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7 Time-Varing Fields and Maxwell’s Equations Faraday’s Law

∂B ∇×E = − ∂t

Displacement Current

∂D ∫s ∂t ⋅ds
Maxwell’s Equatioins ∂B ∇ ×E = − ∂t ∂D ∇ × H = J + ∂t ∇ ⋅D = ρv ∇ ⋅B = 0

M1

M2

Revision: equations for static fields
Equations for static electric and magnetic fields

Differential form

∇×E = 0 ∇ ⋅ D = ρv ∇×H = J ∇⋅B = 0

∫ E ⋅ dl = 0 ∫ D ⋅ dS = Q ∫ H ⋅ dl = I ∫ B ⋅ dS = 0
C S C S

Integral form

E: D: ρv: H: B: J:

electric field intensity electric flux density volume charge density Magnetic field intensity Magnetic flux density Electric current density

V/m C/m C/m3 A/m T A/m2
M3

Static Electric Fields ∇×E = 0 – energy used for moving an electric charge around a closed loop is equal to zero ∇ ⋅ D = ρv – the electric flux density emerging from a point equals to the volume charge density – Magnetic sources exists in pair (North and South pole) ∇⋅B = 0 ∇×H = J – magnetic field around a closed path equals to the current inside M4 .

but only if the magnetic flux linking the surface area of the loop change with time B(t) C ∫H C ⋅ dl = I ∂B ∫C E ⋅ dl = − ∫S ∂t ⋅ dS where S is a surface bounded by the closed line C.Faraday’s Law From Ampere’s Law. ∂B In differential form. current can produce a magnetic field. From Faraday’s Law. ∇ × E = − ∂t M5 . magnetic fields can produce an electric current in a loop.

Fundamental postulate for time-varying EM fields M6 .

Example: Stationary Loop in a Time-varying Magnetic Field The induced emf is Vemf ∂B = −∫ ⋅ dS S ∂t M7 .

1 Circular Loop in Time-varying Magnetic Field M8 .Demonstration: D6.

∫ H ⋅ dl = I enc if if C2 c1 c2 is chosen. RHS is equal to 0 M9 . RHS is equal to Ic is chosen.Displacement Current Consider a capacitor connected to a voltage source Applying Ampere’s Law.

Displacement Current To resolve the conflict. Maxwell proposed the following Ampere’s law in time-varying fields: ∫ H ⋅ dl = I cond + I Disp ∂D +∫ ⋅ds s ∂t = I cond I Disp : Displacement current I cond : Conduction current Point form : ∇ × H = J + ∂D ∂t M10 .

Displacement current density M11 .

Displacement current density M12 .

Maxwell’s equations • In summary. Maxwell’s equation for time-varying fields: In differential form: ∇ × E = − ∂ B ∂t ∂D ∇ × H = J + ∂t ∇ ⋅D = ρv ∇ ⋅B = 0 In integral form: ∫ ∫ C C ∂B E ⋅ dl = − ∫ ⋅ dS S ∂t ∂D H ⋅ dl = I + ∫ ⋅ dS S ∂t ∫ D ⋅ dS = Q ∫ B ⋅ dS = 0 S S M13 .

Maxwell’s equations M14 .

What must be the value of β so that both fields satisfy Maxwell’s equations? Solution: Substituting E into Faraday’s law.e.Example Suppose the Electric field in a source free (i. ρv=0) region is given by a wave travelling in the z-direction E = E o sin( ω t − β z ) a x Find the value of the magnetic field present. ∂B = −∇ × E ∂t ∂ ∂ ∂ = − (a x + ay + a z ) × ( Eo sin(ω t − β z )a x ) ∂x ∂y ∂z ∂ = − Eo sin(ω t − β z )a y = β E o cos( ω t − β z )a y ∂z M15 .

Example Integrating with time gives: B= βE o = sin(ωt − βz )a y + Ca y ω In time-varying fields. we can ignore the DC term. so that ∫βE o cos(ω t − β z ) a y dt βEo H= = sin( ω t − β z )a y μ o ωμ o B This shows that an associated time-varying H-field must coexist. M16 .

we find E to be β 2 Eo E= 2 sin(ωt − βz )a x ω μ oε o Comparing with the given expression of E β = ω μo ε o ⇒ phase velocity u p = ω / β = 1 / μo ε o = 3 × 108 m / s M17 .Example To find the value of β. let’s substitute the above expression of H into Ampere’s law: ⎞ ∂ ⎛ βE o ∂E = ∇×H = − ⎜ sin(ωt − βz ) ⎟ εo ax ⎜ ⎟ ∂z ⎝ ωμ o ∂t ⎠ β 2 Eo = cos(ωt − βz )a x ωμ o Integrating with time.

Potential functions M18 .

Potential functions M19 .

Solution of Wave Equations for Potentials M20 .

Solution of Wave Equations for Potentials M21 .

Wave Equations of E & H in Source-Free Region M22 .

Time Harmonic Electromagnetics M23 .

Time Harmonic Electromagnetics M24 .

t ) ≡ Re E( x. y. z. z)e { } ⎧ ∂E( x. z )e jωt ⎫ ∂E( x. – jωt E( x. y.Time-Harmonic Fields In this chapter. both electric and magnetic fields are expressed as functions of time and position. t ) ≡ Re ⎨ ⎬ ∂t ∂t ⎩ ⎭ = Re jωE( x. time signals can be expressed as sum of sinusoidal waveforms. z . y. y. – In real applications. y. z )e jωt { } M25 25 . So it is convenient to use the phasor notation to express fields in the frequency domain.

B.t : n tio n te t A A f ua q e s n o ti o t o l M26 26 .B.ρv are functions of x.H.E.y.J.E.ρv are functions of x.H.z. the differential form of Maxwell’s equations becomes the differential form time-harmonic Maxwell’s equations ∂B ∇ ×E = − ⇒ ∇ × E = − jω B ∂t ∂D ∇ × H = J + ⇒ ∇ × H = J + jω D ∂t ∇ ⋅D = ρv ⇒ ∇ ⋅D = ρv ∇ ⋅B = 0 ⇒ ∇ ⋅B = 0 D.J.y.Time-Harmonic Fields Therefore.z D.

M27 27 .Time-Harmonic Fields Using the constitutive relations B = μ H and D = ε E the equations becomes ∇ × E = − jω B ∇ × H = J + jω D ∇ ⋅D = ρv ∇ ⋅B = 0 ⇒ ∇ × E = − j ωμ H ⇒ ∇ × H = J + j ωε E ⇒ ∇ ⋅E = ρv /ε ⇒ ∇ ⋅H = 0 .

M28 28 .Wave equations in Source-Free Media In a source-free media (i. charge density ρv=0).e. Maxwell’s equations become: ∇ × E = − jωμ H ∵ J = σE ∇ × H = (σ + jωε ) E ∇ ⋅E = 0 ∇ ⋅H = 0 The equation ∇ × H = (σ + jωε ) E ∇ × H = jωε c E can be written as where ε c ≡ ε '− jε ' ' ≡ ε − jσ / ω and it is called complex permittivity.

Wave equations in Source-Free Media We will derive a differential equation involving E or H alone. 2 2 2 ∂ ∂ ∂ ∇2 ≡ 2 + 2 + 2 ∂x ∂y ∂z is an operator and called Laplacian ∇ × E = − jωμ H ∇ × H = jωε c E ∇ ⋅E = 0 M29 29 ∇⋅H = 0 . First take the curl of both sides of the 1st equation: ∇ × ∇ × E = − jωμ∇ × H ⇒ ∇ ⋅ E − ∇ 2 E = − jωμ ( jωε c )E using the vector identity ∇ × ∇ × A ≡ ∇ ⋅ A − ∇ 2 A .

we can obtain. 2 2 Similarly.Wave equations in Source-Free Media ∇ ⋅ E − ∇ 2 E = − jωμ ( jωε c )E ⇒ ∇ 2 E + ω 2 με c E = 0 ⇒ ∇ 2E − γ 2E = 0 where γ = −ω με c and γ is called propagation constant The equation is called the homogeneous wave equation for E. (Try yourself) ∇2H − γ 2H = 0 ∇ × E = − jωμ H ∇ × H = jωε c E ∇ ⋅E = 0 M30 30 ∇⋅H = 0 .