource management entity of the system will send this information to MS. this parameter is fixed and set by the program. T3122 is contained in “immediate assignment rejection”.try to set T3122 as small as possible. When MS sends channel request to BTS. Note: Currently in Huawei BSS system. immediate assignment rejection message contains the timer T3122 (the wait-indication). That time is T3122. Each cell may have different setting because of the different traffic. If the value of T3122 is too short. the traffic may be different in different period of time. So it value has great impact on network performance. and 15-25 seconds in area with heavy traffic . it is likely to cause another congestion of the channel when the load of radio channel is heavy. 54 . It indicates the time that MS has to wait before sending the second request. The principle for T3122 setting is: So long the network CCCH is not overload. which cause the decrease of the average performance of network. if there is no appropriate channel assigned to MS. So T3122 can be dynamically set in a cell. To avoid the congestion of radio channel which is caused by MS’s frequently sending of “channel request”.However. After MS receives immediate assignment rejection message.

“1” or “2” is recommended. When the traffics on various bands are obviously different from each other and MS is expected to enter a band preferably. the “multi-band indication” parameter does not exist. Therefore. When the value is “0”.MBR ! ! ! Value range: 0~3 Unit: None Content: Multi-band Reporting. When traffics on various bands are slightly different from each other. In the initial stage of dual-band network. it will report adjacent cells from the same band. Therefore. When it is “X(X<=3)”. the traffic of GSM1800 system is very light. system messages 2ter and 5ter should not be used. MS will report measurement results of X adjacent cells with the strongest signals from the same band as the serving cell and X adjacent cells from the different band. If there are no special requirements on different bands and the traffics on various bands are basically the same. MS will report measurement results of six strongest adjacent cells no matter which band it’s in. “3” is preferred. If there is still spare locations. the priority of GSM1800 cells for HO should be higher than these of GSM900 cells and “3” is recommended for MBR. After this. Note: In the single-band system. “0” is recommended. 55 . usually dual-band MS are expected to work on this band preferably.then. It is used to inform MS to report the adjacent cells in a controllable way. if there is still space for MR. MS will report the other adjacent cells. It is sent in the System Information 2ter and 5ter.

B. F. H. A and B are GSM1800 cells and others are GSM900 cells. 3)When MBR = 2. E. so 2 GSM1800 cells are reported. B. Of them. H. H. GSM900 cells will be reported). 2)When MBR = 1.Application of MBR GSM1800 A -92dBm B -82dBm S H -84dBm C -68dBm F -88dBm G -96dBm GSM900 E -78dBm D -90dBm S is a GSM900 cell. F. But there are only 2 currently. D. F. The above diagram shows the influences of different MBR parameters as follows: 1)When MBR = 0. 4)When MBR = 3. H. the report result is: C. A. F (3 GSM1800 cells should be reported. 56 . the result is: C. In the rest. E. cells A~H are adjacent to cell S. E. B. the result is: C. D. MS will report six adjacent cells with strongest signals without considering the bands. B. E. A. the result is: C.

ECSC ! ! Value range: Yes. No Unit: None Content: Early Classmark Sending Control. CM3 (classmark 3) information consists of information about the powers of various bands of multi-band MS. CM3 message must be known when paging is conducted and BA2 table is sent in different bands. MS sends the additional classmark information to the network as soon as possible. MSC will still send the CLASSMARK REQUEST message after MS reports ESTIND. 57 . In the handover between various bands. ! ! Recommendation: No. When MS reports the CLASSMARK UPDATE message. other functions will not be affected. For dual-band MS. It informs MS in a cell whether class-mark 3 should be sent in advance actively or not. ECSC is valid mainly for dual-band MS only. the power level must be described correctly. when ECSC is not used. Upon receiving information classmark change.

No Unit: None Content: Determine whether to adjust the output the power for class 3 MS of GSM1800.Power Deviation Indication ! ! ! Value range: Yes. ! Recommendation: None 58 .

Power Deviation ! ! ! Value range: 0~3. transmitting power plus the value of power offset. corresponding value: 0dB. 2dB. the power used by GSM1800 Class 3 MS is MS max. 6dB Unit: None Content: After random access. when the initial power command is not received. ! Recommendation: 1 59 . 4dB.

During this process. MS will settle in the selected cell. MS must check one of the six strongest at least within 30s. At the same time it begins to measure the signal level of BCCH of neighbor cells. When MS regards a new neighbor BCCH as one of the six strongest BCCH. When neighbor cell’s quality of radio channel is better than current cell. (MS must conduct data block decoding for six strongest BCCH of neighbor cells within 5 minutes. This process is called cell reselection. After MS selects cell.Cell Selection Parameter ! ! ! MS_TXPWR_MAX_CCH RXLEV_ACCESS_MIN ACS(Additional Indication) Reselect Parameter ! ! ! ! ! ! PI(Cell Reselect Parameters Indication) CBQ(Cell Bar Qualify) CRO(Cell Reselection Offset) TO(Temporary Offset) PT(Penalty Time) CRH( Cell Reselection Hysteresis) When MS is powered on. 60 . the quality of radio channel is one important factor of cell selection. C2 is obtained by calculation of a set of parameters. GSM specification stipulates one parameter called path loss principle C1. extracts various system information and control information of each neighbor cell from it. MS will not stop monitoring PCH. It records six neighbor cells with the strongest signals (refresh at least every 60s). including parameters affecting cell reselection. The channel quality standard for cell reselection is C2. whether the access level of MS is prohibited by the cell. If BSIC has any changes. it is regarded as a new BCCH and data decoding will be conducted again. MS will move from current cell to anther cell. For example. cell reselection occurs. Among them. it will conduct data block decoding for this new BCCH at least within 30s). whether the cell is barred. the priority level of the cell. whether this cell belongs to the selected network (under manual network selection mode). it will try to find a GSM PLMN. whether the quality of radio channel meets the requirement of communication. etc. C1 is obtained by the calculation of cell selection parameters. This process is called cell selection. The appropriate cell is restricted by many factors. Moreover. when a certain condition is satisfied. MS will select an appropriate cell and read system information. The condition includes many factors which integrate to measure the quality of radio channel. The appropriate cell must ensure the C1>0.

Normal cell selection Stored list cell selection In fact. it will first search the BCCH carrier that have been stored. MS will still reside in this cell. but is prohibited from access. it will check the BCCH in BA table of this cell. and judge whether it is BCCH(by searching for FCCH). and reads system information on it. During this. When powered on. MS will go on monitoring all RF channels and find out a cell(Signal is the strongest. If yes. MS belongs to the PLMN selected.) without considering the PLMN . or C1<0. Then MS tunes to the carrier with strongest receiving level. it will search all the 124 RF channels and 374 more GSM1800 channels for dual-band MS. When MS access level is prohibited by this cell. After trying the strongest 30 (single-band) or 40 (dual-band) carriers. If fail again. cell selection algorithm is not affected. Access is not prohibited. 61 . After passing. measure the receiving signal level of each. MS resides in that cell. Otherwise. C1 is larger than 0. MS tries to decode SCH and enable it synchronous with that BCCH. MS will start the cell selection process without BCCH table. 2. Then MS obtains BA table from this cell and search BCCH according to this BA. MS will try to access the cell with low cell selection priority level. If MS can correctly read the system information and verify this cell belongs to the selected PLMN and C1 is larger than 0 and cell priority is normal. the process might be different for different MSs If SIM card of MS does not store any BCCH. it will store some BCCH carrier information. Note:1. When MS is powered off.Cell Selection Process ! ! ! ! There are two kinds of cell selection. MS will tune to second BCCH and go on with the same procedure. then MS conducts location update. If still unsuccessful. MS obtains at least 5 measurement samples from each channel. MS will use PLMN allowed on SIM card to try on. If MS can decode the BCCH data of this cell but cannot reside. and MS enters emergency call mode (service bar mode). The whole process lasts about 3s to 5s. If it still cannot pass. If the condition is fulfilled. if it is impossible to access.

! ! Cell reselections caused by C2 have a time interval of 15 seconds If current serving cell is prohibited. But PT=31 is reserved as the symbol to change the CRO’s effect on C2. The function of TO is to reduce the value of C2 from the time when timer begins to count to the time when the value of timer reaches the stipulated PENALTY_TIME. When it is out of the six strongest neighbor cells. when x>0. or down link fails. a location updating process and the cell reselection process will be performed. 3. 5. 62 . 4. the corresponding timer is reset. Function H(x)=0. T is a timer with initial value 0. ! Cell reselection for cells in different location areas " If the C2 value of the target cell is higher than that of the serving cell by at least the value of CRH and last for longer than 5 seconds. Wherein: 1. a cell reselection process will be performed and the MS tunes to the new cell. H(x)=1. when x<0. 2. When a certain cell becomes of one of the six neighbor cells with highest signal level. or C1 is less than 0 continuously for 5s. cell reselection will also be triggered. PT is the time TO acts on C2. CRO is used for manually correct the cell reselection parameter C2. C2=C1+CRO-TO*H(PT-T) When PT is not equal to 31: C2=C1-CRO When PT is equal to 31. T corresponding to this cell begins to count with accuracy of one TDMA frame (about 4.62ms). ! MS starts a cell reselection if the access times exceed the MAX retrans .Cell Reselection Process ! Cell reselection for cells in same location area " If the C2 value of the target cell is higher than that of the serving cell and last for longer than 5 seconds.

5. 21. 35. 34. 17. 26. This parameter will affect cell selection and cell reselection. 29. 0. 0. 4. 0. 63 . 23. the other is time advance). 31. 0. 5. 25. 0. List is the corresponding dBm values related to the 32 maximum transmitting power control levels for GSM900: {39. 5} For GSM1800: {30.MS_TXPWR_MAX_CCH ! ! ! Value range: 0~31 Unit: level Content: This parameter determines the max. 0.MAX((MS_TXPWR_MAX_CCH. 0. 0. 32}. 5. TCH. MS must get the power control head from the downlink SACCH. 37. 24. 6. its transmitting power is controlled by the network via power command. 27. it must be used after combining with other channels. 0. 0. the transmitting power will use the nearest value. 13. 18. allowed output power of the MS when it begins to access a cell and has not yet received power command. 16.RXLEV_ACCESS_MIN. 14. the network’s control of MS power begins after MS receives SACCH. 5. 33. Since SACCH is associated with signaling. 39. 11.P). 5. 7. 5. ! Recommendation: 5(900MHz). 0. and use its stipulated transmitting power as the output power. 15. 36.While the power used by MS before it receives SACCH (power used when RACH is sent) is determined by the maximum power level of control channel. 20. 5. 5. 2. This command is transmit in SACCH (There are two head bytes. 0) RLA_C: mean receiving level of MS RXLEV_ACCESS_MIN: minimum receiving level of MS permitted to access P: maximum physical transmitting power level of MS. 5. 19. Therefore. 39. 5. 0. 5. 12. 8. If power level of the MS cannot output that power. 5. 10. 9. 0. One is power control byte. such as SDCCH. 0(1800MHz) During MS’s communication with BTS. 0. C1 = RLA_C . 28. 22.

! Recommendation: 8 To prevent MS from accessing the system when the receiving signal level is very low that makes the satisfying communication quality unavailable and wastes the radio resources of the network.RXLEV_ACCESS_MIN ! ! ! Value range: 0~63 Unit: Level Content: It means the minimum received signal level required for MS to access a cell. Except for the areas with densely distributed BTS and good coverage. this value can be increased properly. Accordingly the effective coverage range of the cell will be reduced. otherwise MS will fail to access. 64 . otherwise coverage hole (with regard to idle mode MS) will be created at the edge of the cell. this parameter can be increased appropriately to lower the values of C1 and C2 of this cell. its receiving level must be greater than a threshold. For isolated BTS or BTS with poor coverage. otherwise the call drop rate will increase and QoS will be affected. the minimum receiving level of MS permitted to access. the value of RXLEV_ACCESS_MIN is recommended to be no more than 20. generally it is not recommended to use RXLEV_ACCESS_MIN to adjust the traffic of the cell. But the value of RXLEV_ACCESS_MIN should not be too large.e. When this method is used to balance the traffic. For some cells with high traffic. GSM specifications require that when MS needs to register in the network. i.

! Recommendation: No. If SYS INFO 7 and SYS INFO 8 are adopted in the cell. 65 . It is used to inform MS of the location of reselection parameter in the cell. Since SYS INFO 7 and SYS INFO 8 (They are optional. and the cell reselection uses parameter C2. In SYS INFO 4. According to the definition of GSM specification. ACS should be set to 1.) are seldom adopted in the configuration of ordinary cells. No. Unit:None Content: Additional Reselect Parameter Indication. ACS=1 (Yes) means MS should extract cell reselection related parameter PI and C2 calculation related parameters from the residual bytes of SYS INFO 8. cell selection and reselection rely on parameter C1 and C2. ACS is generally set as 0. ACS=0(NO) means MS should extract cell reselection related parameter PI and C2 calculation related parameters from the residual bytes of SYS INFO 4.Additional reselect parameters indication (ACS) is used to inform MS the location of parameters which are used to calculate C2 in the process of cell reselection.ACS ! ! ! Value range:Yes.

sent on the broadcast channel of the cell.PI ! ! ! Value range: Yes (1). if PI=0. ! Recommendation: Yes. then C2 parameters of cell A and cell B are respectively 40 and 45 and this MS in cell A will reselect to cell B. “Temporary Offset(TO)” and “Penalty Time(PT)”. Unit: None Content: Cell Reselect Parameters Indication. 66 . No (0). Case 3: If cell A PI=0 and cell B PI=1. then C2 parameters of cell A and cell B are respectively 50 and 35 and reselection will not take place. Case 2: If cell A PI = 1 and cell B PI = 0. The minimum interval between cell reselections caused by C2 parameter is 15s to avoid too frequent cell reselection. This parameter is to inform MS whether C2 is used as the standard for cell reselection. Case 1: If PI parameters of both cell A and cell B are set as 1. cells A and B are adjacent to each other. It is an indication of existence of “Cell Reselect Offset(CRO)”. C2 is used for cell reselection standard. C1 is used for cell reselection. For example. If PI=1. And cell A is the serving cell of a MS which measures to obtain that cell A C1=40 and cell B C1=35. then C2 parameters of cell A and cell B are respectively 50 and 45 and cell reselection will not take place. It is given that cell A CRO=10 and cell B CRO=10.

i.e. For the area overlapped by cells. setting the cell priority. MS will select the cell with lower priority only when there is no appropriate cell with the priority as “Normal During the network optimization by means of cell priority. It works with parameters “cell bar access” to determine the priority of the cell. It works with CBA to define the access priorities of cells. the operator often wants MS to preferably select certain cell during cell selection according to the cell capacity. ! Recommendation: No. CBQ only affects the selection of cells but is not related to cell reselection. the operator may expect MS to preferably enter the cell of a certain type. traffic and cell functions. Therefore. it is necessary to note that CBQ only influences the cell selection. In this case. C2 (cell reselection parameter) must be taken into consideration. CBQ CBA No No Yes Yes Cell selection priority Cell reselection priority Yes No Yes No Normal Disabled Low Low Disabled Normal Normal Normal Usually the priorities of all cells should be set as “Normal”. This function can be implemented by setting parameter “cell bar quality”. the network operator can set the priority of this type of cell as “Normal” while setting the other cells as “Low”. No(0) Unit: None Content: Cell Bar Qualify. But in some special cases such as micro-cell and dual-band network.CBQ ! ! ! Value range: Yes(1) . 67 . in order to achieve the target.

Each circle in the diagram indicates a cell. For some causes. In this way. To make the traffic of the entire area distributed on average. the services in the shadow areas in the diagram will be shared by the adjacent cells.Application of CBQ A B The traffic of cell A and B is heavy. It must be pointed out that this setting will reduce the actual coverage areas of cell A and cell B. 68 . which is different from decreasing the transmitting powers of cell A and cell B. set the priorities of cell A and cell B as “Low” and those of other cells as “Normal”. Set these two cells with CBA=“No”. the traffic in cell A and that of cell B are obviously higher than those of the adjacent cells. CBQ=“No”.

MS will select cell B as long as the level of cell B reaches the cell selection threshold. 69 . Assume that micro-cell B and macro-cell A together cover an area. the priority of cell B can be set as “Normal” and that of cell A as “Low”. Set B to “Normal” and A to “Low”. no matter whether cell B has a lower signal level than cell A’s. In order to make micro-cell B share more traffic of macro-cell A.Application of CBA A B B is a micro cell. And then reselection parameters can be set appropriately to make MS not to reselect cell A. Thus in the coverage area of cell B.

even though the signal strength of GSM1800 cell is weaker than that of GSM900 cell. It is C2 parameter that determines cell reselection. Usually it is not set as larger than 25dB. ! Recommendation: 0 After cell selection. stepped every 2dB. ! ! Unit: None Content: Cell Reselect Offset. The principle for MS reselection is: select the cell with the maximum C2 as the serving cell. That is.several parameters that influence C2 value can be set to make C2 value of GSM1800 larger than that of GSM900. MS can still reside in GSM1800 by the aid of these parameters. Reasonable setting of this parameter can reduce handover times and realize assignment to a better cell. Besides CRO.CRO ! Value range: 0~63. C2 is determined by the following factors: C2=C1+CRO-TO*H(PT-T)(PT <31) C2=C1-CRO H(x)=0 H(x)=1 if PT-T<0 if PT-T>0 (PT = 31) As shown above. It is a parameter in C2 calculation to give a manual modification in MS cell reselection. C1 indicates the quality of radio channel. there are another two parameters influencing C2:TEMPORARY_OFFSET(TO) and PENALTY_TIME(PT). The larger C1 is. C2 of various cells can be adjusted. Setting of this parameter only affects MS of GSM Phase II. TO and PT in order to prefer selecting the cell in reselection process. Thus C2 value can be calculated according to CRO. the better the channel is. Therefore. C2 value is based on C1. MS will reselect another better cell in idle mode. Generally the cells with the same priority in the network have 70 basically the same CRO. through CRO. the corresponding level value: 0~126dB. in dual-band network. CRO is a manual modification on C2. .

Temporary means that it functions for C2 only within a duration which is determined by PT parameter. ! Recommendation: 0 TO indicates the temporary modification on C2. It is a parameter in C2 criterion to give a temporary modification within PT time. 7 corresponds to “Infinite” ! ! Unit: None Content: Cell Reselect Temporary Offset. Setting of this parameter only affects MS of GSM Phase II. 71 . the corresponding value is 0~60dB.TO ! Value range: 0~7 .

Recommendation: 0 If the communication in a cell is affected due to very heavy traffic or some other reasons. that is. which causes TO invalid. In this case. This parameter can be set according to the size of micro-cell. Generally it is recommended to be 0 (20s) or 1 (40s). In this case. Generally TO is recommended to be the same or a little more than CRO. therefore. 72 . MS will reselect this cell with little possibility. C2 value of this cell is decreased manually.PT ! Value range: 0~31. The higher the preference degree and the larger CRO. For the cell with medium traffic. no manual modification on the cell. the corresponding time is 20~620s. It can be set according to the preference degree to this cell. And it is recommended to be 20s for the ordinary micro-cells. CRO is recommended to be between 0-20dB. 31 is to change the function direction of CRO on C2. it is used to change the direction of action to CRO. Besides. the network operator can set CRO according to the repulse degree to this cell. ! ! ! Unit: None Content: Cell Reselect Penalty Time. When PT is set as 31. MS should prefer to work in this cell. PT is mainly used to prevent MS’s too frequent cell reselections. PT can be set as 31. Setting of PT can effectively prevent the fast moving MS from accessing the micro-cell. For the cell with very low traffic. the larger CRO. C2 value is the difference of C1 and CRO. this cell should be the last where MS works in (there is a repulse for this cell). generally CRO is recommended to be 0 and PT be 31 as a result of C2=C1. The higher the repulse degree.

C2 values of two cells measured at the edge will fluctuate. the call setup successful rate of the system will become lower because MS fails to be paged during location update. which causes MS to reselect frequently. 73 .CRH ! ! ! Value range: 0~14 . it is recommended to increase the value of cell reselection hysteresis of the adjacent cells belonging to different LAC. the cell where MS resides for a long time may not be the best when MS enters a new location area. GSM specifications define a parameter called cell reselection hysteresis. When it is too large. ! Recommendation: 4 This parameter aims to prevent the frequent location update that may increase the network signaling flow and to reduce the possibility of paging message loss. the step size is 2 Unit: dB Content: Cell Reselection Hysteresis. It is required that MS start cell reselection only when C2 value of the adjacent cell (in a different location area) is greater than that of serving cell and their difference is greater than the value of reselection hysteresis. Moreover.When MS reselects a cell from a different location. It is the parameter used when cell reselection happens between two location areas. Appropriate cell reselection hysteresis is important for network optimization. it is recommended to increase the value of cell reselection hysteresis. MS will start a location update process following the cell reselection. To reduce the influence. the location update will have “ping-pong” effect and the signaling load on SDCCH will increase. Usually it is recommended to be 8~10dB and can be adjusted in the following cases: When the traffic of an area is very heavy and the signaling flow overload often occurs. If the value of this parameter is too small. Due to the fading of radio channel. When the overlap coverage of the adjacent cells belonging to different LAC are wide.

Network Function Parameter ! ! ! ! ! ! PWRC (Power Control Permitted) UL DTX(Uplink Discontinuous Transmission) NECI(New-Establishment Cause Indication) Call Re-establish Allowed(RE) EC Allowed(Emergency Call Allowed) Frequency Hopping 74 .

such as whether the frequency hopping is adopted. which in turn brings about abnormal situations. and downlink power control is enabled. In the above conditions. this parameter should be set in the system. If it is set to “Yes”.PWRC ! ! ! Value range: Yes. and whether the system adopts the downlink power control. both MS and BTS must have measurement function. the downlink power control can actually be used in the channels except the channel from BCCH carrier. MS is required to deduct the receiving level value obtained from the timeslot from BCCH carrier when calculating the average value of receiving level during frequency hopping. inaccurate power control will be resulted. that is. Otherwise. whether the frequency hopping frequency includes BCCH carrier. Unit: None Content: It is used to indicate MS weather to reduce received level value obtained from the timeslots of BCCH when MS measures receiving level during base band hopping mode. First. No. When it is set to “No”. If BCCH attends frequency hopping. the channel from BCCH carrier during the frequency hopping process cannot be included. To reduce the influence of this problem upon power control. But the measurement will encounter some problems when several independent functions of GSM specification are combined for use. This value actually depends upon the setting of other parameters. To make MS execute the above operation. because this average value involves the downlink receiving level of BCCH carrier whose power cannot be changed. 75 . ! Recommendation: Yes In order to monitor the communication quality of radio link and conduct power control. GSM specification allows BCCH carrier to attend frequency hopping (except the BCCH timeslot). the power of BCCH is not allow to be changed because MS needs to measure the signal level of the adjacent cell. secondly. the setting should be “Yes”. finally. If MS measures the downlink channel level in ordinary mode. GSM specification allows to conduct downlink power control for the frequency hopping channel. it means the influence of receiving level on BCCH is not in consideration. process it in the way mentioned above. the measurement result will be inaccurate for the power control.

It will average the levels and qualities of 100 timeslots in the whole measurement cycle (one measurement cycle involves 4 TCH’s 26 multi-frames except idle frames). Unit: None Content: It is used to indicate whether MS uses DTX function. Can not use. MS reports BTS with two kinds of measurement report. According to this indication. it is 2 bits coding. including eight “consecutive” TCH bursts and four SACCH bursts. Must use. According to the protocol. In System Information 6. In System Information 3. 3 bits coding. FULL or SUB. ! Recommendation: Must use. One is called full measurement report. 76 . both BTS and MS should conduct this two kind of measurement(FULL and SUB) no matter whether the uplink/downlink DTX of the system is activated or not. But its application has two advantages: one is that the interference on radio channel is effectively reduced and a better average conversation quality can be achieved. the other is that DTX can considerably reduce the power consumption of MS. DTX has very limited influence on the conversation quality. According to GSM specification.UL DTX ! ! ! Value range: May use. It shows the DTX state of the MS in the previous measurement period. BTS can make the right selection. The other is called sub measurement. Therefore DTX is recommended on the network. Each measurement report of SACCH indicates whether DTX is active or not. It averages the levels and qualities of 12 timeslots.

Common GSM systems support full-rate channel. NECI=1. one physical timeslot is equivalent to two channels. Whether the network supports half-rate service is decided by the network operators. indicates this cell does not support half-rate service. and sent on the system information of cell broadcast. ! Recommendation: No According to the GSM specification. traffic channel in GSM system can be divided into full-rate channel and half-rate channel. 77 . Unit: None Content: Informing MS whether half-rate service are supported in the cell. indicates this cell supports half-rate service. NECI is composed of one bit with the meaning as follows: NECI=0.NECI ! ! ! Value range: Yes. NECI is contained in information unit “cell option parameters”. No. In half-rate mode. New-establishment cause indication (NECI) is used to inform MS whether half-rate service are available in this area or not.

The network has the right to decide whether to re-establish or not. ! Recommendation: No Burst interference or high buildings cause “coverage hole ”. Therefore. Informing MS whether call reestablishment is supported or not.). Most of the subscribers have already released manually before the re-establish is completed. the average call drop rate can be reduced. 78 . but also wastes a lot of radio resource.g. For call drops resulted from this kind of failure. re-establish of the call takes relatively long time. So it is recommended that except for some special cells.Call Re-establishment Allowed ! ! ! Value range: Yes. call drop will occur if MS passes by coverage hole during the conversation. and sent on system information of each cell. However. This area has fixed coverage hole . In some special cases (e. If call re-establishment is permitted. Call Re-establishment Permitted (RE) is contained in “RACH control parameters”. which in turn causes the failure of radio link. No Unit: None Content: RE. the re-establish of call not only fails to achieve the target. This function is achieved by setting “Call Reestablishment Permitted”. MS can start call re-establish process to recover the conversation. it is not permitted to re-establish the call on the network.

When EC is set to “Yes”. it means emergency call is permitted. it indicates to allow emergency call. Otherwise it is prohibited. when EC is “Yes”. the emergency call will not be allowed only when the corresponding access control bit and EC are set as 0 at the same time.EC Allowed ! ! ! Value range: Yes. For MS with access levels 11~15. No Unit: None Content: Emergence Call Allowed . For MS with common access control class 0~9. 79 . ! Recommendation: Yes.

Others in Data Management system ! ! ! System Information Used Regular Transmission Regular Transmission Interval 80 .

2ter.System Information Used ! Value Range: It is a check box. A selected box means support. 5bis. available carrier. helping MS to locate network resources quickly and accurately. ! ! Unit: None Content: It is used to determine whether a type of system information should be sent. cell. 2bis. In the pull-down check box. 81 . 2ter. 5bis. including system information 1~12. 2bis. channel allocation and random access control. select the system information type supported by the BSC system. 5ter. 5ter It informs all MS in its located area of the information about related location area. ! Recommendation: Select system information: 1~6. 10bis. available hopping sequence.

Otherwise.). ! Recommendation: Yes 82 . If it is “Yes”. BSC will send system information to BTS at a certain interval (it is decided by timing updating interval.Regular Transmission ! ! ! Value range: Yes. it must be transmitted through operating the BSC. No Unit: None Content: It shows whether BSC chooses to perform timing update of system information contents transmitted by BTS.

So it is recommended to set it between 10 to 40 minutes. Note: If this value is too small. it is likely to increase the signaling flow of A-bis interface. 83 .Regular Transmission Interval ! ! ! Value range: 0~255 Unit: Minute Content: It stipulates the time interval that BSC sends system information to BTS. ! Recommendation: 10 minutes BSC needs to periodically refresh the system information in BTS to avoid the change or dead-lock of the system information.

Course Contents System Information Overview Parameters Introduction Case Study Introduction to BSS Timers 84 .

Fb and Fc). After conducting frequency scanning here. Thus the signal and the quality of the conversation are poor. " Handling Procedure # Modify the data in BSC BA1 table. it is found out that the signal is poor in a certain section of suburban highway. The coverage problem is thus solved. it is found that Fb does not exist in neighbor cell frequency configuration of A-3 cell in BA1 table. The terrain structure does not fluctuate seriously. Try to conduct frequency scanning in highway sections where the signal is poor. Frequency B(Fb) signal strength is about -80dBm. MS make a call in Cell A-3. the signal strength should be about -80dBm. So in dedicated mode. B-3 and C1 are Fa . The signal strength measured is less than -95dBm. A-3 and B-3 are not set as neighbor cells. Cell A-3 and B-3 add adjacent data for each other. problem can be solved quickly. it can not handover to B-3 cell. Procedure analysis: The place is located in a highway section in suburb and is about three kilometers away from downtown. it cannot reselect to Cell B-3 because Fb is not in Cell A-3’s BA1 table. Theoretically. and the neighbor cell relationship. it is difficult to solve the coverage problem if we check data independently. Fb is not configured in neighbor frequency configuration of Cell A-3 cell in BA2. In suburban. When it reaches this highway section. and it is found that the Frequency A(Fa) signal strength is about -95dBm. find out the receiving frequency with the highest signal level. check BA1 table. In this way. " Summary and Suggestions # There is a lot of signals received in this area. There are two urban cells (cell A-3 and B-3) and one suburban cell (C-1)simultaneously cover this highway section (BCCH frequency for A-3. BA2 table.Case Study ! Case 1: Incorrect Configuration of BA Table "Case Description # During the process of optimization in a certain area. and modify the data. When a MS reside on Cell A-3 in urban area. After checking the data.In cell relation table. 85 . which is very different from the actual value measured.

Since the subscriber complains that the problem are most serious near BTS A and B. but viewed from traffic. they are normal. we suspect that the data is modified. After correct the CGI of cell 2 and 3 and make a dial test. and find out a lot of LOCATION UPDATE REJECTED information. we check MSC related cell parameters. After checking the SDCCH traffic measurement of all the adjacent cell of BTS A. " Case description # The subscriber complains that MS cannot register to the network. thus to ensured that the CGI data in BSC and MSC are same. So the network register flow is not normal. Some subscribers also complain that MS can make MTC but cannot make MOC. " Cause analysis # CGI of the cell is modified. but MS indicates that the signal is very good. It is obviously abnormal. we decide to check these two BTS first. Obvious change begins from 7:00AM on 18th May. Since there is no record of modification of BSC data. The problem arises recently. The SDCCH statistics result shows the problem should exist in cell2 and 3 of BTS A. MS cannot get registered in the network. 86 . No abnormal situation is found in BTS B’s traffic measurement. Where do the 3000 times of SDCCH requests come from? Analyzed from the failure. TCH traffic measurement of BTS A is normal. and call drop rate. times of SDCCH attempt failure rises suddenly to more than 3000.Case Study ! Case 2: Incorrect CGI causes MS unable to register on the network. and find that CGI of cell 2 and 3 of BTS A are modified. Use MA10 to trace the network access flow of MS. At the same time. Procedure analysis: This BTS site originally works normally. And SDCCH congestion rate in cell 3 of BTS A is about 30%. so we check the BSC data operation log. " Recommendation and summary # CGI is a very important parameter and should be configured correctly. Then we check the traffic statistics data and find out: the times of SDCCH request in cell 2 of BTS A rises from about 3000 in 17th May to about 6000 in 18th May. or it is difficult to register to the network between BTS A and B. First we check the alarms on BTS A and B. Although the signal is very good. congestion rate. Everything is back to normal. All the three cells in BTS A have exactly the same CGI. we found a cell in which times of SDCCH attempt decreases dramatically. or no network mark is displayed on the MS.

TCH traffic is 2. 2. The main approaches to SDDCH attempt are: a. which is 0500. But times of SDCCH attempt is very high. And the busy hour TCH traffic of each cell does not exceed 3 Erl. After LAC of these three cells is modified into 0520. it is up to 3032. 4.Case Study ! Case 3: Incorrect LAC configuration causes high SDCCH congestion rate. It is found that TCH traffic is not heavy. times of busy hour SDCCH attempt is 298. " Recommendation and summary # LAC configurations of all the cells in the same location area must be the same.86 Erl. SDCCH congestion rate = times of attempted seizures meeting an SDCCH blocked state / attempted SDCCH seizures (all). Check LAC of this BTS. it predicted that it is the frequent location updating causes the heavy attempt of SDCCH.91% in 2 cells of an urban BTS. In busy hour. The configuration of this BTS is S1/1/1. times of TCH attempt (including handover) is 318. 87 . Procedure analysis: 1. corresponding modification should be made on MSC. and congestion rate 4.27 Erl. When there is modification on BSS side. congestion rate is 0. and traffic is 0.91%. " Case description # SDCCH congestion rate is as high as 4. In this case. Since all of them are normal. 3.79 Erl (number of available TCH is 6). and times of handover is 146. Signaling before call is set up. The LAC of other cells around the BTS are all 0520. which is the same as the surrounding cells. traffic is1. Signaling during SDCCH handover. " Handling procedure # Modify the LAC of this BTS into 0520. Different cells must have different CGI. No congestion occurs. and busy hour traffic of each cell does not exceed 3 Erl. Check TCH and SDCCH performance indices. b. Signaling of location updating in idle mode. And the problem is solved. c.

Cause analysis: Huawei BSC is connected to Nortel MSC. And the T3212 of the BSC is set to 3 hours according to the local situation. because the BSC T3212 is not timeout yet. When analyzing the distribution of the complaining subscribers. this phenomenon disappears. Some subscribers complain that they cannot be called. greatly shorter than that of BSC. The system announcement that the subscriber called is powered off. # 2. After checking location update time of MSC with the operator. After one VLR query cycle has passed. no location update and state reporting will be conducted. you will hear the voice announcement indicating that the subscriber is powered off. " Recommendation and summary # T3212 in BSC must be less than that in MSC. it’ found the distribution are very dispersed. Use the complaining subscribers’ mobile for dial test. we reduce T3212 of BSC to 30 minutes. So this should not be caused by poor coverage. And the result shows tested mobiles are okay. It is latter confirmed that T3212 of Nortel MSC is 48 minutes. " Handling procedure # 1. If MS maintains in power-on state and makes no calls. VLR will mark this subscriber as IMSI detach in the database because this subscriber makes no report. VLR will query the state of the subscriber in database every 48 minutes. 88 . If you call for this MS at this moment. # 3. Trace the cause from MSC. Case description # After Huawei BSC has been running successfully in a network.Case Study ! " Case 4: MSC T3212 is too small caused part of MS cannot be called. After they make a call.

MS is quite likely to reselect the cell with poor signals. Some frequencies are the suburb BTS signals far away from this area. the “RXLEV_ACCESS_MIN” of each cell should be kept same. if the configurations of “RXLEV_ACCESS_MIN” of cells in data management system are not consistent. 2. ! Handling procedure " Modify parameter “RXLEV_ACCESS_MIN” of all cells in urban area and make them consistent with each other. Cause analysis 1. On-site tests shows that this phenomenon does exist. ! Recommendation and summary " In area with complicated coverage. MS will surely select the cell with smaller “RXLEV_ACCESS_MIN”. And subscribers will feel the obvious fluctuation of signals. when A1-A2 B1-B2. and “RXLEV_ACCESS_MIN” of these two cells are set to B1 and B2 (assume B1>B2). After on-site observation. ! Case description " Subscribers complain that the signal fluctuates in a certain area. Unstable output power of TRX. and find out that “RXLEV_ACCESS_MIN” of correlative cells are not consistent. If the actual levels that MS receives from cell 1 and cell 2 are respectively A1 and A2 (assume A1>A2).g. From the testing mobile.). etc. The signals in this area are various and complicated. The fluctuation in this area is not caused by hardware problems (e. MS will actually reselect to the cell 2 with poor signals. Parameter C1 is the basis for cell selection. we can see that there are a lot of cells’ signals in this area. We check the parameter “RXLEV_ACCESS_MIN” in data management system. Then in this area. The cell reselection of MS is rather frequent. It is also one of the causes of the problem. It is found that their data configuration are basically consistent. The problem of signal fluctuation is solved. and some even have great differences. 3. Check CRO and TO of the cells whose signals can be received in this area. clock error. we find that the over shooting problem exists in this BTS area. and the actual signal levels that MS receives from two cells are the same.Case Study ! Case 5: MS Min-access Level causes the fluctuation of MS signal. 89 . According to the formula of C1 and C2. It is caused by MS’s frequent cell reselection.

The modification helps to avoid the radio link failure which will cause call drop. access level: changed from 5 to 10 RELEV_ACCESS_MIN: changed from 10 to 15 Radio link timeout counter: changed from 56 to 64 After the modification.Case Study ! " Case 6: High SDCCH call drop rate Case description # A network operator finds that the SDCCH call drop rate is about 2% after BSC cutover. The equipment is provide by vender A and Huawei. Check and make proper adjustment to the azimuth and downtilt of the antenna system. After that.8%. SDCCH call drop rate stays on about 2%. 90 . Huawei provides only one BSC. # 2. which is the main cause of call drop. The new data keeps the original data of Huawei BTS and add the data of newly BTSs’. Modify relevant parameters in system information and cell attribute tables. Check the situation of other indices. and to adjust the balance between uplink and downlink. # 3. Analyze traffic measurement of “BSC measurement function“ and “cell measurement function”. This is far away from the acceptable standard. But after the cutover.Check the performance of the hardware on-site. So the following parameters were modified: RACH min. Huawei engineers cut over the Huawei BSC from MSC-A to MSC-B after having updated the BSC expansion data. SDCCH call drop rate drops from 2% to 0. A has just finished the cutover of MSC-B. Right before the cutover of Huawei equipment. And the mountain is cragged and have many blind bends. Analyze hardware and parameters and see if they are in compliance with the actual running situation of the network. especially handover successful rate and TCH related indices. Check whether the connectors are loosened. and find that SDCCH call drop mainly occurs in ten BTS. This causes the sudden call drop. two BSC of A and one Huawei BSC are connected to MSC-B. Analyze the drive test result. " Handling procedure # 1. After conduct on-site drive test on some of these BTS. we find these BTS are located in high mountains and have the wide coverage.

and causes interference. Case description # In a dual-band network. CRO is 0. After timer is invalid. To approve the above prediction. After several times of adjustment. 91 . GSM1800 cell with high CRO value absorbs not only the traffic of GSM900 cells but also that of GSM1800 cells. background analysis function of optimization software is used to display the cell coverage range. CRO configurations of GSM1800 cells are different from that of GSM900. MS minimum access level and cell reselection offset (CRO) of GSM1800 are adjusted to make C2 of cells in GSM1800 close to one another when received signal levels are the same. and cell reselection is conducted. The cross-cell coverage phenomenon is basically eliminated. The reason for network drop might be the interference. receiving level will suddenly drop to 0. After it re-accesses the network. the signal is very strong. during the driver test. And it is found out that DSC timer is often invalid when MS is in these areas. " Handling procedure # After analyzing the actual traffic in each cell of GSM900 network in details. the traffic carried by equipment of other network is not reduced. To find out the source of interference. driver test is re-conducted. After cell reselection. the signal level of MS is very strong. It shows serving cell of problem area is the cell with the strongest signal. They are not the so-called coverage hole. Cause analysis: Analysis on driver test data shows: Signal level of MS in problem area suddenly drops to none. MS often lost connection with the network. It causes over shooting. to absorb the traffic in GSM900. performing GSM1800 single network drive test. The phenomena is quite similar in several areas. For GSM900 cells. MS minimum access level is -100dBm. MS minimum access level is -90dBm. the signal level is very strong.Case Study ! " Case 7: Cell reselection caused fluctuation of signals. In fact. But when MS reconnects with the network. At the same time. CRO of most 1800 cells are 30dB.

12 minutes. Cause analysis: First. TRX are working normally. i. This kind of configuration will cause the result that all activated MS will originate a periodic location update every 12 minutes via SDCCH. The complaint from subscribers in urban area increased. The pressure brought by subscriber increase on network is mainly shown in two aspects: (1) TCH (traffic channel) congestion rate increases. MS maybe cannot make MOC or MTC. Thus MS is out of network service. Check from OMC.e. i. Therefore.Case Study ! Case 8 Too small T3212 causes MS lose connection with network. LAPD. If at this time other MS originates periodic location update. The above checking result shows that hardware on BTS side has no problem. But from sometime on.e. It is found that T3212 is set to 2 (unit: 6 minutes). and MSC corresponding time is set to 30 minuets. Two days’ observation shows no subscriber complains and the problem is solved. There are four BTS. Then check BSC hardware. 92 . there are more than 4000 local subscribers and 5000 roaming subscribers. the problem might be caused by the sudden increase of subscribers. The network has been working properly. The current network only differs from original network in that the number of subscriber increases a lot. Indicators of MPU. the update will fail because there is no spare SDCCH available. Recently. All of TCH and SDCCH channels have records of being seized successfully by subscribers. In VLR. 60 minutes. The direct result of location updating failure is MS loses connection with network. and at the same time cannot conduct location updating successfully. some MS often lost connection with network suddenly. 32BIE and CK3 boards are all working normally. " Handling procedure # Modify the time of BSC periodic location update (T3212) to 10. Modify the corresponding time of MSC to 180 minutes. (2) SDCCH (signaling channel) congestion rate increases. " Case description # A local GSM network has more than 6000 subscribers. When the number of subscriber reaches a certain limit. check the hardware. SDCCH will be fully seized. Check BSC system information data table. no modification is conducted on the BSC.

Course Contents System Information Overview Parameters Introduction Case Study Introduction to BSS Timers 93 .

The allocated channel will be released at timer expiry.8s. When there is no overload. Experience shows that averagely 30% signaling resource of the system is seized by second RACH information sent by MS. Note that the value should be larger than the maximum time of data link layer establishment attempt. 94 . During the process of immediate assignment. T3101 is activated when BSC sends CHANNEL-ACTIVE to BTS. the maximum time from BSC originating CHANNEL ACTIVATE to receiving ESTABLISH INDICATION is 1. ! Value range " 0~255s Guard time for Immediate Assign.Some of the BSC Timers -T3101 ! Definition " It is used in the immediate assignment process. these timer parameters are fixed by the program and are not changeable for data configuration. Started as 'IMM_ASS_CMD' is sent to BTS and stopped by reception of 'EST_IND' from BTS. and reset when it receives ESTABLISH INDICATION sent from BTS. This timer is timeout usually because of the repeating assignment or interference in up or down links.

If MS lost connection. 95 . The maximum inter-MSC handover time is about 5s. it is used to release the original channel.Some of the BSC Timers -T3103 ! Definition " T3103 defines the time that BSC reserves the TCH of both the target cell and the original cell simultaneously during the handover process. ! Value range " 0~255s The purpose of T3103 is to reserve the original channel for enough long time so that MS can return to it when handover fails. T3103 starts when BSC originates handover command and resets when handover complete (intra BSC handover) or clear command is received (inter-BSC handover).

After this timer timeout. But if the network quality is bad. it is considered that MS has lost its access to the network. BSC starts T3107. the assignment process will fails. this value can be prolonged to 5s. and stop after receiving “assignment complete” from BTS. The system will release the resource assigned for this call. ! Value range " 0~255s Note that T3107 must be larger than maximum transmission time of assignment command + T3124 + maximum time of data link multi-frame mode establishment attempt. Otherwise. it can even be set to 10s. when TCH assignment command is sent to BTS. It is timeout normally because of the poor coverage of radio links.Some of the BSC Timers -T3107 ! Definition " It is used in the TCH assignment process. Experience shows channel assignment process can generally complete within 2s. If cells are relatively of low load. 96 .

If T3109 is too small. It will greatly waste the system resource.e. It is controlled by RLINKT. Started by sending DEACT_SACCH to BTS and stopped by reception of 'REL_IND' from BTS. It is to release channel when communication is lost.480s Where a = 1s or 2s unit=s=seconds Before executing RF program. Radio channel has not been released yet). Note that the summation of T3111 and T3109 must be larger than the value of the radio link timeout. radio link algorithm will reduce the value of radio link timeout. Once BSC receives SACCH release command.T3109=a + RLINKT T100 x 0. T3109 can also be used for channel releasing process. T3109 is started when network checks out low layer failure.Some of the BSC Timers -T3109 ! Definition " SACCH release time allowed is indicated by this timer. radio resource has been re-assigned. If it is too big. ! Value range " 0~255s Guard timer for channel release indication when clearing mobile station. then before radio link timeout (i. 97 . and larger than the value of BTS radio link timeout algorithm (number of SACCH multi-frames).

Some of the BSC Timers -T3111 ! Definition " According to timer T3111. BSC will not send channel release command to BTS until T3111 is timeout. this timer is used to postpone the releasing of channel. it will waste the system resource. channel resource will be reserved for the time defined by T3111. it start T3111. ! Value range " 0~255s After the main signaling link is released. It allows BTS to re-send channel release command to MS during the delayed period. The value is generally 2s. 98 . BSC delays the channel release at BTS side. If it is too large. After BSC receives information of BTS channel releasing. After BTS sends release command.

99 .